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Exercises for Quantum Mechanics

(TFFY54)
Johan Henriksson and Patrick Norman
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology,
Linkoping University, SE-581 83 Linkoping, Sweden
Spring Term 2007
1
For a Hermitian operator

, we know that
_

dr =
_
_

dr, .
Show that _

2
dr =
_
_

1
_

2
dr,
1
,
2
.
Hint: Consider a linear combination = c
1

1
+c
2

2
, where c
1
, c
2
C.
2
Consider a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator with mass m and characteristic
frequency . At time t = 0, the state is given by
(x) =
1

2
(
0
(x) +
1
(x)),
where
n
(x) are eigenstates to the Hamiltonian with energies E
n
= (n+1/2).
Determine the time-dependent state vector (x, t) for t > 0.
3
Let (x) be a solution to the time-independent Schrodinger equation with a
potential V (x) that is symmetric with respect to the origin, i.e., V (x) = V (x).
a) Show that (x) also is a solution with the same energy eigenvalue.
b) If the energy levels are nondegenerate (i.e., there is at most one eigen-
function associated with a given energy), show that (x) = (x) or
(x) = (x), i.e., the eigenfunctions are either symmetric or antisym-
metric with respect to the origin.
4
A particle (mass m) is incident from the left towards the potential step
V (x) =
_
0 x 0
V
0
x > 0
The energy of the particle is E = 2V
0
, V
0
> 0.
a) Solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation.
Note: Since the particle is unbounded it is not possible to normalize the
wave function.
b) Calculate the probability current density j.
c) Dene and calculate the transmission T using the result in b).
d) Dene and calculate the reection R using the result in b).
e) Calculate R and T and check that R +T = 1.
1
5
Show that the expectation value of the momentum operator p) is real for the
wave packet
(x) =
1

e
ixp/
(p) dp.
6
Determine the wave function in x-space corresponding to
a)
(k) =
_
(2)
1/2
[k[
0 otherwise
b)
(k) =
1

2
exp
_

k
2
2
2
_
7
Consider the time-dependent Schrodinger equation
i

t
(r, t) =

H(r, t).
If the potential is time-independent, i.e., V (r) ,= V (r, t), show that it is possible
to nd solutions separable in space and time, i.e., (r, t) = (r)f(t). Find the
explicit form of f(t) and show that (r) is a solution of an eigenvalue problem.
8
A particle of mass m in a one-dimensional box
V (x) =
_
0 0 x a
otherwise
is in a mixed state composed of the ground state and the rst excited state. The
normalized wave function can be written as
(x) = c
1

1
(x) +c
2

2
(x),
where c
1
and c
2
are constants and
1
(x) and
2
(x) are eigenfunctions cor-
responding to the ground state and the rst excited state, respectively. The
average value of the energy is

2

2
ma
2
. What can be said about c
1
and c
2
?
2
9
If [

[) is real for all , show that

1
[

[
2
) =
2
[

[
1
)

for all
1
and
2
. N.b., solve the problem without assuming that

is Hermitian.
Hint: Consider the linear combinations =
1
+
2
and =
1
+i
2
, respec-
tively.
10
Let
n
be a complete set of orthonormal functions which are solutions to the
time-independent Schrodinger equation

H
n
= E
n

n
. At t = 0 the system is
described by the wave function
(x) =
1

2
e
i

1
(x) +
1

3
e
i

2
(x) +
1

6
e
i

3
(x).
a) Write down (x, t).
b) At time t a measurement of the energy of the system is performed. What
is the probability to obtain the result E
2
?
c) Calculate

H)
d) Is the mean value of the energy equal to any of the possible outcomes of
a measurement?
11
A particle of mass m is moving in the one-dimensional potential
V (x) =
_
0 0 x a
otherwise
.
At a certain time the particle is in a state given by the wave function
(x) = Nx(a x)
where N is a normalization constant.
a) Calculate the probability that a measurement of the energy yields the
ground state energy.
b) Calculate the probability that a measurement of the energy yields a result
between 0 and
3
2

2
ma
2
.
3
12
Consider a particle (mass m) in a one-dimensional box (0 x a). At time
t = 0, the particle is described by the wave function
(x) = N
_
_
2
a
sin
_

a
x
_
+
_
2
a
sin
_
4
a
x
_
_
.
a) Determine N and (x, t).
b) Calculate x)
t
= (x, t)[ x[(x, t)).
Hint: sin() sin(4) = [cos(3) cos(5)]/2
13
Verify the following relations for matrix exponentials.
a) exp(A)

= exp(A

)
b) Bexp(A)B
1
= exp(BAB
1
)
c) exp(A+B) = exp(A) exp(B) if [A, B] = 0
d) exp(A) exp(A) = 1
e)
d
d
exp(A) = Aexp(A) = exp(A)A, A ,= A()
f) exp(A)Bexp(A) = B+ [B, A] +
1
2
[[B, A], A] +
1
3!
[[[B, A], A], A] +. . .
Hint: Consider the Taylor expansion of exp(A)Bexp(A) around = 0.
14
Dene the trace of an operator as
Tr(

) =

i
i[

[i) =

ii
and the density operator, commonly used in many applications, as = [)[.
a) Show that Tr(

) = Tr(

).
b) If the basis [i) is transformed by a unitary transformation, i.e., [i

) =

U[i),
show that the trace of the operator is unchanged in the new basis.
c) Show that Tr( ) = 1.
d) Show that it is possible to use to express the expectation value of an
operator as

) = Tr(

).
Comment: This means that expectation values of observables are not aected
by the choice of representation (basis) we make for our wave functions since the
trace is invariant under unitary transformations.
4
15
In a three-dimensional vector space, assume that we have found the commuting
operators

and

corresponding to some physical observables. We choose a
basis [n), n = 1, 2, 3, for which none of the operators are diagonal but given
by the matrix representations
=
_
_
2 0 i
0 1 0
i 0 2
_
_
and =
1
2
_
_
3 i

2 i
i

2 2

2
i

2 3
_
_
.
a) Solve the eigenvalue problem

[) = [) to nd which values of the
observable we can measure.
b) Since one eigenvalue is degenerated, the eigenstates are not uniquely de-
ned through the eigenvalues . To resolve this problem, we can use the
commuting operator

. Show that is block diagonal in the basis [).
c) Diagonalize the 2 2 block in to nd a basis in which both and
are diagonal.
d) The pairs of eigenvalues [, ) uniquely denes the eigenstates. Which are
the three pairs of eigenstates?
Comment: This exercise is closely related to real problems such as the hydrogen
atom where one of the observables usually is the Hamiltonian and you encounter
degenerate energy levels.
16
Consider a Hermitian operator

.
a) Show that exp(i

) is unitary.
b) Given the result in a), show that a wave function normalized at t = t
0
will
remain normalized at any t > t
0
.
c) Show that nondegenerate eigenstates of

are orthogonal.
d) Show that eigenvalues and expectation values of

are real.
17
In a three-dimensional vector space the operator

can be represented as
=
_
_
2 0 i
0 1 0
i 0 2
_
_
.
Find the matrix representation of the operator
_

, i.e., the operator which


when squared yields the operator

.
5
18
Let

U(a) be a unitary operator dened as

U(a) = e
ia p/
,
where a is a real number of dimension length. Furthermore, dene the transfor-
mation of an arbitrary operator

as

=

U

(a)

U(a).
a) What does this transformation correspond to in your laboratory?
Note: The wave function will be left unchanged in this case.
b) Determine the transformed coordinate and momentum operators x and p.
c) If you got the correct answers in b), it is trivial to determine the expecta-
tion values x) and p). These averages should reect your answer in a).
Determine these expectation values.
d) If we, instead of transforming the operators, transform our state vectors
according to
[

) =

U(a)[),
what does [

) correspond to in your laboratory? Note that the observ-


ables, of course, will be unaltered, i.e.,

[[

) = [

[).
19
A harmonic oscillator of mass m is in a state described by the wave function
(x, t) =
1

2
e
i

0
(x)e

E0t
+
1

2
e
i

1
(x)e

E1t
,
where is a real constant,
0
and
1
are the ground and the rst excited
states, respectively, and E
0
and E
1
are the corresponding energies. Determine
the expectation values of

H and x.
20
Consider a harmonic oscillator of mass m with eigenstates [
n
) and energy levels
E
n
= (n +
1
2
). The Hamiltonian for this system is

H = p
2
/2m + m
2
x
2
/2.
For this system, show that
E
n

=
_

n
_
.
Comment: This is a direct result of the much more general HellmanFeynman
theorem in quantum mechanics.
6
21
A particle of mass m is located in the potential V (x) = m
2
x
2
/2 . The particle
is not in a stationary state and is at time t = 0 described by the wave function
[(0)) =

n=0
c
n
[n).
We can assume that the wave function is real at t = 0, i.e., all c
n
are real
numbers. Show that the time-dependent average value of the position x)
t
is
x)
t
= x)
t=0
cos t.
Comment: The average of the position is oscillating with a frequency (much
like a classical particle). The frequency is related to the energy in the usual
way, i.e., E
n
= (n + 1/2).
22
Consider a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (mass m) in state
n
.
a) Show that the uncertainty product in this state is given by
(x)
n
(p)
n
=
_
n +
1
2
_
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
b) What is so special with the case n = 0?
c) Show that

T)
n
=

V )
n
=
1
2
E
n
=
1
2

H)
n
.
23
Consider a harmonic oscillator in the energy basis [n), with

H[n) = E
n
[n)
and E
n
= (n + 1/2). In order to make a transition from energy basis to a
representation in ordinary space,
n
(x), we can exploit the properties of the
creation and annihilation operators, a

[0) = [1) and a[1) = [0), where


a

=
1

2
_

d
d
_
and a =
1

2
_
+
d
d
_
.
Determine
0
() and
1
().
24
A particle in a system with V (x) = V (x) is described by the wave function
(x) =
1/2

1/4
e

2
x
2
2
.
7
If (x) is expanded in eigenfunctions to the Hamiltonian,
(x) =

n=0
c
n

n
(x),
half of the coecients can be determined using a simple symmetry argument.
How?
25
A particle is moving in a central potential, V (r), corresponding to a potential
function approaching zero as the distance r to the center approaches innity.
The particle is in a stationary state where the time-independent part of the
wave function is given by
(x, y, z) = Nxye
r
,
where N is a normalization constant and is a given positive constant.
a) Calculate the possible results when measuring

L
2
and

L
z
and state the
corresponding probabilities.
b) Determine the potential V (r).
26
A hydrogen atom is in the 2p state with m
l
= 0 and m
s
= 1/2. The system is
thus represented by the wave function

2,1,0,
1
2
(r, , , t) = R
2,1
(r)Y
1,0
(, )
_
1
0
_
e
iE2t/
.
At time t = 0, a measurement of the orbital angular momentum along the x-axis
is performed.
a) Motivate why the magnitude of the orbital angular momentum remains
unchanged by the measurement, i.e., the state at time t > 0 will still be
an eigenstate of

L
2
with eigenvalue l = 1.
b) Determine the possible values and corresponding probabilities in the mea-
surement performed at time t = 0.
27
a) For a centrosymmetric system with V = V (r), show that
[

L
z
,

V ] = 0 and [

L
z
, p
2
] = 0.
b) Show furthermore that if

H =
p
2
2m
+

V , it follows that
[

L
z
,

H] = 0 and [

L
2
,

H] = 0.
c) What consequences do these results have?
8
28
For a system with l = 1, determine the matrix representation of

L
2
x
.
29
Study a state [) given by r, , [) = (r, , ) in coordinate basis. In this
basis, determine the transformed state e
i0

Lz/
[).
Hint: The eect of

L
z
in the coordinate basis is i/.
30
Consider (r, , ) = f(r) Y
l,m
(, ), where Y
l,m
(, ) is a spherical harmonic.
We want to make a simultaneous measurement of L
x
and L
y
, but an uncertainty
in the measurement is unavoidable.
a) Why?
b) For a given (xed) value of the quantum number l, nd the value of m
which leads to the largest possible accuracy if L
x
and L
y
are measured
simultaneously.
Hint: Minimize D(m) = (L
x
)
2
+ (L
y
)
2
c) What is the smallest possible accuracy if L
x
, and L
y
is measured simul-
taneously?
d) What happens in the special case of l = 0?
31
Consider a particle of mass m moving in the potential
V (x) =
_
0 0 x a
otherwise
.
In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (i.e., v c) the energy levels, as we all
know, are determined by
E
n
=
n
2

2
2ma
2
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
and the corresponding normalized wave functions are given by

n
(x) =
_
_
2
a
sin
_
nx
a
_
0 x a
0 otherwise.
We want to make an approximation of the relativistic correction to the energy
E
n
using perturbation theory. For the kinetic energy we have (according to the
theory of relativity)
E
k
=
_
(pc)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
mc
2
= mc
2
_
_
1 +
_
p
mc
_
2
1
_
9
If this is expanded for small linear momenta this yields
E
k
=
p
2
2m

p
4
8m
3
c
2
+. . . ,
which gives us a correction
p
4
8m
3
c
2
to the nonrelativistic expression
p
2
2m
for the
kinetic energy.
a) What is, quantum mechanically, the perturbative part of the Hamiltonian?
b) Use this Hamiltonian to make a rst -order perturbation theory calculation
of the relativistic correction to the unperturbed energy level E
(0)
n
and
compare quantitatively the correction term with E
(0)
n
.
32
In a hydrogen atom, the electrostatic interaction between the electron and the
proton in the nucleus results in the potential energy given by (in spherical co-
ordinates)
V (r, , ) = V (r) =
e
2
4
0
1
r
.
The time-independent Schrodinger equation is separable, (r, , ) =
n
(r) Y
l,m
(, ),
where Y
l,m
(, ) are spherical harmonics. In spherical coordinates, the Hamil-
tonian is given by

H =

2
2
1
r
d
2
dr
2
r
e
2
(4
0
)r
+

L
2
2I
,
where is the reduced mass of the electron and the proton, I is the moment of
inertia, and

L is the angular momentum operator.
a) Use the variational principle to estimate the ground state energy for the
electron in a hydrogen atom.
Hint: Due to the fact that the potential energy does not depend on the
angles and , a suitable trial function for the ground state is = (r) =
N exp(r), where 0 is the variational parameter.
b) How good/bad is the estimate? Why so?
33
Consider a particle with mass m moving in the two-dimensional potential
V (x, y) =
_
0 0 x a and 0 y a
otherwise
.
Using rst-order perturbation theory, show that the degeneracy of the rst ex-
cited state is lifted by the perturbation

= x
2
,
where is small. Visualize the energy levels schematically in a graph. Which
are the proper zeroth-order eigenfunctions?
10
34
A hydrogen atom in state [1, 1, 0, +
1
2
) is subjected to a time-dependent mag-
netic eld, B(r, t) = B
0
e
x
sin(t). Neglecting terms quadratic in the magnetic
eld, the interaction between the electron and the external magnetic eld, B, is
described by the Hamiltonian

=

B

L + 2

S) B,
where
B
is the Bohr magneton. Determine the possible nal states. Comment
on these nal states in comparison with those of an perturbing electric eld?
35
Using the variational principle, estimate the ground state energy for a one-
dimensional anharmonic oscillator with potential V (x) = x
4
. Make the as-
sumption
(x) =

2
x
2
/2
, [) = 1.
36
A one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (mass m, force m
2
xe
x
) is perturbed
by a small force mxe
x
where 0 < . Using perturbation theory, deter-
mine the corrections to the unperturbed energy levels to second order. Further-
more calculate the exact energy levels of the perturbed system and compare the
results.
37
A particle with spin
1
2
is in the state [) =
_
1
0
_
. If the spin is measured along
the e
n
-direction forming an angle with the z-axis, what are the probabilities
of getting the results +

2
and

2
, respectively?
38
Consider a particle of spin s = 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic eld B =
Bcos(t)e
z
. The Hamiltonian becomes

H =
B
B
z
cos(t). Assume that the
spin state at time t = 0 is [(0)) = [
x
).
a) Calculate [(t)).
b) Calculate (t)[

S
x
[(t)).
11
39
In spin space it is possible to describe an innitesimal rotation

around the
y-axis by the unitary operator

U(

e
y
) =

I
i


S
y
.
a) Show that

U(e
y
) = exp(i
y
/2).
b) Let

U(e
y
) operate on an arbitrary state and show that this is equivalent
to a rotation of the spin vector by an angle /2 in spin space.
c) What is the expected result of a rotation by the angle 2? Make a 2
rotation, and compare to the expected result. How many turns must a
spin vector be rotated in order to get back to its original state?
40
In magnetic resonance, the magnetic moment, m, of a particle interacts with
the applied magnetic eld. This interaction is described by the Hamiltonian

H = m B,
where the components of the magnetic dipole moment operator are m
i
=
B

i
and
B
is the Bohr magneton. Assume that a constant magnetic eld B = Be
z
is applied. At time t = 0, the spin is measured to be +/2 in the x-direction,
i.e., [(0)) = [
x
).
a) Calculate [(t)) by using the propagator
[(t)) = e
i

Ht/
[(0)).
b) Calculate [(t)) by solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation using
the assumption
[(t)) =
_
a(t)
b(t)
_
.
c) Let t > 0. Calculate the probability to obtain the result /2 in a mea-
surement of the spin along the x-direction.
d) Let t > 0. Calculate the probability to obtain the result +/2 in a mea-
surement of the spin along the z-direction.
41
Determine the eigenvalues of the operator e
n

S, where e
n
= (sin , 0, cos ) and

S is the spin operator for a particle with spin


1
2
. The eigenvalues correspond to
the possible measured values when measuring spin along the direction e
n
.
12
42
Consider the spin operators

S
x
=

2
_
0 1
1 0
_
,

S
y
=

2
_
0 i
i 0
_
,

S
z
=

2
_
1 0
0 1
_
.
a) Show that

S
2
x
=

S
2
y
=

S
2
z
=

2
4

I.
b) Determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors to

S
x
and

S
y
.
c) Show the anticommutation relation [

S
x
,

S
y
]
+
=

S
x

S
y
+

S
y

S
x
= 0.
43
The spin and angular dependent part of the wave function for an electron is
given by:
(, ) =
_
2l
2l + 1
Y
l,l1
(, )[) +
_
1
2l + 1
Y
l,l
(, )[)
where Y
l,m
(, ) are normalized spherical harmonics (eigenfunctions to

L
2
and

L
z
) and
[) =
_
1
0
_
and [) =
_
0
1
_
are eigenstates to

S
2
and

S
z
.
Show that (, ) is an eigenfunction to the z-component of the angular
momentum operator,

J
z
=

L
z
+

S
z
, and calculate the corresponding expectation
value.
44
At time t = 0, the spin state of an electron is given by
[(0)) =
1
2
_
2
1 +i
_
.
a) Determine the direction
e
n
=
_
_
sin cos
sin sin
cos
_
_
along which to apply a magnetic eld, i.e., B = B
0
e
n
, such that, at time
t = t
0
, the spin state is given by
[(t
0
)) =
_
1
0
_
.
b) How long time will you need to apply the magnetic eld?
Hint: The Hamiltonian of the system is

H =
B
B , where
B
is the
Bohr magneton.
13
45
From the point of view of the electron, the orbital motion of the proton in
hydrogen creates an magnetic eld of considerable strengththe numerical value
of the magnetic eld experienced by the electron is in the order of 0.4 Tesla.
Due to this strong internal magnetic eld, the energy of the atom will depend
on the orientation of the electron spin.
The interaction operator that needs to be added to the nonrelativistic Hamil-
tonian in order to describe spin-orbit interaction is

H
SO
=

2m
2
c
1
r
3

S,
where m is the electron mass, c is the speed of light, and is the dimensionless
ne-structure constant ( 1/137).
Consider hydrogen in its 2p-state. Without consideration made to the spin-
orbit interaction this state is sixfold energy degenerate.
a) Give a complete set of commuting observables for hydrogen when spin-
orbit interaction is accounted for.
b) Describe qualitatively how the energy degeneration of the six states will
change in this case.
c) Determine numerical values of any energy splittings you have proclaimed
above. Also, give the energy separation between the 1s and 2p levels in
order to make sure that the corrections are small in absolute terms.
46
At time t = t
0
a hydrogen atom, described by the wave function
(x, y, z, t
0
) = Nxexp
_

_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
2a
0
_
_
1
i
_
,
where N is a normalization constant and a
0
is the Bohr radius, is placed in
a constant external magnetic eld B = B
0
e
z
. The Hamiltonian describing
the interaction with the external eld is

H =
B
B
0

z
. Calculate the time-
dependent expectation values of the spin projection along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
47
At time t
0
, the wave function of a hydrogen atom is given by
(x, y, z, t
0
) = Nxexp
_

_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
2a
0
_
_
1
i
_
,
where N is a normalization constant and a
0
is the Bohr radius.
a) If we measure the orbital angular momentum projection along the z-axis,
which values will we measure and what are their respective probabilities?
b) If we measure the projection of the spin along the x-, y, and z-axes, which
values will we measure and what are their respective probabilities?
14
48
a) Using the variational method, show that the virial theorem
2

T) +

V ) = 0,
where

T) is the kinetic energy and

V ) is the potential energy, is satised


for a hydrogen atom.
Hint: Assume that the true normalized wave function is (x, y, z) and use
as a normalized variational wave function

(x, y, z) =
3/2
(x, y, z)
where is a scaling parameter. Here = 1 corresponds to the exact
solution.
b) For a hydrogen-like system in its ground state, calculate
1
r)
,
_
1
r
_
, p
2
x
), p
2
y
), p
2
z
), and p
2
).
49
Consider a spinless particle with mass m and charge e in the potential
V (x, y) =
_
1
2
m
2
x
2
, y [0, a]
, otherwise
where
=
3
2

2ma
2
.
The system is in the rst excited state when a weak electric eld is applied
according to E = Ee
n
, e
n
= cos e
x
+ sin e
y
. To rst order, determine the
eect of the perturbing electric eld on the energy of the system. Comment on
the -dependence of the perturbation.
Hint:
_
a
0
xsin
2
_
nx
a
_
dx =
a
2
4
50
A hydrogen atom is in the 2p state with m
l
= 0 and m
s
= 1/2, and the system
is thus represented by the wave function

2,1,0,1/2
(r, , ) = R
2,1
(r)Y
1,0
(, )
_
1
0
_
.
Determine the expectation value of the total angular momentum

J
2
.
15
51
A complete set of commuting observables for the hydrogen atom is given by
the set of operators

H,

L
2
,

L
z
,

S
2
, and

S
z
and the set common eigenkets can
be denoted as [n, l, m
l
, 1/2, m
s
). The 2p-level of the hydrogen atom is sixfold
degenerate due to the dierent values m
l
and m
s
.
Another complete set of commuting observables is given by the set of op-
erators

H,

J
2
,

J
z
,

L
2
, and

S
2
and the set common eigenkets can in this case
be denoted as [n, j, m
j
, l, 1/2). In terms of the above old eigenkets, derive
explicit expressions for the six wave functions that correspond to the 2p-level in
this new basis .
52
The spin-orbit interaction operator is given by

H
SO
= A

L

S,
where A is a scalar that is independent of (, ). By re-writing the spin-orbit
operator, motivate why this problems involving this operator should be solved
in the basis [j, m
j
) that are eigenvectors of

J
2
and

J
z
.
53
Assume that the electron in hydrogen is in a d-orbital, i.e., l = 2. If one considers
the interaction between the spin and orbital motion, this level will no longer be
10-fold energy degenerate. The energy operator that describes the interaction
is

H
SO
= A

L

S,
where A is a scalar that is independent of (, ).
a) The possible values of j are l 1/2, what are the interaction energies in
these two cases?
b) Express [j, m
j
) = [5/2, 5/2) in terms of theoldbasis vectors [l, m
l
, s, m
s
).
Show with an explicit calculation that your linear combination of old basis
vectors is an eigenstate of

J
2
and

J
z
.
54
Let us consider a hydrogen atom described by the wave function
(r) =
1

3
R
2,1
(r)
_
2 Y
1,0
(, )
Y
1,1
(, )
_
.
a) Is this state an eigenstate to total angular momemtum operators

J
2
and

J
z
, and, if so, what are the values of the corresponding quantum numbers
j and m
j
?
16
b) With use of rst-order perturbation theory, determine the shift in energy
relative to the 2p-level in hydrogen as due to spin-orbit coupling.
Hint: The spin-orbit coupling operator is

H
SO
=

2m
2
c
1
r
3

S, where m is the
electron mass, c is the speed of light, and is the dimensionless ne-structure
constant ( 1/137). The following integral may be needed r
3
)
R2,1
=
a
3
0
/24, where a
0
is the Bohr radius.
55
At t = 0 the wave function for the electron in hydrogen is given by
(x, y, z, 0) = Nyze
r/3a0
_
1
2i
_
,
where N is a normalization constant. Determine the possible values and prob-
abilities in measurements of

J
z
,

L
z
and

S
z
.
17
Answers
2.
(x, t) =
1

2
(
0
(x)e
it/2
+
1
(x)e
i3t/2
)
4.
a) (x, t) =
_
_
_
A
i
e
i(2

mV0x/t)
+A
r
e
i(2

mV0x/+t)
, x 0
_
A
r
=

21

2+1
A
i
_
A
t
e
i(

2mV0x/t)
, x > 0
_
A
t
=
2

2+1
A
i
_
b) j
x
=
_
_
_
2
_
V0
m
([A
i
[
2
[A
r
[
2
) =
8

2
3+2

2
_
V0
m
[A
i
[
2
, x 0
_
2V0
m
[A
t
[
2
=
8

2
3+2

2
_
V0
m
[A
i
[
2
, x > 0
c) T =
4

2
3+2

2
d) R =
32

2
3+2

2
6.
a) (x, 0) = ()
1/2
sin(x)/x
b) (x, 0) = (2)
1/2
exp(
2
x
2
/2)
7.
a) N = 2
1/2
(x, t) = a
1/2
_
sin(x/a)e
i
2
t/2ma
2
+ sin(4x/a)e
i8
2
t/ma
2
_
8.
[c
1
[
2
=
2
3
[c
2
[
2
=
1
3
10.
a) (x, t) =
1

2
e
i(E1t/)

1
+
1

3
e
i(E2t/)

2
+
1

6
e
i(E3t/)

3
b) T
2
= 1/3
c)

H) =
E1
2
+
E2
3
+
E3
6
d) No
11.
T(E
1
) = [c
1
[
2
=
960

6
T(E
2
) = [c
2
[
2
= 0
T(0 E
3
2

2
ma
2
) = [c
1
[
2
+[c
2
[
2
=
960

6
18
12.
a) N = 2
1/2
(x, t) = a
1/2
_
sin
_
x
a
_
exp
_
i

2
t
2ma
2
_
+ sin
_
4x
a
_
exp
_
i
8
2
t
ma
2
__
b) x)
t
=
a
2

2a

2
_
1
9

1
25

cos
_
E4E1

t
_
15.
a)
1
= 1 [
1
) = 2
1/2
(1, 0, i)
T

2
= 1 [
2
) = (0, 1, 0)
T

3
= 3 [
3
) = 2
1/2
(1, 0, i)
T
b) U

U =
_
_
1 i 0
i 1 0
0 0 2
_
_
c) [
1
,
1
) = 2
1/2
([
1
) i[
2
))
[
2
,
2
) = 2
1/2
([
1
) +i[
2
))
[
3
,
3
) = [
3
)
d) [, ) = [1, 0), [1, 2), [3, 2)
17.

=
1
2
_
_
1 +

3 0 (

3 1)i
0 2 0
(1

3)i 0 1 +

3
_
_
18.
a) The system is xed, but you are performing measurement w.r.t. to a trans-
lated coordinate system.
b) x = x +a and p = p
c) x) = x) +a and p) = p)
d) The system is moved within the laboratory.
19.
E) =
1
2
(E
0
+E
1
) = where =
E0+E1
2
.
x) =
_

2m
1
2
cos(t + 2)
23.

0
() =
1

1/4
e

2
/2

1
() =
2
1/2

1/4
e

2
/2
24.
c
n
= 0 if n is an odd number.
19
25.
a) The only possible measurement result for

L
2
is 6
2
(with probability 1).
Possible results when measuring

L
z
are 2, each with probability
1
2
.
b) The potential is V (r) =
3
2

mr
.
26.
a)

L
2
and

L
z
are commuting observables.
b) The measured values are , both with probability 1/2.
28.
L
2
x
=

2
2
_
_
1 0 1
0 2 0
1 0 1
_
_
29.
e
i0

Lz/
[) = (r, ,
0
)
30.
a) [

L
x
,

L
y
] ,= 0
b) D(m) = l(l + 1)
2
m
2

2
c)
2
l(l + 1)
d) D(m) = 0, i.e., it is possible to determine both

L
x
and

L
y
simultaneously.
31.
b) E
pert
n
= E
0
n
_
1
E
0
n
2mc
2
_
32.
a) E
0

e
4
32
2

2
0
33.
The shifts in energy are
_
1
3

1
2
2

a
2
and
_
1
3

1
8
2

a
2
, respectively.
34.
l = 0,
_
m
l
= 1, m
l
= 0
m
l
= 0, m
l
= 1
35.
E
min
=
3
4/3
4
_

2
2m
_
2/3

1/3
36.
E
pert
n
= E
exact
n
=
_
n +
1
2
_


2
2m
2
20
37.
T

= cos
2
2
T

= sin
2
2
38.
a) [(t)) =
_
exp
_
iBB

sin(t)
_
[
z
) exp
_
iBB

sin(t)
_
[
z
)
_
/

2
b) (t)[

S
x
[(t)) =

2
cos
_
2BB

sin(t)
_
40.
a) [(t)) = [exp(i
B
Bt/)[
z
) + exp(+i
B
Bt/)[
z
)] /

2
c) T
x
= cos
2
_
BBt

_
d) T
z
=
1
2
41.
=

2
2
42.
b)

S
x
: +

2

1

2
_
1
1
_
and

2

1

2
_
1
1
_
.

S
y
: +

2

1

2
_
1
i
_
and

2

1

2
_
1
i
_
.
43.

J
z
) = (l
1
2
)
44.
a) e
n
= 2
1/2
(1, 1, 0)
T
b) t
0
=

4BB
45.
a)

H,

J
2
,

J
z
,

L
2
, and

S
2
(c) E 4.5 10
5
eV
46.

S
x
)
t
=

2
sin
_
BB

(t t
0
)
_

S
y
)
t
=

2
cos
_
BB

(t t
0
)
_

S
x
)
t
= 0
21
47.
a) Measuring L
z
yields , both with probability 1/2.
b) Measuring S
x
yields /2, both with probability 1/2.
Measuring S
y
yields /2.
Measuring S
z
yields /2, both with probability 1/2.
48.
b)
1
r
=
2Z
3a0

1
r
_
=
Z
a0
p
2
x
) = p
2
y
) = p
2
z
) =
1
3
_
Z
a0
_
2
49. First excited state is double degenerate with E
1
= E
2
= 11
2

2
/(4ma
2
).
The rst-order energy correction is the same for both states and equals E
1
=
E
2
=
1
2
aeE sin .
50.

J
2
) =
11
4

2
51. The [j, m
j
, l, 1/2) kets take the form
}
l,s=1/2
j=l1/2,mj
(, ) =
_
_

_
lmj+1/2
2l+1
Y
l,mj1/2
(, )
_
lmj +1/2
2l+1
Y
l,mj+1/2
(, )
_
_
.
53. a)
A
2
2

_
l; j = l + 1/2
l 1; j = l 1/2
54.
a) j = 3/2, m
j
= 1/2
b)

H
SO
) =

3

96m
2
ca
3
0
55. The measurements of angular momenta give:
Operator Value Probability

S
z
/2 1/5
/2 4/5

L
z
1/2
1/2

J
z
3/2 1/10
/2 4/10
/2 1/10
3/2 4/10
22
Summary
Commutator relations
[

A,

B

C] = [

A,

B]

C +

B[

A,

C]
e

A

Be


A
=

B + [

A,

B] +
1
2!
_

A, [

A,

B]
_
+
1
3!
_

A,
_

A, [

A,

B]
__
+. . .
Time evolution
[(t)) = e
i

Ht/
[(0))
d
dt

) =
1
i
_
[

,

]
_
+
_

t
_
Uncertainty relations
1
2
[[

,

])[
Momentum basis
x[p) =
1

2
exp
_
i
px

_
Translations and rotations

U
T
(ae
n
) = exp
_

ia

e
n
p
_

U
R
(e
n
) = exp
_

e
n

J
_
Harmonic oscillator
x =
_

2m
_
a

+ a
_
p = i
_
m
2
_
a

a
_
a[n) =

n[n 1) a

[n) =

n + 1[n + 1)
Angular momentum

J = i

=

J
x
i

J
y

J
x
=
1
2
(

J
+
+

J

)

J
y
=
1
2i
(

J
+

[j, m) =
_
j(j + 1) m(m1)[j, m1) =
_
(j m)(j m + 1)[j, m1)
Spin angular momentum
[
n
) =
_
cos

2
e
i

2
sin

2
e
+i

2
_
[
n
) =
_
sin

2
e
i

2
cos

2
e
+i

2
_
Variational principle
E
0

[

H[)
[)
Perturbation theory
Time-independent, nondegenerate:
E
(1)
n
=
_


n
_

(1)
n
_
=

m=n

m
[

H

[
n
)
E
(0)
m
E
(0)
n
[
m
) E
(2)
n
=
_


(1)
n
_
Time-independent, degenerate:
det
_
H

n
E
(1)
j
I
_
= 0
Time-dependent:
d
(1)
n
(t) =
1
i
t
_
0
dt

e
init

ni
(t

) T
fi
(t) =
1

t
_
0
dt

e
i
fi
t

fi
(t

(t) =

Asin(t) = T
fi
(t, ) =
[A
fi
[
2
4
2

1 e
i(
fi
+)t

fi
+

1 e
i(
fi
)t

fi

2
24