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MODERN STORAGE BAG STORAGE - WAREHOUSE STORAGE Bagged or Godown storage For bagged storage, in the event, rented

godowns are procured for storage, the godowns should be leak-proof. The floor of the godown should have adequate strength and shall be free from rat-burrows. The godown should have sufficient ventilation and the windows and ventilators shall be provided with iron-mesh to prevent bird and rat menace. If the godown is provided with wooden-doors, the lower portion should be provided with iron strips to serve as ratproofing. Preparation of godown The floor, the roof and the four walls of the godown should be swept clean. Dust and cobwebs found should be removed. Spraying the entire godown space including dunnage with DDVP should be done as a prophylactic measure before occupation. Ventilators are provided in the godown for ensuring sufficient aeration and light in the godown. The ventilators should be kept open on all sunny days. Ventilators on opposite sides should be opened simultaneously. Stacks should be formed in such a way that the alleyways fall along the ventilators. This will allow free circulation of air, which is very essential for proper maintenance of the stacks. Stack plan To have proper and scientific stacking, a ground plan of the godown should be prepared carefully dividing the floor-space into standard size rectangular stack spaces after making sufficient provision for gangways and alleyways. The gangway should be at least 1 metre wide. There should be an alleyway space of 0.50 to 0.75 metre between stacks and between the stack and wall. Stack boundaries should be marked with black or yellow point of 5 cms width. Standard stack sizes 1. 5.4 x 5.4 metres (18' x 18') 2. 5.486 x 3.651 metres (18' x 12') 3. 9.14 x 6.10 metres (30' x 20') Stack numbering Numbering of stack is very important for the following reasons: 1. For settlement of accounts stack-wise 2. For the location of a stack easily 3. For follow up of the progress of stack building at any particular time A permanent stack number should be allotted for the location of each stack inside the godown. These numbers should be clearly marked by paint in the godown. This number should be

continuous only to that particular building. For the other building even in the same storage complex, stack location number should again start serially, from 1 to n. This numbering may be made in Roman letters as I, II, etc. to differentiate the stack serial No. mentioned in the following sub-para. Stocks are generally received in these stack spaces and continuous number is given for all stacks for each storage point irrespective of the number of buildings in the storage point for the whole financial year starting from 1st April every year. As illustrated below the stack numbering comprises three parts: 1. Godown number in the case of owned godowns/initials of the owner, if any, for the rented godowns. 2. Stack location number (inside a particular godown) 3. Continuous stock number for the financial year G.5./XV/1283-84 Eg. -----------------------83-84 If we form the 12" stack of the year 1983-84 at stack location XV in the godown No.5, then the stock No. assigned and noted in the stack card will be as above. A small percentage of bags in the stack should be marked as 12 for quick reference. Dunnage Use of proper dunnage material is of prime importance as it goes a long way in protecting the commodities from damage due to moisture. Bottom layers of bags of stack get damaged due to condensation of moisture as a result of variation in temperature even though the godown is moisture proof. It will also serve as an insurance against any possible unexpected moisture developed due to any possible leakage as well as dampness of floor in case of kutcha buildings. It also acts as thermal insulator from the ground. Crates are the best amongst different dunnage materials available as they keep the stack 10 cms above the floor and enable free circulation of air underneath the stack. In the absence of crates a layer of polythene sheets sandwiched between two layers of bamboo mats should be provided. Crates may be of two kinds - wooden mates or crates of cold rolled iron sheets. Wooden crates are of 1.52 x 0.60 m in size made out of four 1.52 m lengthwise and four 0.06 m breadthwise members of 6.35 x 6.35 cms section which are uniformly spaced, nailed to make the frame rigid and painted. Steel channel crates are of 1.53 x 0.76 m size, made up of cold rolled channel sections of 75 x 25 x 2 mm size. 5 numbers of 0.76 m long bits will be at the bottom on which will be welded 4 numbers of 1.53 m length. Capacity of the godown

Storage capacity of the godown shall be estimated on the following basis: a. Rated capacity is the net storage capacity of the structure in tonnes after deducting alleyways etc. from the total covered plinth area. The capacity varies with height of the stack. b. A standard size bag (112 cms (44") x 67.5 cms (26.5")) will occupy about 8 sq. ft. of space and will contain 100 kgs. i.e., 10 bags to a tonne. Assuming, a normal stack to be 18 bags high, a tonne will require 4.50 sq. ft. space. Providing 30% of space for alleyways for inspection and disinfestation of stacks, the area required for a tonne of grain will be 6.0 sq. ft. This will however vary according to weight per bag and the height of the stack, c. For 18 layers height, space requirements will work out at 0.54 sq. metres per tonne. For 20 layers 0.48 sq. metres will be needed per tonne of storage. Stack height The following table gives the maximum permissible height of stacks for different commodities.

Stacking Food grains procured/ purchased have to be stored and preserved on scientific lines in godowns till they are issued to consumer. The bags containing food grains cannot be just dumped inside the godown, for it will not facilitate proper storage. Proper stacking ensures free access to the stocks in all parts of the godown for inspection and helps in effective disinfestation work. Methods of stacking Generally three methods of stacking are being followed in storage. 1. Simple method 2. Cross method (criss-cross method) 3. Block method Simple method In simple stacking, bags are laid one over the other in the same direction. It is not possible to build compact stacks by this method. The simple stack is meant for holding a few bags temporarily. Cross method (criss-cross method) In cross stacking, the lengthwise layer alternates a breadth wise layer in height - the first layer bags are lengthwise and the second layer will be breadth wise. Though this contributes to stability, the bottom most bags cannot be lifted till all the bags over the top of the these are issued out. Block method In block stacking, each layer has got rows of lengthwise and breadthwise bags alternating each other to form blocks. In two adjacent layers this system of lengthwise and breadthwise stacking is reversed in each row. The advantage of this method is that the bags from the stack can be issued out in part in blocks, upto the bottom most bag without disturbing the bags in the other blocks in the same stack. Block method of stacking is adopted in view of its advantages. COVER AND PLINTH STORAGE (CAP STORAGE) At times of spurt in the procurement operations the normal godowns owned by the Corporation get filled up the potentiality of hiring private buildings gets completely utilized; the possibility of utilizing the godown space at the State and Central Warehousing Corporations is completely explored; then comes the need for CAP storage i.e., Cover And Plinth (CAP) storage for a temporary period to maintain the tempo of procurement. CAP storage is the term given for storage of food grains in the open with adequate arrangements

such as rat and damp proof plinths wherever possible, use of approved dunnage and covering of stacks with specially fabricated polythene covers. The precautions to be taken whenever CAP storage is resorted to are enumerated below: The CAP storage should be as a rule be taken up only in premises where sufficient fencing is available or in other places where there is sufficient protection with the concurrenceof the Head Office. The site selected for CAP storage shall be above the adjoining ground and away from nullahs and drainage channels to prevent and flooding during rainy seasons. In consultation with the engineering section, wherever necessary, adequate arrangements for draining rain water should be made in advance, in case the site is not elevated and dry. Crates available in the godowns should be used for CAP storage. In case sufficient crates are not available for formation of stacks in CAP storage, Casuarina poles or hard bamboo should be used as dunnage. Casuarina poles or hard bamboo of 30' length or 2 bits joined to this length in 3 to 5 rows should be spread first. Then casuarina poles of 20' length should be spread over these 3 to 5 poles at intervals of 1 foot and tied with rope or nailed. There will be 31 such poles for each stack. This will act as dunnage. Unserviceable gunnies should be spread over this to avoid damage of bags and spillage. While preparing dunnage with casuarina poles, it would be preferable to use granite blocks at the bottom to ensure a minimum clearance from the ground of 9 inches to the bottom of casuarina poles. A concrete surface would be preferable for formation of stacks. However, in the absence of such facility, ground can be prepared by sprinkling cowdung solution and ramming the ground. The CAP storage site should be cleared of all vegetative growth and disinfected with DDVP. Anti-termite treatment is essential in CAP storage. Termite nests and runways should be injected with Ethylene dibromide as per prescribed dosage. Thereafter the site should be sprayed with 50% wettable BHC powder by mixing 2 kg of the powder with 20 litres of water and spraying at the scale of 3 litres per every 100 square metres. The wooden crates/casuarina dunnage should be treated with creosote oil. from paper 2 STORAGE SYSTEMS 2.1 Farm Level Storage

For safe storage of food grains a storage facility, whether indoors or outdoors, small or large, should ensure protection against physical factors such as adverse weather, high temperatures, rain and snow, and keep out biotic factors including insects, mites, rodents, birds, and microorganisms. The structure should be pilferage-proof and must be designed for easy grain handling and to facilitate effective fumigations. A major part of the grain produced is stored at the farms in most of the countries for their own consumption and to fetch a higher price at a later period (8,11). The storage loss at farm level generally exceeds 4%, which is relatively more than in centralized storage (11). The storage structures are of varying capacities, ranging from 100 kg to few metric tons, and are made of locally available building materials to withstand climatic conditions. Some of the traditional structures used are earthen pots, underground pits, mud bins, and (maize) cribs. Suitability of bins made of plywood, ferrocement, metal, and high-molecular weight, highdensity polyethylene (HMHDPE) of 0.5to 3-metricton capacity was examined by Krishnamurthy and Majumder (12) for farm level storage in developing countries. The plywood bin was the most suitable among them. Traditional underground structures in various shapes and sizes are used in African countries and to a limited extent in Argentina, India, and United States. In principle they are like hermetic storages preserving the grain quality by the natural buildup of high carbon dioxide levels and low-level oxygen atmospheres that are lethal to grain pests and microbes (13). The traditional structures are simple and cheaper, but do not adequately protect against pests and adverse weather conditions. Merits and drawbacks of various traditional storages have been discussed (11). At farm level, metal bins or silos of various sizes have also been used (8). In countries such as Australia and the United States, the bin capacity exceeds 50 metric ton and is also equipped with facilities for aeration. 2.2 Bagged Storage In developed countries, grains are stored in bulk in silos, at storages, and in grain elevators, whereas in the developing countries, they are generally, stored in gunny or woven polypropylene bags in the conventional warehouses (8,14). Bag storage is laborintensive and thus incurs higher operating costs and losses to pests, and results in more spillage. In some of the warehouses, if the ooring is not properly constructed, water seepage occurs. This increases the humidity in the warehouse, favoring multiplication of Cryptolestes spp.; also, it damages the bottom layer of bags. The advantages of bagged storage system are the lower capital costs without any need for sophisticated aeration and fumigant circulation facilities. However, much less research has focused on the possible loss reduction in bag storage systems in the developing countries (8). The existing system may continue in these countries because of small farm sizes, handling of many grain varieties, and cheaper manual

labor. Moreover, it will be uneconomical to change over to a capital intensive bulk storage system. 2.3 Bulk Storage The system of bulk handling and storage in silos or bins and elevators has been adopted by the industrialized countries as a result of mechanized harvesting and postharvest operations. Bins and silos of varying capacities, built of masonry, wood, reinforced concrete, or metal, with hopper or a at bottom are the modern grain storage structures in the developed nations. In hoppered bins grains ow out by gravity; hence, they are self-cleaning and do not require shoveling. Flat-bottomed bins are cheaper to construct and provide more storage spaces but cause some delay in outloading the grains as the shoveling is slow. Bins in round forms, rather than oval or hexagonal, are preferred because of the greatest strength (15). Silos are generally provided with facilities for monitoring and recording the temperature of the grain at various depths. They are also equipped for aeration and recirculation of fumigant gases. Unlike in wooden and concrete silos, temperature gradients, resulting in large moisture transfers are common in metal silos because of a high thermal conductivity of the metal (6). Spoutlines are a problem for concern in bulk storages. During binning, ne particles, brokens, smaller grains, and weeds remain at the center of the pile, whereas whole-grain kernels ow away from the slope. This core of high-dockage in the center of the pile, known as spoutline, is the source of pest proliferation and heat development in a silo, and it impedes air circulation, thereby affecting the storage period of grain (15). Of late, importance has been given to make silos sufciently gas-tight to adopt controlled atmosphere storage and for effective phosphine fumigations. Techniques to seal silos with exible polyurethane, acrylic-based, or elastic adhesive sealants, have been developed, particularly in Australia (16). The bulk storage system is being improved further by installing pest-monitoring system (acoustic detection) and automation for aeration, grain cooling, and pest-control measures. 2.4 Hermetic Storage Storage of grains under airtight conditions is an ancient method in which insect population and mold growth are checked by natural buildup of carbon dioxide and depletion of oxygen by the respiration of grains and organisms. The same principle has been applied in underground storages, volcani cubes, exible silos supported by a welded mesh frame of 501,000 metric ton and pad or bunker storage of 10,000- to 50,000 metric ton capacity. The merits and suitability of the technique for the storage of grains in tropical and subtropical climates have been discussed by Navarro et al. (17). However, Annis and Banks (18) claimed that the hermetic storage will not be effective when the grain is dry, the infestation is less than ten insects per kilogram of grain, and under the air ingress rate of 1%/day in underground and semiunderground stores; 2%/day in bunkers and sealed stacks;

and 5%/ day in aboveground storage. The hermetic storage system has to be supplemented with fumigation or controlled atmosphere treatment. Storage studies of bagged maize in exible liners (volcani cubes) with and without introduced carbon dioxide, supports the foregoing concept (19). In semiunderground bins in Cyprus and Kenya, grain has been stored for 3 years under sealed storage wherein condensation of moisture was observed (17). In airtight underground storages in Argentina about 0.5% loss of grain was recorded in a storage period of 23 years (8). Underground structures are economical for small holdings. However, in large-scale storages there is a problem in grain handling. Moreover, the quality of grain stored underground does not meet the current quality standards of zero-tolerance for insects (11). Airtight storage or sealed storage of grain stacks with PVC sheets has been standardized in Australia. The technique is cost-effective when it is intended to store grains indoors for not less than 3 months. Unlike hermetic storage, the atmosphere inside the enclosure is enriched with carbon dioxide or phosphine gas to control the initial infestation in the stack (20,21). Long-term storage of milled rice stacks under high carbon dioxide atmosphere is being routinely carried out in Indonesia and successful eld trials have been conducted in India (22), and also; in other Asian countries. Hermetic storage offers a residue-free storage system, yet some pest control method has to be integrated into the system for its complete success. 2.5 Outdoor Storage Sometimes need arises for temporary storages both in developing and developed countries. Temporary outdoor structures are often used when (a) there is lack of space in permanent storages, (b) the cost of construction of new structures are prohibitive, and (c) there is a surplus production in the localized areas where proper transport facilities are not available to move the stocks. In India, whenever the conventional godowns and silos are full, bagstacks are built outdoor on a raised area (plinth), and the stacks are covered with 250mthick, tailor-made polyethylene covers (Fig. 1). The stacks are aerated at least oncea-week by raising the covers to the seventh or eighth layer. This storage technique, called cover and plinth (CAP) is currently used for wheat and paddy. The drawbacks of CAP are that the food grains cannot be effectively fumigated and the covers are likely to be damaged by wind and during rains (8). In China, about 10% of grains produced is stored outdoors. Maize, wheat, and paddy grains are stored (a) in rectangular bag-stacks built on raised plinths and the top and sides of the stacks covered with either PVC sheets or locally made mats; and (b) in mat silos built by making a circular wall with bamboo mats on a raised platform. The grainlled silos are then covered with rice straw or PVC or metal sheeting. The storage period may go up to 3 years, depending on the necessity (23).

Volcani cubes made of PVC liners of 830-m thickness, with a grain holding capacity ranging from 5 to 50 metric tons have been developed in Israel for outdoor storage

(24). This acts as hermetic storage structure and has been tested under eld conditions in some of the countries in Africa and Asia. In a recent study in the Philippines, it has been reported that insects in grain inside the volcani cube was controlled only when carbon dioxide was added (19). On usage, over a period, the liners are known to lose their plasticity, but their gasretention property is signicantly increased. Rodent damage to the liners has been rarely encountered (17). Pad or bunker is a temporary storage structure for storing wheat in Australia (25). They are built as rectangular structures on well-drained waterproofed sites with concreteor steel-framed side walls. Inloading and outloading are done by specially designed machines. After lling, the grains are covered with a high-quality PVC fabric. As much as 50,000 metric tons of grains are stored in a bunker, which is fumigable. The necessity for outdoor storages is likely to increase further because it is cheaper than permanent structures. Structures suitable for storage of high-moisture grains are the immediate need in the countries where maize or paddy is harvested at higher moisture levels and cannot afford any energy-intensive drying operation. Cross infestation by active iers (e.g., the grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica and Prostephanus truncatus) poses an additional problem for outdoor storages in the tropical and subtropical regions. 2.0 Traditional grain storage structures Grain storage plays an important role in preventing losses which are caused mainly due to weevils, beetles, moths and rodents (Kartikeyan et al,

2009). It is estimated that 60-70% of food grain produced in the country is stored at home level in indigenous storage structures. The percentage of overall food crop production retained at the farm-level and the period of storage is largely a function of farm-size and yield per acre, family-size, consumption pattern, marketing pattern, form of labour payment, credit availability and future crop expectations (Greeley, 1978). The storage methods range from mud structures to modern bins. The containers are made from a variety of locally available materials differing in design, shape, size and functions. The materials used include paddy straw, wheat straw, wood, bamboo, reeds, mud, bricks, cow dung etc. Grains can be stored indoors, outdoor or at underground level (Channal et al, 2004). Indoor storage involves grain containment in structures like Kanaja, Kothi, Sanduka and earthern pots. Kanaja is a grain storage container made out of bamboo. The base is usually round and has a wide opening at the top. The height varies. The Kanaja is plastered with mud and cow dung mixture to prevent spillage and pilferage of grains. The top is also plastered with mud and cow dung mixture or covered with paddy straw or gunny bags. Wooden boxes, also called as Sanduka, are used for storing pulses, seeds and smaller quantities of grains. These boxes have a storage capacity of 3-12 quintals. In some cases, partition is also made inside the box to store two to three types of grains. A big lid on the top with a small opening enables taking out the grains. To protect the grains from moisture, the box is kept 12 inches above the ground level with the help of stands/legs. The box has to be regularly polished for its maintenance. Kothi is used to store paddy and jowar. A room is constructed with a large door for pouring grains. A small outlet is made for taking out the grains. Earthen pots are indoor storage containers for storing small quantity of grains. These are made locally using burnt clay and are of different shapes and sizes. The earthen pots are placed at the floor level. They are arranged one above the other and known as dokal (Channal et al, 2004). Outdoor storage of grains is done in structures made of bamboo or straw mixed with mud. Bamboo structures are used for storing unthreshed and threshed paddy. Gummi is an outdoor structure used for storing grains. This structure is made with bamboo strips or locally available reeds. It is usually circular or hexagonal in shape and plastered with mud. The base on which the structure is constructed is also made up of reeds or in some cases with stone slabs. The roof of the structure is usually made from loose straw. The structure is placed on a raised platform. Bamboo structures made on a raised timber or stone platform protect grain from rat damage and prevent moisture absorption from the ground (Channal et al, 2004). Kacheri is a traditional storage structure using paddy or wheat straw, woven as rope. It is made from either paddy straw alone or paddy straw mixed with mud.

Hagevu is an underground structure that is used to store grains. It is a simple pit lined with straw ropes to prevent damage from moisture. In some cases, hagevu is constructed as an indoor structure (with stones). After filling the structure fully, the paddy straw is spread on top as a thick layer and the structure is sealed with mud plaster. In some cases a small square or circular opening is provided at the top. The inlet opening is above the ground level. The advantage of this structure is that fumigation is not required for disinfection. Grain can be stored for a longer period. This storage method is suitable for dry agro climatic zones. It is not suitable for storing seeds (Channal et al, 2004). It is however important to note that these indigenous storage structures are not suitable for storing grains for very long periods. Regular mud plastering is required for a variety of indoor and outdoor storage containers and structures for increasing their life span and ensuring safe storage of grains. 3.0 Improved grain storage structures With several problems associated with traditional modes of grain storage some modifications have been done to offer improved grain storage structures to the farmers. For small-scale storage of grains the PAU bin, Pusa bin and Hapur tekka have been proposed. The PAU bin designed by Punjab Agricultural University is a galvanized metal iron structure. The capacity ranges from 1.5 to 15 quintals. Pusa bin is a storage structure is made of mud or bricks with a polythene film embedded within the walls. While the Hapur tekka is a cylindrical rubberized cloth structure supported by bamboo poles on a metal tube base, and has a small hole in the bottom through which grain can be removed. In addition to small scale storage there are structures for large scale storage of grains. Large scale grain storage is done in CAP and silos. CAP Storage (Cover and Plinth) involves the construction of brick pillars to a height of 14" from the ground, with grooves into which wooden crates are fixed for the stacking of bags of food grains. The stacks are covered with 250 micron LDPE sheets from the top and all four sides. Food grains such as wheel, maize, gram, paddy, and sorghum are generally stored in CAP (cover and plinth) storage for 6-12 month periods. It is the most economical storage structure and is being widely used by the FCI for bagged grains. The structure can be fabricated in less than 3 weeks. It is an economical way of storage on a large scale (India Agronet, 2009). The silos are either metal or concrete. Metal silos are cheaper than the concrete ones. In silos the grains in bulk are unloaded on the conveyor belts and, through mechanical operations, are carried to the storage structure. The storage capacity of each of these silos is around 25,000 tonnes.

4.0 Safe and scientific storage warehousing in India Bulk storage of produce is done in warehouses. Warehouses are scientific storage structures especially constructed for the protection of the quantity and quality of stored products. The warehouses are owned by FCI, CWC or the SWCs. The Central warehousing corporation (CWC) was established as a statutory body in 1957. The Central Warehousing Corporation provides safe and reliable storage facilities for about 120 agricultural and industrial commodities. It is the largest public warehouse operator in the country. It also offers services in the area of cleaning and forwarding, handling and transportation, procurement and distribution, disinfection services, fumigation services and other ancillary activities ie safety and security, insurance, standardization and documentation (India Agronet, 2009). Separate warehousing corporations were also set up in different States of the Indian Union. The areas of operation of the State Warehousing Corporations (SWCs) are centres of district importance. The total share capital of the State Warehousing Corporations is contributed equally by the concerned State Govt. and the Central Warehousing Corporation. Apart from CWC and SWCs, the Food Corporation of India (FCI) has also created storage facilities. The 4 Food Corporation of India is the single largest agency which has a capacity of 26.62 million tonnes. For safe and scientific storage it is important to carefully select the storage site, storage structure, undertake cleaning and fumigation, ensure proper aeration of grains followed by regular inspection of grain stock. Pest infestation in grains is affected by moisture content of grains, relative humidity, temperature, storage structure, storage period, processing, hygienic condition and the fumigation frequency followed. The major pests of stored grains include beetles (Callosobrunchus sp, Trogodermagranarium, Tribolium confusum), weevils (Acanthoscel idesobtectus), moth (Corcyra cephalonica) and rodents. The control measures include two types of treatment prophylactic and curative. The prophylactic treatment involves the use of pesticides like Malathion (50% EC), DDVP (76% EC) and Deltamethrin (2.5% WP). Curative treatment involves use of fumigant aluminium phosphide to control infested stock or godown in airtight condition. For controlling rodents rat cages, poison baits and use of rat borrow fumigation is recommended (India Agronet, 2009). 5.0 Conclusion The grain production has been on the rise with better facilities in terms of seeds, technology, fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation but associated is the loss of grains which has also increased. Around Rs 50,000 crores every year are lost due to improper storage of food grains. Natural contamination of food grains is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as type of storage structure, temperature, pH, moisture, etc. At any given time 60-70% of grains is stored on the farm in traditional structures like Kanaja, Kothi, Sanduka, earthern pots,

Gummi and Kacheri. However indigenous storage structures are not suitable for storing grains for very long periods. Here in lies the significance of improved storage structures and scientific storage of grains in form of warehouses. These provide safe and economical means of grain storage for long durations. Need of the hour is to strengthen traditional means of storage with modern inputs and to provide cheaper storage to farmers so as prevent enormous storage losses.
Grain storage has dual functions: (a) to stop grain degradation, and (b) to maintain quality to the satisfaction of consumers and to the national and international market demands. Grain management strategies have two opposite goals: they are zero-tolerance of insects and zero residues. To achieve this, there is now more emphasis on control techniques involving physical processes and even biological agents. Industrialized countries are well ahead in the technology by adopting nonchemical methods, such as aeration, chilling of grain, and controlledatmosphere storage. Insect pest-trapping, methods for monitoring and detection of infestation, and automation in infestation detection in bulk storages are now well developed. Insect traps, which are already in use in the developed countries, will play a larger role in the management strategy. Expert systems that simulate storage have been introduced in some countries. However, there is a wide gap in the technology of storage between the industrialized and developing nations.

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