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MINOR PROJECT REPORT:

Electronic Voting Machine

CHAPTER 1
(INTRODUCTION)

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MINOR PROJECT REPORT:

Electronic Voting Machine

INTRODUCTION
The EVMs were devised and designed by Election Commission of India in collaboration with two Public Sector undertakings viz., Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore and Electronic Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad. The EVMs are now manufactured by the above two undertakings. EVMs manufactured in 1989-90 were used on experimental basis for the first time in 16 Assembly Constituencies in the States of Madhya Pradesh (5), Rajasthan (5) and National Capital Territory of Delhi (6) at the General Elections to the respective Legislative Assemblies held in November, 1998. We have worked on the project Electronic voting Machine. The main motive of over Project is to make voting easy and fast than the manual voting .Its motive is not only to make it fast but also to get rid of so many problems which are following:1. The voting is done manually also the counting of votes are done manually.In which there is chances of mistake or miscalculation. 2. Some times in used for voting get blot over wallet paper so we cant notify the the exact candidate to which vote had been given. 3. No one can vote many times. 4. Easy handling as well as more safety. 5. If voting machine just got spoil than also data remain stored in this voting machine 6. Easily can be run by a 5 v battery Our project electronic voting machine removes all those disadvantages of manual Voting. The above said project consists of 8051MICROCONTROLLER which work on 5V supply, 6 switches.

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Features
EVMs can be used in areas with no power connections as they can run on an ordinary 6 volt alkaline battery manufactured by Bharat Electronics Ltd., Bangalore and Electronic Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad. Currently, an EVM can record a maximum of 3840 votes. Currently, an EVM can cater to a maximum of 64 candidates. There is provision for 16 candidates in a Balloting Unit. If the total number of candidates exceeds 16, a second Balloting Unit can be linked parallel to the first Balloting Unit. Similarly, if the total number of candidates exceeds 32, a third Balloting Unit can be attached and if the total number of candidates exceeds 48, a fourth Balloting Unit can be attached to cater to a maximum of 64 candidates. It is not possible to vote more than once by pressing the button again and again.As soon as a particular button on the Balloting Unit is pressed, the vote is recorded for that particular candidate and the machine gets locked. Even if one presses that button further or any other button, no further vote will be recorded. This way the EVMs ensure the principle of "one man, one vote". A step downTransformer is used which converts 220v AC supply in to 12 volts. The voltage is furtherRegulated by the pure 5Vde supply is the digital ICs.

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COMPONENT LIST

S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

COMPONENT NAME Microcontroler 89S52 LCD DIODE LED RESISTOR CAPACITOR TRANSFORMER TACTILE SWITCH PCB

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CHAPTER 2
(LITERATURE REVIEW)

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COMPONENT DISCRIPTION
1. MICROCONTROLLERS 1.1
Introduction

Circumstances that we find ourselves in today in the field of microcontrollers had their beginnings in the development of technology of integrated circuits. This development has made it possible to store hundreds of thousands of transistors into one chip. That was a prerequisite for production of microprocessors, and the first computers were made by adding external peripherals such as memory, input-output lines, timers and other. Further increasing of the volume of the package resulted in creation of integrated circuits. These integrated circuits contained both processor and peripherals. That is how the first chip containing a microcomputer, or what would later be known as a microcontroller came about.

1.2

History

It was year 1969, and a team of Japanese engineers from the BUSICOM Company arrived to United States with a request that a few integrated circuits for calculators be made using their projects. The proposition was set to INTEL, and Marcian Hoff was responsible for the project. Since he was the one who has had experience in working with a computer (PC) PDP8, it occurred to him to suggest a fundamentally different solution instead of the suggested construction. This solution presumed that the function of the integrated circuit is determined by a program stored in it. That meant that configuration would be simpler, but that it would require far more memory than the project that was proposed by Japanese engineers would require. After a while, though Japanese engineers tried finding an easier solution, Marcian's idea won, and the first microprocessor was born. In transforming an idea into a ready made product, Frederico Faggin was a major help to INTEL. He transferred to INTEL, and in only 9 months had succeeded in making a product from its first conception. INTEL obtained the rights to sell this integral block in 1971. First, they
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bought the license from the BUSICOM Company who had no idea what treasure they had. During that year, there appeared on the market a microprocessor called 4004. That was the first 4-bit microprocessor with the speed of 6 000 operations per second. Not long after that, American company CTC requested from INTEL and Texas Instruments to make an 8-bit microprocessor for use in terminals. Even though CTC gave up this idea in the end, Intel and Texas Instruments kept working on the microprocessor and in April of 1972, first 8-bit microprocessor appeared on the market under a name 8008..
In another American company Motorola, they realized quickly what was happening, so they put out on the market an 8-bit microprocessor 6800. Chief constructor was Chuck Peddle, and along with the processor itself, Motorola was the first company to make other peripherals such as 6820 and 6850. At that time many companies recognized greater importance of microprocessors and began their own developments.

Chuck Peddle leaved Motorola to join MOS Technology and kept working intensively
on developingmicroprocessors.

At the WESCON exhibit in United States in 1975, a critical event took place in the history of microprocessors. The MOS Technology announced it was marketing microprocessors 6501 and 6502 at $25 each, which buyers could purchase immediately. This was so sensational that many thought it was some kind of a scam, considering that competitors were selling 8080 and 6800 at $179 each. As an answer to its competitor, both Intel and Motorola lowered their prices on the first day of the exhibit down to $69.95 per microprocessor. Motorola quickly brought suit against MOS Technology and Chuck Peddle for copying the protected 6800. MOS Technology stopped making 6501, but kept producing 6502. The 6502 was an 8-bit microprocessor with 56 instructions and a capability of directly addressing 64Kb of memory. Due to low cost, 6502 becomes very popular, so it was installed into computers such as: KIM-1, Apple I, Apple II, Atari, Commodore, Acorn, Oric, Galeb, Orao, Ultra, and many others. Soon appeared several makers of 6502 (Rockwell, Sznertek, GTE, NCR, Ricoh, and Comodore takes over MOS Technology) which was at the time of its prosperity sold at rate of 15 million processors a year!

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Others were not giving up though. Frederico Faggin leaves Intel, and starts his own Zilog Inc. In 1976 Zilog announced the Z80. During the making of this microprocessor, Faggin made a pivotal decision. Knowing that a great deal of programs have been already developed for 8080, Faggin realized that many would stay faithful to that microprocessor because of great expenditure which redoing of all of the programs would result in. Thus he decided that a new processor had to be compatible with 8080, or that it had to be capable of performing all of the programs which had already been written for 8080. Beside these characteristics, many new ones have been added, so that Z80 was a very powerful microprocessor in its time. It was able to address directly 64 Kb of memory, it had 176 instructions, a large number of registers, a built in option for refreshing the dynamic RAM memory, single-supply, greater speed of work etc. Z80 was a great success and everybody converted from 8080 to Z80. It could be said that Z80 was without a doubt commercially most successful 8-bit microprocessor of that time. Besides Zilog, other new manufacturers like Mostek, NEC, SHARP, and SGS also appeared. Z80 was the heart of many
computers likeSpectrum,Partner,TRS703,-3.

In 1976, Intel came up with an improved version of 8-bit microprocessor named 8085. However, Z80 was so much better that Intel soon lost the battle. Although a few more processors appeared on the market (6809, 2650, SC/MP etc.), so everything 6502 and was actually with already 6800 decided. as There main weren't any more great improvements to make manufacturers convert to something new, Z80 along remained representatives of the 8-bit microprocessors of that time.

1.3 Definition of a Microcontroller

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Microcontroller, as the name suggests, are small controllers. They are like single chip computers that are often embedded into other systems to function as processing/controlling unit. For example, the remote control you are using probably has microcontrollers inside that do decoding and other controlling functions. They are also used in automobiles, washing machines, microwave ovens, toys ... etc, where automation is needed. The key features of microcontrollers include: High Integration of Functionality Microcontrollers sometimes are called single-chip computers because they have on-chip memory and I/O circuitry and other circuitries that enable them to function as small standalone computers without other supporting circuitry. Field Programmability, Flexibility Microcontrollers often use EEPROM or EPROM as their storage device to allow field programmability so they are flexible to use. Once the program is tested to be correct then large quantities of microcontrollers can be programmed to be used in embedded systems. Easy to Use Assembly language is often used in microcontrollers and since they usually follow RISC architecture, the instruction set is small. The development package of microcontrollers often includes an assembler, a simulator, a programmer to "burn" the chip and a demonstration board. Some packages include a high level language compiler such as a C compiler and more sophisticated libraries. Most microcontrollers will also combine other devices such as:

A Timer module to allow the microcontroller to perform tasks for certain time periods. A serial I/O port to allow data to flow between the microcontroller and other devices such as a PC or another microcontroller. An ADC to allow the microcontroller to accept analogue input data for processing.
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Figure 2.1: Showing a typical microcontroller device and its different


subunits

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The heart of the microcontroller is the CPU core. In the past this has traditionally been based on an 8-bit microprocessor unit.

1.4

Microcontrollers versus Microprocessors

Microcontroller differs from a microprocessor in many ways. First and the most important is its functionality. In order for a microprocessor to be used, other components such as memory, or components for receiving and sending data must be added to it. In short that means that microprocessor is the very heart of the computer. On the other hand, microcontroller is designed to be all of that in one. No other external components are needed for its application because all necessary peripherals are already built into it. Thus, we save the time and space needed to construct devices.

1.5

Memory unit

Memory

is

part of the

microcontroller

whose

function

is

to store data.

The easiest way to explain it is to describe it as one big closet with lots of drawers. If we suppose that we marked the drawers in such a way that they can not be confused, any of their contents will then be easily accessible. It is enough to know the designation of the drawer and so its contents will be known to us for sure.

Figure2.2: Simplified model of a memory unit

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Memory components are exactly like that. For a certain input we get the contents of a certain addressed memory location and that's all. Two new concepts are brought to us: addressing and memory location. Memory consists of all memory locations, and addressing is nothing but selecting one of them. This means that we need to select the desired memory location on one hand, and on the other hand we need to wait for the contents of that location. Besides reading from a memory location, memory must also provide for writing onto it. This is done by supplying an additional line called control line. We will designate this line as R/W (read/write). Control line is used in the following way: if r/w=1, reading is done, and if opposite is true then writing is done on the memory location. Memory is the first element, and we need a few operation of our microcontroller. The amount of memory contained within a microcontroller varies between different microcontrollers. Some may not even have any integrated memory (e.g. Hitachi 6503, now discontinued). than RAM. Typically, the amount of ROM type memory will vary between around 512 bytes and 4096 bytes, although some 16 bit microcontrollers such as the Hitachi H8/3048 can have as much as 128 Kbytes of ROM type memory. ROM type memory, as has already been mentioned, is used to store the program code. ROM memory can be ROM (as in One Time Programmable memory), EPROM, or EEPROM. The amount of RAM memory is usually somewhat smaller, typically ranging between 25 bytes to 4 Kbytes. RAM is used for data storage and stack management tasks. It is also used for register stacks (as in the microchip PIC range of microcontrollers). However, most modern microcontrollers will have integrated memory. The memory will be divided up into ROM and RAM, with typically more ROM

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1.6 Central Processing Unit


Let add 3 more memory locations to a specific block that will have a built in capability to multiply, divide, subtract, and move its contents from one memory location onto another. The part we just added in is called "central processing unit" (CPU). Its memory locations are called registers.

Figure2.3: Simplified central processing unit with three registers

Registers are therefore memory locations whose role is to help with performing various mathematical operations or any other operations with data wherever data can be found. Look at the current situation. We have two independent entities (memory and CPU) which are interconnected, and thus any exchange of data is hindered, as well as its functionality. If, for example, we wish to add the contents of two memory locations and return the result again back to memory, we would need a connection between memory and CPU. Simply stated, we must have some "way" through data goes from one block to another.

1.7 Bus
That "way" is called "bus". Physically, it represents a group of 8, 16, or more wires. There are two types of buses: address and data bus. The first one consists of as many lines as the amount of memory we wish to address and the other one is as wide as data, in our

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case 8 bits or the connection line. First one serves to transmit address from CPU memory, and the second to connect all blocks inside the microcontroller. As far as functionality, the situation has improved, but a new problem has also appeared: we have a unit that's capable of working by itself, but which does not have any contact with the outside world, or with us! In order to remove this deficiency, let's add a block which contains several memory locations whose one end is connected to the data bus, and the other has connection with the output lines on the microcontroller which can be seen as pins on the electronic component.

1.8 8051 MICROCONTROLLER:It is the controlling device, contains 16-bit multiple timer. It is a device with 40 pins and 4 ports with 8 pins in each port i.e. 32 input-output pins. It perform the controlling function for this voting machine.

Fig .2.4 :-

Pin diagram of 8051 Microcontroller

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1.9 Analog to Digital Converter


As the peripheral signals usually are substantially different from the ones that microcontroller can understand (zero and one), they have to be converted into a pattern which can be comprehended by a microcontroller. This task is performed by a block for analog to digital conversion or by an ADC. This block is responsible for converting an information about some analog value to a binary number and for follow it through to a CPU block so that CPU block can further process it.

Figure2.5: Block for converting an analog input to digital output Finally, the microcontroller is now completed, and all we need to do now is to assemble it into an electronic component where it will access inner blocks through the outside pins. The picture below shows what a microcontroller looks like inside.

Figure2.6: Physical configuration of the interior of a microcontroller Thin lines which lead from the center towards the sides of the microcontroller represent wires connecting inner blocks with the pins on the housing of the microcontroller so called bonding lines. Chart on the following page represents the center section of a microcontroller.
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2. Introduction to LCD:
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) consists of rod-shaped tiny molecules sandwiched between a flat piece of glass and an opaque substrate. These rod-shaped molecules in between the plates align into two different physical positions based on the electric charge applied to them. When electric charge is applied they align to block the light entering through them, where as when no-charge is applied they become transparent.Light passing through makes the desired images appear. This is the basic concept behind LCD displays. LCDs are most commonly used because of their advantages over other display technologies. They are thin and flat and consume very small amount of power compared to LED displays and cathode ray tubes (CRTs).

Fig no. 2.7 lcd

LCD Technologies and types:


Some of the LCD technologies are, Blue Mode STN - This is the basic LCD, which needs lot of improvement on contrast ratio and viewing angle. FSTN (Film STN) - Comes with an additional linearization film to offer better contrast. CSTN (colour STN) - Layers of color filters are added to create up to 65,000 colors. DSTN (Double STN) - Improves contrast and eliminates any other colors appearing on the screen.

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Electronic Voting Machine

1. Segment LCD: Displays numbers, letters and fixed symbols and were used in old style industrial panel display and such standard where we need to display fixed number of characters. 2. Graphical LCD: Instead of segments it has pixels in rows and columns. By energizing set of pixels any character can be displayed.

3. Color LCD displays: Are of type passive matrix and Thin film transistor/ active matrix. Two types of color displays: Passive Matrix: Row & Column approach Apply small bias to perpendicular lines of electrodes Bias strong enough to darken bit at line intersection Multiplexed addressing scheme

Active Matrix : Each cell has its own thin-film transistor (TFT) Addressed independently from behind LCD Direct addressing scheme Advantages of LCDs: Consumes less power and generates less heat. Saves lot of space compared picture tubes due to LCD's flatness. Due to less weight and flatness LCDs are highly portable. No flicker and less screen glare in LCDs to reduce eyestrain.

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MINOR PROJECT REPORT: The disadvantages of LCD displays are: LCDs cannot form multiple resolution images.

Electronic Voting Machine

The contrast ratio for LCD images is lesser than CRT and plasma displays. Due to their longer response time, LCDs show ghost images and mixing when images change rapidly. The narrow viewing angle of an LCD weakens the image quality in wider viewing angles. LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. The most commonly used LCDs found in the market today are 1 Line, 2 Line or 4 Line LCDs which have only 1 controller and support at most of 80 characters.

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.1 Pin Description
Most LCDs with two controllers has 16 Pins. Pin description is shown in the table below.

Pin No. Pin no. 1 Pin no. 2 Pin no. 3 Pin no. 4 Pin no. 5 Pin no. 6 Pin no. 7 Pin no. 8 Pin no. 9 Pin no. 10 Pin no. 11 Pin no. 12 Pin no. 13 Pin no. 14 Pin no. 15 Pin no. 16

Name D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 EN1 R/W RS VEE VSS VCC EN2 NC

Description Data bus line 7 (MSB) Data bus line 6 Data bus line 5 Data bus line 4 Data bus line 3 Data bus line 2 Data bus line 1 Data bus line 0 (LSB) Enable signal for row 0 and 1 (1stcontroller) 0 = Write to LCD module 1 = Read from LCD module 0 = Instruction input 1 = Data input Contrast adjust Power supply (GND) Power supply (+5V) Enable signal for row 2 and 3 (2ndcontroller) Not Connected

Table No.1.8: Pin description of the LCD

2.2 DDRAM - Display Data RAM


Display data RAM (DDRAM) stores display data represented in 8-bit character codes. Its extended capacity is 80 X 8 bits, or 80 characters. The area in display data RAM (DDRAM) that is not used for display can be used as general data RAM. So whatever you send on the DDRAM is actually displayed on the LCD.
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2.3 BF - Busy Flag


Busy Flag is a status indicator flag for LCD. When we send a command or data to the LCD for processing, this flag is set (i.e. BF =1) and as soon as the instruction is executed successfully this flag is cleared (BF = 0). This is helpful in producing and exact amount of delay. For the LCD processing. To read Busy Flag, the condition RS = 0 and R/W = 1 must be met and The MSB of the LCD data bus (D7) act as busy flag. When BF = 1 means LCD is busy and will not accept next command or data and BF = 0 means LCD is ready for the next command or data to process.

2.4 Instruction Register (IR) and Data Register (DR)


There are two 8-bit registers controller Instruction and Data register. Instruction register corresponds to the register where you send commands to LCD e.g. LCD shift command, LCD clear, LCD address etc. and Data register is used for storing data which is to be displayed on LCD. When send the enable signal of the LCD is asserted, the data on the pins is latched in to the data register and data is then moved automatically to the DDRAM and hence is displayed on the LCD.

2.5 Commands and Instruction set


Only the instruction register (IR) and the data register (DR) of the LCD can be controlled by the MCU. Before starting the internal operation of the LCD, control information is temporarily stored into these registers to allow interfacing with various MCUs, which operate at different speeds, or various peripheral control devices. The internal operation of the LCD is determined by signals sent from the MCU.

2.6 Sending Commands to LCD

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To send commands we simply need to select the command register. Everything is same as we have done in the initialization routine. But we will summarize the common steps and put them in a single subroutine. Following are the steps: Move data to LCD port Select command register Select write operation Send enable signal Wait for LCD to process the command

3. DIODE:The simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of P-type semi conducting material, with contacts provided to connect the p-and n-type layers to an external circuit. This is a junction Diode. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type material (cathode) and the negative terminal to the N-type material (Anode), a large current will flow. This is called forward current or forward biased. If the connections are reversed, a very little current will flow. This is because under this condition, the p-type material will accept the electrons from the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type material will give up its free electrons to the battery, resulting in the state of electrical equilibrium since the N-type material has no more electrons. Thus there will be a small current to flow and the diode is called Reverse biased. Thus the Diode allows direct current to pass only in one direction while blocking it in the other direction. Power diodes are used in concerting AC into DC. In this, current will flow freely during the first half cycle (forward biased) and practically not at all during the other half cycle (reverse biased). This makes the diode an effective rectifier, which convert ac into pulsating dc. Signal diodes are used in radio circuits for detection. Zener diodes are used in the circuit to control the voltage. no of diodes are shown in fig 3.6

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Figure No. 2.8: Common Diodes

1. ZENER DIODE :A zener diode is specially designed junction diode, which can operate continuously without being damaged in the region of reverse break down voltage. One of the most important applications of zener diode is the design of voltage power supply. The zener diode is joined in reverse bias to dc through a resistance R of suitable value. 2. PHOTO DIODE:A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. Photodiodes are packaged with either a window or optical fibre connection, in order to let in the light to the sensitive part of the device. They may also be used without a window to detect vacuum UV or X-rays. A photo diode is a junction diode made from photo- sensitive semiconductor or material. In such a diode there is a provision to allow the lighter of suitable frequency to fall on the pn junction. It is reverse biased but the voltage applied is less than the break down voltage as the intensity of incident light is increased, current.

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When a junction diode is forward biased, energy is release at the junction due to recombination of electrons and holes. In case of silicon and germanium diodes, the energy released is in infrared region. In the junction diode made of gallium arsenate or indium phosphate. The energy is released in visible region. Such a junction diode is called a light emitting diode or LED.

Figure No. 2.9: L.E.D

Light emitting diode (LED) is basically a P-N junction semiconductor diode particularly designed to visible light. There are infrared emitting LEDs which emit visible light. The LEDs which emit visible light. as shown in fig 3.5 The diameter of the base is less than a quarter of an inch. The actual diameter varies somewhat with different makes. The common circuit symbols for the LED are shown in fig. It is similar to the conventional rectifier diode symbol with two arrows pointing out. There are two leads one for anode and other for cathode. The main requirements for a suitable LED material are:1) 2) 3) It must have on energy gap of appropriate width. Both P and N types must exist, preferably with low resistivity. Efficient radioactive pathways must be present.

4. RESISTORS:
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The resistor is an electrical device whose primary function is to introduce resistance to flow of electric current. The magnitude of opposition to the flow of current is called the resistance of the resistor. A larger resistance value indicates a greater opposition to current flow.The resistance is measured in ohms. An ohm is the resistance that arises when a current of one ampere is passed through a resistor subjected to one volt across its terminals. The various uses of resistors include setting biases, controlling gain, fixing time constants, matching and loading circuits, voltage division, and heat generation. The following sections discuss resistor characteristics and various resistor types.

RESISTOR TYPES
Resistors can be broadly categorized as fixed, variable, and special-purpose. Each of these resistor types is discussed in detail with typical ranges of their characteristics.

FIXED RESISTORS
The fixed resistors are those whose value cannot be varied after manufacture. Fixed resistors are classified into: composition resistors, wire-wound resistors, and metal-film resistors. Outlines the characteristics of some typical fixed resistors.

Wire-Wound Resistors
Wire-wound resistors are made by winding wire of nickel-chromium alloy on a ceramic tube covering with a vitreous coating. The spiral winding has inductive and capacitive characteristics that make it unsuitable for operation above 50 kHz. The frequency limit can
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be raised by non inductive winding so that the magnetic fields produced by the two parts of the winding cancel.

Composition Resistors
Composition resistors are composed of carbon particles mixed with a binder. This mixture is molded into a cylindrical shape and hardened by baking. Leads are attached axially to each end, and the assembly is encapsulated in a protective encapsulation coating. Color bands on the outer surface indicate the resistance value and tolerance. Composition resistors are economical and exhibit low noise levels for resistances above Composition resistors are usually rated for temperatures in the neighborhood of 70C for power ranging from 1/8 to 2 W. Composition resistors have end-to-end shunted capacitance that may be noticed at frequencies in the neighborhood of 100 kHz, especially for resistance values above 0.3 M.

VARIABLE RESISTORS Potentiometers


The potentiometer is a special form of variable resistor with three terminals. Two terminals are connected to the opposite sides of the resistive element, and the third connects to a sliding contact that can be adjusted as a voltage divider. Potentiometers are usually circular in form with the movable contact attached to a shaft that rotates. Potentiometers are manufactured as carbon composition, metallic film, and wire-wound resistors available in single-turn or multi-turn units. The movable contact does not go all the way toward the end of the resistive element, and a small resistance called the hop-off resistance is present to prevent accidental burning of the resistive element.

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It is an electronic component whose function is to accumulate charges and then

release it.To understand the concept of capacitance, consider a pair of metal plates which all are placed near to each other without touching. If a battery is connected to these plates the positive pole to one and the negative pole to the other, electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate connected to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one plate will be left with an excess of electrons, the other with a shortage, and a potential or voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as capacitors. Capacitors are of two types: - (1) fixed type like ceramic, polyester, electrolytic capacitors-these names refer to the material they are made of aluminium foil. (2) Variable type like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors, it has two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three leads. Unit of measurement of a capacitor is farad denoted by the symbol F. It is a very big unit of capacitance. Small unit capacitor are Pico-farad denoted by pf (Ipf=1/1000, 000,000,000 f) Above all, in case of electrolytic capacitors, its two terminal are marked as (-) and (+) so check it while using capacitors in the circuit in right direction. Mistake can destroy the capacitor or entire circuit in operational.

The two conducting places separated by an insulating material (called dielectric) forms a capacitor. The basic purpose of a capacitor is to store the charge. The capacity of a capacitor to store charge per unit potential difference is called capacitance which is measured in Farads but the practical units are micro/nano/pico farads. The capacitor also offers low impedance to AC but very high impedance to DC. The applications include coupling, by-passing and filtering for AC signal. Capacitors are of various types that include paper, Mica, Ceramic & Electrolytic. The capacitors can also be of either variable or fixed type. The capacitors used in the project are fixed: ceramic or electrolytic type as shown in fig 3.3

Figure No. 2.10: Capacitors


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CERAMIC CAPACITORS
Ceramic is a dielectric made from earth fired material under extreme heat. Titanium oxide or several types of silicates are used to obtain very high value of dielectric constant of dielectric constant of ceramic material. The ceramic capacitors may be of disc type or tubular type. In the disc type, a ceramic disc is coated on two on two sides with a metal (silver or copper). Tinned copper wire leads are attached to each coating which acts as electrodes or plates. Then the entire unit is encapsulated in a protective plastic and marked with its capacitance value in numerals or color code.

ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS
An electrolytic capacitor contains two aluminum electrodes. Between the electrodes, absorbent gauze soaks up electrolyte (borax, phosphate, or carbonate) to provide the required electrolysis that produces an oxide film (a molecular thin layer of aluminum oxide) at the positive electrode when DC voltage is applied. The oxide film acts as an insulator and forms a capacitance between the positive aluminum electrode and the electrolyte in the gauze separator. The negative aluminum electrode simply provides a connection to the electrolyte. Usually the metal itself can act as the negative terminal of the capacitor.

TESTING
capacitor may be open or short-circuited. In both the cases, the capacitor is useless since it cannot store charge. Sometimes, a capacitor may be partially short circuited (leaky capacitor). For checking a capacitor the highest range is selected. One side of the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit to eliminate any parallel resistance path that can lower the resistance. Keep your fingers off the connection; otherwise body resistance will lower the reading.
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For a good capacitor, the meter pointer moves quickly towards the low resistance (zero resistance) side of the scale and then slowly recedes towards the high (infinity) resistance side. This happens because when connected the capacitor starts charging from the ohmmeter itself thus maximum current flows. When the capacitor is fully discharged current stops flowing and high resistance is shown. The troubles in a capacitor, as per the ohmmeter reading, are indicated as follows: If the needle (pointer) of the ohmmeter rises immediately to zero and stays there the capacitor is shorted since the current flows through the circuit continuously. If the needle pointer rises quickly and then recedes back, but the final resistance reading is appreciably less than infinity, then the capacitor is leaky. If the needle (pointer) of the ohmmeter does not rise and stays at infinity the capacitor is open. It is an electronic component whose function is to accumulate charges and then release it. To understand the concept of capacitance, consider a pair of metal plates which all are placed near to each other without touching. If a battery is connected to these plates the positive pole to one and the negative pole to the other, electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate connected to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one plate will be left with an excess of electrons, the other with a shortage, and a potential or voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as capacitors. Capacitors are of two types: - (1) fixed type like ceramic, polyester, electrolytic capacitorsthese names refer to the material they are made of aluminium foil. (2) Variable type like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors, it has two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three leads. Unit of measurement of a capacitor is farad denoted by the symbol F. It is a very big unit of capacitance. Small unit capacitor are Pico-farad denoted by pf (Ipf=1/1000, 000,000,000 f) Above all, in case of electrolytic capacitors, it's two terminal are marked as (-) and (+) so check it while using capacitors in the circuit in right direction. Mistake can destroy the capacitor or entire circuit in operational.

6. TRANSFORMER :

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The transformer was invented by Michael Faraday in 1831 to enable him to demonstrate the phenomenon of electro-magnetic induction. In a transformer, two coils of wire are wound on opposite sides of a metal core. A device that transfers electrical energy from one electric circuit to another, without changing the frequency, by the principles of electromagnetic induction. The energy transfer usually takes place with a change of voltage. An electrical device consisting of a magnetic core and one or more windings, used to change the voltage of an AC circuit from one value to another or to isolate portions of the circuits from others.

Figure No. 2.11: Basic Transformer This is a very useful device, indeed. With it, we can easily multiply or divide voltage and current in AC circuits. Indeed, the transformer has made long-distance transmission of electric power a practical reality, as AC voltage can be stepped up and current stepped down for reduced wire resistance power losses along power lines connecting generating stations with loads. At either end (both the generator and at the loads), voltage levels are reduced by transformers for safer operation and less expensive equipment. A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary (more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns) is called a step-up transformer. Conversely, a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a step-down transformer.

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Figure No. 2.12: Step Down Transformer This is a step-down transformer, as evidenced by the high turn count of the primary winding and the low turn count of the secondary. As a step-down unit, this transformer converts high-voltage, low-current power into low-voltage, high-current power. The larger-gauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the increase in current. The primary winding, which doesn't have to conduct as much current, may be made of smaller-gauge wire. In case you were wondering, it is possible to operate either of these transformer types backwards (powering the secondary winding with an AC source and letting the primary winding power a load) to perform the opposite function: a step-up can function as a stepdown and visa-versa. However, as we saw in the first section of this chapter, efficient operation of a transformer requires that the individual winding inductances be engineered for specific operating ranges of voltage and current, so if a transformer is to be used backwards like this it must be employed within the original design parameters of voltage and current for each winding, lest it prove to be inefficient (or lest it be damaged by excessive voltage or current!).
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Transformers are often constructed in such a way that it is not obvious which wires lead to the primary winding and which lead to the secondary. One convention used in the electric power industry to help alleviate confusion is the use of H designations for the highervoltage winding (the primary winding in a step-down unit; the secondary winding in a step-up) and X designations for the lower-voltage winding. Therefore, a simple power transformer will have wires labeled H1, H2, X1, and X2. There is usually significance to the numbering of the wires (H1 versus H2, etc.), which we'll explore a little later in this chapter. The fact that voltage and current get stepped in opposite directions (one up, the other down) makes perfect sense when you recall that power is equal to voltage times current, and realize that transformers cannot produce power, only convert it. Any device that could output more power than it took in would violate the Law of Energy Conservation in physics, namely that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted. As with the first transformer example we looked at, power transfer efficiency is very good from the primary to the secondary sides of the device.

7. TACTILE SWITCHES:
Features of Tactile Switches are: Bounce Time: 10 msec SPST momentary ON Contact resistance: 100mohm

Specifications of Tactile Switches are: Rating: DC 12V 50mA Operating Force: 16030 or 25050gf Travel: 0.30.15mm

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Fig no.2.13: Tactile switch

8.OPTOCOUPLER:
An optocoupler isolator integrator circuit, contains an infrared led and silicon photodiode with an integrated amplifier stage used for short optical tramissionpath to transfer signal between elements.

9. MAKING PRINTED CIRCUIT BORD (P.C.B):


INTRODUCTION Making a printed circuited board is the first step towards building electronic equipment by any electronic industry. A number of methods are available for making P.C.B., the simplest method is of drawing pattern on a copper clad board with acid resistant (etchants) ink or paint or simple nail polish on a copper clad board and do the etching process for dissolving the rest of copper pattern in acid liquid. MATERIAL REQUIRED THE apparatus needs for making a P.C.B. is:* Copper clad sheet * Nail polish or paint * Ferric chloride power (feet) * Plastic tray * Tap water etc.
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Electronic Voting Machine

The first and foremost in the process is to clean all dirt from copper sheet With say spirit or trichloro ethylene to remove traces or oil etc .and then wash the board under running tap water. Dry the surface with forced warm air or just leave the board to dry naturally for some time. Making of the P.C.B. drawing involves some preliminary consideration such as thickness of lines/ holes according to the components. Now draw the sketch of P.C.B. design (tracks, rows, square) as per circuit diagram with the help of nail polish or enamel paint or any other acid resistant liquid. Dry the point surface in open air, when it is completely

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CHAPTER 3
(CIRCUIT DIAGRAM &WORKING)

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

Fig.3.1 : Circuit diagram of evm

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WORKING:Our project electronic Voting Machine is made up using microcontroller 89S52.The specification of above ICs are given later in appendix section .The main function of our object is to make voting successful, easier as well in well control manner. It also shows a court of the votes of the votes caste by the people for a specific candidate. Our project will work only on 5v because all these IC operates only on range of 5v.Now 220v is obtained from the main than this voltage converted in operating voltage by proper circuitry. This will include a transformer of 12.0v. The processing of ICs are following:- When circuit is switched on liquid crystal display will show zero in the screen. Enter the card then check card if card is wrong then reenter the card if card is valid then display the name of the voter after display the name choice of candidate have been made by pressing the switch and display the vote which have been voted.press master key to reset. When a person pushes the tactile switch for a proper candidate selection than increase the counter by 1. After one push in tactile switch red LED glow. It returns a complete cycle. Now any person can push button a number of times no further count is seen in the seven segment display. After this Polling Officer pushes the buttons from his table and red light glows. After that further new cycle is started.There is also a button which reset one counter. Means initialize the whole counter to one.There is also a button that resets all the counters simultaneously. As this whole procedure of Electronic voting is repeated and leads to a easy and successful voting which leads in same ways as Back bone in human body.

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CHAPTER 4
(RESULT AND DISCUSSION)

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION:With the hard work of three months we are able to complete this project. While making this project we had faced many difficulties. But we overcame all those problems and finally we got positive results. This project is made to provide ease to human being because it provides them with the facilities by which they can vote easily and also provide security to them. To make this project more secure we can add IC 82S59 so that in case of an unauthorized vote will be bard. As we know that every coin has two sides if at one side this project has many advantages on the other side the same project has very high cost. Today we are living in the world which grows at very fast rate. Everything is going to become intelligent including our homes. In future our home will be equipped with such gadgets which work on our moods. Our project is only a small step to make voting comfortable.

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CHAPTER 5
(COSTANALYSIS,APPLICATIONS,LIMITATIONS)

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5.1 COST ANALYSIS:S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Component PCB Optocoupler 89S52 microcontroller Capacitor Resistance Transformer Micro switch F&d Mislaneous Total Rate\Piece 60 60 120 2 35 35 2 10 150 Component need 1 2 1 2 .30 1 6 4 1 Cost 60 120 60 4 10 35 12 40 150 520 /-

Table no. 5.1: cost analysis

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5.2 APPLICATIONS OF AN EVM:If the number of candidates is less than the maximum capacity of the EVM, the extra panels are masked before use. Before the commencement of the polling process, the Presiding Officer demonstrates to the polling agents present that there are no hidden votes already recorded in the machine by pressing the 'Result' button. Then he or she conducts a mock poll by asking the polling agents to record their votes and presses the result button to satisfy them that the result shown is strictly according to the choice recorded by them. Finally the clear button is pressed to clear the result of the mock poll and the unit is sealed before sending it to the respective polling booths. (Not sure about this part: is this testing/sealing done at a Central/State level or at a Polling Booth level?) Each Control Unit has a unique ID Number, which is painted on each unit with a permanent marker. This ID Number will be allowed to be noted by the Polling Agents and will also be recorded in a Register maintained for the purpose by the Returning Officer. The address tag attached to the Control Unit also will indicate this ID Number. This is to avoid replacement of a genuine EVM by another one. As soon as the voter presses the 'blue button' against the candidate and symbol of his choice, a tiny lamp on the left side of the symbol glows red and simultaneously a long beep sound is heard. Thus, there is both audio and visual indications for the voter to be assured that his vote has been recorded. As soon as the last voter has voted, the Polling Officer in-charge of the Control Unit will press the 'Close' Button. Thereafter, the EVM will not accept any votes. Further, after the close of poll, the Balloting Unit is disconnected from the Control Unit and kept separately. Votes can be recorded only through the Balloting Unit. Again the Presiding officer, at the close of the poll, will hand over to each polling agent present an account of votes recorded. At the time of counting of votes, the total will be tallied with this account and if there is any discrepancy, this will be pointed out by the Counting Agents.
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During the counting of votes, the results are displayed by pressing the 'Result' button. There are two safeguards to prevent the 'Result' button from being pressed before the counting of votes officially begins. (a) This button cannot be pressed till the 'Close' button is pressed by the Polling Officer in-charge at the end of the voting process in the polling booth. (b) This button is hidden and sealed; this can be broken only at the counting center in the presence of designated officials.

5.3 LIMITATIONS OF ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE :A candidate can know how many people from a polling station voted for him. For example, in Indian general elections, 2004; the day after the election results were declared, The Times of India, Mumbai carried statistics about which areas in Mumbai voted for which candidate. People from Kandivali gave more votes to Govinda, while people from Borivali polled more votes for his opponent Ram Naik. This is a significant issue particularly if lop-sided votes for/against a candidate are cast in individual polling stations. The Election Commission of India has stated that the manufacturers of the EVMs have developed a 'Totaliser' unit which can connect several Balloting Units and would display only the overall results from an Assembly or a Lok Sabha constituency instead of votes from individual polling stations. The control units do not electronically transmit their results back the Election Commission, even though a simple and unconditionally secure protocol for doing this exists. The Indian EVMs are purposely designed as stand-alone units to prevent any intrusion during electronic transmission of results. Instead, the EVMs are collected in counting booths and tallied on the assigned counting day(s) in the presence of polling agents of the candidates.

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CHAPTER 6
(CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE)

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CONCLUSION:

EVMs are powered by an ordinary 6 volt alkaline battery manufactured by Bharat Electronics Ltd., Bangalore and Electronic Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad. This design enables the use of EVMs throughout the country without interruptions because several parts of India do not have power supply and/or erratic power supply.

Currently, an EVM can record a maximum of 3840 votes, which is sufficient for a polling station as they typically have no more than 1400 voters assigned. Currently, an EVM can cater to a maximum of 64 candidates. There is provision for 16 candidates in a Balloting Unit. If the total number of candidates exceeds 16, a second Balloting Unit can be linked parallel to the first Balloting Unit and so on till a maximum of 4 units and 64 candidates. The conventional ballot paper/box method of polling is used if the number of candidates exceeds 64.

It is not possible to vote more than once by pressing the button again and again. As soon as a particular button on the Balloting Unit is pressed, the vote is recorded for that particular candidate and the machine gets locked. Even if one presses that button further or any other button, no further vote will be recorded. This way the EVMs ensure the principle of "one person, one vote".

The EVMs cannot be pre-programmed to favour a party or a candidate because the order in which the name of a candidate/party appears on the balloting unit depends on the order of filing of nominations and validity of the candidature, this sequence cannot be predicted in advance. Further, the selection of EVMs for polling stations is randomized by computer selection preventing the advance knowledge of assignment of specific EVMs to polling stations.

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FUTURE SCOPE:The future scope of this project is very bright. The main theme of this project is to control the devices using telephone. By using the basic idea of this project we can also construct many useful systems we can use cell phone instead of landline phone and a micro controller which would give following advantage: 1. The working will be less expensive as mobile call rate is cheap as compared to landline calls. 2. Use of microcontroller will minimize the circuitry needed for the project 3. Overall complexity of the circuitry is reduced. By using this project we can construct the personally branched telephone exchange. In many of the PBEX we seen in the offices require one operator to divert the incoming calls to the respective internal telephone line. Here it does not require any such operator to operate this exchange. The person from a remote section is only to press the extension number to get connected to the respective number. In this type of PBEX only 12 extensions can be used.In advertising board or sign board used for display the company product purpose at the road sides requires the focus light on the dusk time. To control the light of this sign board a person is needed to switch on the lights in the evening and switch off it in the morning time. By using this system we can control the light from a control room or by the cell phone of the marketing person.

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APPENDIX

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REFERENCES

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REFERENCES:[1] A Single Phase Microcontroller Based Energy Meter, PAV Loss, MM Lamengo, JLF, Vierra, IEEE Instrumentation and measurement technology conference, USA, May 18-21 1998. [2] CCITT Recommendation E.183 (1989), Guiding Principles for Telephone Announcements [3] Circuit Land Web Page, http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/circ/circuits.htm [4] Meacham, L. A., Power, J. R. and West, F., Tone Ringing and Pushbutton Calling, B.S.T.J., 37, March 1958, p. 339 [5] Schenker, L (1960), "Pushbutton Calling with a Two-Group Voice-Frequency Code", The Bell system technical journal 39(1): 235-255, ISSN 0005-8580 [6] Smart meter, customer choice and profitable time-of-use rate option Energy, Volume 24, Issue 10, October 1999, Pages 895-903 Rob Hartway, Snuller Price and C. K. Woo WEB REFRENCES:http://www.discovercircuits.com/list.htm http://www.Datasheetcatalog.com www.electrofriends.com http://www.electronicsforu.com/electronicsforu/top100/top100electronics.asp http://www.geocities.com/iecmaster/circuits_tel/cir_tel002.html http://home.maine.rr.com/randylinscott/project.htm http://www.Google.com http://www.Wikipedia.co
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