A frame work for the derivation of L-System using Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm.

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A frame work for the derivation of L-System using Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm.

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Derivation of L-Systems

M Fadzil Hassan, Suziah Sulaiman

Department of Computer And Information Sciences,,

Universiti Teknnologi Petronas

humera_farooq@utp.edu.my,

{nordinzakaria, mfadzil_hassan, suziah} @petronas.com.my

This grammar is used to describe the synthesis of

Genetic algorithms (GAs) are the most popular form words from symbols. In the field of computer graphics

of Evolution Computation (EC). The population-based L-systems are parsed to create scene graphs, and these

structure of GA makes it infeasible in some real-time scene graphs are used to display 2-Dimensional or 3-

applications. However, the algorithm is generally well Dimensional models. These scene graphs consist of

suited for parallel processing. In this research, we different primitives (i.e. triangles, lines, cylinders) and

propose a hierarchically-structured parallel GA to transformation (rotation, scaling, and translation).

discover the L-system of a given branching structure. Arrangement of all contained primitives is defined by

L-system is a grammar formalism used to model transformation (displacement and rotations) [1]. The

branching structures. Prior work primarily only dealt aim of this paper is to present a research framework

with the derivation of the numerical parameters of L- aimed at bringing together two different areas i.e. L-

system. In our research, we seek to derive both the system and genetic algorithm in order to derive formal

parameters and the symbolic sequence or the structure expressions for branching structures. In our work we

for the L-System through a Hierarchical Genetic focus on formulating a novel Hierarchical Genetic

Algorithm (HGA). A HGA has a multilayered Algorithm to derive parametric L-systems. The

architecture in which each layer has some specific parametric L-system includes some numerical values

parameters and tasks to do. At the higher level, our along with strings to derive branching structure. The

proposed HGA will deal with the derivation of the L- hierarchical architecture works in layers, from bottom

System structure. At the lower-level, it will deal with to the top.

the derivation of the numerical parameters.

2. Background Literature

L-systems have been applied in various branches of LindenMayer system, or L-System, was introduced in

science. L-System formalism is widely used in the 1968 by a biologist Aristid Linden Mayer, in the book

modeling of branching structures of plants. A root or ``The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants’’ Linden Mayer

base followed by the edge sequences to the terminal and Prusinkiewicz wrote: “The central concept of L-

nodes is called branching structure. In the biological systems is that of rewriting. In general, rewriting is a

context, these edges are known as branch segments. A technique for defining complex objects by successively

branch segment followed by at least one or more replacing parts of a simple initial object using a set of

segment in some direction is known as internodes. A rewriting rules or production.'' [2]. Various branching

terminal segment (having no further edges) is called structures i.e. bronchi structure, nervous system,

an apex. There are different functional modules diabetic retinal structure and especially plant

(flower, leaves, buds) which arranged together to make structures are modeled by using L-system which

a plant. The plants of the same species have common generate smooth, beautiful and fast growing

traits (i.e. color, size) makes the modules. The L- animation. In the initial development of L-systems

system works on these modules. In Mathematics the only formal theory was considered. Later, geometrical

L-system is used as an interesting application of interpretations were proposed. This Geometric

formal language theory. In theoretical computer Interpretation is based on turtle geometry [3].This

turtle geometry depends on turtle commands which strategy and the optimized solution is then shared by

are used to control the orientation and position of the all neighbors.

desired model on the screen. By adding numerical

parameters and special characters into L-system, it is 2.3.1 Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm

now commonly known as Parametric L-system.

Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm is based on the PGAs.

2.2 Genetic Algorithm Hierarchical Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) works in the

form of hierarchical topology, having different layers

The Genetic Algorithm is a branch of Evolution to perform different tasks (top to bottom).There are

Computation (EC). Evolution Computation methods specific code and parameters for each layer. There is a

are based on the theory of biology evolution, continues transfer of in all layers in both directions

implemented on the computation to solve optimization until it has reached at best solution.

problems. EC based on population of solutions. In the proposed work we seek to use Hierarchical

Genetic algorithms (GAs) are most popular form of Genetic Algorithm as an optimization tool to derive

EC. Population-based structure well suited to parallel the structure and parameters of L-system.

processing, but infeasible in some real-time

applications. Genetic Algorithm is a branch of 3. Related Work

Artificial Intelligence that works on the principle as

the nature do; Genetic Algorithm can be described There are numerous works in many fields of science

as “Search technique used in computing to find exact that apply genetic algorithm to solve the optimization

or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems of finding an L-system that matches a given

problems” [4]. The techniques used by GAs based on structure. The L-system is a useful rewriting

nature methods and biological genetics and it follows mechanism to rewrite the complex objects and GA as

the Darwin theory of natural selection. The GA works an optimization tool. An automated detection of blood

on the population of individuals (chromosomes).GA vessels of retina has been done by using genetic

generates population by selecting random algorithm as an optimization tool. They improve the

chromosomes. These individuals go through a process performance of match filter technique by using GA

of evolution for the survival of fittest. This process is which optimize the match filter parameters and

continues until it meets the best solution. Performance enhance its performance [9]. A combination of Genetic

of GA depends on many factors including a good Algorithm and Evolution Strategies is used to describe

fitness function, population size and choice of the L-system to modeling the blood circulation of

different GA operators (crossover and mutation). GA human retina [10]. L-system is used to model the

is also known as global search method as it works on plant growth process by using geometric and synthetic

the population of individuals. Moreover GA is often representation and applied GA for possible solution

known as blind search method because it does not [11]. L-system is used with genetic algorithm to know

require any information about first derivative or any the pattern of a rhythm or music [12]. L-system based

other restrictive assumption before a solving problem. animated system is developed with the integration of

Another important feature of GA is it’s a direct search Genetic Algorithm, which are useful for real-time

nature instead of exhaustic search. Unlike others simulated system [13]. A test bed has been developed

techniques of Artificial Intelligence GA is more robust by using L-system to model 3-Dimensional virtual

(error free), even in the presence of small noise or if environment for the same phenotype space. Genetic

any small changes in the input it does not break easily. Algorithm is used to optimize the parameter-set of L-

GA can easily be parallelize, also known as iterative system [14]. Single machine scheduling problems are

parallel optimizers. solved by introducing artificial chromosomes to

2.3 Parallel Genetic Algorithm improve the performance of GA [15]. An aircraft

design is made by the help of Genetic Algorithm by

Parallel Genetic Algorithms (PGAs) are a specific using an independent optimizer (GENESIS)[16].

example of GAs, based on the concept of sub- Genetic Algorithm is used to recreate the face images,

population [5, 6]. A network of interconnected sub- the recreated image tried to match by mind making

population is used by PGAs called as Island Model [7, image. By using different parameters and operators

8] Island model is known as an arbitrary topology, the best solution is decided [17]. The current research

having a simple migration but this model is less will investigate that how the L-system will be

frequent. There is an exchange of information and integrated with HGA to model the branching

migration between these sub-populations after structures.

evolving independently for a given time. The model

reached a promising solution by using the same

4. Proposed Framework

L-systems rules are recursive in nature and these rules

can easily be used in describing the plant structures

and natural looking forms (Fractals). In prior work,

only the parameters of a branching structure are used

to derive L-system. In this research we will consider

deriving both the parameters and topology of a given

branching structure. The idea behind this research is

to use HGA as an optimization tool to derive the

parameters and structure of a parametric L-system –

both the axioms (starting point) and the productions

(rewriting rules) in a parallel processing environment.

In this proposed research a 3-D virtual environment

will be created to model the branching structures and

fractals as shown in Figure 1. There are three main

phases of proposed framework. The work of each

phase is illustrated below. In Phase III we will

investigate that how the different layers of HGA will

used to evaluate the problem and at the end shows the

optimized solution in the form of 3-D Visualization.

4.1 Phase I

Figure 1(Proposed Framework)

In Phase I the axioms and production rules will be

decided for L-system, after applying grammar, the 5. Discussion

turtle interpretation will be used to model the

branching structures in 3-D visual environment. We hypothesize that this approach will effectively

solve the problem related to deriving and

understanding a branching structure, especially that

4.2 Phase II found in nature. In the previous work only numerical

parameters of L-systems are used as chromosomes in

Phase II gives a short brief to show the workflow of

GA, in the present research both parameters and

Genetic Algorithm. The parameters and geometrical

geometrical structures will be used. The adopted

structure of L-system are directly used as genes for

hierarchical topology is expected to improve the

GA. Two types of chromosomes will work in the GA

performance of GA in parallel processing

i.e.

environment. All the solutions in a population can be

evaluated in a distributed manner by using parallel

1. Build-up chromosomes by using the

processing machines. Hence, it will increase overall

parameters of L-system.

performance of GA and ultimately it will also improve

2. Build-up chromosomes by using geometrical

the visualization of L-systems.

structures

These chromosomes will be used to create initial

population, by giving suitable fitness function the 6. Conclusion

solution will evaluate for the optimize solution and

will passed to the selection process for the next The proposed research framework consists of 3 main

generation and crossover and mutation operators will components, where each of the components aimed to

be applied. cater for the understanding of 3-D virtual

environment. It is hoped that the research will lead to

a formulation for HGA that could effectively derive L-

4.3 Phase III

systems. The current work involves developing a

prototype of the proposed framework and conducting

The population will be feed up to the HGA. Island

actual experiments to test the prototype.

Model will work on the given populations. Different

task will be distributed to different layers of

hierarchical genetic algorithm. Our future work 7. References

includes studying the architecture of HGA in depth.

[1] Marco Grubert, “Simulating plant growth”, DATE: MAY

05, 2008

http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds8-/plantsim.html DATE: APRIL 22, 2008

http://www.ifi.unizh.ch/~noser/BIBLIO/x.pdf

[2] Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, and Aristid Lindenmayer,

Date: October 11, 1991, “The Algorithmic Beauty of [14] Hans Rudi Noser, Walter Wellauer, and Peter Stucki,

Plants”, Springer; 1 edition, 228s " Rule-Based Animation System With Genetic Algorithms

As Test-Bed For Generic Evolutionary Applications",

[3] Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz , “A look at the visual Multimedia Laboratory of the University of Zurich , Winter

modeling of plants using L-systems “,Lecture Notes in thurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg , 11-29,

April 10, 2006 . [15] Pei-Chann Chang; Shih-Shin Chen; Qiong-Hui Ko;

Chin-Yuan Fan, “A Genetic Algorithm with Injecting

[4] DATE: APRIL 08,2008 ,“Genetic Algorithm”, Artificial Chromosomes for Single Machine Scheduling

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_algorithm . Problems”, 2007, IEEE Symposium on Computational

Intelligence in Scheduling, SCIS Pages 1 – 6, April 2007

[5] Chrisila B. Pettey, Michael R. Leuze, and John J.

Grefenstette. “A parallel genetic algorithm”.In Proceedings [16] Andre C. Marta, “Parametric Study of a Genetic

of the Second International Conference on Genetic Algorithm using a Aircraft Design Optimization Problem”,

Algorithms, 1987. DATE: APRIL 21, 2008

http://www.genetic-programming.org/sp2003/Marta.pdf.

[6] D. Schlierkamp-Voosen and H. Miihlenbein, “Strategy

adaptation by competing subpopulations”, In Parallel [17] Abdul Halim, M.F.; Al-Fiadh, and H.H, "Facial

Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN III International Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm”, International

Conference on Evolutionary Computation, pages 199-208, Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and

1994. Visualization, Volume, Issue, 26-28 ,pages 262 – 266, 2006

genetics and combinatorial optimization”, pages 416-421,

1989.

algorithms: Introduction and overview of current research”.

In Stender, editor. Parallel Genetic Algorithm: Theory and

Applications, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and

Applications, Amsterdam, IOS Press, 1992.

algorithm matched filter optimization for automated

detection of blood vessels from digital retinal images”,

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, pages

248–253, 2007.

“Parametric L-System Description of the Retina with

Combined Evolutionary Operators”, DATE: APRIL 20, 2008

http://www.inf.u-szeged.hu/~kokai/papers/gecco-21.ps.gz.

Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms, Generating

grammatical plant models with genetic algorithms, Springer

Vienna, pages 230-234, 2005

DATE: APRIL 21, 2008

www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~charles/genmusic.pdf

Peter Walser, "Integration of Optimization by Genetic

Algorithms into an L-System-Based Animation System",

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