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Hierarchical Genetic Algorithms for the

Derivation of L-Systems

Humera Farooq, M Nordin Zakaria,

M Fadzil Hassan, Suziah Sulaiman
Department of Computer And Information Sciences,,
Universiti Teknnologi Petronas,
{nordinzakaria, mfadzil_hassan, suziah}

Abstract science, L-systems is studied as a formal language.

This grammar is used to describe the synthesis of
Genetic algorithms (GAs) are the most popular form words from symbols. In the field of computer graphics
of Evolution Computation (EC). The population-based L-systems are parsed to create scene graphs, and these
structure of GA makes it infeasible in some real-time scene graphs are used to display 2-Dimensional or 3-
applications. However, the algorithm is generally well Dimensional models. These scene graphs consist of
suited for parallel processing. In this research, we different primitives (i.e. triangles, lines, cylinders) and
propose a hierarchically-structured parallel GA to transformation (rotation, scaling, and translation).
discover the L-system of a given branching structure. Arrangement of all contained primitives is defined by
L-system is a grammar formalism used to model transformation (displacement and rotations) [1]. The
branching structures. Prior work primarily only dealt aim of this paper is to present a research framework
with the derivation of the numerical parameters of L- aimed at bringing together two different areas i.e. L-
system. In our research, we seek to derive both the system and genetic algorithm in order to derive formal
parameters and the symbolic sequence or the structure expressions for branching structures. In our work we
for the L-System through a Hierarchical Genetic focus on formulating a novel Hierarchical Genetic
Algorithm (HGA). A HGA has a multilayered Algorithm to derive parametric L-systems. The
architecture in which each layer has some specific parametric L-system includes some numerical values
parameters and tasks to do. At the higher level, our along with strings to derive branching structure. The
proposed HGA will deal with the derivation of the L- hierarchical architecture works in layers, from bottom
System structure. At the lower-level, it will deal with to the top.
the derivation of the numerical parameters.
2. Background Literature

1. Introduction 2.1 L-System

L-systems have been applied in various branches of LindenMayer system, or L-System, was introduced in
science. L-System formalism is widely used in the 1968 by a biologist Aristid Linden Mayer, in the book
modeling of branching structures of plants. A root or ``The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants’’ Linden Mayer
base followed by the edge sequences to the terminal and Prusinkiewicz wrote: “The central concept of L-
nodes is called branching structure. In the biological systems is that of rewriting. In general, rewriting is a
context, these edges are known as branch segments. A technique for defining complex objects by successively
branch segment followed by at least one or more replacing parts of a simple initial object using a set of
segment in some direction is known as internodes. A rewriting rules or production.'' [2]. Various branching
terminal segment (having no further edges) is called structures i.e. bronchi structure, nervous system,
an apex. There are different functional modules diabetic retinal structure and especially plant
(flower, leaves, buds) which arranged together to make structures are modeled by using L-system which
a plant. The plants of the same species have common generate smooth, beautiful and fast growing
traits (i.e. color, size) makes the modules. The L- animation. In the initial development of L-systems
system works on these modules. In Mathematics the only formal theory was considered. Later, geometrical
L-system is used as an interesting application of interpretations were proposed. This Geometric
formal language theory. In theoretical computer Interpretation is based on turtle geometry [3].This
turtle geometry depends on turtle commands which strategy and the optimized solution is then shared by
are used to control the orientation and position of the all neighbors.
desired model on the screen. By adding numerical
parameters and special characters into L-system, it is 2.3.1 Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm
now commonly known as Parametric L-system.
Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm is based on the PGAs.
2.2 Genetic Algorithm Hierarchical Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) works in the
form of hierarchical topology, having different layers
The Genetic Algorithm is a branch of Evolution to perform different tasks (top to bottom).There are
Computation (EC). Evolution Computation methods specific code and parameters for each layer. There is a
are based on the theory of biology evolution, continues transfer of in all layers in both directions
implemented on the computation to solve optimization until it has reached at best solution.
problems. EC based on population of solutions. In the proposed work we seek to use Hierarchical
Genetic algorithms (GAs) are most popular form of Genetic Algorithm as an optimization tool to derive
EC. Population-based structure well suited to parallel the structure and parameters of L-system.
processing, but infeasible in some real-time
applications. Genetic Algorithm is a branch of 3. Related Work
Artificial Intelligence that works on the principle as
the nature do; Genetic Algorithm can be described There are numerous works in many fields of science
as “Search technique used in computing to find exact that apply genetic algorithm to solve the optimization
or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems of finding an L-system that matches a given
problems” [4]. The techniques used by GAs based on structure. The L-system is a useful rewriting
nature methods and biological genetics and it follows mechanism to rewrite the complex objects and GA as
the Darwin theory of natural selection. The GA works an optimization tool. An automated detection of blood
on the population of individuals (chromosomes).GA vessels of retina has been done by using genetic
generates population by selecting random algorithm as an optimization tool. They improve the
chromosomes. These individuals go through a process performance of match filter technique by using GA
of evolution for the survival of fittest. This process is which optimize the match filter parameters and
continues until it meets the best solution. Performance enhance its performance [9]. A combination of Genetic
of GA depends on many factors including a good Algorithm and Evolution Strategies is used to describe
fitness function, population size and choice of the L-system to modeling the blood circulation of
different GA operators (crossover and mutation). GA human retina [10]. L-system is used to model the
is also known as global search method as it works on plant growth process by using geometric and synthetic
the population of individuals. Moreover GA is often representation and applied GA for possible solution
known as blind search method because it does not [11]. L-system is used with genetic algorithm to know
require any information about first derivative or any the pattern of a rhythm or music [12]. L-system based
other restrictive assumption before a solving problem. animated system is developed with the integration of
Another important feature of GA is it’s a direct search Genetic Algorithm, which are useful for real-time
nature instead of exhaustic search. Unlike others simulated system [13]. A test bed has been developed
techniques of Artificial Intelligence GA is more robust by using L-system to model 3-Dimensional virtual
(error free), even in the presence of small noise or if environment for the same phenotype space. Genetic
any small changes in the input it does not break easily. Algorithm is used to optimize the parameter-set of L-
GA can easily be parallelize, also known as iterative system [14]. Single machine scheduling problems are
parallel optimizers. solved by introducing artificial chromosomes to
2.3 Parallel Genetic Algorithm improve the performance of GA [15]. An aircraft
design is made by the help of Genetic Algorithm by
Parallel Genetic Algorithms (PGAs) are a specific using an independent optimizer (GENESIS)[16].
example of GAs, based on the concept of sub- Genetic Algorithm is used to recreate the face images,
population [5, 6]. A network of interconnected sub- the recreated image tried to match by mind making
population is used by PGAs called as Island Model [7, image. By using different parameters and operators
8] Island model is known as an arbitrary topology, the best solution is decided [17]. The current research
having a simple migration but this model is less will investigate that how the L-system will be
frequent. There is an exchange of information and integrated with HGA to model the branching
migration between these sub-populations after structures.
evolving independently for a given time. The model
reached a promising solution by using the same
4. Proposed Framework
L-systems rules are recursive in nature and these rules
can easily be used in describing the plant structures
and natural looking forms (Fractals). In prior work,
only the parameters of a branching structure are used
to derive L-system. In this research we will consider
deriving both the parameters and topology of a given
branching structure. The idea behind this research is
to use HGA as an optimization tool to derive the
parameters and structure of a parametric L-system –
both the axioms (starting point) and the productions
(rewriting rules) in a parallel processing environment.
In this proposed research a 3-D virtual environment
will be created to model the branching structures and
fractals as shown in Figure 1. There are three main
phases of proposed framework. The work of each
phase is illustrated below. In Phase III we will
investigate that how the different layers of HGA will
used to evaluate the problem and at the end shows the
optimized solution in the form of 3-D Visualization.

4.1 Phase I
Figure 1(Proposed Framework)
In Phase I the axioms and production rules will be
decided for L-system, after applying grammar, the 5. Discussion
turtle interpretation will be used to model the
branching structures in 3-D visual environment. We hypothesize that this approach will effectively
solve the problem related to deriving and
understanding a branching structure, especially that
4.2 Phase II found in nature. In the previous work only numerical
parameters of L-systems are used as chromosomes in
Phase II gives a short brief to show the workflow of
GA, in the present research both parameters and
Genetic Algorithm. The parameters and geometrical
geometrical structures will be used. The adopted
structure of L-system are directly used as genes for
hierarchical topology is expected to improve the
GA. Two types of chromosomes will work in the GA
performance of GA in parallel processing
environment. All the solutions in a population can be
evaluated in a distributed manner by using parallel
1. Build-up chromosomes by using the
processing machines. Hence, it will increase overall
parameters of L-system.
performance of GA and ultimately it will also improve
2. Build-up chromosomes by using geometrical
the visualization of L-systems.
These chromosomes will be used to create initial
population, by giving suitable fitness function the 6. Conclusion
solution will evaluate for the optimize solution and
will passed to the selection process for the next The proposed research framework consists of 3 main
generation and crossover and mutation operators will components, where each of the components aimed to
be applied. cater for the understanding of 3-D virtual
environment. It is hoped that the research will lead to
a formulation for HGA that could effectively derive L-
4.3 Phase III
systems. The current work involves developing a
prototype of the proposed framework and conducting
The population will be feed up to the HGA. Island
actual experiments to test the prototype.
Model will work on the given populations. Different
task will be distributed to different layers of
hierarchical genetic algorithm. Our future work 7. References
includes studying the architecture of HGA in depth.
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