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CHAPTER 9: INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING KEY CONCEPTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING - Psychological test: standardized measure of a sample of a persons

behavior > a kind of measuring tool > used to measure the difference in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality > however, as it is based on certain sample, certain test of psycho may not represent your behavior A.1) Principal Types of Tests - What it measures: mental ability test and personality test A.1.1) Mental Ability Tests - Principal subcategories: intelligence test, aptitude test and achievement test Intelligence Test - Measures general mental ability: precisely intellectual potential rather than accumulated knowledge Aptitude Test - asses specific type of mental abilities (similar to intelligence but specific) Achievement Test - Doesnt measure potential but mastery of various subjects (gauge accumulated knowledge) A.1.2) Personality Tests - measures various aspect of personalities: motives, interests, values, attitudes - also called scale A.2) Standardization and Norms - Standardization: uniform procedures used in administration and scoring of a test - Test Norms: how the score obtained ranked in relation to other scores on that test - Percentile score: indicate the percentage of people who have scored at or below ones score > if you are placed at the 70th percentile in depression, it means that you are very depressed (69% of other people is also depressed) - standardization group: sample of people that the norms are based on (to measure what is considered as norm) - separate norms: to interpret many intelligence tests: Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) A.3) Reliability - measurement consistency of a test Approach: test-retest reliability > ask subjects to take a test twice in a separated time - and this test is confirmed by using correlation coefficient > correlation coefficient :numerical index that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables (e.g if x and y are related, they should have high degree of cc)

A.4) Validity - ability for the test to measure what it is supposed to measure > test that measures entrance to a high school cant be used to enter the workforce because they measure different things A.4.1) Content Validity (supposed to test what it is supposed to test) - refers to how much the content of the test represents area that it is supposed to cover > e.g: a professor prepares test that doesnt cover what he thought in class A.4.2) Criterion-Related Validity - relating/comparing the score obtained in a test with another measure > e.g: compare score and comments given on ones performance in that particular area > If you perform strongly, the correlation between comment and test score should be very high A.4.3) Construct Validity - hypothetical construct: abstract qualities (i.e creativity, intelligence, extraversion etc) - construct validity: the ability for a test to measure the hypothetical construct (the abstract qualities) - the debate of construct validity of intelligence tests is one of the oldest debate B) THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING B.1) Galtons Studies of Hereditary Genius (1) - Figure: Francis Galton (proponent of genetic inheritance) - Psychological test: standardized measure of a sample of a persons behavior > a kind of measuring tool > used to measure the difference in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality > however, as it is based on certain sample, certain test of psycho may not represent your behavior > invented the concepts of correlation and percentile test scores B.2) Binets Breakthrough (2) - Figure: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: published useful test for general mental ability > scale was successful because: inexpensive, easy to administer, objective, capable of predicting childrens performance in school - called: Binet-Simon scale > expressed childs score as mental age or mental level > mental age: the indicator that the child demonstrates capability at the chronological age (actual age) B.3) Terman and the Stanford-Binet (3) - Figure: Lewis Terman > publication ofStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale It uses intelligence quotient =
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Widely used especially for American school

B.4) Weschlers Innovations - Figure: David Weschler: revised the test to measure adult intelligence

- product: Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) > included many items that require non-verbal reasoning to compare nonverbal and verbal ability, formalized the computation of separate scores for verbal IQ, performance (nonverbal) IQ and full-scale (total) IQ removed the calculation of IQ and use normal distribution

C) THE DEBATE ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF INTELLIGENCE - Figure: Charles Spearman - invented factor analysis > factor analysis: measure the correlation of variables with other variables to identify closely related cluster of variables (sort of finding the ideal pair) - all cognitive ability shares an important core factor and labeled the core as g = general mental ability C.1) Exploring Biological Correlates of Intelligence - Figure: L.LThurstone- developed Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) > concludes : intelligence involves multiple abilities and said that Spearman emphasized too much on g - Thurstone outlines intelligence to seven independent factors called primary mental abilities > word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning and memory - Guilford: divided intelligence into 150 separate abilities and ignores g completely - Over the time, for theoretical guidance, researchers turned to model of intelligence which proposes: g should be divided into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence - Fluid intelligence: involves reasoning ability, memory capacity and speed of information processing - Crystallized intelligence: ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving D) BASIC QUESTIONS ABOUT INTELLIGENCE TESTING D.1) What Do Modern IQ Scores Mean? - Normal distribution: symmetric, bell-shaped curved that represents patterns that are dispersed in the population > discovered by astronomers - David Weschler : recorded raw scores which are then translated into deviation IQ > deviation IQ: use standard deviation as the unit of measurement and locate subject within normal distribution > mean distribution is set at 100 and standard deviation at 15 - modern IQ scores indicate exactly where you fall in the normal distribution of intelligence and it is consistent - advantage of modern IQ test: it translates exactly the same percentile score, regardless of the persons age group

D.2) Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Reliability? - Yes - but they are only based on sample behavior and a specific testing may yield an unrepresentative score variation in examineess motivation to sit for the test can produce misleading scores D.3) Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity? - Yes , by obtaining positive correlation between variables Figure: Robert Sternberg >3 basic components of intelligence: verbal intelligence, practical intelligence, social intelligence - irrational people, because low rational quotient D.4) Are Individuals IQ Scores Stable over Time? - during preschool is unstable but gain its stability over time D.5) Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success? - Suggestions from researchers about whether or not IQ scores are effective predictors of performance within a particular occupation : > substantial correlation of 0.5 between IQ scores and job performance > correlation depends on complexity of the job requirement > association still valid even though workers have more experience at their jobs > measure of specific mental abilities and personality traits are less predictive of job performance that measures of intelligence D.6) Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures? - Yes to European and Western culture but little to the Eastern cultures (Japan quite ok) - Flaws: Western IQ tests do not translate well in other language and cognitive frameworks of many nonWestern cultures - different cultures have different conceptions of what intelligence is and value different mental skills E) EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE E.1) Intellectual Disability - change of terms from feebleminded to mentally deficient to mentally retarded - intellectual disability: subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills originating before 18 - adaptive skills consist of everyday skills: conceptual skills, social skills and practical skills E.1.1) Levels of Intellectual Disability - traditionally classified into 4 levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound > mild disability is hard to distinguish > only 15% diagnosed with intellectual disability show obvious mental deficiencies E.1.2) Origins - Down Syndrome: because inherit extra chromosome - FRM1 contributes to fragile X syndrome (FMS): common cause for hereditary intellectual disability > activation of neural connection irrelevant to the context of task

- phenylketonuria: metabolic disorder due to enzyme deficiency leads to intellectual disability if not caught and treated in infancy - hydrocephaly: an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull which destroys brain tissue and causes retardation - also sometimes, from the lower socioeconomic classes E.1.3) Savants - Famous savant: Kim Peek - Characteristics: > enlarged brains with several abnormalities; malformed cerebellum, left hemisphere damage, complete absence of corpus callosum (connects left and right brain hemi) E.2) Giftedness E.2.1) Identifying Gifted Children - mostly effort to identify gifted children relies heavily on IQ scores rather than: creativity, leadership, special talent - schools rely heavily on IQ scores E.2.2) Personal Qualities of the Gifted - usual stereotype: bookworm, emotionally troubled, socially inept - Figure: Lewis Therman study gifted kids > they are above average in height, weight, strength, physical health, emotional adjustment, mental health and social maturity - asserts: moderately gited (IQ 130-150) are very different from profoundly gifted children (IQ above 180). > profoundly gifted: introverted and socially isolated E.2.3) Giftedness and Achievement in Life - concept of giftedness is applied to 2 very different groups: 1) crme of the school , 2) eminent adults who make big contribution in their field Figure: Joseph Renzulli- rarer form of giftedness depends on the intersection of 3 factors High intelligence, high creativity, high motivation Figure: Judy Lupart and Michael Pyryt- hidden gifted Gifted children who are not properly identified Debate: extraord achievement depends on innate talent compared to intensive training and hard work Called drudge theory : people who push themselves to the limit and achieve respectable achievements Innate ability: may be the factor that fosters single-minded commitment that is crucial for greatness

F) HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT AS DETERMINANTS OF INTELLIGENCE F.1) Evidence for Hereditary Influence - Galton: observed genetic inheritance in a family which is plausible but not certain

F.1.1) Twin Studies - compare identical and fraternal twins and twins grow up in the same environment - but, identical twins share more genetic kinship compared to fraternal - Results: > identical twins tend to have high correlation of intelligence > reasons: parents to treat them the same way > but environment is not also the sole factor as twins reared apart also demonstrate similar in IQ F.1.2) Adoption Studies - genetic hypothesis: if adopted children exhibits similar IQ level with biological parents even though they are not reared by their own bio parents F.1.3) Heritability Estimates - proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance - can be measured in any logical or mathematically defensible way Figure: Arthur Jensen heritability of IQ ranges as high as 80%. Only 20% by environment Over the time: about 50% Limitation: Group statistic : studies trait variability within specific a specific group Specific traits heritability varies from one group to another There is no single fixed value that represents any true, constant value for heritability of IQ F.2) Evidence for Environmental Influence F.2.1) Adoption Studies - the adopted children do show resemblance with their adoptive parents in IQ F.2.2) Environmental Deprivation and Enrichment - Cumulative deprivation hypothesis: children who are raised in the less fortunate environment should experience a gradual decline in IQ as other children in better condition will progress more rapidly - Result: deprivation does lead to IQ scores erosion > improved environments leads to increased IQ scores > IQ scores are changeable and sensitive to the environmental influences F.2.3) Generational Changes: The Flynn Effect - Figure: James Flynn: observed that performance on IQ tests increase over generation > demonstrate the environmental factors F.3) The Interaction of Heredity and Environment - Figure: Sandra Scarr : heredity may set certain limits on intelligence and environmental factors determine where individuals fall within these limits > genetic makes the upper and lower limit of a persons IQ which cant even be surpassed although ideal environmental factors are ideal - this idea of rangeon IQ is called as reaction range

- explains why sometimes, low IQ children can come from good environment and high IQ from bad environment - research on gene that influences intelligence: hard to do because there are so many genes that need to be researched F.4) Cultural Differences in IQ Scores F.4.1) Heritability as an Explanation - Asserts: 1) intelligence is largely in origin 2) genetic factors are the cause of ethnic differences in intelligence Figure:Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray Ethnic differences in average intelligence is hard to reduce via educational program Figure: J. Phillipe Rushton : conclusion of intelligence based on race is the result of bad science, sloppy reasoning and inaccuracies In general, argument of IQ and culture has many flaws as the studies of IQ is largely based on the white as the sample of study Within-group differences in IQ are highly heritable, between-groups difference in average IQ can still be caused entirely by environmental factors

F.4.2) Socioeconomic Disadvantage as an Explanation - lower IQ as the result of the deprived environment > usually lower-class children come from large families/single-parent homes > they are exposed to less books, less learning supplies and less privacy to study > ethnic difference in intelligence is social class differences in disguise (usually the blacks are from broken families, poor etc) F.4.3) Stereotype Threat as an Explanation - stereotype vulnerability: undermine group members performance - belonging uncertainty: doubts about the quality of social bonds and relationships in these situations > racial inferiority (blame their race for their failure), failure on gender (if succeed, it is viewed with suspicion, if failed that is because shes a woman) Effect on the stigmatized group when the ve statement confirm their weakness: 1) undermine emotional investment in academic work 2) standardized tests are anxiety-arousing

Other investigation on the effect of stereotypes reveal that: - Stress cause interferes with prefrontal brain processing - Tendency to actively monitor own performance - Tendency to inhibit or suppress negative thoughts and emotions - Those 3 combined together will deplete executive resources necessary for successful task performance Supporting evidence - Cognitive tests tend to underestimate the ability of negatively stereotyped students - Stereotypesthreat impairs test performance

-ve stereotypes lead people to waste their mental resource into suppressing negative thoughts Monitor themselves for signs of failures These kind of distractions take place in working memory that is important to success on complex cognitive tests. The reduction in working memory capacity undermines test performance

F.4.4) Cultural Bias on IQ Tests as an Explanation - cultural differences in knowledge due to disparities in exposure to information > different cultures are exposed to different type of information - simply demonstrates different knowledge and not different ability But it is very controversial (Jewish, Hungarian, Italian)

G) NEW DIRECTIONS IN THE ASSESSMENT AND STUDY OF INTELLIGENCE - researchers start to focus on brain size and intelligence but only manage to discover positive but small correlation - suspect: brain size and intelligence may reflect the enlargement of particular areas in the brain or growth in certain types of brain tissue > tries to correlate IQ and specific region in brain - intelligence depends on interactions among: prefrontal cortex, Brocas and Wernickes areas, somatosensory association cortex, visual association cortex, anterior cingulate - measure amount of grey and white matter in individuals brain - grey: density of neurons and their dendrites - white: quantity of axons in the brain and their degree of myelinization which is important for the efficiency of neuronal communication > result: increase in both shows higher intelligence, but grey has more importance - smarter people live longer > higher IQ, decreased rate of mortality from cardiovascular, cancers, decreased risk for chronic lung disease, heart problems Possibilities: > good genes foster higher intelligence and resilient health > brighter people are prepared to take care of their health (avoid impairing habits: smoking etc) > intelligence fosters career success and higher social class decreases mortality Affluence links intelligence to longetivity G.1) Investigating Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Behavior -Cognitive processes: focus on how people use their intelligence - Figure: Robert Sternberg > Triarchic theory of human intelligence: contextual, experiential and componential subtheories Contextual subtheory: intelligence is a culturally defined concept (hunting skills valued by some but not some others) Experiential subtheory: relationship between experience and intelligence Deal with effective novelty (new tasks, demands and situations)

Learn how to handle familiar tasks automatically and effortlessly Componential subtheory: types of mental processes that intelligent thought depends on Metacomponents Performance components Knowledge-acquisition components All of these lead to intelligent problem solving More intelligent subjects spend more time figuring out how to best represent problems and planning how to solve them than less intelligent subjects Successful intelligence: analytical intelligence: abstract reasoning, evaluation and judgment (important for hw) creative intelligence: generate new ideas and inventive in dealing with problems practical intelligence: deal effectively with everyday problem G.2) Expanding the Concept of Intelligence - traditional IQ too narrow. Should focus on bigger sample - Figure: studies normal people, those suffering from brain damage, special populations: prodigies ,savants Conclusion: logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, literature, intra, inter, spatial, linguistic, natural various types of intelligence are independent but gardners definition of intelligence seems to cover a big area of space

G.3) Measuring Emotional Intelligence - Emotional Intelligence: ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, regulate emotion > test: Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) - the score can be used to predict academic achievement PERSONAL APPLICATION - creativity involves logical extension of existing ideas - convergent thinking: narrow down the possible solution - divergent thinking: branch out, mind-mapping - highly creative people tend to be more independent, introverted, open to new experience, selfconfident, persistent - living abroad and mix with the culture promotes more creative thinking - creativity and intelligence present different type of mental ability - threshold hypothesis: creativity only needs certain amount of minimum IQ (120) - there may be a correlation between creativity and maladjustment (creative people tend to have complex personality) because they tend to be depressed, mood disorders - > simply demonstrates how hard the creative geniuses are working on to create new inspiration