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Ec9_ex93_Beam column_no

Axial force and bending moment

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Example 9.3. Beam-column with eccentric load


The beam-column is subject to an eccentric axial force with same eccentricity at both ends. The beam is prevented from warping at the ends by rigid rectangular hollow beams. These beams are simply supported at the load points A and D. The structure is a test beam [2].

tf

C bb

h bw

y z tw

rb
h := 100.5 mm b := 50.2 mm tw := 5.07 mm tf := 5.06 mm lbeam := 800 mm b b := 140 mm rb := 30 mm exc := 300 mm r := 0 mm b w := h 2 tf 2 r BC := "A" E := 70000 MPa b w = 90 mm (cross section class, [1] Table 3.2b) G := 27000 MPa

Dimensions and material properties


Section height: Flange depth: Web thickness: Flange thickness: Overall length: Cross beams: Support Eccentricity Inner radius: Web height: Alloy: EN AW-6082 T6 According to test in [2] fo := 300 MPa

A e N rb

Partial safety factors: To compare with the test, all factors are set to 1.0

M1 := 1.0

M2 := 1.0

Moment and force


Axial force (compression) Bending moment at the ends S.I. units: kN 1000 newton My.Ed := NEd exc kNm kN m NEd := 24.8 kN My.Ed = 7.44 kNm MPa 1000000 Pa

References
[1] [2] EN 1999-1-1 Edlund, S. Eurocode 9 - Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-1: General rules. 2007 Buckling of T-Section Beam-Columns in Aluminium with or without Transverse Welds. Strustural Engineering, Royal Institute of technology, Stockholm.

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aluMATTER

2007-08-10

bb

lbeam

Ec9_ex93_Beam column_no

Axial force and bending moment

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Cross section class


Axial force
[1] 6.1.4.3 [1] 6.1.4.4 Flange Web 2 tf 250 MPa fo b tw bw tw

:=

f :=

f = 4.459 1f = 2.5 2f = 3.75 3f = 5

w :=

w = 17.8 1w = 9.167 2w = 13.3 3w = 18.3


(flange) (web) (compression)

BC = "A" no weld

1f := 3 2f := 4.5 3f := 6

1w := 11 2w := 16 3w := 22
classf = 3 classw = 3 classc = 3

classf := if f > 1f , if f > 2f , if f > 3f , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

) ) ) ) ) )

classw := if w > 1w , if w > 2w , if w > 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 classc := if ( classf < classw , classw , classf )

Bending
As web class > classc and flange class the same, classy := 3 classz := 3 for y-y-axis bending and for z-z-axis bending

Design resistance, y-y-axis bending


[1] 6.2.5 Elastic modulus of the gross cross section Wel: Ag := 2 b tf + ( h 2 tf ) tw Ig := 1 12 b h ( b tw) ( h 2 tf )
3 3

b
2

Ag = 966.3 mm

h bw

6 4 Ig = 1.47 10 mm

y z tw

Wel := [1] Table 6.4 [1] (6.26) [1] (6.25)

Ig 2 h

Wel = 2.925 10 mm

Shape factor for class 3 cross-section, say Design moment of resistance of the cross section M c,Rd

y := 1
My.Rd := fo y Wel

M1

My.Rd = 8.8 kNm

Axial force resistance, y-y buckling


[1] 6.3.1 Cross section area of gross cross section A gr Agr := b h ( b tw) ( h 2 tf ) Cross section area of class 3 cross section Second moment of area of gross cross section: Iy := 2 12 b tf + 2 b tf
3 2

Agr = 966.3 mm Aeff := Agr

h tf 1 3 + ( h 2 tf ) tw 2 12

Iy = 1.47 10 mm

T Hglund

aluMATTER

2007-08-10

tf

Ec9_ex93_Beam column_no
[1] Table 6.8

Axial force and bending moment


lyc := lbeam + 2 rb Ncr := lyc = 860 mm

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Effective buckling length

Buckling load

E Iy
lyc
2

Ncr = 1.373 10 kN

[1] 6.3.1.2 [1] Table 6.6

Slenderness parameter

y :=

Agr fo Ncr

y = 0.459 = 0.2 o = 0.1

:= if ( BC = "A" , 0.2 , 0.32) o := if ( BC = "A" , 0.1 , 0 )

:= 0.5 1 + ( y o) + y
2

= 0.642 y = 0.918

y := +
[1] Table 6.5

1
2 y 2

No longitudinal welds Axial force resistance Ny.Rd := y fo

:= 1 M1
Aeff Ny.Rd = 266.1 kN

Axial force resistance, z-z axis buckling


Effective buckling length Buckling load Iz := 2 tf b 12
3

lzc := lbeam + rb Ncr :=

lzc = 0.83 m Ncr = 107 kN

E Iz
lzc
2

[1] 6.3.1.2 [1] 6.3.1.2

Slenderness parameter
2 := 0.5 1 + ( z o) + z

z :=

Agr fo Ncr

z = 1.646 = 2.009 z = 0.316

z := +
[1] 6.3.1.1

Axial load resistance

Nz.Rd := z NRd := fo

fo

M1

Aeff

Nz.Rd = 91.7 kN NRd = 289.9 kN

and without column buckling

M1

Aeff

Flexural buckling of beam-column


[1] (6.64)

0 := 1
2

x := 1 0 := if ( 0 < 1 , 1 , 0) yc := if ( yc < 0.8 , 0.8 , yc)


NEd = 24.8 kN

Exponents in interaction formulae [1] (6.42c) [1] (6.61c)

0 := y

0 = 1 yc = 0.918
My.Ed = 7.44 kNm Uy = 0.961

yc := 0 y

Flexural buckling check


[1] (6.59) Uy :=

NEd y x NRd

yc

My.Ed

0 My.Rd
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2007-08-10

Ec9_ex93_Beam column_no

Axial force and bending moment

Page 4 of 4

Lateral-torsional buckling
[1] Annex J Figure J.2 Warping constant: Iw := It :=

(h tf )2 Iz
4 2 b tf + h tw 3 Wy := Wel
3 3

Iw = 2.429 10 mm It = 8.702 10 mm
4 3

Torsional constant: Lateral buckling length

4 3

L := lbeam 2 b b

Wy = 2.925 10 mm

Constant bending moment, warping prevented at the ends [1] I.1.2 C, k , and k w constants C1 := 1 kz := 1 kw := 0.5

[1] I.1.2

wt := cr :=
Mcr :=

kw L C1 kz

E Iw G It
2

wt = 3.251 cr = 3.401
L = 520 mm Mcr = 27.22 kNm

[1] (I.7)

1 + wt

[1] (I.2)

cr
L

E Iz G It

[1] 6.3.2.(1)

LT :=

y Wy fo
Mcr

LT = 0.568 LT = 0.2 0LT = 0.4 LT = 0.678 LT = 0.954

[1] 6.3.2.2 (2) LT := if ( classz > 2 , 0.2 , 0.1)

0LT := if ( classz > 2 , 0.4 , 0.6)


[1] (6.57) [1] (6.56)
2 LT := 0.5 1 + LT ( LT 0LT ) + LT

LT := LT +

LT LT

Lateral-torsional buckling of beam-column


[1] (6.65), (6.66) and (6.67) [1] 6.3.3.2

x = 1

xLT := 1

0 = 1 c := 0.8 c := 1 zc := 0.8

Exponents in interaction expression (simply)


c NEd Uz := + z x NRd

[1] (6.63)

c zc My.Ed Mz.Ed + LT xLT My.Rd 0 Mz.Rd

Utilisation, lateral-torsional buckling Utilisation, flexural buckling

Uz = 1.24 Uy = 0.961

Comment: Uz = 1.24 means that the failure load at the test exceeded the characteristic strength with 24%

T Hglund

aluMATTER

2007-08-10