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#128,MAY 2007

ToolTest 10 6-in. Jointers
(r trt'cat Picks tlurt viu'r in size, price :rncl pon'er.

Cabinet 19 Display
Shou' of{-r'otrr prizccl collectibles.



Kitchen Stool
Hon'zr router can rrnrncl lees, r-otrncl ltrngs zurcl :r clishecl seat.

TipsFor 69 \r'c

Repairing Finishes
12 fixcs for common flan,s.

Turned Lidded Box

Learn the secret to making :r tiq'ht-fittine licl.

Sled 72Crosscut
Even a classic clesign can be ir-nplovecl.


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American \4bodworker

MAy 2oo7

O,uestion &Answer R v'
Choose a fence for your bandsaw, match 240-volt plugs to your big machines and remove a stuck Allen-head setscrew.

L4 Build WgJ!r,h"pT!,p,r ^r__r ___,_.__._, _r_,. a clamp rack,/outfeed support, add a drain hose
to your compressor, protect your chisels with leather sheaths, make a marking gauge and swinging turningtool rack, sharpen pencils on PSA paper, store glue upside down and keep glue offpipe clamps.

16Win 2007'sHottestTool
Well-Equipped Shop 92 r'-t

Send us your workshop tip and you could win a Festool Domino.

Wixey angle gauge, Freud plunge router, Festool Domino, Gizzly 14in. bandsaw and Lee Valley Scraper Shave.

shoo 30 llv I squeezed a large shop

into my small basement.


NEW!ToolNut Z9 - r

lWo readers share their passion for hand tools and vintage cast iron.

34 ToolTalk Outdoor Finishes

Which type is the most long-lasting?

Skills 82 BuildYour


ll tips for improving your machine's performance.


Tips for ApplyingTee Molding

This durable edging is perfect for shop f,rxtures and kid's furniture.



How not to glue 58 joints at the same time.

American Woodworker




Story? V/hat's)four
One the great things about working for a woodworking magazine is that I get to meet a lot of other woodworkers, both amateurs and professionals. It's fun to hear about their shops, their projects, or ajoinery technique they recently mastered. I met a woodworker from Montana at a recent trade show whose day job is surveying. On weekends he spends his time building furniture for his new home and for his grandkids. \Arhen I asked him about his shop he cracked a big grin and said, "I wish I could build more, but I've got a walk-out basement shop with a terrific view. One wall slides open like big double barn doors. The view of the mountains is so spectacular that sometimes I spend more time gazing than woodworkirg." So, what's been happening in your shop these days? Do you have a story that you'd like to share with other readers? If so, send it to us. We welcome submissions and suggestions for stories. For more information, see page 48. \Me're also collecting photos for our Reader's Showcase of projects that you've built. To send us your brag pictures, see page 48. And don't miss ourWorkshop Tips Tool Give Away on page 16. If we pick your tip as one of the best of the bunch, you'll receive a valuable new tool. Until next time.

EDITORIAL Editor Senior Editor RandyJohnson Tom Caspar

Editors Associate 3iT.JiffiL*"*

Tools and Procltrcts Editol Contributing Editors George Vondriska Brad Holden Seth Keller

Office Administlator ShellyJacobsen ART & DESIGN Art Director VernJohnson

Categon Presiclent/Publisher Roger Case AssociatePublisher/ National Sales Manager James Ford Derek W. Corson Vice Presiclent/Prodrtction ADVERTISING SALES 1285 Corporate Crnter Drire, Suite 180, Eagan, MN 55121 CHICAC'OJames Ford (219) 462-721I Classified Advertising, The McNeill Group, Inc. Classified Manager, Don Serfass (215) 321-9662, ext. 30 NEW TRACK MEDIA LLC StephenJ. Kent Clrief Executire Officer Mark F. Arnett President/CFO Vice Executive Vice Presiclent/ Publishing Director Joel P. Toner

RandyJohnson Editor

ISSN I074'9I52, Issrre #I28. Americatr \{bodrvorker'@, USPS 73&710 Published bimonthh', except monthlv October and November b,vA\4'Media LLC, 90 Sherman St., Cambridge, MA 02140. Periodicalspostagepaid at Boston, MA and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send change of addressnotice to Americau \{bodrrorkel@. Red Oak, IA 51591-l148. Subscriptiou rates: PO. Box 81.18, 55.99. Canada one-vear, U.S. one-r'e:rr, $24.9tt.Single-cop1l I . Foreign sttrface $29.98 (U.S. Funds); GST # Rl 2298861 one-\'ear, $29.98 (U.S. Funds). U.S. neNsstanddistribution bl ClrrrtisCirctrlation Companr', l,LC, New Milford, NJ 07646. In Canada: Postage paid at Gatervay,Mississauga,Ontario; CPM# 1447866.Send retttrns and addresschangesto American \4loodrvorker@,P.O. Box 8148, Red Oak, IA, USA Printed in USA. O 2007 Nerr Track Media LLC. 51591-1148. All righrs resen'ed. infonnatiott abottt vott rvith rep Anaiean l4bodunt*a'ma,t'share trtable companies in order for them to offer 1'ottprcdttcts and senices of interest to \ou. If you \\ottld mther $e not share infonnation. olease rvrite to ts at: American \4bodrrorker, Crstomer Senice Departmelrt, P.O. Box 8148, Red Oak, IA 51591. Pleroe include a copv ofvortr addresslabel. us that vortr magazine If the Post Office arlerts Subscribers: is undeliverable,rve have no further obligation unlessrve receivea corrected addressrrithin one vear.

Service Subscriber Woodworker American RedOak, lA 51591-11118, Dept.,PO.Box8148, (800) @amerie-mailA\&Wservice 66e3111, Articlelndex onlineat A fiveyearindexis available www.america Copiesof PastArticles Write for $3 each. Photocopies are available Center, Reprint Woodworker or call:American MN 55083-0695, PO.Box83695, Stillwater, 8 a, 5 p.m, CSI Mon. 1715],246-4521, Discover and Visa,MasterCard, throughFri. Express accepted. American Backlssues Orderfrom for $6 each. Someareavailable above. Center at the address the Reprint & Suggestions Comments 1285 Woodworker, Writeto us at American MN Eagan, Center Drive, Suite180, Corporate (651)454'9200' fax (651) 994-2250' 55121' e-mail aweditor@
6 American Woodworker MAY 2oo7

Ditenuna BandsawFence
t , >< l'd like to set up my bandsaw for making straight cuts. What kind of fence should I use?

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nvokinds:a sinYou'vegot a choicebetween gle-point fence and a long, straight fence. Here are their prosand cons.

fence is easy to make, set up and A single-point lt's the best accurate. use, but it's not particularly a smallnumberof boards. resawing for quickly choice
The surfaceyou get will be slightlywavy becauseyou'll be

freehand. steering fence is a blockof wood 3 or 4 All you needto makea single-point n o s ew i th the frontof the A l i g nth e b l o c k ' s on e c o rn e r. in. t all.Round to guideyourcut. Pivot teeth.Drawa linedown the workpiece blade's left or rightas you'recuttingto stay on the line.Some the workpiece that al so w ork atc c e ssori es f e n c e s h a v e s i n g l e -p o i n m anuf ac t ur ed fence. well. Theyare rodsthat bolt to a straight

fence is easy to set up for A single-point rough resawing.

A straight fence often takes more time to set up than a single-pointfence, but it's much more accurate. A straight fence is good for short, precisejoinery cuts, long rip cuts, resawinga largenumber of boardsand resawing a precise thickness. The surface 'you get will be much smoother than using a single-pointfence, assuming you use the correct blade and it's clean and sharp. Straightfences come in many forms. You can buy one from your saw's manufacturer, buy an aftermarketfence that adaptsto many

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A tall shop-madestraightfence works well for precisionresawing,such as making veneer.

is easier than with somefences saws,or makeyourown.Setup fencesmounton a guiderail,so tweaking others.Manufactured a tablethe cut is as simpleas nudging them left or rightto position to adjust. fencewithouta guiderailis harder saw'sfence.A shop-made Settingup for resawingwith a straightfence can be complicated for the blade you must compensate for bladedrift (thetendency because Blade drift is easyto see when you'reusing line). to wanderoff a straight you steerthe wood to stayon the fence.ln that situation, a single-point yields the straightest angle As you saw you'llfindthatone particular line. to the bandsaw out of parallel a few degrees cut.Thisdriftangleis usually you can't steer the wood when using a table'smiter slot. Obviously, (formore youset the fenceto matchthe driftangle fence.Instead, straight 2005,p. 65). A manufacturer'sstraight fence is easy to AW #118,November Fence," see "Bandsaw information, for joinery cuts. micro-adjust drift. for blade don'thaveto compensate Forshortcuts,you usually

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American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

WHv Do Pt-ucs Vnnv?

l'm confused by the variety of 240-volt \rt \r, plugs a n d o u tl e ts . D o e s i t m a tte r w hat t y pe I us e wit h my m a c h i n e s ?

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Sure does. Each type is designed for a different amp load. To protect your machine's motor, you must match the amp ratings of the motor, plug, outlet and circuit breaker. Most 240-volt woodworking machines designed for small shops run on 15,20 or 30-amp circuits. There's a unique plug and outlet configuration for each circuit. Amperage ratings are always printed or stamped on the plugs. If your machine already has a 240-volt plug on it, install the appropriate outlet in your wall and the same size breaker in your fuse box. If your machine doesn't come with a plug,consult the owner's manual and install the appropriate plug, outlet and breaker. Allowing too many amps to be delivered to a motor may damage or destroy it. You shouldn't plug a motor that's rated at 12 amps into a 30-amp circuit, for example. During a heaty cut, a motor calls for more amperage to maintain torque. A 15-amp circuit breaker would trip in time to protect the motor from overheating. A 30-amp circuit breaker wouldn't offer the same protection. It would continue to provide amperage well past the motor's rating heating, a motor's biggest enemy. and lead to excessive


Americar.r Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

in TSS issetting a new standard The new Laguna series TSS Table come complete Table series saw saws. Our American-made Baldor with10"or 12' blade capacities, features The TSS table motors, scoring. saw and optional table. a heavy-duty sliding foryour The new saw digital display provides precision positioning 0fyour repeatable rip fence, accuracy allowing tothe thousandth ofaninch,



with fiveindependently Fully indexed +/- to45degrees - exceptional positive ineither direction adjustable stops your with Laguna forrepeatability, For existing use fence, aluminum cut-off *.0ptional Accessories


l'J t\f/A:T*m rc - 92614 - lrvine- California 17101 Murphy Avenue


CATNT. T|3. l}vlt.

CTRTC} FL/t{trFAhl

(m T,ffi * C(m h/a 4.1200 800.234.1 976 - s49.47

CircleNo. 20


STnTPPED-Our Allrru Heen

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on a setscrew?
Fot'tttnatell', there is a sinple solution to this aggravatine probler-n.Pttt a little 5-rninute epoxv olt l"& k the end of an Allen wrench anclset it in the stripped out hole. Let the epoxy cul-e over night, so it's goocl ancl hard, then turn the screw out as yolr ltorrnall,v rvoulcl. Yott catr toss tl-re ftrsed nut like torch lne, to rvrench and chezrp a blorvThe
If you have a qnestion you'd like answered, send it to us at Question & Answer, Arnerican Woodworker, 1285 Corporate Center Drive, Suite 180, Eagan, MN 55121 or e-mail to Sorry',but the volume of rnail prevenls us from ansrvering each question individually.


or, if you're take tl-re nut.

l-reat will soften the epox,v and release the dar-naged l')ut, leavir-rg,vounvreuch readv fbr ttse.



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Double DutyClamp Rack

One sure thing about clamPs is that they're never close enough when you need them. That's whY I devised this rolling rack. Is 4in. locking swivel casters easily plow through sawdust and over cracks and power cords (see Source, righ$. To make this rack doubly useful, I designed it to work as atl

Its oufeed support for my tablesaw. 2x6 top inclines at a Sdegree angle so it's top edge matches my tableheight. saw's I made the rack from 2x4s,a2x6 and 5/&in. electrical conduit. Drill \\llGin. holes for the conduit in the doubled-up 2x4 rails, spaced to suit your clamp lengths. Thln cut

the conduit in 18-in. to 24-,in lengths as needed and install them. To keep the clamps from sliding ofl cap the conduit support arms with rubber chair leg capsfrom the hardware store Brian Rniapski source
com, (800) 52347 77 www. grizzly. Grizzly, H0684 4l' swivel lockingcaster,$7.50 each

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Tipg Workehop
Tool Givehwdy!
NewTool Wltt 2007'sHorrEST

Sendus your best original workshoptips:

time Tipsthatsavemoney, Tipsforgluing, or space. andassembling. clamping machinTipsfor measuring, Lookaround ingor finishing. yourshop:Sendus every tip your you havethatmakes successful woodworking andfun.
16 American Woodworker MAY 2oo7

The editors of American Woodworker will choosetheir six favoritetips.The submitters of the top three tips will each receive a completeFestoolDomino package including both accessory stops and a Systainertull of Domino tenons-a $990 value! For complete informationabout the Festool Domino visit theirchoice threefavoritetips will each receive of the remaining The submitters Router ($405value),a FestoolCl2 Cordless Drill ($3SO of a FestoolOF14OOEQ value) or a Festool CT Midi Dust Extractor ($330 value). All other tips that are pubwill earn the submitter$100. Tips department lishedin our Workshop or to youroriginaltips withphotos To enter: E-mail Drive 1285 Corporate Magazine, Woodworker American TipsTool Giveaway, mailthemto Workshop will . Winners byJuly31, 2OO7 mustbe received 21. Submissions MN551 Suite180.Eagan, Center, be retumed cannot Submissions Woodworker. ofAmerican 2007issue in theOctober be announced andpayment. uponacceptance ourproperty andbecome


Lgannrn Toor- SHeanHs

When I'm not using my chisels I keep them in a drawer, so I made a set of leather sheaths to protect their sharp ends. I bought the leather and some rivets from a hobby shop and made sheaths for all my chisels in about an hour. To make your own sheaths, cut leather strips tr,vice the length of the finished sheath, and aboutS/4" wider than the chisel's blade. Fold the leather strip in half lengthwise and punch holes for the rivets with an awl. Split rivets are the simplest to install because all you need is a hammer and a piece of steel-I used the edge of my vise.

Michael DromE

C o M P R E S S o RD n a l n r
Crouching to operate my compressor's drain valve was no big deal until my football-ravaged knees started acting up. To keep from grimacing in the sawdust, I devised a more civilized way to clear the tank. I replaced the drain valve with a 90-degree elbow a200psi-rated reinforced hose and a ball valve. Barb fittings on the elbow and ball valve and clamps on the hose keep everything air tight. I chose a ball valve instead of arr air nozzle so no one would mistake my new drain hose for a regular air hose. Richard Fenwick

3O-MTwUTE M a n K t N GG n u c e
Make this handy little gem for less than $5. You'll need one piece of hardwood for the beam and another for the fence. You'll also need two l/4-20 threaded inserts and a thumbscrew. Drill a hole through the fence for the thumbscrew,l-\/2-in. from one end. Then rip the fence into nvo pieces. Cut a dado for the beam in the center of the top piece. Enlarge the drilled hole in the bottom piece and install one threaded insert. Glue the pieces back together and bandsaw a kerf up to the beam opening. Install the other threaded insert in the beam, Z/4lin. from the end. The pencil threads into this insert, so it really stays put. on the beam's other end, I installed a hardened screw after grinding

the point sharp, to use for scribing.

Rich Scud,no

American Woodworker

MAy 2oo7


A R r n i - S w r N G t N 'T o o t - R n c r c
I trt, to use everv square inch of'sllace itr tnv shctlt,s<tI trlttcle2rstorortt u'hetr I neerl it. \{'l'rerl I'nr for rny'ttrming tools th:rt su,it-tgs aqe r-:rck strzip of the \t'al'.T\t'o i-r-il-r. courpleteh'()tlI clone ttrnring, it stinqs back, of'plnvoocl x piece x S-in. 24-in. 3/4-ir. lrirrges nroultt tl-re r"ack tc>a that's screu,eclto the rvall. Plastic shields ou the fi-ont :urcl siclesgtrzrrcl thetn easvto iclerltif\'.Tlte rtl,hancls ancl protect the tools u,hile leavir-rg bottom is open, so u'oocl shaviuss firll right throttqh. llhlt lheretl

Nrvrn A Dull Prrucu

Precise tnarks Are olte k",u to 2lccurate ctlts. Ratlrer tlran tnotttttitrg shzrrpeuers all pencil arotrncl the shop, I .iust stick 120-grit PSA-backed sandpaper rvherever I need a sharp pencil; at ends of tny rvorkbench, right next to ltlY ol1 top of ul' rniter 5214r, both rip feuce, etc. tzrblesan"s 'I-ltad Bol,den






G luE
I hate waiting for the glue to get to the tip of the bottle, when especially it's almost

empty. So I store my glue bottle upside down in a plastic peanut butter jar. The glue is always ready to flow and the tip never gets plugged with dried glue. Frank Penicka

GIuE-FREE Clnvps
Dried glue used to make my pipe clamps hard to handle and use. Now I give the pipes a light coat of paste wax from time to time. The wax makes dried glue pop right off. The bottom jaw slides more easily, too. Mandt Houston

\ b'll giveyou $1OO and a grcat-lookirg shirt foryour UOrkdrcpTip!

Plus, your tip will automatically be entered in our Wor*shop Tips Tool Giveauuay
(see page 16 for details). Send your original tip to us with a sketch or photo. If we print it, you'll be woodworking in sryle. F-mail your tip to workrfioptips@americamvoodworker.comor send it to Workshop Tips, Arnerican Woodworker, I 285 Corporate Center Drive, Suite 180, Eagan, MN 55f 21. Submissionscan't be returned and become our property upon acceptance and payrnent. We may edit submissions and use them in all print and electronic media.
One shirt per contributer, offer good only while supplies last,


American Woodrvorker

MAY 2oo7


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hat woodworker hasn't lamented over the protractors on table sawsand miter saws?If you've been disappointed, Wixey can make your life a lot easier with its Digital Angle Gauge, $40. It takes the guesswork out of setting a blade to a precise angle. Using the Angle Gauge is easy.Tlrrn it on, set it on the table, and push the Zero button. Then, using the magnets in the base of the Angle Gauge, stick the gauge ro rhe saw blade. As you angle the blade the gauge will provide a continuous readout of where you are within one tenth of a degree. The magnets don'r need to stick to the table surface, only the blade. So the Angle Gauge can be zeroed on cast iron, aluminum, or any other horizontal surface' The table saw was the first application that sprang into my mind, but the Angle Gauge also works great on miter salvs,jointers, even bandsaws. It's a great way to make sure you've got the correct angle on lots of tools.


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Sources 1) Wixey,, , R 3 0 0 ,$ 4 0 . W i x e yA n g l eG a u g e W (800)225-1 153, 2) Woodcraft, WixeYDigital, , 4O. A n g l eG a u g e # , 1 4 7 2 8 1$

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Amelican \Abodn'orkcr

MAY 2oo7



Inrzrgine a spokeshzrve that lrevef te2rrs ()ut the grain, r'ro rnzltter l'hich clirection vc)u go, and vou have the essellce of'this \\ronthe \/elitas Scr-aper-Shave ($;S;. der-firl nel'tool,

The Scrnper Shave is a strzrisht-hancllecl spokeshave eqtrippecl

l'ith a scr2rperblacle. As rvith all sclapels, the cuttins edge attzrcks the u'oocl at 2r verv high :rnqle in order t() prevent teiu'out. Yrrrr can nurkc rr continrrotrs crrt the entire lcngtlr of' :r ctrn'ecl sur-ftrce rvithorrt having to \\'()l'fv l r l > o r rg t t ' t t i nc l i l t ' tt i o r t . ancl This tvpe of tool hzrszrlonrr venerable historr'.

Befirle the nrirchine erA, chainlaker-s rnacle their orvr-r scf:rper shzn'esu,ith a r':rr-ietv of' flat, c()llvex zrncl conczn'e lroltortts. .\rrtiqrre al'tis:rnnrurclescr-zrper shaves :rre clifflt'rrlt to flncl, horvcvcr. Vl:rsspr'oclrrcecl scl-zrper sh:n'es, srrc'h :rs the Stanlcr' 62, arre ver-\' l-ill-e. llv set of artisantnzrcleshaves. rvlrich t<tok :r long tirne to assenrble,is zrn e s s e n t i a lp a r t o f ' n ) \ ' t ( ) ( ) l k i t . I't,e :rlso r-nade lll\' ()\\rl-t scraper shaves, btrt l)()\v th:rt's rro knger necessar\r. This is a be:rutiftrllv nraclc tool. I firtrncl its straisht lritncllcs ln()re cornfbrtable t<l prrll than prrsh. Its blzrss bottorn, rvhicl-ris flat, rvotrlcl be ezrsv to file or grind irrt<l zr slieht collcave or coltvex s l ' r a p et o i r n p r o v e t h e t o o l ' s efl-ectiveness()n crrrvecl srrrf h c e s . U n l i k e n r ( ) s ts c f a p e l ' s , tl-re blacle is ven' har-cl, so i t c a n n o t b e s l - r a r p e n e cl l' i t h a file. You rnust use st()ltcs or s:rnclpaper. Source
L e e V a l l e y ,( 8 0 0 ) 8 7 1 - 8 1 5 8 , w w w l e e v a i l e y . c o n V e r i t a sS c r a p e . S h a v e , # 0 5 P 3 3 . 7 0 ,$ 5 9

Super Souped I-JpBanclsaw

Grizzly has added some muscle to one of their bestselling 14in. bandsaws and come up with the new model G0555X machine, $595. I like the large motor (7-1/Z-hp, 15-amp), I like the built-in light, I like the tall resaw fence, but what I like most is the large table. At 14in. x20-l/2-in. this is one of the largest tables you'll find on a lLin. saw. It's nice to have plenty of real estate to the right and left of the blade.

Grizzly accomplished such a large table by making it in rwo pieces. A 5-in. extension on the left side of the table is fastened to the bottom half of the saw. So, when you tilt the table, the extension remains in place and only the main table tilts. Otherwise, you have the clearance to tilt the table all the way to 45-degrees. This is a clever idea that I've only seen on one other 14in. bandsaw. The G0555X uses ball bearing blade guides above wouldn't and below the table. Ball bearing guides are especially handy when using wjde resaw blades. The saw accepts blades from 92-l/2long, and in. to 93-l/2-in I/8 to 3/4\n. wide. A riser block, which increases the thickness capacity from 6 in. to 12 in. is available, $57.95. Adding the riser block increases the blade's length to 105 in.

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Put upinsulotion &uphokter furniture wtth 4 sizu Stoplu ofFlotCrown

Instollwue 4sizu &cohlewtth ofRound Crown Stoplu

Repoir odrower orbu,iM o picturefromewth noil o 518"



yords lunfu hillaws vlwvsfrm tooh are tdd, Availahh stlniln cntm, snd stws,

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(U.K) Kinsdom: Arrow Fastener ttd., 5ZK Par[ 23 Commerce *r;*t#:lfll.f*J,:il:l United Unit

lnc., 271 Mayhill Brook, New 0/663 Arrow Fastener Co., Street, Saddle Jersey Inc., Metropolitan Blvd. East Montreal, H1P 1X9 Canada: Distributors, 6505 Quebec fardel

Source (8o0J Grizzlv lndustrial, 523-4777, www. G0555X bandsaw $595.6-in.riserblock.H3051$57.95


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American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

Festool l-rasir-rtrodtrced a trtrlr, nerr .jclinen' nrachir-re callecl the Dornino. It looks and handles like a bisctrit-joiuer, but the D<ltniu<r uses alt oscillatine cutter to rnake oval-shaped urortises. A Dot-r'rirto tel-lon fits preciselv iuto these tnortises to -join parts together. Optional attachments - fbr centerir-rgthe Domino olt uzrrrort'fhcefi-an-re stock, ar-rdfor nrakir-rgequallv spaced tnortises zrlotrq the eclge of a lor-rg boarcl - tnake tl-resetasks easv attd acctrrate. It evell ctlts For those of votr farniliar l'ith Festool's qtralitv engiangled.joir-rts. neering - ),otr \\'on't be clisappointed. Usinq the Don-rino is like clrii' ing a fine Ger-nralt car.
Source F e s t o o l(,8 8 8 ) 3 3 7 - 8 6 0 0w , py rice) Domino J o i n e rD , F 5 0 0 O , $ 6 6 0( i n t r o d u c t o r

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Typically, it's difficult to nse a plunge router in a router table. That's because vou often need to remove the rotrter from the table in order to change bits. Setting the bit's height requires fighting the plunge springs rvhile pushing the motor to the correct bit depth. Freud's nerv l5-amp FT3000VCE plunge router, $290, is a back-saving machine that allorvs )'ou to make all your adjustments from above the table, from bit changes to height adjustments. Yes, other rolrters offer above-the-table adjr"rstments, br-rt rnost are smaller, 12-arnp machines. In addition to its easy above-the-table Llse, the FT3000 has a micro-adjust dial tl-rat makes it easl' to fine tune bit depth in 1/ 128-in.incrernents.This machine has variable speed (8,000-21,000 rpm) ar-rd, like mall)/ variable speed roltters, soft start auc electronic speed control. Variable speed is especially important rvhen )/ou use laree diarleter bits in a rotrter table. It comes n'ith both l/4-in. and I /2-in. collets, and a dust port for l-rar-rdheld routir-rs. The height adjustment knob required for rnakins adjustrnents fror-n above the table is included rvith the rnachine.

Source (800) FreudTools, 334-41 07, r o u t e rF , T 3 0 0 0 V C,E 15-amp $290.

\\irocllolkcl MAY 2oo7 29

Rhode IslandSizedFlaven
When I saw the "Texas-Sized Hideaway" in the November 2006 issue, I knew that I had to write about my "Rhode Island-Sized Haven" (even though I live in Western NewYork!). I can only dream about a big shop, but I love my basement workspace. 5

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When I set up my shop I had to work around a metal support post, the washer and dryer and other typical basement obstacles, so I used graph paper and scale cutouts of my machines to get everything to fit and only The function effectively. machines that I have to roll into
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place to use are the drum sander and my router table, which stores under my tablesaw. My tablesaw has internal casters, so it's easy to reposition when I have to cut large pieces. I made most of the blast gates for my dust-collection system. My cabinetmaker's bench, modeled after Tage Frid's design, is my pride andjoy. I started to build it 25

F U E.

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American W<rodworker

MAY 2oo7

years ago, but quickly realized that I had neither the skills nor the equipment to complete it. Then, after my skills improved, I didn't want to use my limited shop time to work on a workbench. I finally finished it last winter and now I wish I had done it years ago! As much as I love power tools, there is something very relaxing about hand-planing a nice board.

Tell us abvtyour

a disc to My Shop, American Woodworker, 1285 Corporate Genter Drive, Suite 18O Eagan, MN 55121. Please include your phone number. Submissions cannot be returned and become our property on acceptance and payment.We may edit submissions and use them in all print and electronic media.

Send us photos of your shop, a layout on graph paper and a description of what makes your shop interesting, what you make in it and what makes your shop important to you. lf My Shop features yourshop, you'll receive $100. E-mail your entry to myshop@americanwoodwod< with digital photos attached. Or mail your description with prints or digital photos on

American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7


CircleNo. 175

TooLS Oun RTnDERS Lovr


My wife always steers me away from hardware stores. Despite her best efforts, whenever I see a new hand tool or whacky gizmo I always find a way to get it home. My doctor says I have Nada-need it-gotta-getit syndrome. My shop is filledwith hundredsof tools that I don't use every day, but they sure do look good displayedwith custom-made holders. Each tool thinks it's the centerof attention. When I bringa new tool home, I loveto figure out just the right placefor it. Not just any place will do. lt's the new kid on the blockand needs specialattention.That is, it's specialuntil next week when anothernew kid moves in. hear my tools whisSome days I can actually peringto me, "Use me, pick me up, it's been too long." I like to be needed,even if only by a crescentwrench. You know, listeningto tools makes me think I better get back to the doctor's office. Maybe I have a bigger problem than Nada-needit-gotta-getit. Much bigger! Phil Bailey

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Casr InoruRulgs !
This 1,700-lb. beastis a circa1910 New Britain chainmortiser. It uses a cutter similarto a chainsawbar and chainto cut big or littlemortisesin one pass. My largestcutter is 1/2-in. thick,3-in. wide and can cut a 6-112-in. deep mortise. The smallest cutter I have is 114-in. thick, 1-1l4-in. wide and can cut a 4-in.deep mortise. The table can be moved side-to-sideto make a mortise wider and tilted for angledwork. There'san incredible set of belts and pulleysthat operatethis was originally designedto be powered by a largeflat belt via an overheadline shaft,but an electricmotor was added years later. I just love vintage cast iron and my crowded shop shows it. I just boughta circa 1920 Whitney#110 single-spindle shaperto add to the five other shapers I own, but l'm perplexed about how to rearrangemy shop to make room for it. Hmm... didn't I see an old cast iron lathefor sale somewhere? Maybe I shouldsell one of those shapers. Anyone interested? Kirk Fox

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Well payyou $150 to share your favorite tools, new or old, with fellow readers. Contact us by email at, or mail us atAmerican Woodworkef 1285 Corporate Center Drive, Suite 180, Eagan, MN 55121. Please include digital photos of your tool if possible.

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32 American Woodworker MAY 2oo7

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u t ( l o ( ) f f l n i s h c s h : n ' c 'o r r t ' t l r i r r c 'i r r c o r r r n r o n : O{'thr: thr-ee cleirr-r-xtc'r'iol finishes. exter-ior oil t h e r ' : t l l r c c l t r i r - er r l r i n l t ' r r : u r c t ' . ( ) 1 ' c ' o r r l s r ' . i s b v I a l t h c ' s i r r r l t l e s t frnish to:r1t1tlr..frrs 1t1 o n . i to r r . t l'r t ' u ' o o c l I c t i t s < x r k i r r a r r c l u ' i p e o f l ' t h c c ' x c c s s . L ' r r f i r l t u n : r t e l r ' , P u i n t i s r r r r e q t r : r l t ' r:lr t l ) l ' ( ) t ( ' ( ' l i r r g
f i ' o n ' t i t s t n ' o b i q ' g e s t t ' r r t ' r r r i t ' s :r n o i s t r r l t ' a n c l r r l t r ' : ui o let (L'\r) lielit. \loistul'(' ('lrus('s tlrc l'oorl to l'()1l .u r ( l s t u i l i g h t b l c ' l r c h c ' so r r l i t s n : r t r r l t r l c ' o l o r ' . S t i l l . u ' l t < r \\'2lnts t ( ) c ( ) \ ' e r - u 1 lt r c t r r r t i l r r lr r o o t l r r i ( l r 1 t : r i r r t iI { ' r ' o r r t':rtrt the rr'oocl t<l slrorr llr rorrqlr ()r] \'otrr outclrlot' p r o j e c t s , r ' o u t ' t c c ' ca l clt'rrr llrrislr. f'hele Iitrtritulc: ep()xv ztt'cthlt't' birsir r lcur flrrisltcs Iirr' orrtcloor' cxter-iol oil. r'rtclior n'itlr :u) r'xtt'r'iol vltlrrislr. :rrrcl ull var-rrish t()l)c()at. scalcl oil ofl'cls thc o1' l)l-otc('tiorr ancl it r t t t r s t l r e r - e a p l t l i c c l ( ' \ c l - \ s e a s ( ) l ) .F - r t e r i o r - r l r n t i s h . lt':rst iunollnt

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o n t l r c o t h c ' r ' h u r r < I .i s r n o r - r ' c l i f f i c r r l tt o a p p l r . : u l ) 1 ( ) 8 r ' o a l s h : n ' e t o l > e c ' u r - e f u l l vb n r s h c ' c l o n . \ \ ' l r i l c c ' \ t e rior vur-nish oficls cxccllent trrlc urrcl t'\'light. 1 t r - o t e c ' t i o nf l ' o u r n t o i s it hirs to lre'r'ccouleclerclr f-en


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An exterior oilfinish is definitelythe simplest,quickest way to treat an outdoor project.On the downside, it will only give you about a year of protection from the ravages o f o u t d o o rl i f e . O i l f i n i s h e sd o n ' t providea protectivefilm that sits on top of the wood l i k e v a r n i s hd o e s . I n s t e a do i l s o a k s i n t o t h e w o o d fibers and dries. Exterioroils have added trans-oxide pigments for UV protectionand mildewcidesto prot e c t a g a i n s tm o l d a n d m i l d e w .Y o u ' l lf i n d c o l o r sr a n g ing from dark brown to light amber. is simple:a gardensprayerand a rag are Application all you need. First,flood the surfaceof your project hand pump garden with oil. I use an inexpensive sprayer.lts fast, easy and only costs about $8.00. Let directhe oil soak in accordingto the manufacturer's on it. Done! Depending it That's wipe off. tions, then you'll have to reapplyabout once per localconditions, year.The built-inUV protectionshould keep your wood lookingnaturalfor many years (as long as you keepup with the applications).

(bothfinishes are technivarnish Exterior or urethane "varnishes") protective layer over the a builds cally protection over and durability offerssuperior " S par" i s found i n the Often, the term an oi lfi ni sh. or speanyadditional name,but this doesnot indicate "Spar" with originates its Theterm cialingredient. All ships. for the spars on sailing useas a coating protect against to varnishes areformulated exterior moisture and UV radiation. brush with a natural bristle is applied Exterior varnish recommend eight in multiple coats.Manufacturers protection anda deeplusthincoatsfor maximum l i ghtl y varni sh the hardened trous fi ni sh. S and betweeneachcoat. filmthanordivarnishes cureto a moreflexible Exterior to crack coatis not as likely Theflexible naryvarnish. by humidity wood movement caused from seasonal environment. in an outdoor extremes last 2-3yearsbeforeit will usually varnish Exterior As soonas you see a chalky startsto lookchalky. the it'stime to freshen film startto develop, and smooth, fi ni sh. S i mpl y sandthe topcoat D on' tput thi s a new coatof varni sh. appl y stepoff too longor maintenance important moisin the finishallowing will develop cracks the wood. anddegrade tureto penetrate
That will necessitatea complete strip and refinishto restore the furniture.You don't want to go there.

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American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

flow an areabeforethe epoxysets.Also,for optimal out and penetration intothe wood fibers,makesure you usedoesn't the epoxy anythickeners. contain Alwaysreadand followthe instructions that come with your epoxy.lf possible, applythe epoxyundercoatpriorto assembling the parts. Youcan recoat withoutsanding whilethe previous coatis stillsoft but not sticky.lf the epoxyseemsuneven or bumpy, Then,sandit smoothandapply allowit to harden. the next coat. the varnishtopcoats,I use a card Beforeapplying :' ". sanding blockwith100- 120grit sandpaper or" , Fcfaper yarnish An epoxy sealerwith exterior topcoats is the to levelthe curedeljoxy (seephoto below left).The ,,,,,,most durable, finish but alsothe most labor-intensive sanded alsoprovides sometooth for the spar surface you canapplyto outdoor furniture. Thisis the finish to adhere to. ,,, varnish , ' . . : ;. . favoredby boatbuilders so you know it's goingto ",,,.,.1;.; ' th$ sandedepoxywith cleanwater and dry ': lasta longtime. Epoxy and exterior varnish enjoya ' ;6thoo Withpapertowels.The rinsewatershouldnot bead symbiotic relationship: The epoxyformsan impene'',, eo.-th,surfaee. Beading indicates that contaminants trablemoisture barrier that prevents seasonal process curing are stillon the surepoxy ",.from'the swelling and shrinking of the wood.Thisdimensional with the varnishbond.To facg'andopuldinterfere stability in turn giveslonger lifeto the exterior varnish remoVe wipe down with mineral the:contaminants, 1,,1' because it no longer hasto stretch with andshrink spirits and dry with paper towelsor a rag.Follow this the wood The exterior var.nish returns the favorby :., ffi$Sfgtit.Uoatsof exterior varnish, sanding lightly providing withoutwhichthe epoxy UV protection, l' t6t*een coats. wouldrapidly deteriorate. ,
."' ], ^rL^ ^:r,n^^^r:-^:-^r:^^a^^ rL^a ^^-^r^-^-:
: : . t - - - . r - , 2 ' - . -

Applythreethin coatsof epoxy. The bestway to get thin,evencoatsis to usea foam rollercut in works kindof likea squeegee. Epoxycuretimes vary depending on theirformulation andthe ambient temperature. Be sureto usean epoxywith a longenoug$* opentime (approximately 30 minutes), so it doesn't1irii;i$ ' ra-t'. r: ' you'redoneputting proj-' set up before it on. Forlarge ects,mix the epoxyin smallbatches so you canfinish

Sand out any unevenness and defectsin the cured epoxy before applying the exterior varnish topcoats.

Sources (866)3 Epoxyheads, #7710 $33.00/qt, pump set #7801$1, Finish, $15/qt. www.homedeoot. model 1002$8. or urethane.


# 7 7 2 0$ 1 7 11 1 2 O r i g i n aB l lue

American Woodworker

40 American Woodworker MAy 2oo7

Great machines for 12Ov shops

Dy TimJohnson


ame two of woodmost

basic tasks and you'll see why a jointer is a shop essential. No other tool can level a board's surface or square its edge as quickly or accurately. Whether you want to process rough lumber, perfectly edge-glue boards or precisely make tiny adjustments in width for a custom fit, a jointer does the job better than any other machine. Our recommendation has always been to buy the biggestjointer your shop will allow, but most 8-in. jointers require 240-volt circuits. Smaller Gin. jointers run on 120 volts. They also cost less and require less space. The market is loaded with Gin. jointers that vary widely in size, design and price. That means choosing the right one can be confusing, especially when jointers that appear to be identical are priced hundreds of dollars apart. To define the differences and learn which features are most important,
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Althoughtheir exact l engths may slightly vary, jointers most6-in. fit into groups: one of three S tandard bed (46-i n.),
long bed (56-in.) and As extra-longbed (66-in.).



we tested seventeen machines, a representative sample of currently available Gin. jointers. (see Chart, page 46)

a rule of thumb, it's difficult to joint a boardthat's longerthan a machine'sbed. That means you can joint 4-ft. boards on a standardjointer, 5-ft. boards on a long jointer and 6-ft. boards on an extra-longjointer.

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yourjointer lf you'replanning against a wall,conto place how much it will require. sider space Some fence mechanismsneedmoreroom. Mechanisms that simplyslidethe fenceacross the table are the most compact(left).Rack-and-pinion style mechanisms(right) extendmuchfarther behind the machine. Other factors suchas protruding adjustment wheelsor a wide base canalsoaffecta jointer's overall width.

American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7


Srvrple FENCE


TABLE ADJUSTMENTS Easv machines were our favorites (see "Benefits of a Two lever-operated leverfound Bed," page 43). We also likedthe dual-action Parallelogram on the Powermatic54A. The remainingmachineswere equippedwith leversor wheels. We preferlargewheels:They'rebest for conventional easwheels are marginally Front-mounted makingpreciseadjustments. ier to operate,but their handlesstick out and can get in the way. We prefer depth-of-cut scales that directly face the operator. On most machinesthe scales are somewhat hard to read becausethey slope away from the operator.You have to stoop down and bend sideways to read them.

Fence mechanisms allow you to tilt the For lateraladjustfence and adjust it laterally. ments, we prefer sliding mechanisms. Just releasethe lock handleand pull or push. Rackmechanismsmove the fence more and-pinion precisely, which makes them great for rabbeting, but this precisionisn't essentialfor general jointing. Every fence-tiltingmechanism is equipped with adjustable stops at 90- and 4S-degrees. Some feature flip-up stops, others use an indexed pin. We recommend keeping your squarehandywhen you tilt the fence; none of the mechanismson our test machineswould consistently return the fence to 9O-degrees after we tilted it to joint a bevel.

Disposableknives make knife changes super-easy. They're indexedon the cutterhead so you don't have to go through the tedious process of adjustingtheir height-you can changeall three knivesin about ten minutes,compared to a half hour or more with standardknives. Each knife has two sharpened edges, so when one

Disposable knives are standard edgegets dull,you just turn it around. 54Aandavailable andthe Powermatic equipment on the Jet JJ-6CSDX jointers. on other6-in. as additional-cost accessories

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Half of the jointers we tested are equipped with fences taller than 4 inches. These tall fences offer better support when you wide boards. edge-joint

INNOVATIVE FENCE on The fence mechanism the Rikon 20-110 offers both precise control

and compact size. This hybrid design combines slidingand rack-and-pinion adjustmentsto move the fence laterally. The fencetilting mechanism also ooerates with rack-andp i n i o np r e c i s i o n .


American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

U s r R - F R T E N D Ls Y wrrcH BoxES
W e l i k e t h e c o n v e n i e n c eo f p o s t - m o u n t e d switch boxes, as long as the box is offset far e n o u g hb e h i n d t h e f e n c e .O n s o m e m a c h i n e st,h e box sits so closeit can get in the way. The Rikon 2 0 - 1 1 0 ' ss w i t c h b o x c a n b e m o u n t e d b e h i n d t h e i n f e e do r o u t f e e dt a b l e .W e a l s o l i k e l a r g ep a d d l e style OFF switches. Some boxes are equipped with a built-in crrcuit breaker a n d r e s e tb u t t o n .

Carbide Cutterheads
Segmented carbide cutterheads factory-installed are now available or as an additional-cost accessory 1
on several 6-in. jointers. These cutterheadscontainindividual car-


bide cutters indexed in a spiral or chevron pattern. Segmented carbide cutterheadsproduce supersmooth surfaces and are noticeablyless noisy than straight-knife cutterheads.They also reduce tearout. Carbidecutters stay sharp m u c h l o n g e rt h a n h i g h - s p e e d k n i v e sa n d t h e y ' l ls t a n du p s t e e l( H S S ) to manufactured materials, such as plywood,particleboard and plastic laminate. Bladechangesare easy becauseeach carbidesegment has 4 sharp edges. However,carbidecutterheadsare an expensiveupgrade,adding nearly$300 to the cost. They also requirea much slower feed rate for face-jointing wide boards-up to three times longer on a typical 1 - h p .m a c h i n e . We experienced a s i m i l a rp o w e r d r a i nw i t h c a r b i d e cutterheadsin 8-in. jointers (see CarbideCutterheads for Jointers, A W # 1 1 6 ,S e p t . 2 0 0 5 ) . lf you primarilyuse your 6-in. jointer for edge jointing,a carbide cutterhead's durability and versatility may make the upgradeworthw h i l e . S t r a i g h t c a r b i d e k n i v e s ( $ 7 5 - $ 1 5 0 )a r e a n o t h e r o p t i o n . Carbideknivesallow jointing manufacturedmaterials, and because they mount in a traditional cutterhead,there's no significantreduction in feed rate. However,they won't leavesurfacesas smooth or

.JorNTERs Sr:rr,rE cut- FASTER

T o t e s t e a c hm a c h i n e , we timed how long it took to joint the 2-in.-wide edges and 5-112i n . - w i d e f a c e s o f 2 4 - i n . - l o n gw h i t e o a k b o a r d s .W e m a d e m u l t i p l ep a s s e s ,f e e d i n g e a c h b o a r da t a f a s t b u t r e a s o n a b l e r a t e ,o n e that produced a g o o d f i n i s hw i t h o u t b o g g i n g down the motor. After making numerous cutsat both 1/'16-in . e e po n e a c h a.n d 1 / B - i nd machine, w e c o m p u t e dt h e a v e r a g e times. perW h e n w e j o i n t e de d g e s ,a l l m a c h i n e s formed equally. B u t w h e n w e j o i n t e df a c e s , w e n o t e dd i f f e r e n c e sM . achines with motors of equal-rated h o r s e p o w e rd i d n o t d e l i v e r e q u a lr e s u l t s .O n s o m e m a c h i n e s d , eepfullwidth cuts slowed feed rates by more than 50 percent. T h e r e s u l t sa r e I i s t e di n t h e c h a r t o n p a g e4 6 .

reducetearout as much as a spiralcutterheaddoes.

BenefiB of a Parallelogram Bed

We were impressed with the two parallelogram bed jointers we tested. In a p a r a l l e l o g r a mj o i n t e r , each table is supported by four eccentric cams. The eccentric cams make it easy to adjustthe tablesto be co-planarduring set-up (photo,right).Just remove the fence and rotate the cam to raise or lower each cornerof the table.On other jointers,the tables are supported by gibs and dovetailedways. Another notableadvantageof parallelogram designis one you'll appreciate every time you adjustthe infeedtable. lt feels as light as a feather! The leverson these two parjointersmove the table easilyand preallelogram cisely.They were clearlythe best infeed table adjustment systems in the test.

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Arrrt'r-icarr \\irorlrr'olkcl

MAY 2ooT


Every Gin. jointer we tested delivered smooth surfaces, but we found noteworthy differences. For example, some machines power though deep cuts, others labor. Some machines operate more smoothly than others. Some machines contain user-friendly features that go beyond bed length and fence design. Everywoodworker has different priorities, so we won't recommend onejointer as the very best. Instead,we've grouped the jointers into different categories. To make your pick, select the category that most closely suits your needs. Be aware that street prices can vary from the suggested retail prices we list, so shop around. Also, be sure to include shipping costs (usually about $100) when you consider mail order and internet prices.

If the ability to joint long boards tops your list, consider the Powermatic 54A and the Steel City 40615. Both are equipped with extra-long tables and 5-yr warranties. If you're willing to step down one size in table length, the Grizzly G0604X, Jetlf-6CXDS and General-International 80-100L deserve a look. Pros:Our test machine operatedwith virtually no vibration and it easily powered through every full-width cut. lts cutterheadrotatesat 6000 rpm-the fastest in the test-and its l-hp. motor has enough power to drive it without bogging down. Diswith userh a s a s l i d i n gf e n c em e c h a n i s m posable k n i v e sa r e s t a n d a r d . T h im s achine friendly controls and a cool dual-actioninfeedtable lever:Raiseand lower to make twist its handleto make fine adjustments. coarseadjustments, scaleis somewhat hard to read. Cons:The angled depth-of-cut (800) Inc., 214-6848, Group, Source WMHTool Pros:This jointer has an extra-longinfeed table to provide more support for long, controls,a large diameunevenstock,a sliding fence mechanismwith user-friendly motor and built-incasters. a 1-112-hp. ter wheel for preciseinfeedtable adjustments, Its depth-of-cutscalefaces the operator,so it's easy to read.We like the post mountOFFswitch and built-incircuit breaker. ed switch box, its paddle-style with lockingand unlockingthe infeedtable.The Cons:Theswitch box post interferes base sticksout too far in front of the machine. (8771 724-8665, Works, CitvTool Source Steel

1 \*il"-

PowenMATrc 54A . $899

Sruel Ctrv 4061 5 r $699

If you plan to face-joint wide boards, you need a machine that does the job without bogging the motor. In our tests, the standard-bed Craftsman 21705, the long-bedJetlf-6CSDX and the extra-long-bed Powermatic 54A made the fastest full-width cuts, followed closely by the Steel City 40600 and 40615 and the Grizzly G0604X. jointers in this test equipped Pros:The Craftsmanis one of only two standard-bed motor. lts depth-of-cutscale faces the operator,so it's easy to read. with a 1-112-hp. OFFswitch and built-in switch box, paddle-style We like its tall fence,post-mounted circuit breaker. Cons:The fence mechanismis lightly built, compared to the other recommended infeedtable adjustswith a lever;a wheel is betterfor preciseadjustmachines.The ments. (800) 4, 377-741 Source Sears Craftsman, Pros:This jointer'sfeed rate is outstandingand its overallperformanceis excellent. Its cutterheadrotatesat 6000 rpm-the fastestin the test-and its 1-hp.motor has a l o n g e rv e r s i o no f e n o u g h p o w e r t o d r i v e i t w i t h o u t b o g g i n gd o w n . T h i sm a c h i n e , JJ-6CSX,is equippedwith disposableknives.Our test machine the standard-length exhibitedvery little vibration,even during heavy cuts. rods that aren't particularlyuser-friendly Cons:The fence controls are thinT-handle scaleis somewhat hard to read. and the angled depth-of-cut (800) Inc., 214-6848, Group, Source WMHTool

CnnrrsMAN 21705 . $48O

Jrr JJ-6CSDX . $579

American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

If your shop shares space with a car, or if you work in a small space, stowablilty may top your list. To be stowable, a jointer must be easy to move or compact in size. We recommend the Gnzzly G0452,which comes with built-in casters and the Jetlf-6CSX, which has a very small footprint. Both of these machines have standard-length beds (4Gin.). The Craftsman 21705 and the Rikon 20-1f0 are nearly as compact as theJet. The Shop Fox Wl745 has built-in casters, like the Grizzly, and the same footprint. Several longerjointers also feature built-in casters.

Pros: This standard-lengthmachine features built-in castersthat make it very easy to move. lt also comes with a tall fence, a post-mounted switch box, a 1-hp. motor or less)full-width and an performedbest during shallow (1/16-in. cuts. Heavier cuts caused some vibration. Cons: The rack-and-pinionfence creates a wide footprint. The infeed table adjusts with a lever; a wheel is better for preciseadjustments.Theswitch box post interferes scale is somewith lockingand unlockingthe infeedtable.Theangled depth-of-cut what hard to read. (800) Industrial, 5234777, www.gri Sou rce Grizzly Pros: The Jet is one of the narrowest machines (lessthan 21-in.wide), thanks to its compact sliding fence design.This is a no-frillsjointer, but it's solidly built and it works well. We felt very little vibration on our test machine, even during full-width cuts.Thismachineis equippedwith a 1-hp motor. user-friendly. Cons:The fence controlsare thinThandle rods that aren't particularly The angled depth-of-cutscale is somewhat hard to read. Inc.,(800) 274-6848, Source WMHToolGroup,

GanzzwGO4S2 o $355

Jer JJ-6CSX r $+zg

If value is most important, the Gizzly G0604X, the Steel City 40615 and the Sunhill SM-150 rise to the top. T}re Gizzly and Steel Cityjointers score well in several categories. The Sunhill provides long-bed capacity at an attractive price. Of the standard-bedjointers the Gizzly C,0452 and theJetJI-6CSX offer the most bang for the buck. Pros: This jointer's best features are its price and its 6-year warranty. lt's depth-ofcut scalefacesthe operator,so it's easy to read.Thismachineis similar in appearance to the Jet has the same table length and sliding fence mechanism. lt's equipped with a 1-hp motor. Cons: We recorded slow feed rates with this jointer, and some vibration.The fence rods that aren't particularly user-friendly.The infeedtable controlsare thinT-handle adjustswith a lever-a wheel is betterfor preciseadjustments.The angled depthof-cut scale is somewhat hard to read.Theowners manual we receiveddidn't match the machine. (800) Machinery Source Sunhill 9294321, Pros: This jointer features parallelogramdesign (see "Benefits of a Parallelogram Bed;' page 43) and a four-knife cutterhead,which provides more cuts per inch at a given feed rate. lt's equipped with a tall sliding fence, a 1-112-hp motor, a postmounted switch box, a paddle-styleOFF switch and built-in casters.Thetable lock levers are large and easily accessibleand the depth-of-cutscale faces the operator, so it's easy to read. Our test machine exhibited very little vibration, even during heavy cuts. Cons: We'd prefer to have the switch box offset fafther away from the fence, (800) Source Grizzly Industrial, 5234777,

SUwHn-L SM-150

. $359

Ganzzw GO6O4X o $575

Americah Woodworker

ly'AY 2oo7


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American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

EYESCREW--.t LIGHTS-\.* 318"x314" RABBET(TYP.)


#4 x 314" SCREW (rYP.) \ ,-.4 .1/ #8 x 1-3/4" SCREW






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50 Arrrerican \Abodrvorkel rvlAy 2oo7


3/16" x 3/8" GROOVE(TYP.)


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Burlo Tur Fnnvrs

The cabinet's basic structure consists of tl-rree joined together. The frames and the cabinet flrames must all be square so the glassrvill fit. 1. Rip the boards for the frame stiles aboutT/Lin. oversize in width (Photo 1). To prevent headaches when installing the glass it's important for all the stiles to be straight and flat. Let these pieces sit overnight to stabilize. Then joint and gang-plane them to final width. Using a3/7!in. slot-cutting bit, rout grooves for splines in all the stiles and rails (Photo 2, Fig. A' Parls F1-F3 and S1-S4,page 50 and Sottrces, page 54). All the grooves have the same offset, a5/7G at the back in. lip at the front and a \/{in.lip




Cut the arch ou the front frame top rail (F2) and sand it smooth. Cut the splines (Fa) by ripping pieces slightly oversize in thickness and then planing them to fit the grooves. Assemble the front and side frames. After the glue is dry trim flush any splines that protrttde. Rout rabbets in the frames for the glass (Photo 3 and Fig. A, Detail 3). The rabbets go on the back of the front frame and on the front of the side frames. The spline grooves that yott've rotlted automatically define the depths of all the rak> bets: Because the splines aretl't centered, the rabbets in the side frames are 1/1&in. deeper

5. 6.

1 Start by cutting the stilesfor the three frames that form the i n w i d t h . T h ee x t r aw i d t h R i p t h e s ep i e c e so v e r s i z e I cabinet. allows you to straightenpiecesthat develop a crook.


than the rabbet in the frout frame. Rout rabbes in both side frames for the top (C1). Rotrt dadoes for the fixed shelf (C2) in both the side frames and the bottom rail (C6)' Cut stepped rabbets in the back of the side frames for the mirrors and the back. (Fig' A, De tail 3). Use a dado set to cut rabbets in the side frame center rails (S5). Glue these rails to the side frames, rnaking sure they are parallel to and exactly the same height from the fixed shelf


C ) n o u t g r o o v e sf o r s p l i n e si n t h e s t i l e sa n d r a i l s .M o s t o f t h e 4 s t i l e sh a v e m o r e t h a n o n e g r o o v e .A l l t h e g r o o v e sa r e r o u t ed from the same setting.

dado on each frame. 10. Drill holes for the shelf supports in the side frames (Fig. A, Detail 1). I made a drilling template and used my cordless drill and a self-centering drill bit (see Sources). 11. Measure for the glass after the frames are completed. Measttre for the mirrors after the cabinet is assembled. Ask yor-rr glass supplier to recommend how much to reduce the dimensions to make sure the front glass panel fits the opening. I made this panel l/B-in. smaller than the opening in both length and width. I also gave my supplier a full size template of the arched

r a b b e t sg o o n f o r g l a s si n t h e f r a m e s . T h e Q nort rabbets J tfre front faces of the side frames, but on the backface of the frontframe.

Arnericatr lVooclrvorker

MAY 2oo7


top. Another, even safer option would be to provide your supplier with a full-size plywood or hardboard template (if this template fits the front opening, the glass will surely fit). To work with the hinges, the sides' glass smaller than their doors must be \/{in openings in both length and width.


12. Glue the frames together (Photo 4). The splines perfectly align the edges. To ensure a square glue-up, I made 90degree plywood clampingjigs for each corner and went crazy with the clamps. 13. Glue on the top (C1) after drilling 1/2-in.dia. accessholes for the lights. Install an eyescrew for tethering the cabinet to the wall, so there's no chance it can tip over. Glue in the fixed shelf (C2).Then glue the cleat (C3) that supports the shelfls front edge.

Work on a 7l Ctuethe frames together after installingthe splines. -f ftat surfaceand make sure the ends of the frames are flush. Shop-made 9 0 d e g r e ec l a m p i n gj i g s k e e pt h e c o r n e r ss q u a r e .

15. Glue and screw the top and bottom cabinet

rails (C4 and C6) flush with the inside edges of the stepped rabbets-make sure the crown molding will hide the top rail's screws.Fasten the bottom cabinet rail to the fixed shelf and to blocks (C10) glued to the side frames. Don't install the middle cabinet rail (C5) yet. 16. Affix spacers (C7-Cg) to all three back rails. They create the top and bottom rabbets for the mirrors.

17. Cut

blanks for the base molding pieces (Ml and M2) oversize in length. Then rout the top edges with a Classic Ogee router bit (see Sources).

1 8 . Cut miters on the side molding pieces, trim

( Crt and fit the miters on the base piecesbeforeyou lay out the rl arches.First,miter the side piecesand clamp them in place. Then miter the front pieceto fit betweenthe side miters. them to length and clamp them in position. Then miter the front piece to fit (Photo 5). 19. Remove the base pieces and cut slots in their miters for biscuits. 20. Use the patterns (Fig. A, Detail 4) to create the legs and arches on the base pieces. Cut the profiles on the bandsaw and then sand them smooth.

21. Install 22.

the biscuits and then glue and clamp the base moldings to the cabinet. Install the back cabinet rail (Cl 1) after fastening blocks (ClO) inside the base moldings. the lips from the side frame corners to make room for the door hinges (Fig. A, Detail 2). Install the hinge mounting blocks (C13 and C14) flush with the stiles' edges.

23. Remove

ft nout the crown molding with dedicatedcrown molding bits. \,f First rout the top half with one bit.Then installthe second bit and flip the workpiece t o f i n i s ht h e j o b . A t a l l f e n c ea n d f e a t h e r b o a r ds e c u r e l y holdthe workpiece w h i l e u s i n gt h e s et a l l b i t s .
52 American \A/oodrvorker MAY 2oo7

Mnrcr THe Cnowru MolorNG

I used specialized router bits to make the crown molding (M3 and M4, see "Router-Made Crown

Molding, page 53). These bits must be used in a router table. wider 23. Mill the crown molding blanks l/!in. than their final width. Make extra blanks for test cutting, to get the hang of using the bits. Install a tall fence on your router table to fully support the blank and a featherboard to hold it securely against the fence during each routing pass. 24. IJse one bit to rout the top half of the molding profile and the other bit to rout the bottom half (Photo 6). The bits are designed so their profiles overlap. To shorten the molding's width, I lowered the bottom bit below the table, so I didn't use its full profile. 25. Using the table saw, rip the molding to final width. Then install a tall fence and tilt the blade away from it at 38 degrees to cut the bottom bevel. Stand the molding on edge, with its face against the fence to make this cut. 26. Attach the crown molding in stages. First, tack everything in position (Photo 7). Then install glue blocks to fortify the joints (Photo 8). Calculating perfect angles for the corner blocks can be a nightmare; they're easier to fit by hand. J Ctr" on the crown molding after dry-fittingthe miters.Brad nails I in the cornerspin each piecein positionbeforeyou apply the clamps.Fasten the top of each mitered cornerwith a single brad.

ApPLYFrrursH Brronr You lrusrnll THE Glnss

27. Finish the cabinet now. Don't forget to finish the back middle rail. which is added after the

Cut the wedged Q neintotcethe crown molding with glue blocks. LJ blocks on your tablesaw.The wide-angled c o r n e rb l o c k s are hard to cut precisely. lt's easierto sand or hand-plane these blocksto fit.


Youcan make crown molding several ways: with a molder-planer, for example, or on a tablesaw or by stacking routedand sawn pieces. And of course you can buy it readymade.I discovered a n o t h ew r a y . . . T h its ime I usedtwo bits from Freud's Wide Crown Molding System(see page54).Six Sources, bitsareavailable. They combine to createnine differentprofiles.These bitsare designed to createsuper-wide ceiling moldings, but I found it easyto reduce the molding's sizeto fit this slender cabinet (seeprofile, left). Thesebits are very easyto use,andthey makegreat-looking moldings amazingly fast.I finished my moldings by cuttingthe bevelangles on my tablesaw but Freud also offers a 38152degreebevel-cutting bit as partof the system, so the molding can go from startto finishright on the routertable. Veryslick!

American \Abodrvorker

MAy 2oo7


glass and mirrors are installed. My mahogany wasn't a uniform color, so I chose a dark gel stain to minimize the differences and applied two coats. Then I wiped on three satin varnish topcoats.

lrusrnll THE LIcHTS, Glass AND MrnRoRS

28. Install the lighs. I chose xenon lights because they produce bright, warm light similar to halogen bulbs, without generating nearly as largetempered Lowerthe front glasspanelthrough the back.This pieceof glassis heavy and awkward to maneuver,so get help. much heat.

Install the front glass through the back of the cabinet (Photo 9). Because of the weight and size of the glass, this is a two-person job. 7/Z-in.-long 20-ga. wire brads. Be careful: The edges of tempered glass panels are fragile. One nail nick and there goes a very expensive piece of glass. To avoid disasteq predrill the

30. Nail in the retainer strips (F5 and F6) with

holes in the support strips and install the brads, then position the strips. Lay a piece of cloth on the glass.Slide the hammer back and forth on the cloth to drive the brads home. 3 1 . Screw the middle cabinet rail (C5) to the side frame center rails (S5). Don't glue this piece. If the front glass panel ever breaks, this rail 1 n Installthe mirrors after attachingthe middle rail and spacer. I\,t Then installthe backto protectthe mirrors.Thecabinetsides have two stepped rabbets,one for the mirrors and one for the back.

32. Install

will need to be removed. the mirrors (Photo 10). Secure them with dabs of silicone caulk.

33. Screw on the back (C12) after carefully pre-

15-y4"x 37"x 82" Oveneu, DnranNgoNs: 34.

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 314"x2-118"x77-314" x7-114" x27-3/4" 314" x5" x27-314" 314" x cut to length 3/16"x 11/16" 114" x318"x66-114"

drilling holes on the edges of both sides and across the three rails. Stand the cabinet upright to install the selfclosing hinges. Position the hinges so that the backs of the glass doors close flush against the

35. Install

top and bottom rail lips. the glass shelves. Each shelf can support about 15 lbs.

Front Stile BackStile Top Rail Bottom Rail

x77-314" 314"x 1-314" x2-112" x77-314" 314" x7-114"x8-114" 314" x5" x8-114" 314"

c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7
C8 c9 c10 c11 c12 c13

Top FixedShelf Cleat Top Rail M i d d l eR a i l Bottom Rail Top Spacer Middle Spacer Bottom Spacer G l u eB l o c k BackRail Back Top Hinge Block

12"x 31-114"* 314"x 12-1 * x 31-1 14" 314"x 11-314" 3/4" x 1" x 30" 314"x3-314"x30-112" x2" x30-1/2" 314" 3/4" x 5" x30-112" 1/8"x 3-5/8"x28-112" 118x " 1 - 3 1 4x " 28-112" 118" x4-314"x28-112" x 1" x3-114" 314" 3/4"x3"x32' 1/4"x31-112' 3 / 4 "x 1 " x 7 - 1 1 2 " 314" x1" x2-114" 314" x6" x33-112il*x* 3/4"x6"x14'r*** 314"x4-114"x37"*** 3/4" x 4-1 /4" x 15-3/4"***

Sources Brassno-boreglass Rockler,(800t' 279-4441 , glass , 2 . 3 9e a .S e l fc l o s i n g d o o rh i n g e s , d o o rp u l l ,# 2 9 1 4 0$ #22252, #37228, $12.79per pair. Smm brassshelfsupports, bit,#22515, $20.3/16" 5mm self-centering $3.09per 16-pack. cutter, #92189, Ogee Routerbrt, 3-wingslotting $21. Classic www.pega#91680, $33. . Pegasus Associates,(800)392-4818, pucklightkit (3 lights), Xenonlow voltage (800) 334-41 07, #PALPX-60-BK-PALTR60, $30.99.* FreudTools, Wide CrownMoldingSystemBits:Upper profile#3, #99-416, $70. Lower profile#2, #99-415,S70. * Van Dyke'sRestorers, (800)558-1234, #02236854, Bartley Gel Stain, Jet Mahogany, $16.99per quart. o T h e G l a s sM a n I n c . ,( 8 7 7 ) le tempered 6 3 6 - 9 0 8 0 1 1 4 -c in . ar 28-318 front glasspanelwith arched top and 1-in.bevel,approx. Two 1/4-in. clear in. x 67-314 in.,$153 {$120withoutthe bevel). with flat-polished edges,approx, temperedglasssidedoor panels with x 66-in., clearglassshelves 8-314in. $40 each.Seven1/4-in. x 30-3/8-in., flat polished edges,approx. 12-in. $39 each.One mirin.,$69. One 1/8-in. 1/8-in. mirrot approx. 30-718 in. x42-318 in. x 30-7 ror,approx.24-314 18 in., $41.

* Mahogany plywood 54

** Plywood *** Final length, after mitering MAY 2oo7

Arnerican Woodworker

3 / 4 " D l A .x 1 " D E E P

x 314"x 1-114" 1" DEEP

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Part A

Name Rung Rung Rung Rung Rung Stretcher


Oty. 2

Material Beech Beech Beech

Dim. (Th x W x L) x 1-114" x 14u 314" x 1-114" x 13-3/4" 314" x 12-314" x 1-114" 314"

h LJ

2 2 2
2 2 4 1

Beech Beech Beech Cherry

x1-114" x12-112' 314"

x 11-9/16" 314" x1-114" x 1G5/8" x1-114" 314" x 1-7116" x28" 1:/116. x 13"x 13" 1-114"


$pecial Tools: Lumber qty. and pricer


H 4 bt. 814Beech,4 bf. 4/4 Beech,3 bf. Cherry. J Approxcost: $65.00


This project will keep your router humming and uses some very clever jigs to simplify and speed up construction. It's almost as easyto make half a dozen stools as it is to make one. Our stool is sizedfor a 36-in. counter height. There will be a lot of parts floating around your shop as you build this stool and a lot of mortises to keep track of. So take my advice and mark yorlr parts clearly as you go to avoid mix-ups.

positioned higher on the leg than the other set (A,C, E and G). Mark the higher mortises first, then rotate the legs and mark the lower ones (Photo 2). 3. Rout the mortises ttsing a jig and a 3/4in. plunge router bit(Fig. B, p. 57) (Photo 3). Orient each leg in the jig in the same manner: the top of each leg should stick out of the jig's indexed end. Make the round seat 4.Roundover stretcher mortise with a single plunge. the edges of the legs with ^ 3/4-in. roundover bit (Photo 4.) Round over the ends of each leg with a 3/8-in. roundover bit (Photo 5.)

Nlortise the [,cus

1. Mill the leg blanks (H) and cut them to length. 2.Lay out the mortises (Fig. A, above)(Photo 1). The mortises are offset so one set of rungs (B,D and F) are
56 American \4bodlvorker MAY 2oo7

t-r'1t:}r{,*x-s Rtlrtus ;rrxd,5{

5. Round over four 5-foot long pieces of rung stock with

I Begin building the stool by laying out mortiseson the I legs.The mortises are offset with one set higher than the other.Clamp the legs together and lay out all the high mortises first. I like to shade each mortise to avoid mistakes.

fo layout the lower moftises, rotate the two outside legs I away from the center.Thenroll the two cen4 9O-degrees ter legs away from the center as well.This automatically positions the correct face of each leg.

Q Cut the angled mortiseswith a jig and a plunge router. t-,1 To position the leg, line up the top of the mortise with the top of the index notch on the jig.

A -I

Round over all four corners on the legs.When you're done, they'll almost look like they were turned. A featherboard maintainsconsistentpressureagainstthe fence,

American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7


( Round over the ends of each leg. Hold the leg tight r,f against a stop block as you feed it into the bit. When the leg contactsthe bearing, rotate it slowly to complete the roundover.

of rungstock. Cutthe on longlengths ft Uitt roundovers This is to lengthafterward. \-l rungsand seatstretchers
more efficientand saferthan shaping short lengths.Featherboards produce a clean,consistentcut.

on the's bestto ? Sfr"p" the seatstretchers first,thenmakethe / maketwo cuts.Cutthe shortangle longstraight cut.

When the Q Cut the round tenons on the seat stretchers. t J cut hits the wide part of the stretcher,let it ride on the bearing until it contacts the fence on the outfeed side.

a 3/8-in. roundover (Photo 6). The ends of each stretcher fit like tenons into the leg mortises. As you mill the nrngs, use some extra stock to test and finetune your cuts by adjusting the bit height or fence position. You should be able to insert the rungs into the mortises by hand. 6. Cut the rungs and seat stretchers to length and label them. Shape the seat stretchers on the bandsaw (Photo 7). 7. Create the 3/4t-in round tenons on the seatstretchers (Photo 8). Drill pilot holes for the screwsthat attach the seat (Fig. A).

edge on the seat stretchers to make sure they lay flat to support the seat (Photo 10.) Be sure to measure the top diagonally for square.

Make the Seat

10. Glue up a cherry blank. When the glue is dry trim the blank to 13" square. ll.Draw diagonal lines from each corner on the underside of the seatand drill a | / {in. hole in the center for the index pin in the seat-scoopingjig(Fig. D, p. 60). l?.Lay out the top of the seat blank (Fig. C, p. 59). 13.Drill the leg holes in the seatblank (Photo ll). 14. Cut the seatto shapeon the bandsaw:sand it smooth. jig (Fig. D) 15. Place the seat blank in the seat-scooping and screw the rails into place so they put firm pressure on the seat.

Assemblethe Base
8. Dry fit all of the base parts. 9. Glue up the base in stages(Photo 9). Place a straight58 American Woodworker MAY 2oo7


{ } C t r " u p t h e b a s ei n s e c t i o n s .H a v ea l l o f y o u r p a r t s -f labeled a n d l a i d o u t i n s e q u e n c eG . l u eu p t h e t w o h a l v e s w i t h t h e t h r e em o f t i s e s f i r s t .W h e n t h e y ' r ed r y , g l u e t h e w h o l e rungs. s t o o lt o g e t h e rw i t h t h e s e a ts t r e t c h e a r nd remaining

T o l a y o u tt h e l e g h o l e s ,d r a w d i a g o n a ll i n e so n t h e s e a t b l a n ka n d m e a s u r e7 " f r o m t h e c e n t e ro u t t o m a r k st h e c e n t e ro f e a c hh o l e . e a c hc o r n e r . T h i s M e a s u r e7 - 5 1 8t o m a r k t h e f o u r c o r n e r so f t h e f i n i s h e ds e a t .U s e a f l e x i b l es t i c kt o m a r k t h e 1 / 2 " bow on the four edges.

. ngledblocks will I f ' | C t a m pu p t h e b a s eo n a f l a t s u r f a c eA - L \ J p r e v e n tt h e c l a m p sf r o m s l i p p i n g .U s e a s t r a i g h t e d g e t o m a k e s u r e t h e w i d e s e c t i o no n t h e s e a ts t r e t c h e r s l i e sf l a t .

1 1 B o r e l e g h o l e st h r o u g ht h e s e a t b l a n k .C l a m pt h e b l a n k - I - . f t o a s a c r i f i c i atla b l et o p r e v e n tb l o w o u t . C u t t h e c u r v e ds i d e so n t h e b a n d s a wa f t e rd r i l l i n gt h e h o l e s .
Anrelicarr \Abodurrker MAy 2oo7 59

I + E

jig. Slide I C ) S c o o pt h e s e a tw i t h a r o u t e ra n d a s i m p l e I L your router acrossthe curved ramp. Rotatethe seat a router bit'sworth after each pass.Keepthe cuts shallow.





1 ? lt's best to pre-finishthe seat and base beforefinal ILt assembly.Then simply attachthe seat to the stretchers with screws. 16. Scoop out the seat using a long straight bit (Photo 12) (see Sources below). 17. Round over the edges of the seat around the leg holes with a 3/8-in. roundover bit. Use a 3/4-lin. Set the seat blank on the dowel. Screw the two ends ( C )t o t h e b a s e ( A ) . T h e nh o l d t h e r a m p ( B ) d o w n o n r a m p ss h o u l d p u t t h e s e a ta n d s c r e w i n p l a c e . T h e e n o u g hd o w n w a r dp r e s s u r e o n t h e s e a tt o h o l d i t w h i l e i t s r o u t e d ,b u t l o o s ee n o u g ht o r o t a t et h e s e a t between passes. roundover bit on the outside edges of the seat. 18. Sand the entire stool to 180-grit if you'll be finishing the stool with varnish or lacquer. Use 220-grit if you plan on an oil or a wipe-on varnish finish. 19.Attach the seat to the base (Photo 13).


Name Base Ramp

Oty. 1 2



End ::
Sub.base Runners

1 2

Sources (800) 153,wr, Woodcraft Supply, 225-1 Flute 112" Bit,#815761, x4-118" Straight CutDouble $25.00. Plywood 314'x18"x 18" (800) MLCS, 553-9298, Plywood 314" x2-518" x 18" Router Bit,#7755, 3/4" Plunge $14.00. Bit,#8656, $21.00. P l y w o o d ' 3 1 4 ' x 3 - 3 1 4 " x 5 - 1 / 8 " 3/4" Roundover Bit,#8654, 3/8" Roundover $16.00 'l-5/8"Forstner Plywood 1/2"x 6" x 8" Bit,#9223, $12.00. Plywood 3/4" x 1" x 8" Dim. Th x W x L

American \Aroodworker

MAY 2oo7

Tips for o
Rescue battle-scarred f in ishes with ordinary materials.

)ilrl ng
DyBob Flexner

ReviveA Dull Finish

A l l fi ni shes dul las theyage,but you can usual l y bri ngbackt heir shine. The easiest way is to applypastewax. lf the dulling has progressed you must rub the finishwith too far, however,
fine abrasives or apply anothercoat or two of finish. To rub a finish, choose an abrasivethat produces the sheen you want. You can use a powder, such as rottenstoneor pumice, steel wool or a commercial rubbing compound. Rottenstone produces a g l o s s yf i n i s h ;p u m i c ea n d # 0 0 0 0 steel wool oroduce a satin fini s h . U s e m i n e r a lo i l o r m i n e r a l with rottenspiritsas a lubricant stone, pumice or steel wool. Commerciar l u b b i n gc o m p o u n d s don'treouire a n a d d i t i o n al lu b r i c a n t . l f y o u m u s t r e c o a tt h e f i n i s h ,b e s u r e the surfaceis clean.Wash it with mineralspirits to remove grease and wax. Wash it with soap and water to remove sticky dirt. Then applythe finish you origi n a l l yu s e d ,o r a p p l yo i l , s h e l l a c w f i n i s h ,o r a n y , ater-based polyurethane. Lacqueris riskyto type of varnish,including a p p l yb e c a u s el a c q u e r t h i n n e rm a y c a u s et h e o l d f i n i s ht o blister.
a I



I o_ E (9

Rgvrovr Frrr-Trp PErrr Manrs

pen ink almostalwaysdissolves Felt-tip in alcohol, acetone or lacquer thinner. Any of thesesolvents can be usedto removemarkson a wood finish,but because acetone and lacquer thinner damage most finishes, it's bestto use denatured is the onlyfinishthis solvent alcohol. Shellac will damage. 'To remove an ink mark,simplydampen a clothwith denatured alcohol and wipe it lightlyoverthe colored of damarea.To reduceany chance age,avoid making the finish wet with alcohol. A lightwipeor two should removeall of the ink.
62 American Woodworker MAY 2oo7

o z z

uJ E.

a E


= o

Revrovr Cnavonr

Wax dissolves in mineralspirits,naphtha and turpentine-none

Rus Our WHrrr Mnnrs

White marks may be causedby water or heat.Water-create d m a r k s a r e e a s i e rt o r e p a i r b e c a u s et h e d a m a g e u s u a l l y doesn't go very deep. Water marks are usuallycaused by sweaty glasses. T h e y ' r e a l m o s t a l w a y s c o n f i n e dt o t h e f i n i s h ' s s u r f a c e ,s o lf the surthey're easy to remove by rubbingwith an abrasive. face is glossy,try rottenstoneand mineral oil on a cloth, or don't cut fast t o o t h p a s t eo n y o u r f i n g e r . l f t h e s e a b r a s i v e s enough,use #0000 steel wool to cut throughthe damage quickly,then restorethe finish'sgloss by rubbingwith rottenwith l i l . l f t h e s u r f a c ei s s a t i no r f l a t ,a b r a d e s t o n ea n d m i n e r a o # 0 0 0 0 s t e e lw o o l a n d m i n e r a l o i l . l f y o u c a n ' t g e t t h e s h e e no f the damaged area to match the rest of the surface, rub the e n t i r es u r f a c ew i t h t h e s a m e a b r a s i v e . W h i t e m a r k sc a u s e db y h e a t d a m a g eg o d e e p e ri n t o the finish than those createdby water. They're more difficult, . ou may a n d s o m e t i m e si m p o s s i b l et,o r e m o v e b y a b r a s i o nY h a v et o s t r i oa n d r e f i n i s h .

a finish of whichdamage when used sparingly, so they're the best solvents for removingcrayon marks. Mineralspiritsis less expensive andmorewidelyavailable thannaphtha
or turpentine.To remove crayonwax, simply dampen a cloth with mineralspiritsand wipe it over the sur.face. Candledrips are usuallytoo thick for a solvent to be effective. lt's much faster to freeze or scrape off most of the wax and then clean up any remainderwith solvent. To Ireeze wax, hold'an ice cube on it for a short time, then pop off the wax with your fingernail.To utensil scrapewax, use a credit card or any hard-edged or tool, but be carefulto avoid cutting into the finish. You can also use a blow dryer or heat gun to soften wax. Be very carefulwith a heat gun becauseit can blister the finish. Clean up any remainingwax residuewith one of the solvents.

Mnrcu Colons Oru GLASS

which most Replacing m i s s i n gc o l o r u s u a l l yi n v o l v e s c o l o rm a t c h i n g , p e o p l ef i n d d i f f i c u l t T . o make it easierd , o t h e c o l o r m a t c h i n go n a s m a l l p l a c e do n a p a r t o f t h e s u r f a c ey o u ' r e p i e c eo f g l a s so r r i g i d ,c l e a rp l a s t i c m a t c h i n g .U s e a n a r t i s t ' sb r u s h t o m i x s e v e r a lc o l o r s u n t i l t h e b l e n d m a t c h e st h e c o l o r u n d e r n e a t h t h e g l a s s o r p l a s t i c .B r u s h t h e c o l o r a n t a finish. o n t o t h e d a m a g ea n d p r o t e c ti t b y a p p l y i n g For the colorant,you can use concentratedoil, acrylic, universalor f r o m w o o d w o r k i n gs u p p l i e r s a n d p a i n ta n d h o b b y J a p a nc o l o r s ,a v a i l a b l e stains. stores. Or you can blend ready-made

Touch {-JpA Scuffed E,dge

S h a r pe d g e sa r e e a s i l ys c r a p e d A . s c r a p em a y n o t d a m a g e the wood, but it often removesthe wood's stainedcolor,leavi n g a l i g h ta r e at h a t s t a n d so u t l i k ea s o r e t h u m b .T o r e p a i r the d a m a g e ,s i m p l y d r a g a n a p p r o p r i a t e lc yo l o r e df e l t - t i pm a r k e r o v e rt h e d a m a g e .l f t h e m a r k e ri s p o i n t e d , u s e i t s s i d e .T h i sf i x a l s ow o r k s w e l l w i t h n e w f i n i s h e si f y o u ' v e a c c i d e n t a l ls ya n d e d t h r o u g ha s t a i n e de d g e . F e l t - t i om a r k e r si n v a r i o u sw o o d t o n e s a r e a v a i l a b l e from m o s t w o o d w o r k i n gs u p p l i e r s a n d h o m e c e n t e r s( s e e S o u r c e , b e l o w ) . " M a g i c " m a r k e r sr a r e l ym a t c h w o o d t o n e s s o t h e y a r e s e l d o ma g o o d c h o i c e . A f t e r t h e m a r k e rr e p a i ri s t h o r o u g h l y d r y ,a p p l ys o m e f i n i s h to protect the color from being rubbed off. Wiping varnishis e a s y t o a p p l ya n d w o n ' t s m e a r t h e c o l o r .Y o u c a n m a k e y o u r ea r n i s h with mino w n b y t h i n n i n ga n y r e g u l a r o r p o l y u r e t h a nv e r a l s p i r i t s .M i x e q u a lp a r t so f v a r n i s ha n d t h i n n e r .D a m p e na (800) 523-9299, Source: Minwax, Wood Finish Stain Markers. about $5 ea. c l o t hw r a p p e da r o u n dy o u r f i n g e rw i t h t h i s m i x t u r ea n d d r a g i t a l o n gt h e r e p a i r e d edge.

Revovr CneztNGAND LtcHr ScnnrcHES

Film finishescrazewith age. That is, they developa tight pattern of cracks similar to what you'd see on an old oil painting. lf the cracks are shallow,and don't penetratethrough a layer of color,they may be sanded out. Light scratchescan be removed in the same way. Choose a sandpaper grit coarse enough to efficiently cut through the damage but not so coarse that you create large scratchesor risk sandingthrough to the wood. The best choices or are usually320- or 400-gritstearatedsandpaper(3M Tri-M-ite Use Norton 3X), or 600- or 1000-gritwet/dry (black)sandpaper. with a lubricant stearatedsandpaperdry and weVdry sandpaper of mineral oil or mineral spirits. Dry sanding lets you see your progressbetter so you are less likelyto sand through. Begin by sandinga small part of the surfaceto test that you're

Rrvovr Dtnw Drscot-onATtoN

pulls, Discoloration arounddrawerand cabinet-door may simplybe dirt that's or on chairarms and backs, easy to wash off with soap and water. On the other finish.In hand,it may be dirt mixed with deteriorated that case, the finish may have to be removedand replaced. The first thing to do is to wash the dirty areawith a liquid dishwashing mildsoapandwarmwater.Ordinary soapsare best.lf this doesn'tremovethe discoloration, Manyfinishes break deteriorated. the finishis probably down underextended contactwith acidicbody oils. In the finish may be soft additionto being discolored, awaywith yourfingernail. enough to scrape you can removethe top layers of a deteSometimes riorated or steelwool, but if finishusingfine sandpaper have the finishhasdeteriorated to the wood,you usually to strioand refinish the entiresurface.

using the correct grit. Then sand the entire surface. Back the with a flat block only if the surface is flat, or you may sandpaper sand through high spots. When you have removedthe crazingor scratches,rub out the finish or apply new finish (see "Revive A , a g e6 2 ) . D u l lF i n i s h " p

Remove Stickersand Tup.

Stickersand tape may not neatly peel off if they've been stuck to a finish for a long time. Here are severalmethods for removingthem. lf a sticker is made from paper,wet it for a few minutes and try rubbingit off with your finger. lf this doesn't work, or if you're dealingwith tape, try heatingwith a blow drier or heat gun to soften the adhesive.(Be very carefulwith a h e a t g u n b e c a u s ei t c a n b l i s t e rt h e f i n i s h . )O n c e the bulk of the stickeror tape is gone, remove the remaining adhesive with naphtha, toluene or thinner; they x y l e n e .( D o n ' tu s e a c e t o n eo r l a c q u e r may damage the finish.) Productsdesigned to remove latex paint spatter,such as Oopsl and Goof Off, may also work. None of these solventswill damage any finish except a water-basedone, but try them out on a hidden area first. lf the sticker or tape is very stubborn,try working one of these solventsunder it. lf these methods don't work, you'll have to sand or scrapeoff t h e s t i c k e ro r t a o e a n d r e o a i rt h e f i n i s h .


American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

RrparnCouon DnvrecE
Thereareat leastfour methods of repairing color damage in finished wood.Thefirst step is to determinewhichmethodworksbest.To do this,applya liquid to the damage andseewhat happens. The bestliquid to use is mineral spirits. lt won't damage anyfinish, and it penetrates anywax that might be on the surfaceto give a more accurate diagnosis. Liquid fromyourmouthalsoworkswell, so I callthis the "spit test." Whenyou dabanyof theseliquids, one of fourthings will happen: great,because 1) The colorcomesback. That's is merely the solution to apply somefinish. 2) The color only partially comes back.You'll putting haveto stainbefore on morefinish. 3) The colordoesn'tchange. Stainwon't work. You'llhaveto "paint" in the color with a colored markeror artist's
brush before applyingfinish.

Fill Gouges With Epbxy

The easiest method of filli n g d e n t s a n d g o u g e si s u s i n g an epoxy stick. Sticksare available in a variety of colors from most woodworking suppliers and home centers (see Source, below). Here's how to do it. First, level the surface.That is, remove all roughness at the top e d g e o f t h e g o u g e .T h e n c u t e n o u g h materialfrom the epoxy stick to do the job. You can blend different colors to match your wood. Knead the epoxy u n t i l it's a uniform color. Press the epoxy into the gouge leavinga slight rise above the wood's surface.Dampen the epoxy with water, then remove the excess by scrapingthe filled area with a credit card or plasticputty knife. You can also level the epoxy by sanding after it hardens, b a c k i n gy o u r s a n d p a p e r w i t h a s m a l l f l a t b l o c k . S a n d i n gu s u a l l y d a m a g e st h e f i n i s ha r o u n dt h e f i l l ,t h o u g h . (800) Source: Woodworker's Supply, 645-9292, WoodFil epoxy sticks, $12each.

4l The color gets too dark. The best fix is to applyclearpastewax, or seal the damagewith a fast-drying finish such as shellac, then coatwith the finishof yourchoice.

American Woodworker

wAY 2oo7


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American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

f all the different forms of woodturning, I find the most delight in creating lidded boxes. The satisfying snap of a well fit lid as it closes, the beauty of the shape and the wood combined with the usefulness of a lidded containerjust do it for me. Turning a lidded box is a demanding project, but:rnyone with a few bowls and some spindle work under their belt can produce these wonderful objects. All it takes is a methodical approach and sound technique. A lidded box presents two unique challenges. One is creating the perfect fit benveen the lid and base. Think of it as a precise joint that's designed to come apart. The other challenge is hollowing end grain. End grain can be up to five times harder than side grain and is prone to tear oul Even experienced bowl turners are surprised when they fint try hollowing end grain. Fornrnately, these problems can be overcome by switching from a gouge to a scraper when hollowing end grain. If you fall in love with lidded boxes, you might consider purchasing a ring or a hook tool that's designed specifically for cutting end grain. Why hollow end grain when you can make a box from face grain? The answer is simple: an endgrain box is more stable. That means your lid will fit well all year long. Facegrain turnings change shape more dramatically with changes in humidity causing the lid to fit perfectly one day and fit too tight the next. If you want a loose fitting lid and a different grain look, then a facegrain box is acceptable. For this story I will take you through the entire process of making an endgrain box with a snug, friction-fit lid. We'll cover chucking the parts in different manners, cutting end grain, tight tolerances, hollowing in a narrow space, creating the desired "perfect fit," and dealing with ajoint designed to come aPart.

What you'll need:

Turning tools:
A. A spindle-roughing gougefor shaping; I prefera 1-114 in.for boxes. B. Parting tool: either3116" or 114". C. ning Toolfor finishcuts on end grain. D.llZ in. side profileheawduty scraper. E. Skew chisel;a 1/2in. or 5/8 in. is best pointscraper;3l4;in. F. Spear or.1-in. gouge; G.g/g in. or 112in. shallow alsocalled a detail, spindle or gouge. fingernail parting H. Thin-kerf tool. Source: Packard Woodworks, www. packa, or (800)683-8876.

l. A scrollchuckwith serrated iaws such as the OnewayTalon or Strohghold or a Vicmarc VM100or VM120. J. R Orill chuckto fit the lathe tailstock. K. A 5/8" to 1" in diameter twist or bradpointdrillbit. L. Outsidecalipers with a 4"capacity. lmportant: be sureto roundover points. the M.6" steelruler. N.Vernier or dialcalipers.

I t r n y o u r b l a n ki n t o I a c y l i n d e rt h e n c u t tenons on each end with a partingtool. Use a caliperto sizethe tenon to fit your scroll chuck.

Q Ur" a thin-kerfparting h tool to separatethe lid from the base.Thistool removesas little materialas possible a n d h e l p sm a i n t a i n the grain match at the joint.

Q M o u n t t h e l i d b l a n ko n r-l your scroll chuck.Push the tenonall the way in so t h e s h o u l d e rs i t s f i r m l y o n top of the jaws.

f R o u g ho u t t h e i n s i d e -T of the lid with a 112-in. side scraper.Hollowing end grain is best done from the center out to minimizetear-out.

CHoosrNGYoun WooD
If you are new to box making I suggest using walnut, soft maple or cherry. These woods are easy to turn and make fine looking boxes. Select a piece that's 3-in. square and 5 to &in. long. The

roughing gouge. 2. Cut tenons on both ends of the cylinder (Photo 1). Set your outside calipers to a size that fits the jaws of your scroll chuck. Cut the tenons slightly shorter than the depth of the scroll chuck'sjaws so the tenons don't bottom out before the chuck is tightened. The shoulder should be 90degrees to the tenon in order to seatfirmly in thejaws. 3. Separate the lid from the base (Photo 2). On a 5-in.-long box I normally make the lid blank about l-3/4 in. long.

1 14"

wood needs to be dry throughout, as you can afford very little dimensional change as you turn these boxes. Move up to exotic domestic or imported woods as you gain experience.

Editor's note: The dimensions for the box Alan turned for this story are approximate. Keep in mind that for a turner, exact dimensionsare less importantthan the overall look and proportion.Each piece of wood is u n i q u ea n d t h u s dictates its own dimensions.

A perfect fitting lid is best by roughing out the achieved lid and base interiors first, then lettingthem sit for a few daysor more beforefinishing the box.Almostall speciesof wood will change when shape no matextensively hollowed, ter how well they are dried.

SHapr THr lNsroe Or THe Lto

4. Mount the lid blank into your scroll chuck (Photo 3). 5. Rough shape the inside of the lid (Photo 4). I think a lid looks better when it has a smaller diameter than the base so I leave enough wall thickness to allow for downsizing the ouside diameter later on. For a l-3/ 4lin. high lid I hollow to about I-I/4 in. deep, generally following the outside shape I intend to give the lid. Leave the wall thickness about 3/8-in. where the mortise will be cut. 6. For the final passes,use a ring or

Pnrpnnr THr Blarur Fon THr Criucr<

1-5/4"RAD.-.---.---**"pl 1. Mount your blank benveen centers as you would for spindle turning. Create a cylinder with the spindleI


American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

I Vtakethe finish r,f cuts with a ring or hook tool to leave a smooth surface. f,Cut the lid mortisewith iJa spear point scraper held flat againstthe tool rest. Finishwith light cuts and the tool held at a 45d e g r e ea n g l e( s h o w n ) . This is known as a shear scrapingcut. ? Cfrectthat the mortise / do"r not taper in towards the center of the l i d b y h o l d i n ga r u l e a g a i n s t the mortise.The perfect mortisewill positionthe ruler so that it sits parallel with the lathe bed. Q Vtountthe base in the (J jaw chuck.Cut a tenon that tapers so the lid just fits on the end,Twistthe lid to createa burnished l i n e t h e n s h a v et h e t e n o n down to that line.Thefit has to be tight so the lid won't spin as it's turned on the base.

hook tool designed to solve the prob lem of cutting end-grain cleanly (Photo 5). An alternative is to shear scrape with your side scraper. Simply tilt the scraper at a 454erree angle and take a very light cut, just a little above center. 7. Cut the lid's mortise with the spear point scraper (Photo 6). The sides of the lid at the opening are often referred to as the mortise because it fits over the tenon on the base. This area of the lid must be cut as clean as possible and left untouched by sandpaper. Sanding will change the circularity of the mortise ever so slightly and result in a poor fit. I plan on a 3/8-in. tenon on the base so the lid mortise is cut 7/2 in. deep. 8. Check that the mortise does not taper in towards the center (Photo 7). I strive for either a straight wall or a very slight taper away from center. Finish off this area with a light shear scraping action. Don't sand the mortise, or you may distort it. 9. Remove the lid from the lathe. Measure the inside diameter and depth of the lid with a Vernier or dial caliper. Record the diameter on paper but lock the setting for the depth on the calipers.

Mourur THr Lrn OruTnr Basr

10. Mount the base blank into the chuck. Make sure it is seated securely. ll. Create the rough tenon on the base with a standard parting tool. Set your calipers 1/4 in. larger than the mortise. Once you're within l/4 in. of your finished tenon size, it's time to slow down. You will be amazed how much you can take offwith a light cut. That's becausepushing the parting tool in l/lilin. actually removes 1/8-in. from the tenon's diameter. Plan on making 5 or 6light cuts, turning offthe lathe and checking the fit after each cut. At this point you need a tight fit on the lid because the outside of the box is turned with the lid in place. The objective is to create a fit that is tight enough to hold the lid on the base while turning but still loose enough to pull off when ready to hollow the base. This is not the final fit of the lid. We'll get to that later. To simplify "creeping up" on the fit, cut a tenon that tapers slightly in towards the end (Photo 8). 12. If, after all your best efforts, you end up with a fit that's a tad loose, use a tissue paper shim to tighten it up (Photo 9).

TunrvTHE Oursrnr Or Tne Box

13. With the lid now firmly mounted on the base, begin shaping the outside of your box. Use the measurement from step #9 to mark the depth of the hollow on the lid (Photo 10). I start the outside of the box by shaping the lid first (Photo 11). 14. With the lid to your liking, estab lish the overall height of the box. Use a parting tool to mark the bottom with a l/4" deep groove. Start on the long side, then nibble away at the height until the box's proportions look the way you want. Play with different ratios using your eye rather than exact measurements. I like a l/3lid,2/3base ratio. 15. Shape the sides of the box (Photo l2). I make my boxes with a little asymmetry: the lid has a smaller diameter than the base with a slight curye in the side. This entails working from both ends towards the joint in order to keep working with the grain. 16. Cut a chamfer on the box's bottom (Photo 13). 17. Make a V-shaped cut at the joint (Photo 14). 18. Sand the outside of the box up to 220 gnt. If "ringing" (telltale sanding

American Woodworker

MAy 2oo7


Q tt you inadvertentJ lV cut the base tenon too deep,the lid will spinor come off when you shape the box. A tissue p a p e rs h i m w i l l f i x a fit that's a tad loose.

I J I Use the points on a I\.t dial or Verniercaliper to mark the depth of the i n t e r i o rh o l l o w o n t h e l i d . Be sure the calipersare laying flat on the tool rest.

1 1 Srrapethe top of the I I tiowith a shallow gouge. Let your creativity b e y o u r g u i d ef o r t h e t o p design.Shoot for a 311c.- 1/4"thick top.

U s ea s p i n d l e 1g LA r o u g h i n gg o u g e t o shapethe rest of the box. A groove cut with a parting tool marks the bottom of the box.

scratches encircling the box) is a prob lem -as it often is with cherry and maple-you mayhave to sand to 400 grit.

loose fit is in order. If you want the closestthing to a locking lid then a tight fit is appropriate.

ing in the same way the base tenon was sized to fit the lid. You want a tight fit that will hold the base while you finish the bottom. This is often referred to as jam chucking.

Hollow THE lrusrnr Or THr Basr

19. Remove the lid from the base. If the smooth surface makes it hard to get a grip, try using one of those rubber gadgets for removingjar lids. 20. Drill the base interior to establish a finish depth (Photo 15). 21. Hollow the base (Photo 16). Complete both the bottom and sides with a shear scraping action. 22. Sand the inside of the box. Do not touch the outside of the tenon with sandpaper.

To create a snap fit,

remove a small amount of wood from the bottom halfof the tenon nearthe shoulder, leavinga fairlytight fit in the upperhalf. The snapis created when the first sensation of resistance is felt in puttingon the lid followedby littleor no resistanceas it is seated. Like all of the tenon to morin box making, tisetolerances go at this in the tiniestincrements to achieve the desired fit-it is very hardto put wood ' b a ck on.

26. Run the lathe at a slow speed (under 500 rpm if possible) and shape the bottom of the box with the ring tool (Photo 18). As an alternative, use the 1/2 in. side radius scraper-but with very light shear scraping cuts. Be sure and note how deep you hollowed the inside of the base. If there is enough wood at the bottom of the base then make this concave area fairly deep to lighten the feel of the box. Shoot for a bottom thicknessof 3/16 in. to l/4in. 27. Pull the base off the jam chuck, place the lid on the base and admire your workmanship.

FrrualFrr THr Lro

23. At this point the lid is too tight for use. With a parting tool, take extremely light cuts from the tenon to loosen the fit. Turners refer to them as "dust cuts" because you barely remove any wood. There are any number of ways to fit the lid to the base: loose, light suction, snap, or tight. The "correct" frt is the one targeted by the turner. If you would like to remove the lid without picking up the piece, then a

THoUcHTS oN Frrrrrsnrvc
If the box is a light colored wood, such as maple or holly, I use either wax orwhite shellac. Both of these products can be applied while your box is on the lathe. For darker woods, such as cherry and walnut, I use pure tung oil or an oiland-varnish blend. The blend is one part varnish, one part pure tung oil and one part boiled linseed oil.

SHapr THE Borrorrn Or Tur Basr

24. Part the base off from the blank stock (Photo 17). 25. Use a parting tool to cut a tenon on the blank stock left in the chuck. The tenon is sized to fit the base open-


American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

1 2 Use a skew chisel LJ to cut a slight chamferon the bottom of the box.Thissoftens t h e s h a r pc o r n e ra n d createsa small shadow under the box to give it a visual lift.

l-lcutashallowVgroove at the joint l-f with a skew.Thisdetail h e l p sd i s g u i s e slight in circularity changes that may show up at the joint o v e rt i m e . ,

1 X Drill out the base's L\t i n t e r i o ru s i n g a d r i l l chuckin the tailstockand a 5 / 8 -t o 1 - i n .d r i l l b i t . M a r k the desireddepth of the base interiorwith a piece of tape.

1 A, Use a side radius lU scraperto continue hollowing the base.Start i n t h e d r i l l e do p e n i n ga n d work from the centerout.

1F7 Partthe base off I / ttorn the blank. Be sure to leave enough wood on the base so the bottom can be scooped out in the next step.

I QTurn the base ILJ around and mount it on a tenon cut on the remainingblank stock. Use the ring tool to cut from the center out to create a concave bottom with a smallrim.



has bgen


ror <;ver-thirt-v-vears.

His work has appcnrcrJ in a nuilrl)rr of n:rtional ancl internati<;neil .r;holrri;" nl;lgitziners atxl vicle'os.He is a rcgular instructof iurd dcrnonstrator in r:ve'r 45 statcs ?lnd 4 fbreign count{'ies. F-or rnolr in{ visit }ris rvebsif.e. \l'\lti:r1anlacer.conl.

American Woodworker

MAY 2ooz


3 Nrw FrnruRES
Thke a look at these great features: Zero-clearance subfence. The subfence is composed of two adjustable sides, like many router table fences. When the saw cut between the sides widens with use, simply remove the subfences, re-cut their ends square and reinstall them. A zero-clearance slot allows you to quickly make a super-accurate cut. Just align a pencil mark on the workpiece with the saw cut in the fence and you're good to go. A zero-clearanceslot also eliminates tear-out. Adjustable stops. Two stops mount on the sled's Ttrack, making repetitive cuts very easy to set up. One stop is for short stuff; it only travels the sled's width. The other stop is on a long arm; it's used for pieces 18 to 48-in. long. Easy storage. This sled stands upright on either end. In addition, this sled weighs only 24 lbs., making it easy to lift on or off the saw.A clear plastic guard over rhe blade keeps sawdust from flying in your face. Blocks behind the fence surround the blade when it exits the cut. I've engineered this sled to give you years of reliable use. The fence and back brace are laminated to prevent twist or warp. They won't sag because they're stiffened by aluminum. The runners won'[ be loose in one seasonand tight in another, unlike most sleds,becausethey only bear against one side of the miter slots.


Zero-Glearance Subfence

$rzrrric Yaun Slrn

Stood on end, this sled is 31-in. tall and just fits under my saw. If you make a shorter sled to fit under your saw you'll reduce the sled's 24in. crosscut capacity. I used one full sheet (60-in. x 60-in.) of 1/2-in. thick Baltic birch plywood to make my sled's base,which is 3Gin. wide and 31-in. deep. If you're willing to give up l-in. of crosscut capaciry you can make the base from one halfsheet of Baltic birch plywood (30-in. x 60-in.).

Adjustable StopArm

Mnrr rHE Basr

1. Cut the base (A) to size. 2. Make the runners (B). I made mine from the same material as the base: Baltic birch plyvood. lt's l/2-in thick, but the runners must be 3/8-in. thick. To make rhe ply. wood thinner, cut a piece 4 in. wide by 33 in. long. Remove the tablesaw's guard, raise the blade l-in. high and set the fence 3/8-in. arvayfrom the blade. Stand the plywood on edge and rip both sides. Replace the guard, lay the plyr,vood flat and cur rhe runners about 1/32-in. narrower than the miter-gauge slots on your tablesaw 3. Position the runners in the table saw'smiter slots (Photo 1, p. 75). Run tape along the miter slots to avoid gerring glue on your saq then glue the base to the runners (Photo 2). When the glue is dry reinforce the runners with screws (Fig. A). Trim the runners flush to the base with a handsaw.

Buun ANDArrncu rHE Frrucr

4. Build the fence and braces (parts C through G) from a kiln-dried lightweight wood, such as pine, poplar or

Stores Under TheSaw

American \Aloodworker MAy 2oo7 73

(TYP.) fi #8 x 1" SCREW t*J

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#6 x 112"

Part Name
B D F H J K L M N P O R S T Base Runner Rearbrace Fence guardside Blade
B l a d eg u a r d e n d


1 2 1 2

112' 318' 1 1

36" 314"

Length Material
31' 31 36' 3 Baltic birch Baltic birch Poplar Poplar



Temporary block Sub-fence Bladeguardcover Frontguardspacer Guard Rearguardspacer piece Clamping Stop Stopextension Stiffener T-track

1 2 , 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

1u 112' ,lO" 114' 114' 114' 114' 314' 118' 1lB' 112"

4u 3-114" 3" 112' 6" 1o 1" 3" 1" 1" 314"

3-112' 18" 4' 6' 27' 6* 6" 4' 48' 36" 36'

Poplar MDF Acrylicplastic Acrylicplastic plastic Acrvlic Acrylicplastic Poplar Poplar Aluminum angle Aluminum anole

bassrvood. I laminated tl-rese pieces from 3/4-thick strips to ensure tl-ratthev stav straisl-rtand flat. Rout the slots in the fence (D, Fig. A, Detail 2) and add the fence pieces (E,F and G). Acld T:track (T) to the fence and aluminurn angle to the rear brace (C). (Look for an altrrninum angle rvith a square, not roundecl, internal corner. This n'ill be necessaryfor the altrminuln stop
74 ,\rnclicun \\iroduolkt'r' MAY 2oo7

arm (R) to fit tigl-rtagair-rst tl-reT-track.) Drill and cotrntersink pilot holes through the base for attaching the fence and braces(Fig.A, Detail I ). 5. Attach the fence and braces. Put all the scre\\'sir-rtotl-re rear brace, but onlv one screw into the fence's right end (Photo 3). Ter-nporarilyattach a block (H) at the fence's left end.


narrowerthan your saw's miter I wtakerunners 1132-in. L s l o t s .P l a c en i c k e l s i n e a c hm i t e r s l o t ,t h e n p u t t h e r u n n e r s o n t o p t o r a i s et h e m a b o v et h e s a w t a b l e .I n s e r tp l a y i n g c a r d st o f o r c e e a c hr u n n e rt i g h t a g a i n s t h e s l o t ' so u t s i d e e d g e ,f a r t h e s t f r o m t h e b l a d e .C u t t h e c a r d sf l u s h .

Q Ctr" the sled'sbaseto the runners.Squarethe baseusing fence.Placeweights on the baseto apply & the tablesaw's clampingpressure. When the glue is dry, lift the baseand removethe playingcards.In use,the sled won't wiggle in the slots;each runner bearsagainsta slot'soutsideedge.

the fenceassembly. Beginby drivingone screw {{ tnstatt * I throughthe baseand into the fence's right end.This screw will serveas a pivot pointwhen you adjustthe fencein the next step.Install the bracethat spansthe other end of the base.

A Insertplaying card shims betweenthe fence'sleft end -T and a blockthat'stemporarilyscrewedto the base. C l a m pt h e f e n c et o t h e b l o c k .C h e c k the squareness of the fence with a test cut. Add or remove playing cardsto rotate the fence'sleft end forwards or backwards as needed.

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6. Set the fence approximately square. The easiestway is to align it rvith your tablesaw's rip fence using a carpenter's square. Once aligned, clamp the sled's fence to the temporary block (H). Remove the sled from the saw and raise the blade I in. or so,just enough to cut through the base and 7/Lin. thick plywood. 7. Make a test cut with a piece of 7/ *rn. plyrvoocl.Yor_rr first cut will split the base in half ar-rcl go throllgh the fence. Chances are the cllt won't be perfectly square, horvever. To adjust the fence, add or remove playing card shims between the temporarv block and the fence (photo 4). Make a ferv more test cuts. Once the sled cuts perfectly sqllare, turn it over and drive the eleven remair-ringscrews through the bottom of the base and into the fence. Add the guard parts (K through P). Attach the snbfences, make the stops (q R) and you're all set (Photo 5). Source (800) Rockler 279-4441,, T-track, 3' long, #21j46, 1. S1 3-Star knobwith 114-20lnsert, #68064. $'l

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I nOOthe subfences. Butt them tight together,centeredover r -Fthe kerf in the sled'sbase.Make a saw cut to createa zeroclearanco e p e n i n gi n t h e s u b f e n c e s . T ho is pening will gradually widen with normal use.Tomake a new zero-clearance opening, removethe subfences, recuttheir ends and reinstall them.
American \\troclrvorker MAy 2oO7 75


Ft*cluucjules greai resrdss;


he first tini mv last. It wastedious

my results stunk. But now the choice whenever I have mortises to cut. It turns out fact, the newest benchtop mortislem wasn't the machine-in ers do a great job (see "Benchtop Mortiser Tool Test", AW #125, November 2006, page 50). Instead, the problem was my inexperience. I discovered there's a learning curve to successfully setting up and operating a mortiser. Read on to learn the techniques I use to get consistent, professional-quality results from my mortising mortiser. If you follow these methods and is still a struggle, your machine's fence and hold-down may need tuning. If so, check out page

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76 in AW #81, August, 2000.

T h e h o l l o w c h i s e la n d a u g e r \ bit work together to cut HOLLOW The auger square mortises. CHISEL drills a hole and then the chiselsquaresthe corners. Chips produced while cutfing are lifted by the auger and:ejected -l through holes in the chisel. , , :

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American \Abocll'orker

MAY 2oo7

Start Sharp, StaySharp

You'llget better resultswith less effort i f y o u t a k e a f e w m i n u t e st o s h a r p e n y o u r b i t a n d c h i s e lb e f o r ee a c h u s e .




@@@ i CHISEL

i:':1 iirt'.,".,tii. I .irr i,j; i'il i:- j I li.ji:rl-i,{ii \i f iti: ili-i1: To work properly, the auger must slightly project beyond the hollow chisel. Here'san easy way to achieve the perfect projection. T e m p o r a r i l y i n s t a l lt h e c h i s e l w i t h a d i m e squeezed between its shoulder and the machine.Thenlockthe auger in position with the edge of its cutting flute even with the c h i s e l ' st i p s . R e m o v e t h e d i m e , s l i d e t h e c h i s el'scollartight to the machine and lock it. To create perfect mortises, the chisel must be parallelto the fence. lt's easiest to place a board against the fence, move the fence forward and pivot the chisel until its face is flush with the board.

f l u t e sw i t h a s m a l l the auger's Sharpen a u g e rf i l e ( t h i so n e ' sf r o m N i c h o l s o n ' s miniaturefile set #42030,about $17 at A . n a u g e rf i l e h a s s m o o t h e d g e st h a t w o n ' t h a r m a d j a d u r i n g c l o s ew o r k . H o l d c e n ts u r f a c e s t h e f i l e f l a t o n t h e b e v e la n d m o v e i t forward only, toward the cutting edge.

i n s i d eb e v e l sw i t h the chisel's Sharpen ( a b o u t$ t S a t w o o d a roundslipstone working specialtystores).

Hone the outsidefaces on a flat stone, and a circular u s i n ge v e n p r e s s u r e motion.

M a r k t h e t e n o n ' sl e n g t ho n t h e end of the workpiece.Then L o c kt h e l o w e rt h e c h i s e l . d e p t h - o f - c us ttopwhen the a r c h e sa r e tops of the chisel's e v e nw i t h y o u r l i n e . T h i s that your m e t h o da s s u r e s t e n o n sw i l l s e a t p r o p e r l y , creit automatically because a t e sa m o r t i s et h a t ' ss l i g h t l y d e e p e rt h a n t h e t e n o n ' sl e n g t h

Make life easier for the chisel and auger by spritzing them with cutting lubricant before each use. This prevents overheating, helps the auger to evacuate chips effectivelyand allows the chisel to smoothly enter and exit the workpiece. It'llalso help your ears;lubricating keeps the bits from squealing. Source (8 700-5823, Empire ManufacturinS ,6 6 ) O p t i C uX t L, bottle $6 {ora 2-ounce





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E s t a b l i s ht h e e n d s o f t h e m o f t i s e f i r s t . T h e n c l e a r o u t t h e m i d d l e : F i r s tc u t i n d i v i d u a l h o l e s s p a c e d b y s l i g h t l y l e s st h a n t h e w i d t h o f t h e c h i s e l . T h e ng o b a c k a n d r e m o v e t h e r e m a i n i n g b r i d g e s .A l w a y s e n g a g e t h e c h i s e l o n a l l f o u r s i d e s o r o n t w o o p p o s i t e s i d e s ,b u t n e v e r o n t h r e e s i d e s , E n g a g i n gt h r e e sides can deflect-and even break-the chisel.

The first set of holes you cut will leaveconsiderable debris in the bottom of the morlise.Themortisesides may also be slightlyrough.A second pass,made with n u m e r o u s p l u n g e s v e r y c l o s e t o g e t h e r ,c l e a n s b o t h the bottom of the moftise and the sides.




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When a moftise stans near the e n d o f a p i e c e ,a s o n t h e t a b l e l e g s h o w n h e r e , l e a v et h e p i e c e long until afterthe morlise is cut. Then you'll always have material under both arms of the holdd o w n . T h i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e st h e c h a n c e so f j a m m i n g t h e c h i s e l .

Only one side of a through morlise shows, so it only needs one perfect face. Cut these mortises with the most visibleface uo-this side will be cleanlycut. Supporl the exit side with a s c r a p p i e c e t o r e d u c e s p l i n t e r i n g . T ok e e p t h e b i t f r o m w a n d e r i n g o r o v e r h e a t i n g ,c u t the morlise in stages, halfway first, then all the way through.

When you use mortisesand t e n o n s t o j o i n r a i l sa n d s t i l e so n frame and panel constructions, cut the groovesfor the panel first.Then use the grooves to set up and guide the morlising chisel when Vou cut the morlises.

\tttt tit:ut \\'ootlrroll.t'r

MAy 2OO7


Looking for a quick, easy way to put a durable edge on a project?
Tee molding might be the perfect answer. Installation could not be simpler: just rout the slot and tap the molding in place. There's no gluing, no ironing, no finishing, and it'll stand up to years of abuse. Used extensively on store and restaurant fixtures, tee molding is also a great choice for shop cabinets,kid's furniture or any other place where a durable, impact resistant edge is a plus. Tee molding is available in a huge affay of colors and profiles so let your imagination mn wild. Use it to add bright colors to a child's playroom or bedroom. It can transform the ordinary,like a set of laundry room shelves,into a colorful highlight. Check out the eight great installation tips in this article. They'll the first insure hassle-freesuccess time you try tee molding.




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American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

Usr TnE RlcHr Btr

Use the appropriatesizedslot cutter to cut the slot for the barb. lf the slot is too wide, the barb won't hold properly. lf it's too narrow, it can split the substrate.Suppliers specify what size cutter you need for each tee molding - don't cheat.Some manufacturers allow you to swap out different sizedcutterson a single arbor (see photo right). Others sell each cutter size as an individual bit. (see Sources page 90)

NorcH AnouND A TrcHr CuRVE

Cut "V" shaped notches in the barb where the tee molding bends around a corner.Threeor four notchescut with a utility knife are usually enough. lf you don't notch the corners, the barb will "bunch up" in the slot so the molding won't seat properly, and it could split the substrate.

MassAGE Our Tue Klrurcs

Tee molding Remove kinks in the barb before installation. comes in rolled coils that can cause kinks in the barbs.The kinks can get hung up on the substrateslot and make barb insertiona real chore. Use a hair dryer to warm the kinked area.Thenmassagethe kink out. lf heat doesn't do the trick, as a last resort you can cut out a kink with a utility knife.

*** ., o

Tap tee molding into the slot using a rubber mallet.Use only enough force to seat the molding. You're not pounding in a nail here. Excessive force can causethe molding to compress and stretch. Eventually, it will spring backto its originalshape. This could leave gaps along the edges where it was trimmed flush to the surface and at the joints where the ends meet.


American Woodworker

MAY 2oo7

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Wanvr Up A TrcHTBrruo
U s e a h a i r d r y e rt o i n s t a l l a r g ep r o f i l e (tnictl tee molding aroundtight corners.A littleadded warmth makestee m o l d i n g m u c h m o r e p l i a b l e .C o n n, sider room temperature to be a minimum for tee molding installat i o n . C o l d m o l d i n gj u s t w o n ' t c o o p e r ate when you install it.

Trim any excess with a razor blade. A s t r a i g h te d g e r a z o ri n a holder, as shown, provides the best control.
90 American Woodworker MAY 2oo7


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o . r r r r o

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Cut molding about 112 inch longer Cut through both layers with a utility than needed.Then trim about ll4inch knife and a straight edge. Keep the off the barbs at each end. Install one knife at 90 degreesto ensurea square end and overlapthe other. cut and a tight joint. Sources Outwater PlasticsIndustries,Inc., 800-631-8375,, .25 cents per foot to $2 a foot;25' minimum order. Size of slot cutter specifiedfor each molding.A completecutter assemblyincludesthe arbor and a slot cutter ($33-$40).There are nine different sizes slot cutters from $25-$33that use the same arbor.

Voila!A perfectjoint.

Woodworkers Hardware,800-383-0130,, One sizeslot cutter assembly($26), -- almond, black,brown, tan, and basicT edging (13/16" and white. 1-112-- almond and white).The 13/16"is available in 25 foot rolls,costing about $12l roll.The 1-112" comes in 50 foot rolls, and runs about $22/ roll.

American Woodworker

MAy 2oo7


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CnAZY MrsrAKEs WooDWoRKERS Mnrr Tnu Trruoru Tnle

After calculating that the slatted headboard I was about to glue up had 58 mortise and tenon joints, I enlisted my husband's help. We brushed glue in the rail mortises and on the slat tenons and then quickly installed all the slats. But when we tried to draw the joints together, just dented the rails. By the time I realized that no amount of force would close those joints, it was too late to pull them apart: Our headboard was doomed to display a bit of tenon at both ends of every slat. I'm not sure if the tenons were too long or the mortises too shallow, but I sure wish I'd taken the time to find out before we applied the glue. NinaJohnson

things got ugly. Clamping pressure merely bowed the slats. Desperate whacking with a


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Make yourwoodworking mistakespay! Send us your 'lilhatwas most memorable I thinking?" blunders. You'll receive $25 for each one we print. Bmail to or send toAW Oops!, American Woodworker, 1285 Corporate Center Drive, Suitel80, Eagan, MN 55121. Submissionscan't be returned and become our property upon acceptance and payment. We may editsubmissionsand use them in all print and electronic media.

E. t-a l

I upgraded my tablesaw with an aftermarket miter gauge. It had an adjustable fence that could be extended to support the workpiece right up to the blade. I tried a few 90-degree crosscuts-they were smooth, like cutting butter with a hot knife. Then I extended the fence and tried some angled cuts-they were just as smooth. "This is what woodworking should be like," I thought as I reset the miter gauge to 90 degrees and started making another crosscut. Whoa! !\rhat's that funny sound? Where did all those shiny flecks come from? When I realized I'd forgotten to retract the fence before making the 90-degree cut, my heart sank. I turned off the saw and backed the miter gauge away from the blade. Yup, I'd sawn a l-in.-high kerf through my new fence. At least I hadn't cut all the way through, although my pride was seriously kerfed, the fence was still usable. Donna Menke

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