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References

[Axler] [Bretscher] [Curtis] [Greub] [Halmos] [Hoffman-Kunze] [Lang] [Roman] [Serre]

Axler, S.: Linear Algebra Done Right. Springer-Verlag, New York (1997) Bretscher, O.: Linear Algebra with Applications, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River (2001) Curtis, C.W.: Linear Algebra: An Introductory Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York (1984) Greub, W.: Linear Algebra, 4th edn. Springer-Verlag, New York (1981) Halmos, P.R.: Finite-Dimensional Vector Spaces. Springer-Verlag, New York (1987) Hoffman, K., Kunze, R.: Linear Algebra. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River (1961) Lang, S.: Linear Algebra, 3rd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York (1987) Roman, S.: Advanced Linear Algebra, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York (2005) Serre, D.: Matrices, Theory and Applications. Springer-Verlag, New York (2002)

P. Petersen, Linear Algebra, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-3612-6, Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

383

Index

A Adjoint, 242 Afne subspace, 62 Algebraic multiplicity, 169 Algebraic numbers, 18 Annihilator, 99 Augmented matrix, 84 Axiom of choice, 18 Axioms Field, 6 Vector Space, 8 B Basis, 14 Bessel Inequality, 240 Bianchis identity, 300 C Canonical form Frobenius, 185 Jordan, 193 rational, 188 Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, 211, 222, 223 Cayley-Hamilton theorem, 178, 192 Change of basis, 48 Characteristic Equation, 134 Polynomial, 123, 136, 140, 188, 367 Value, 123 Column equivalence, 94 Column operations, 94, 343 Column rank, 75, 92 Companion matrix, 176, 350 Complement existence of, 61, 73 uniqueness of, 65

Complementary subspaces, 57 Completely reducible, 268 Complexication, 13 Conjugate vector space, 13 Cramers rule, 361 Cyclic subspace, 174 Cyclic subspace decomposition, 178 D Darboux vector, 300, 308 Degree, 114 Descartes Rule of Signs, 328 Determinant, 355 Diagonalizable, 158 Differential, 29 Differentiation operator, 26 Dimension, 15, 44, 90 Dimension formula, 66, 90, 111 for subspaces, 69 Direct sum, 58 Dual basis, 99, 234 Dual map, 102 Dual space, 98 E Eigenspace, 133 Eigenvalue, 124, 127, 133 Eigenvector, 127, 133 Elementary Column operations, 94, 343 Matrices, 86 Row operations, 84 Elementary divisors, 188 Equivalence, 95 Expansion, 15 Exponential function, 255 385

P. Petersen, Linear Algebra, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-3612-6, Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

386 F Field, 6 Fredholm alternative, 103, 247 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, 119 Combination, 14 Dependence, 72 characterization of, 72 Differential equations, 121 Function(al), 21 Independence, 72 characterization of, 73, 81 of functions, 78 Maps, 20 Operator, 21

Index

G Gauss elimination, 84 Gauss-Jordan elimination, 85 General linear group, 92 Geometric multiplicity, 169 Gram matrix, 249, 254 Gram-Schmidt procedure, 225 Graph of a linear map, 63 Greatest common divisor, 117

H Hermitian operator, 265 Homomorphism, 21

M Matrix representations, 33 Matrix vector space, 11 Minimal polynomial, 77, 151 Moore-Penrose inverse, 317 Multiplication operator, 26

I Image, 64 Induction, 2 Injective, 43 Inner product Complex, 213, 218 Real, 209, 218 Integration operator, 26 Intersection, 55 Invariant factors, 188, 203 Isometry, 224, 272, 274 Isomorphism, 42

N Newtons identities, 372 Nilpotent operator, 196 Normal operator, 284 Nullspace, 64

J Jacobi identity, 300, 341 Jordan block, 193 Jordan canonical form, 193 Jordan-Chevalley decomposition, 192

O One-to-one, 43 Onto, 43 Operator norm, 229 Ordered basis, 15, 18 Orthogonal complement, 237 Orthogonal matrices, 301 Orthogonal matrix, 273 Orthogonal projection, 212, 220, 236, 252 Orthonormal basis, 224

K Kernel, 64 Kronecker symbol, 26

L Lagrange interpolation, 235, 366 Laplace expansion, 350 Least common multiple, 117 Legendre polynomials, 234 Linear

P Parallelogram rule, 224 Permutation matrix, 40, 181 Polar decomposition, 321 Polarization, 270 Polynomial, 114 Irreducible, 118 Monic, 115 Prime, 118 Relatively prime, 117 vector space, 12 Positive operator, 283 Projection, 64, 67 characterization of, 67 Pythagorean theorem, 212, 214, 220

Index Q QR-factorization, 227 Quadratic forms, 326 Quaternions, 215 Quotient spaces, 107 Spectral resolution, 278, 289 Spectral theorem, 277, 278, 288, 289 Steinitz replacement, 74 Subspace, 11, 54 Subspace Theorem, 65, 91, 110 Sum of subspaces, 55 Surjective, 43 Symmetric operator, 265

387

R Range, 64 Rank theorem, 75, 92, 104, 106, 241, 247 Real forms, 294 Reduced row echelon form, 85 Uniqueness of, 87 Reection, 306 Replacement, 74 Row echelon form, 84 Row equivalence, 93 Row rank, 75, 92 Row reduction, 82 S Scalar, 6 Scalar product, 218 Schurs theorem, 310 Self-adjoint operator, 265 Semi-simple, 268 Similarity, 52 Similarity invariants, 188, 203 Singular value decomposition, 316 Skew-adjoint operator, 265 Skew-symmetric operator, 265 Smith normal form, 199 Span, 56

T Trace, 27 Invariance of, 27, 46 Transpose, 47, 75 Triangle inequality, 222 Triangulability, 310 Trivial subspace, 55

U Unitary equivalence, 292 Unitary matrix, 273

V Vandermonde, 76, 164, 352 Variations of constants, 375 Vector Space, 8 Volume form, 336

W Wronskian, 376