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SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE

EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6 1 of 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

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V- CURVE & INVERTED V - CURVE FOR 3- SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR Aim: To draw the V & inverted V curve of three phase Synchronous Motor.

Apparatus: S.No.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Meter
Voltmeter Ammeter Ammeter Tachomete r

Range
0-600V 0-10A 0-2A 0-10,000RPM

Type
MI MI MC Digital

Quantit y
1 1 1 1

Name Plate Details: KVA Volts Amps RPM Hz : : : : Three Phase Synchronous Motor 5 HP EXTN Volts 415 volts. Amps : : 6.2 Amps. 1500 50 : 220. 1.5A.

Circuit Diagram: -

Lab In Charge

HOD, EEE

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6 2 of 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Page

Theory:Consider a synchronous motor in which the mechanical load is constant (and hence output is also constant if losses are neglected). If the excitation is such that back emf is equal to applied voltage called 100% excitation i.e., when Eb = V. The armature current I lags behind V by a small angle . Its angle with ER (resultant voltage) is fixed by stator constant i.e., tan = Xs / Ra. If the excitation is such that back emf is less than applied voltage is called under excitation i.e., when Eb <V. Hence, ER is advanced clockwise and so is armature current (because it lags behind E R by fixed angle ). We note that the magnitude of I. is increased but its power factor is decreased ( has increased). Because input as well as V are constant, hence the power component of I i.e., I cos remains the same as before, but wattles component I sin is increased. Hence, as excitation is decreased, I will increase but p.f. will decrease so that power component of I i.e., I cos = OA will remain constant. In fact, the locus of the extremity of current vector would be a straight horizontal line as shown. Incidentally, it may be noted that when field current is reduced, the motor pull-out torque is also reduced in proportion. If the excitation is such that back emf is grater than applied voltage is called over excitation i.e., when E b >V. Hence, the resultant voltage vector ER is pulled anti-clockwise and so is I. It is seen that now

Lab In Charge

HOD, EEE

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6 3 of 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

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motor is drawing a leading current. It may also happen for some value of excitation, that I may be in phase with V i.e., p.f. is unity. At that time, the current drawn by the motor would be minimum. Two important points stand put clearly from the above discussion: (i) The magnitude of armature current varies with excitation. The current has large value both for low and high values of excitation (through it is lagging for low excitation and leadings for higher excitation). In between, it has minimum value corresponding to a certain excitation. The variation of I with excitation are known as V curves because of their shape. (ii) For the same input, armature current varies over a wide range and so causes the power factor also to vary accordingly. When overexcited, motor runs with leading p.f. and with lagging p.f. when under-excited. In between, the p.f. is unity. The curve showing variation of p.f. with excitation looks like inverted Vcurve. It would be noted that minimum armature current corresponds to unity power factor.

Lab In Charge

HOD, EEE

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6 4 of 6
V A ER I O Eb B Eb = V B Eb < V ER V A I

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

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V I A O Eb B Eb > V B Eb > V ER

V A = 0 O Eb

O Eb

ER

Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Note down the nameplate details of motor. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Switch on the supply by closing the TPST Switch. By adjusting the Autotransformer from minimum position to maximum position, the rated supply is given to the motor. The motor starts as an induction motor. 5. Give the excitation to the field for making it to run as the synchronous motor. 6. For various values of the excitation current, the armature current is noted and the corresponding power factor is calculated. 7. The same process has to be repeated for loaded condition.

Lab In Charge

HOD, EEE

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6 5 of 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

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8. Later the motor is switched off and graph is drawn.

Observations: Without Load:S.No If . (Amp) W1 (watts ) W2 V1 I1 (watts (volts (Amp) ) )


W W2 = tan 1 3 1 W1 + W2

Cos

With Load:S.No If . (Amp) W1 (watts ) W2 V1 I1 (watts (volts (Amp) ) )


W W2 = tan 1 3 1 W1 + W2

Cos

Calculations: W W2 = tan 1 3 1 = W + W 1 2 Cos =

Graph: -

Lab In Charge

HOD, EEE

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6 6 of 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

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Precautions: 1. 2. 3. The motor should be started without any load. Note down the readings without parallax errors. Connections should not be loose.

Result: - V curve & inverted V curve for synchronous motor is obtained.

Lab In Charge

HOD, EEE