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GEOLOGICAL GEOLOGICAL HISTORY HISTORY OF OF FLORIDA FLORIDA
GEOLOGICAL
GEOLOGICAL HISTORY
HISTORY OF
OF
FLORIDA
FLORIDA
CONTINENTAL CONTINENTAL DRIFT DRIFT • Earth’s land masses have been constantly splitting, drifting, and colliding with
CONTINENTAL
CONTINENTAL DRIFT
DRIFT
• Earth’s land masses have been constantly
splitting, drifting, and colliding with each
other since their formation over 1,600 MYA.
• Florida’s bedrock emerged and was once
part of what is now West Africa around 500-
600
MYA
• It joined North America as part of Laurasia in
220
MYA

RODINIA AND IAPETUS SEA

PALEOPROTOZOIC: 1600 MYA

RODINIA AND IAPETUS SEA PALEOPROTOZOIC: 1600 MYA

RODINIA BREAKS UP

NEOPROTOZOIC: 900 MYA

RODINIA BREAKS UP NEOPROTOZOIC: 900 MYA

CONTINENTS ADRIFT

CAMBRIAN: 545 MYA Gondwanaland with Florida Siberia Baltica
CAMBRIAN: 545 MYA
Gondwanaland with Florida
Siberia
Baltica

CONVERGING CONTINENTS

CARBONIFEROUS: 345 MYA Gondwanaland Euramerica Angra
CARBONIFEROUS: 345 MYA
Gondwanaland
Euramerica
Angra

PANGAEA AND PANTHALASSA

PERMIAN: 299 MYA

Florida
Florida

PANGAEA SPLITS

TRIASSIC: 225 MYA

Gondwanaland Laurasia with Florida
Gondwanaland
Laurasia
with Florida

GONDWANA SPLITS

TRIASSIC: 220 MYA

GONDWANA SPLITS TRIASSIC: 220 MYA

LAURASIA SPLITS

JURASSIC: 180 MYA

LAURASIA SPLITS JURASSIC: 180 MYA

THE MODERN WORLD

HOLOCENE: 2002 AD

THE MODERN WORLD HOLOCENE: 2002 AD

Week 1: Ecological Concepts and Principles: Part I

BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS

I. Ecology defined:

  • A. Heakel 1869: oikos-logy (GR.) “study of home”

  • B. Krebs 1972: An Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions that determine the

distribution and abundance of organisms.”

II. Types of environments

  • A. Natural: natural sites (or undisturbed by human influence)

  • B. Anthropogenic: human modified

    • 1. Domesticated/managed: cultivated

    • 2. Fabricated: developed sites a. Urban-industrial areas act as a “parasite” on natural and domesticated are

III. Levels of analysis

  • A. Organism: an interbreeding species (plural: population) Focus of study: how species abundance and distribution is affected by and affects surrounding environment

  • B. Community: all of the different populations living in a designated area

  • C. Ecosystem: the whole of a community and its surrounding non-living environment interacting

together as a system

  • D. landscape (S. Florida): groups of ecosystems, including fabricated environments

  • E. Biomes: large regional units

  • F. Biosphere: Parts of earth’s air, water and soil where lives exist

Biogeography is the study of the geographic patterns associated with organisms, i.e. the dispersal or distribution and the factors which influence this.

Biogeography is the study of the geographic patterns associated with organisms, i.e. the dispersal or distributiony include, historical events such as continental drift, volcanic eruptions, glacia tions, sea level changes an d paleontology. " id="pdf-obj-6-7" src="pdf-obj-6-7.jpg">
Biogeography is the study of the geographic patterns associated with organisms, i.e. the dispersal or distributiony include, historical events such as continental drift, volcanic eruptions, glacia tions, sea level changes an d paleontology. " id="pdf-obj-6-9" src="pdf-obj-6-9.jpg">

Such factors may include, historical events such as continental drift, volcanic eruptions, glaciations, sea level changes and paleontology.

Biogeography is the study of the geographic patterns associated with organisms, i.e. the dispersal or distributiony include, historical events such as continental drift, volcanic eruptions, glacia tions, sea level changes an d paleontology. " id="pdf-obj-6-24" src="pdf-obj-6-24.jpg">

There are three major types of biogeographic distributions to consider

  • Cosmopolitan

  • Endemic: limited to particular regions 1. Alfred Russell Wallace (and other early biogeographers) realized that many endemic taxa had approximately congruent distributions (e.g., in particular regions of Indonesia), forming "Biogeographic Realms" 2. Although a particular type of habitat might occur in several widely scattered places throughout the world, species in one habitat are more closely related to nearby species in other habitats than to species in the same habitat elsewhere (in other realms)

  • Disjunct: separated

II. Historical causes of disjunct biogeographic distributions A. Dispersal

  • 1. A priori assumption can be tested for the hypothesis that many species can

disperse great distances through environments that could not support survival or reproduction

  • 2. Results of recent dispersals can be observed (e.g., 1883 Krakatoa eruption

killed all life, but within 50 years, the island was covered with forest inhabitants

that clearly came from Java and Sumatra)

  • 3. Several types of dispersal mechanisms (e.g., corridors, filter bridges)

  • 4. Ability to disperse varies greatly from group to group (e.g., bats are the only

mammals native to New Zealand and Hawaii)

  • B. Vicariance (splitting of a taxon's range)

    • 1. Disjunct patterns result from changes imposed on an originally continuous

distribution

For example, the breakup of Gondwanaland in the Mesozoic can

explain the distribution of some ancient groups like ratites and marsupials

Geologist and geographers supported the theory of Alfred Wagner that historically the world as we know it was one landmass surrounded by water.

This land mass was called Pangea, over millions of years due to the shifting of the earths crust the mass was broken into pieces with the largest potion being called Gondwanaland.

Geologist and geographers supported the theory of Alfred Wagner that historically the world as we know

With the freezing and melting of the polar ice caps sea level changes have dictated the distribution of some species throughout the world.

Others have been affected by the desertification of some areas or the migration of rivers in others.

Biogeography of distribution is also influenced by topography and parent material or underlying rock – plant distribution

Soil groups in Florida which range from very poorly drained spodosols to well drained sandy upland soils. Four general soil types are found in Florida they are categorized based on drainage condition and subsequent P-retention. 1 - Very Poorly to Poorly Drai ned Soils (Bays and Savannas)

These soils are found in coastal flat lands in mostly level depressions and stream terraces. Most of these soils are flooded from 5 to 30 days, at least once during the growing season. The water table ranges from 6 to 20 inches below the surface during much of the remaining time. These soils were formed under impeded drainage. Therefore, they contain 10% or more organic matter in the surface horizon and most are very acidic and low in nutrient reserves. Vegetation native to these sites include wiregrass (Aristida stricta), pitcher plants ( Sarracenia minor), some hardwoods, and a poor to fair growth of pine.

In most cases, pine growth is slowed by excessive moisture and lack of available soil phosphorus

2 - Poorly to Somewhat Poorly Drained Soils (Flatwoods)

The flatwoods comprise one of the most extensive groups of forest soils in the Coastal Plain. These acid to loamy sands are low in fertility. Flatwoods soils occupy level to gently sloping flat areas where the water table rises to within 5 to 20 inches of the soil surface for 1 to 4 days, at least once during the growing season. Flatwoods soils support native vegetation such as saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens), wiregrass (Aristida stricta), and slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines (Pinus elliottii, Pinus taeda, and Pinus palustris). Flatwoods soils can be grouped into soils with and without organic pans.

3 - Moderately Well to Well Drained Soils (Sands to loamy sand- clay hills)

Typically, sands occupy nearly level to rolling regions of the lower Coastal Plain. They have gray to brown surface layers overlaying 30 inches or more grayish- to yellowish-brown sands. These sands have a low capacity to retain water, but they have a reasonably good moisture level because of their topographic position.

3 - Moderately Well to Well Drained Soils (Sands to loamy sand- clay hills) Typically, sands
4 - Excessively Drained Sands (Sand hills) Extensive areas of these deep sands are in pines

4 - Excessively Drained Sands (Sand hills)

Extensive areas of these deep sands are in pines in north Florida, Georgia, and the Carolina sand hills.

Sandy soil Dry Hot Little water (percolation) Nutrient poor Cyclic fires

Sandy soil Dry Hot Little water (percolation) Nutrient poor Cyclic fires Many plants trap and retain

Many plants trap and retain water when it is available. Most have shallow root systems with fine roots near the surface to get what nutrients are present and deeper, sinker roots to bring in water.

The leaves on scrub plants are generally small and have a tough texture and tiny bristles or hairs on them to help retain moisture

Species distribution is also dictated by resources present for their survival particularly food and water.

Most organisms distribution occur along the food chain.

Plants are distributed according to the physical constraints of their biome (soil type, nutrient, water availability, temp. alt. Etc.)

Herbivores rely on plant distributions and other animals rely on herbivores for food.

The ability of an area to provide shelter is relevant (holes, caves, rocks, trees etc)

Species distributi <a href=on is also dictated by resources present for their survival particularly food and water. Most organisms distribution occur along the food chain. Plants are distributed according to the physical constraints of their biome (soil type, nutrient, water availability, temp. alt. Etc.) Herbivores rely on plant distributions and other animals rely on herbivores for food. The ability of an area to provide shelter is relevant (holes, caves, rocks, trees etc) " id="pdf-obj-16-24" src="pdf-obj-16-24.jpg">
Species distributi <a href=on is also dictated by resources present for their survival particularly food and water. Most organisms distribution occur along the food chain. Plants are distributed according to the physical constraints of their biome (soil type, nutrient, water availability, temp. alt. Etc.) Herbivores rely on plant distributions and other animals rely on herbivores for food. The ability of an area to provide shelter is relevant (holes, caves, rocks, trees etc) " id="pdf-obj-16-26" src="pdf-obj-16-26.jpg">
Species distributi <a href=on is also dictated by resources present for their survival particularly food and water. Most organisms distribution occur along the food chain. Plants are distributed according to the physical constraints of their biome (soil type, nutrient, water availability, temp. alt. Etc.) Herbivores rely on plant distributions and other animals rely on herbivores for food. The ability of an area to provide shelter is relevant (holes, caves, rocks, trees etc) " id="pdf-obj-16-28" src="pdf-obj-16-28.jpg">

In S Florida our species distribution patterns are dictated by elevation and hydrology. The underlying parent rock is virtually the same throughout and so too is the temperature therefore weathering process are similar.

As such we have several ecosystem types serving as homes to a variety of animal and plant communities.

-Scrub

  • - Hammocks

  • - Freshwater marshes, lakes, rivers and canals

  • - Coastal ecosystems

South Florida's pre-terrestrial geological history (4,500 - 36 MYA).

 

AGE

BIOTIC

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

(MYA)

ABIOTIC FACTORS

EVOLUTION

CENOZOIC

Tertiary

Oligocene

36

cooling begins; ice in south pole only

grasses

Eocene

38

   

AGE

54

warm and humid

OF

Paleocene

55

   

MAMMALS

63

flowering plants, primates

65

meteor hits earth

major extinctions

MESOZOIC

Cretaceous

 

66

no ice in poles

 

100

continued limestone and aquiclude formation

125

Atlantic Ocean begins to form

Sunniland Formation deposited

AGE

134

mild ice age

OF

Jurassic

135

   

150

Limestone deposition begins

REPTILES

180

N.A. splits from Pangaea

birds

189

primitive mammals

190

   

Triassic

220

Fla bedrock attaches to Laurasia (Georgia)

225

volcanic activity; Pangaea splits

greatest extinctions

244

sea level change, salinity change climate change

dinosaurs

PALEOZOIC

Permian

245

 

conifers

299

landmasses collide; Pangaea is formed

Carboniferous

300

 

reptiles, modern insects

345

landmasses converge towards each other

major extinctions

360

AGE

Devonian

395

 

amphibians

OF

405

forests

PRIMITIVE

Silurian

410

 

land plants

LIFE FORMS

440

major extinctions

Ordovivian

445

   

500

fishes

505

coldest ice age ever

major extinctions

Cambrian

506

   

544

Fla bedrock part of Gondwanaland (Africa)

marine invertebrates

PROTEROZOIC

Neoprotozoic

545

   

570

change in sea level

major extinctions

900

Rodinia breaks up

Mesoprotozoic

1,000

   

1,500

Paleoprotozoic

1,600

Rodinia is formed

 

2,500

ARCHAEAN

 

2,600

 

algae, protozoa, sponges

3,600

HADEAN

 

3,800

 

bacteria

4,500

origin of earth

South Florida's terrestrial geological history (25 MYA - 2002 A.D.).

 

AGE

CLIMATE AND

SIGNIFICANT

FLORIDA

CULTURE

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

(YA)

SEA LEVEL

EVENTS

BIOGEOGRAPHY/BIOTA

PERIODS

CENOZOIC

Quarternary

Holocene

present

 

?7th major extinction

   

106

urbanization

165

Indian imigration

AGE

225

pioneer settlement

OF

490

Spanish contact

MAMMALS

2,500

Formative

2,700

modern distribution of flora and fauna

5,000

warm moist climate

Everglades begins to form

modern flora appears

8,500

Archaic

11,000

drying climate

12,000

semi-arid climate

14,000

Pleistocene

17,000

rapid sea level rise begins end of last major glaciation (sea level -450 ft)

extinction of mega fauna

small fauna with diverse habitats dominant oak, hickory, juniper replace pine

Paleo-Indian

100,000

Sangamon Interglacial

Anastasia Formation deposited

180,000

(sea level +25 ft)

Miami and Key Largo Limestone form

1,000,000

loss of east/west biota interchange

bison

1,600,000

1,800,000

Tertiary

Pliocene

2,000,000

arid climate

east/west US interchange of biota

longleaf pine savannas widespread scrub

 

2,500,000

American interchange of biota

ungulates replaced by S. American fauna

Tamiami Formation deposited

5,000,000

grazing animals diversify

Miocene

5,200,000

cooling,drying climate

N. and S. America connect

invasion by temperate flora

 

15,000,000

very warm climate

Hawthorn Formation deposited

subtropical savannas dominant

24,000,000

grazing and browsing ungulates more abundant

Oligocene

25,000,000

warming trend begins ice in north and south poles

first land vertebrates in Florida

subtropical savannas form mesic forest; arboreal and browsing fauna

 

37,000,000

Florida aquifer limestone deposited peninsula emerges

PREHISTORIC BIOTA OF FLORIDA

PREHISTORIC BIOTA OF FLORIDA

25 MYA TO 5,000 YA

25 MYA TO 5,000 YA  Climate:  – several changes, most frequent in Pleistocene; affect
  • Climate:

  • several changes, most frequent in Pleistocene; affect floral distribution and faunal migrations

Flora:

savannas and mesic forests dominant throughout most of prehistoric period scrub and pinelands also significant Fauna:

grazers most dominant fauna, mostly in savannas diverse fauna in forest, marine, and river environments migrations from S. America and western US during Pliocene

HERBIVORE MAMMALS:

HERBIVORE MAMMALS:  LEAF EATERS  FRUIT EATERS  SEED- EATERS  ROOT EATERS  BROWSERS
  • LEAF EATERS

  • FRUIT EATERS

  • SEED- EATERS

  • ROOT EATERS

  • BROWSERS

  • GRASS AND TWIG EATERS

  • GRAZERS

  • GRASS EATERS

POCKET MOUSE: SEED EATERS LATE OLIGOCENE - PLEISTOCENE

POCKET MOUSE: SEED EATERS LATE OLIGOCENE - PLEISTOCENE
POCKET MOUSE: SEED EATERS LATE OLIGOCENE - PLEISTOCENE
POCKET MOUSE: SEED EATERS LATE OLIGOCENE - PLEISTOCENE

BATS:

BATS: FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) LATE OLIGOCENE – PLEISTOCENE

FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) LATE OLIGOCENE PLEISTOCENE

BATS: FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) LATE OLIGOCENE – PLEISTOCENE
BATS: FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) LATE OLIGOCENE – PLEISTOCENE
BATS: FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) LATE OLIGOCENE – PLEISTOCENE

RABBITS: LEAF AND SEED EATERS

LATE OLIGOCENE-PLEISTOCENE
LATE OLIGOCENE-PLEISTOCENE
RABBITS: LEAF AND SEED EATERS LATE OLIGOCENE-PLEISTOCENE

CAPYBARA:

CAPYBARA: LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS

LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS

CAPYBARA: LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS
CAPYBARA: LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS
CAPYBARA: LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS

HORSES: BROWSERS LATE OLIGOCENE LATE-PLIOCENE

HORSES: BROWSERS LATE OLIGOCENE – LATE-PLIOCENE
HORSES: BROWSERS LATE OLIGOCENE – LATE-PLIOCENE
HORSES: BROWSERS LATE OLIGOCENE – LATE-PLIOCENE

PREHISTORIC BIOTA OF FLORIDA

25 MYA to 5,000 YA

Climate:

several changes, most frequent in Pleistocene; affect floral

distribution and faunal migrations

Flora:

savannas and mesic forests dominant throughout most of prehistoric period

scrub and pinelands also significant

Fauna:

Grazers most dominant fauna, mostly in savannas

Diverse fauna in forest, marine, and river environments migrations from S. America and western US during Pliocene

HERBIVORE MAMMALS:

LEAF EATERS FRUIT EATERS SEEDEATERS ROOT EATERS BROWSERS GRASS AND TWIG EATERS GRAZERS GRASS EATERS

POCKET MOUSE:

SEED EATERS Late Oligocene Pleistocene

POCKET MOUSE: SEED EATERS Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene
POCKET MOUSE: SEED EATERS Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene

BATS:

FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) Late Oligocene – Pleistocene

BATS: FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) Late Oligocene – Pleistocene
BATS: FRUIT EATERS (CARNIVORES TOO) Late Oligocene – Pleistocene

RABBITS:

LEAF AND SEED EATERS Late OligocenePleistocene

RABBITS: LEAF AND SEED EATERS Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene

CAPYBARA:

LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS

CAPYBARA: LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS
CAPYBARA: LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS

HORSES: BROWSERS Late Oligocene – LatePliocene

HORSES: BROWSERS Late Oligocene – Late ‐ Pliocene
HORSES: BROWSERS Late Oligocene – Late ‐ Pliocene

PREHISTORIC BIOTA OF FLORIDA

25 MYA to 5,000 YA

Climate:

Several changes, most frequent in Pleistocene; affect floral distribution and faunal migrations

Flora:

Savannas and mesic forests dominant throughout most of prehistoric period scrub and pinelands also significant

• Fauna:

Grazers most dominant fauna, mostly in savannas Diverse fauna in forest, marine, and river environments Migrations from S. America and western US during Pliocene

CARNIVORE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES

Insect eaters • Small vertebrate eaters • Large Vertebrate eaters

FROG: INSECT EATER Late Oligocene – Mid Miocene

FROG: INSECT EATER Late Oligocene – Mid Miocene

INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene

INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene
INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene

SNAKES:

SMALL – LARGE VERTEBRATE EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene

SNAKES: SMALL – LARGE VERTEBRATE EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene
SNAKES: SMALL – LARGE VERTEBRATE EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene
SNAKES: SMALL – LARGE VERTEBRATE EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene

GEKKO:

INSECT EATER Early Miocene ?

GEKKO: INSECT EATER Early Miocene ‐ ?

GILA MONSTER:

INSECT AND SMALL VERTEBRATE EATER Early Miocene – Early Pleistocene

GILA MONSTER: INSECT AND SMALL VERTEBRATE EATER Early Miocene – Early Pleistocene
GILA MONSTER: INSECT AND SMALL VERTEBRATE EATER Early Miocene – Early Pleistocene

SALTWATER CROCODILE:

LARGE VERTEBRATE EATER Mid Miocene

SALTWATER CROCODILE: LARGE VERTEBRATE EATER Mid Miocene

FROG FOSSIL

FROG FOSSIL

SKINKS:

INSECT EATERS Early Miocene – Mid Miocene

SKINKS: INSECT EATERS Early Miocene – Mid Miocene
SKINKS: INSECT EATERS Early Miocene – Mid Miocene

HERBIVORE REPTILE

TORTOISES: LEAF EATERS Late Oligocene

TORTOISES: LEAF EATERS Late Oligocene
TORTOISES: LEAF EATERS Late Oligocene

SONGBIRDS:

FRUIT, SEED, AND INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene Pleistocene

SONGBIRDS: FRUIT, SEED, AND INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene
SONGBIRDS: FRUIT, SEED, AND INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene
SONGBIRDS: FRUIT, SEED, AND INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene

SCRUB JAY:

Late Pliocene Pleistocene

SCRUB JAY: Late Pliocene ‐ Pleistocene

CONDOR: CARRION EATER Late Miocene

CONDOR: CARRION EATER Late Miocene
CONDOR: CARRION EATER Late Miocene

TITANIS:

CARNIVOROUS PREDATOR Late Pliocene

TITANIS: CARNIVOROUS PREDATOR Late Pliocene

CARNIVORE MARINE ANIMALS

SHARK TEETH Late Oligocene Pleistocene

SHARK TEETH Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene
SHARK TEETH Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene

STING RAY:

MOLLUSC EATER Late Oligocene Pleistocene

STING RAY: MOLLUSC EATER Late Oligocene ‐ Pleistocene

HERBIVORE MARINE MAMMAL

PRIMITIVE MANATEE:

LEAF EATER Mid Miocene

PRIMITIVE MANATEE: LEAF EATER Mid Miocene

PREHISTORIC FLORIDA BIOTA

KEY TERMS

Mesic forest:

Forestthat developed in a medium-wet environment. Plants may have been similar to those found in tropical hardwood hammocks today. Arboreal animals:

Tree dwelling animals Temperate (flora and and/or fauna):

Term used to refer to species that live in areas that live in a climate that experiences seasonal freezing temperatures. Subtropical Savanna:

Open dry grasslands with trees being very sparse.

Grazers:

Grass eaters Browsers:

Grass AND twig eaters Ungulates:

Animals with hoofs

Scrub:

a term used to describe the vegetation community that forms in extremely harsh soil and water conditions longleaf pine savanna:

a dry grassland with interspersed islands of long leaf pine east-west biota interchange (2-1 MYA):

An extended hot and dry period led to the migration of desert-dwelling animals from the American southwest into South Florida. Desert plant species also expanded their range into S. Fl during this period. Most of these plants and animals disappeared after the climate cooled and got wetter, but some have remained.

ANIMAL SPECIES LIST: List of prehistoric animals whose remains have been found in South Florida

I. MAMMALS A. HERBIVORES:

POCKET MOUSE: SEED EATERS Late Oligocene - Pleistocene BATS: FRUIT EATERS Late Oligocene – Pleistocene RABBITS: LEAF AND SEED EATERS Late Oligocene-Pleistocene CAPYBARA: LEAF AND FRUIT EATERS Early Pliocene – Early Pleistocene HORSES: BROWSERS Late Oligocene – Late-Pliocene CAMELIDS: GRAZERS Early Miocene – Late Pliocene PROSYNTHETOCERAS: GRAZERS Early Miocene PRONGHORN ANTELOPE: GRAZERS Late Miocene WHITE TAIL DEER: GRAZERS Early Pliocene - Pleistocene RHINOCEROS: BROW SWER Early Miocene – Late Miocene BISON: GRAZER Early Pleistocene GOMPHOTHERIUM: BROWSER Mid Miocene – Late Miocene GIANT GROUND SLOTH: BROWSER Late Pliocene OREODONT: LEAF EATER

Early Miocene - Mid Miocene

B. OMNIVORES

OPPOSSUM:

Late Oligocene - Pleistocene PRIMITIVE PECCARY:

Late Oligocene – Early Pliocene TAPIR:

Early Pleistocene BEAR-LIKE MAMMAL:

Early Miocene – Early Pleistocene

C.

CARNIVORES

HEDGEHOG: INSECT EATER Early Miocene – Late Miocene GIANT ARMADILLO: INSECT EATER Late Pliocene WEASEL-LIKE MAMMAL: EATS SMALL VERTEBRATES Early Miocene CANIDS: EATS LARGE VERTEBRATES Early Miocene SABERCAT: EATS LARGE VETEBRATES Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene JAGUAR: EATS LARGE VERTEBRATES Early Pleistocene

II. BIRDS

A.

SONGBIRDS: OMNIVORES (FRUIT, SEED, AND INSECT EATERS)

MISCELLANEOUS SONGBIRDS ?Late Oligocene – Pleistocene SCRUB JAY:

Late Pliocene - Pleistocene

B.

RAPTORS (SHARP CURVED BEAK AND GRASPING TALON): CARNIVORES

CONDOR: CARRION EATER ?Late Miocene - ? TITANIS: FLIGHTLESS CARNIVOROUS PREDATOR Late Pliocene

III. REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS

A.

CARNIVORES

SNAKES: SMALL – LARGE VERTEBRATE EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene LIZARDS: INSECT EATERS Late Oligocene – Early Pleistocene GEKKO: INSECT EATER Early Miocene - ? GILA MONSTER: INSECT AND SMALL VERTEBRATE EATER Early Miocene – Early Pleistocene SALTWATER CROCODILE: LARGE VERTEBRATE EATER Mid Miocene FROG: INSECT EATER Late Oligocene – Mid Miocene SKINKS: INSECT EATERS Early Miocene – Mid Miocene

B.

HERBIVORE

TORTOISES: LEAF EATERS Late Oligocene

IV. MARINE ANIMALS

A.

CARNIVORES

SHARK

Late Oligocene - Pleistocene STING RAY: MOLLUSC EATER Late Oligocene - Pleistocene

B.

HERBIVORES

PRIMITIVE MANATEE: LEAF EATER Mid Miocene

SOUTH FLORIDA, ITS GEOLOGICAL HISTORY, AND ITS PREHISTORIC BIOTA

I. INTRODUCTION

South Florida defined: no universally accepted definitions or criteria for defining the boundaries exist

  • A. Robertson (1962): “south of the South”

  • B. Botanical definition: Shelford (1978): northern limit of S. Fla. Bounded by southernmost

extent of magnolia forest (from West Palm on the east to Lemon Bay on the west)

  • C. Ecological definition: Extent of “tropical” climate.

    • 1. Simpson (1920) northern limit of S. Fla. Bounded by Fort Lauderdale in the east

to Cape Romano on the west

  • 2. Long and Lakela (1976): Collier, Dade, and Monroe counties

  • D. Definition used in EVR 3013 (see map in physiographic regions.ppt): northern limit of S.

Fla. Bounded by somewhere around Stuart on the east, crossing above Lake Okeechobee to

include watershed and continuing to around Fort Myers to the west.

II. GEOLOGICAL HISTORY: A CHRONOLOGY

See Florida Geological Charts.pdf. and Geo-World.ppt,

III. PRE-TERRESTRIAL GEOLOGICAL HISTORY: BUILDING ON FLORIDA PLATFORM

  • A. The First Sediment Layer

Beginning in the Jurassic about 150 million years ago, limestone and related rocks together (dolomite) with shell material comprised the first type of sediment to form on the bedrock of the Florida

Platform. The limestone derives from dissolved calcium carbonate, which is naturally present in sea water and which is precipitated by physical-chemical and biological processes to form sediments that solidify into various types of limestone. Deposition only occurs during warm interglacial periods when land is submerged under sea water for extended period of time.

  • B. The First Aquifer

Partial dissolving of the limestone created water-conducting channels and pockets. During periods of glaciation, sea level dropped enough to expose the sediments to air; the limestone could fill with

freshwater from rainfall. By the Cretaceous Period (about 100-70 million years ago), the water-filled limestone layer became thousands of feet thick. However, deposition during the Cretaceous included increasing amounts of impermeable rocks and sediment that accumulated on top of the limestone, creating an aquiclude (impermeable layer) and making the water below it inaccessible.

  • C. The Floridan Aquifer

During the period from about 70 to 25 million years ago the deposition of limestone resumed, and thanks to various fluctuations in sea level during that time, the Floridan Aquifer was formed. Water enters the Floridan aquifer from rainfall percolating through soils and permeable rock in northern and central Florida and flows southward through the rock. The northern portions of the Upper Floridan aquifer are used as drinking water, but the southern sections of the aquifer are too salty for drinking.

IV. EARLY TERRESTRIAL GEOLOGICAL HISTORY

  • A. Deposition of Hawthorn Formation

At the beginning of the Miocene Epoch, ever increasing amounts of sand, silt, and clay were transported into Florida by the numerous river systems from the neighboring Appalachian Mountains to the north. These sediments are called clastics. By the late Miocene, these clastics were the dominant type of deposit. The sedimentary layer that resulted is called the Hawthorn Formation. It formed the first permanent land on the Florida Platform.

  • B. The Hawthorn Formation and the Floridan Aquifer

The lower part of the Hawthorn Formation is composed of permeable sediments and the upper part is composed of impermeable sediments. The impermeable clay, marl, and the less porous impure limestone of Miocene age that make up the upper portion of the Hawthorn Formation serves as an aquiclude. This aquiclude forms the boundary of the upper Floridan Aquifer and confines the water in the Floridan Aquifer.

V. MORE RECENT GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS THAT SHAPED THE EVERGLADES

  • A. Deposits of the Sangamon Interglacial

Several major climatic changes during the Pliocene and Pleistocene allowed the development of more recent sediment formations. In most of Florida, the predominant deposits included sand, shells, and limestone. The most recent of deposits were formed during the interglacial period called the Sangamon Interglacial during the period from about 180,000 to 100,000 years ago when sea level was 25 feet higher than today.

  • B. Recent Geological Formations (in order of first to last to form)

    • 1. Tamiami Formation: sand and carbonate sediments. Forms the upper bedrock in the Big Cypress

Swamp.

  • 2. Caloosahatche Formation: sand and seashells

  • 3. Fort Thompson Formation: sand, carbonate, and shells

  • 4. Anastasia Formation: sand and seashells

  • 5. Miami Limestone: granular, non-coralline (oolitic) limestone

  • 6. Key Largo Limestone: fossilized coral reefs

  • C. Biscayne Aquifer

In the Miami to Fort Lauderdale area, the Miami limestone and underlying Ford Thompson Formation together form the Biscayne Aquifer. Part of the Biscayne aquifer is located on the surface and rainfall and water from the central Everglades enter it directly.

VI. PREHISTORIC BIOTA

See Florida Geological Charts.pdf , Prehistoric Biogeography.ppt, and Prehistoric

Biota Species list.doc

SOUTH FLORIDA’S PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS PART 1

Characteristic features and how they support an Ecosystem

EXTENT OF SOUTH FLORIDA

EXTENT OF SOUTH FLORIDA

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS USED IN ECOLOGY OF SOUTH FLORIDA

Flatlands Eastern and Western Flatlands Everglades Atlantic Coastal Ridge Big Cypress Swamp Mangrove and Coastal Region Florida Keys Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Mexico Aquifers

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLATLAND PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Eastern flatlands

Low, sandy, poorly drained area

Mostly pineland, but incorporates prairies, cypress forests and sloughs

Western flatlands

All the area north of the Big Cypress and west of the Everglades

Low-lying, sandy soil from very poorly drained in the south to well drained in the north

Highly diverse: Pine and cypress forest, mixed swamp forest,

freshwater marshes and prairies, grasslands, salt water marshes and mangrove swamps

ECOSYSTEMS FOUND IN FLATLANDS

PINE FLATWOODS CYPRESS FOREST FRESHWATER MARSH SLOUGH WET PRAIRIES SALT MARSH MANGROVE SWAMP

WELL-DRAINED PINE FLATWOOD

WELL-DRAINED PINE FLATWOOD

POORLY DRAINED PINE FLATWOO D

POORLY DRAINED PINE FLATWOO D

VERY POORLY DRAINED PINE FLATWOOD

VERY POORLY DRAINED PINE FLATWOOD

BALD CYPRESS IN CYPRESS FOREST

BALD CYPRESS IN CYPRESS FOREST

FRESHWATER MARSH AND SLOUGH

FRESHWATER MARSH AND SLOUGH

WET PRAIRIE

WET PRAIRIE

SALT MARSH

SALT MARSH

MANGROVE SWAMP

MANGROVE SWAMP

CHARACTERISTICS OF EVERGLADES PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGION

Central feature of Florida (also Lake Okeechobee)

Used to be 100 miles long and 40 miles wide sloping

from an elevation of 17 ft in the north to sea level in

the south Dense vegetation and nearly flat topography cause slow water flow - “sheet flow”

Dominant plant species is sedge-sawgrass, but microscopic algal assemblage called “peryphyton”is

also very important

RELATIVE ELEVATION OF EVERGLADES

RELATIVE ELEVATION OF EVERGLADES

ECOSYSTEMS FOUND IN THE EVERGLADES REGION

MARSHES WET PRAIRIES TREE ISLANDS SLOUGHS, PONDS, AND CREEKS

MARSH AND TREE ISLANDS

MARSH AND TREE ISLANDS

WET PRAIRIE IN DRY SEASON

WET PRAIRIE IN DRY SEASON

SLOUGH OR POND

SLOUGH OR POND

ALLIGATOR IN POND

ALLIGATOR IN POND

SOUTH FLORIDA’S PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS PART 2

Their Characteristic features and an ecosystems they support

EXTENT OF SOUTH FLORIDA

EXTENT OF SOUTH FLORIDA

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS #3

ATLANTIC COASTAL RIDGE

Limestone ridge around 20 ft in elevation at highest points running east coast of South Florida

Ridge served as a dam to keep Everglades waters up to 8-10 ft above sea level

Previously covered by rock pinelands South of Miami, main location of rockland hammocks – (tropical hardwood hammocks)

ECOSYSTEMS FOUND IN THE ATLANTIC COASTAL RIDGE

Rockland's Pinelands

Rockland Hammocks

ROCK PINELAND

ROCK PINELAND

FLORIDA PANTHER IN ROCK PINELAND

FLORIDA PANTHER IN ROCK PINELAND

DESTROYED ROCK PINELANDS

DESTROYED ROCK PINELANDS

ROCKLAND HAMMOCK

ROCKLAND HAMMOCK

BIG CYPRESS SWAMP

Flat, swampy land with higher elevations than Everglades, but with scattered depressions and sloughs Seasonally inundated

Cypress is dominant plant species, but

also includes pines and oaks in hydric hammocks

ECOSYSTEMS FOUND IN THE BIG CYPRESS SWAMP

CYPRESS PONDS

MIXED CYPRESS FORESTS CYPRESS STRANDS

HYDRIC HAMMOCKS

CYPRESS POND

CYPRESS POND

MIXED CYPRESS FOREST

MIXED CYPRESS FOREST

CYPRESS STRAND

CYPRESS STRAND

HYDRIC (WET) HAMMOCK

HYDRIC (WET) HAMMOCK

Mangrove and Coastal Area

Used to be among the largest and best developed mangrove swamps in the world Dominated by mangroves, but include salt marshes, hammock, and beach dune vegetation in some areas

Ecosystems Found in the Mangrove and coastal region

Mangrove

Salt Marsh Hammock

Beach Dune

Estuary

RED MANGROVE IN ESTUARY

RED MANGROVE IN ESTUARY

MANGROVE FOREST

MANGROVE FOREST

SALT MARSH

SALT MARSH

COASTAL HAMMOCK

COASTAL HAMMOCK

BEACH DUNE

BEACH DUNE
Generally wet subtropical, but not all of South Florida has same climate Tropical savanna (Aw): tropical

Generally wet subtropical, but not all of South Florida has same climate

Tropical savanna (Aw): tropical rainy climate with a pronounced dry season or drought period west of coastal ridge, south of L. Okeechobee

Transitional tropical (Am): tropical rainy climate with a very short dry season along coastal ridge from Ft. Pierce to Homestead

Humid mesothermal (Caf): definite seasons with long summer and mild winter north of Lake Okeechobee

Rainfall Average annual rainfall: 50-60 inches Highest rainfall along east coast over the Everglades Lowest

Rainfall

Average annual rainfall: 50-60 inches

Highest rainfall along east coast over the Everglades

Lowest rainfall in Key West

May and October are pivotal months with inconsistent 60% of average annual rainfall

November to April – dry season -25% rainfall

Temperature

Annual average temperature = 72 o F

Mean daily maximum summer temperature = 91 o F

Mean daily maximum winter temperature = 75 o F

Seasons Dry season: November to April Wet season: May to October • Other Second highest

Seasons Dry season: November to April Wet season: May to October • Other Second highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world

Highest annual frequency of lightning strikes in the US

Droughts and increased average temperatures Hurricanes Freezes

Droughts and increased average temperatures

Hurricanes Freezes

Most common in spring at end of dry season Can increase fire frequency Can reduce

Most common in spring at end of dry season

Can increase fire frequency

Can reduce water table for Biscayne aquifer increases probability of salt water intrusion

Increases probability of hyper-salinity of brackish waters

Average of 4-6 hurricanes per year in Caribbean Strike coastal Florida once every 6-8 years

Average of 4-6 hurricanes per year in Caribbean Strike coastal Florida once every 6-8 years Highest frequency between September and October Destruction caused by wind, waves, storm surge, and rain Help shape plant communities

Uproot trees and break their limbs opening up areas to sunlight

Damage trees increasing susceptibility to insect disease Marl and seawater may be carried inland smothering plants and making soil saline coastal salinity of estuaries is decreased by rainfall winds distribute seeds and seedlings to new areas

Very infrequent • Several species of flora are freeze sensitive Manchineel, guava, coco plum, buttonwood, mangroves

Very infrequent • Several species of flora are freeze sensitive Manchineel, guava, coco plum, buttonwood, mangroves Manatee and fish among most sensitive fauna

Very infrequent • Several species of flora are freeze sensitive Manchineel, guava, coco plum, buttonwood, mangroves

ECOSYSTEMS, HABITATS, AND RELATED COMMUNITIES COVERED IN ECOLOGY OF SOUTH FLORIDA EVR 3013/5061

I. UPLAND ECOSYSTEMS

  • A. Tropical Hardwood Hammock

  • B. Pine Rockland

  • C. Pine Flatwood

II. FRESHWATER WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS

  • A. Freshwater Marshes

  • 1. Sawgrass marsh

  • 2. Flag marsh

  • 3. Water lily marsh

  • B. Wet Prairies

a.

Marl prairie

b.

Peat prairie

  • C. Aquatic Ecosystems

  • 1. Slough

  • 2. Creeks

  • 3. Ponds, (alligator holes, solution holes)

  • D. Wetland Tree Islands (wet part of tree islands)

  • 1. Bay heads

  • 2. Willow heads

  • 3. Cypress heads

  • E. Freshwater Swamps

  • 1. Cypress domes/ponds

  • 2. Mixed swamp forest

  • 3. Cypress strand

  • 4. Dwarf cypress forest

III. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

  • A. Intertidal (Inshore) Ecosystem

  • 1. Mangrove Swamps and Islands

  • 2. Salt Marshes

  • 3. Tidal Creeks

  • 4. Estuaries/Bays a Shallow soft bottom Seagrass

Mud banks

b.

Deep soft bottom (unvegetated) “lakes”

 

Plankton (above sediment)

Benthos communities (in and on sediment)

Hard bottom Oyster bars *B. Marine (Offshore) Ecosystem

c.

  • 1. Seagrass

  • 2. Live bottom

  • 3. Reefs

a.

Coral reefs

Bank reefs

Patch reefs

b.

Worm reefs

c.

Vermetid (gastropod) reefs

*C. Beach (Shore) Ecosystem

1.

fore dune

  • 2. dune front

  • 3. back dune

IV. LAKE OKEECHOBEE

1. Littoral (shallow near-shore)

  • a. Willow community

  • b. Beakrush community

  • c. Sawgrass community

  • d. Waterlily community

  • e. Bulrush community

  • f. Submerged community

2. Pelagic (open water)

* Not discussed in the Everglades Handbook

ECOSYSTEMS: COMPONENTS, FUNCTIONS, AND PROPERTIES

I. Components of ecosystems

  • A. Biotic (Biological/Living)

    • 1. Biotic components

      • a. Autotrophic (producers): green plants, algae

      • b. Heterotrophic (consumers) herbivores: eat plants and plant materials (seeds, fruits, twigs)

carnivores: eat other animals, including insects omnivores: herbivores and carnivores

saprovores: decompose organic material (mostly bacteria and fungi) 2. Description of biotic characteristics

Floral (plants)

  • a. Number of total species

  • b. Relative abundance of species

  • c. Spatial characteristics:

Vertical composition: description of the vertical layers of a forest Canopy: top layer of a forested area usually the tallest growing trees Sub canopy: the top layer of the next tallest growing region, usually shrubs or trees Ground layer: the ground cover, usually grasses and herbs

Over story: isolated trees whose tops extend above the canopy usually tall palms and pine trees Vines and epiphytes: not really layers, but plant types found in all layers of the forest Zonation: Pattern of distribution of communities found within an ecosystem. For example, fore dune vs back dune, nearshore vs offshore, littoral vs pelagic zones.

  • d. Origins of species Endemic: plants found only in the given ecosystem Exotic: plants introduced by humans into the given ecosystem

Faunal (animals)

  • a. Number of total species

  • b. Relative abundance of species

  • c. Origins of species

  • d. Endemic: animals found only in the given ecosystem

  • e. Exotic: animals introduced by humans into the given ecosystem

  • B. Abiotic (Physical/Non-Living)

    • 1. Abiotic factors

      • a. Energy: Solar, wind, water currents, energy in food, fuel

      • b. Matter: inorganic and organic

      • c. Fire Major environmental factor especially important in forest and grassland regions

Helps to maintain certain fire-adapted forms of vegetation and associated animals (birds

etc

. .

.)

acts as a decomposer in dry or hot regions by releasing nutrients in dry litter

Periodic fires prevent severe fires by reducing the combustible litter

  • 2. Descritpion of abiotic characteristics

    • a. Topography: physical surface features

    • b. Hydroperiod: Average annual duration of flooding

    • c. Hydropattern: Depiction of water levels above and below the ground

    • d. Fire frequency and intensity

 

Other abiotic characteristics: salinity, temperature, humidity, pH, levels of toxic chemicals or heavy metals

e.

 

II. Functions of ecosystems

  • A. Energy flows

1.

Energy flow through biosphere

Dissipation of solar energy as it passes into the atmosphere, oceans, and the greenbelts warms the

biosphere to life-sustaining levels, drives the hydrological cycle, and powers weather systems.

2.

Energy flow through biotic communities in the form of food chains Food chains: predation series linking animals to ultimate plant food

3.

Productivity: food availability

a.

primary production: amount of organic matter converted from solar energy by autotrophs in a

given area over a given period of time

b.

net primary production: surplus amount of matter stored in a plant potentially available to

 

heterotrophs

 

c.

secondary production: energy storage at consumer levels (i.e. in cows)

 
  • B. Material cycling

1.

The circular paths of material elements passing back and forth between organisms and the

 

environment

2.

Major types of cycles

Hydrological, nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles

 

III. Properties of ecosystems

  • A. Transcending functions

Functions that serve to link ecological units at different levels of organization

“What happens at one level affects what happens at another level.”

 

Example: freshwater marshes are at a lower level of organization than the freshwater wetland ecosystem. Yet, the degradation of the freshwater marshes can disrupt the entire freshwater

 

wetland ecosystem.

  • B. Emergent property principle

As components or subsets are combined to produce larger functional wholes, new properties emerge that were not present at the level below. Example 1: The combination of freshwater and salt water in Florida Bay creates conditions to support plant and animal life not found in either surrounding freshwater or salt water environments. Example 2: The emergent property of size. Ten lots of wetlands 1 acre in size each will support a

 

much lower abundance and diversity of life than can be found in a single contiguous 10 acre lot. Therefore, it is important to keep large areas of natural environment intact rather than trying to maintain many smaller areas intact.

IV. Other key concepts relevant to ecosystems

  • A. Habitat: place where a species can be found

  • B. Niche: the ecological role of an organism in its community

  • C. Biodiversity: the variety of life forms and the genetic diversity they contain measured by:

1.

Richness: variety of species

2.

Relative abundance of species: the quantity of any given species

  • D. Community species structure: the species composition of the community

1.

Ecological dominants: the most common species. Example: pine trees in pinelands

2.

Keystone species: species that exert a controlling influence. May be used to indicate ecological

status of a community. Example: Gopher tortoises dig holes that protect many ground dwelling animals during forest fires. Their disappearance indicates a trend toward higher risk for those ground dwelling animals.

3.

Density: number of species per given area usually a much better indicator of fitness in that

environment than abundance alone.

  • E. Ecotones: points of change between ecosystems wherein interaction between ecosystems exists. Example: the transitional region between rock pinelands and rockland hammocks

CONDITIONS INFLUENCING ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS:

EVOLUTION, NATURAL SELECTION, AND SPECIES INTERACTIONS

I. Conditions influencing abundance and distribution of organisms

The abundance and distribution of all species alive today is the result of biotic and abiotic factors interacting throughout evolutionary history into the present.

  • A. Abiotic factors and conditions (see above)

  • B. Biotic Factors

    • 1. Organism biology (physiology + anatomy)

      • a. rates of birth, death

      • b. biological adaptations: resistance to fire, flooding

  • 2. Behavior

    • a. Migration

    • b. Interspecies interactions (see below)

II. Evolution

  • A. Evolution defined

1.

. . .

evolution is merely change

. . .

Biological evolution

. . .

is change in the properties of

populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual (Futuyma 1986).”

  • 2. Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many

generations. III. Natural selection: mechanism of evolution

  • A. Basic principles to the theory of natural selection

    • 1. Every species is composed of a great variety of individuals, some of which are better-adapted to

their environment than others.

  • a. natural selection operates on genetic and behavioral variation within a population

  • 2. Offspring inherit traits from their parents at least to some degree and in some way

  • 3. Since better-adapted individuals generally produce more offspring over the generations than the

poorer-adapted, the frequency of adaptive traits increases in subsequent generations.

IV. Interspecies interactions

  • A. Competition: When populations of different species compete for scarce resources in a given area.

Both populations inhibit or have some negative effect on each other. May lead to either the elimination of one species or the coexistence of species. Example 1: In an enclosed hardwood tropical hammock, seedlings may compete for sunlight. The different species may be able to coexist, but the population size of the seedlings will be less than it would be if there were no competitions. Species that are not able to adequately compete may be eliminated from the ecosystem.

Example 2: In the Everglades, many water bird species feed in the few remaining ponds during dry season, increasing the competition for fish. However, the birds manage to coexist thanks to different their feeding strategies. Nonetheless, as competition intensifies, population size decreases.

  • B. Predation: When populations of one species (predator) depend on eating of other species (prey) for

survival. Positive for the predator, negative for the prey, but may be positive for the population

(culling the weak). Example: Sharks are top predators in marine environments. They prefer to select prey that demonstrates weakness or injury since they are easier to catch.

C. Parasitism: When an organism lives in or on a host, which serves as an energy source and habitat. Negative for the host, positive for the parasite. Parasites tend to have high rates of reproduction. Example: The ecologist, Eugene Odum referred to urban development as an example of parasitism by humans of the natural environment. As the urban development grows and spreads, it depletes the natural environment of the energy stored in plants and animals, having to increasingly import energy sources from other areas for survival.

  • D. Commensalism: When one species, the commensal, benefits from its relationsip with another,

which is not affected. Example: Long strands of Spanish moss are sometimes found hanging down from the branches of oak trees. The oak trees are not affected, but the Spanish moss needs them for their

survival. E. Mutualism: When two or more species interact in a relationship where both species benefit from the interaction. The interaction may be optional (cooperation) or essential for the survival of both partners (mutualism). Example: The algae, zooxanthellae, lives inside the cells of coral polyps. This relationship provides a permanent base upon which the algae can gorw and receive sunlight. Photosynthesis by the algae provides essential nutrient supplements necessary for the survival of the coral polyps.

DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION OF COMMUNITIES

I. Succession: The process of going through a youth-to-maturity development process over a period of 1000 years or less. Also called ecosystem development

  • A. Involves changes in organisms and the physical environment

  • B. Continual process in the landscape

  • C. Follows a definite pattern

    • 1. seral stages: series of temporary or pioneer communities

    • 2. climax stage: more permanent communities lasting hundreds or thousands of years

II. Types of succession

  • A. Primary succession: begins on site where conditions for life are not favorable: tends to be slow

  • B. Secondary succession: tends to be fast

    • 1. development on sites previously occupied by well-developed communities

    • 2. development on sites where nutrients and other conditions for life are favorable (abandoned

gardens)

Hammocks:

NAME(S): Tropical Hardwood Hammock, Rockland Hammock I. INTRODUCTION

“Hammock” - a fertile area in the southern U.S. and especially Florida that is usually higher than its surroundings and that is characterized by hardwood vegetation and humus-rich soil (Webster) Working definition: Hammocks are broad-leaved, evergreen forests with a closed canopy

There are only about 40 acres of tropical hardwood hammocks left in the Reserve, with the largest single community located on Cannon Island. Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (RBNERR) has hammocks on sand and shelly ridges, limestone outcroppings, and some shell mounds. Plants favoring alkaline conditions thrive on these ridges; some are natural and some have been enhanced by the Calusa Indians Along both coasts of southern Florida, scattered throughout the Everglades, and especially in the Florida Keys, there exist dense, a thick dense vine-entangled forests called tropical hardwood hammocks

II. DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fl Keys, Big Cypress Swamp Hammocks are often found on higher ground (more resistant) than surrounding area. Craighead estimated that there were once more than 500 hammocks (0.1-40 ha) on Miami Rockland scattered among pine rockland. Hammocks can be successional phases of pine flatwoods, scrub, pine rocklands and beach strand vegetation.

III. DESCRIPTION

  • A. ABIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    • 1. Physical Attributes

      • a. Usually flat, but do occur on ridges

      • b. Topography often irregular due to solution features

      • c. Large sinks may be present

  • 2. Geology and Soils

    • a. Underlain by Pleistocene marine limestones --Miami, Key Largo and Tamiami, Anastasia, and Ft. Thompson Formations

    • b. Soils: Shallow with high organic content but often with a well-developed humus layer. Plants

  • often establish in organic matter trapped between solution features.

    • 3. Hydrology

      • a. Well-drained when over limestone solution features

      • b. Moderately to poorly drained in sandier soils

      • c. Poorly drained when derived from swamp soils

  • 4. Fire

  • Hammocks are relatively fire proof as long as the water table remains within a few feet of the ground surface during the dry season

    • B. BIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS 1. GENERAL FLORAL DESCRIPTION

    Approximately 306 species of plants have been accounted for in tropical hammocks. Most of these plants are common to the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. South Florida hammocks consist of broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees, many vines, air plants, and ferns. Tree height is kept to 55 feet or less due to cold snaps, lightning, and storms. Due to the great diversity of plant species in hammocks, no single species dominates. Some of the most common tree

    species of the hammocks include several varieties of the fig tree, white stopper (Eugenia axillaris), gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba), live oak (Quercus virginiana), pigeon plum (Cocoloba diversifolia), wild tamarind (Lysiloma latisliqua), false (wild) mastic (Mastichodendron foetidissimum), and paradise tree (Simaroubaglauca). Less frequent is the Florida royal palm (Roystoneaelata))

    • a. CANOPY LAYER

    Variable composition, to 20m high Dominants: sometimes single species Bursera simarouba (gumbo limbo), Coccoloba diversifolia (pigeon plum), Lysiloma latisliquum (wild tamarind), Metopium toxiferum (poison wood), Quercus virginiana (live oak) Density: High density to 7500 stems per hectare

    See Chapter 5, Table 5.1 Selected Native trees and shrubs of Everglades Tropical Hardwood Hammocks

    • b. OTHER LAYERS

    Subcanopy and shrub layer: Variable - may or may not be obvious

    Ground herb layer: May be sparse Vines: Vines are often very abundant, especially in disturbed sites Epiphytes (non-parasitic plants that grow on other plants and receive their nutrients from the air): Epiphytes are often abundant, including many ferns, bromeliads, and orchids.

    • c. ENDEMICS

    No endemic species

    • d. EXOTICS

    Ardisia solanacea: shoebutton ardisia Carica papaya: papaya Dioscorea bulbifera: air potato Jasminum spp.:jasmine Schinus terebinthifolius: Brazilian pepper e. DIVERSITY Diversity is among the highest at the community level. More than 150 tree species occur in Dade, Collier and Monroe county hammocks 2. GENERAL FAUNAL DESCRIPTION The historic range of the Florida black bear, Florida panther, bobcat (Lynx rufus), and white tail deer used to include hammocks, but most of the animals of the hammocks were smaller. Today, the reduced population of the larger mammals and the conversion of the rock ridge to urban lands have further increased the dominance of small mammals in the hammocks. Two of the most common hammock mammals, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoon (Procyonlotor), are common also to all other natural areas of Dade County. The hammock birds are mostly songbirds that feed on fruits, insects, or small lizards. Some of the most familiar and abundant species include the blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), and cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Some of the more common amphibians and reptiles include the southern toad (Bufo terrestris), green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), black racer (Coluber constrictor), and green anole (Anolis caroliniensis). IV. FACTORS INFLUENCING SPECIES ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION A. ABIOTIC FACTORS

    The vegetative characteristics of hammocks are determined by various local conditions including climate, surrounding vegetation, elevation and limestone composition

    V. SUCCESSION

    Fire maintains the species composition of pine rocklands. In the absence of fire, hardwood species generally invade. Pines do not regenerate in their own shade. Hammock species (including Metopium toxiferum, Swietenia mahogoni, Bursera simarouba, and Dipholis salicifolia) increase in the absence of fire. As a result, successional changes lead to changes in the soil. Organic matter accumulates,

    shading increases, soil moisture increases and resistance to fire increases.

    VI. HUMAN USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE

    Various plants were used for food by prehistoric and historical Native American Indian populations. Hammocks were also important sources of medicinal plants like leather fern, beauty berry, satin leaf, strangler fig, wax myrtle, live oak, white stopper, and cabbage palm. Mammals and birds in

    hammocks were sources of food and pelts. Most hammocks north of Miami have disappeared and remaining hammocks include exotic species introduced since the Spanish period.

    I. PLANTS

    • 1. Trees

    SPECIES LIST FOR HAMMOCKS

    Live oak: Quercus virginiana Laurel oak: Quercus laurifolia Red bay: Persea borbonia Gumbo limbo: Bursera simaruba Pigeon plum: Coccoloba diversifolia Poison wood: Metopium toxiferum Strangler fig: Ficus aurea Sea grape: Coccoloba uvifera Wild tamarind: Lysiloma latiliquum Jamaica dogwood: Piscidia piscipula West Indian mahagony: Swietenia mahogany Florida Royal palm: Roystonea regia Sugarberry, hackberry Celtis laevigata Red mulberry: Morus rubra Lancewood: Ocotea coriacea West Indian Cherry:Prunus myrtifolia Satinleaf: Chrysophyllum oliviforme False mastic: Sideroxylon foetidissimum Willow mastic: Sideroxylon salicifolium

    • 2. Shrubs Marlberry: Ardisia escallonoides Myrsine: Myrsine floridana Spanish stopper: Eugenia foetida White stopper: Eugenia axillaris Tetrazygia: Tetrazygia bicolorT Rough velvetseed: Guettarda scabra Wild coffee: Psychotria nervosa Brazilian pepper: Schinus terebinthifoliusEX Shoebutton ardisia: Ardisia ellipticaEX Cabbage palm: Sabel palmetto Tallow Wood, hog plum: Ximenia americana Wild lime, lime pricklyash: Zanthoxylum fagara Poisonwood, florida poisontree: Metopium toxiferum Spicewood; Calyptranthes pallens

    • 3. Epiphytes Butterfly orchid: Encyclia tampensisT Resurrection fern: Pleopeltis polypodioides Cardinal air plant: Tillandsia fasciculataC

    • 4. Vines Muscadine grape: Vitis rotundifolia Air potato: Dioscorea bulbiferaEX

    II. ANIMALS

    • 1. Birds

    White-crowned pigeon: Columba leucocephalaT Northern cardinal: Cardinalis cardinalis Wild turkey: Melagris gallopavo Red-shouldered hawk: Buteo lineatus

    Common flicker: Colaptes auratus Black vulture: Coragyps atratus Bluejay: Cyanocitta cristata Palm warbler: Dendroica palmarum Gray catbird: Dumetella carolinensis Red-bellied woodpecker: Melanerpes carolinus Northern mockingbird: Mimus polyglottos[state bird] Barred owl: Strix varia Mourning dove: Zenaida macroura

    • 2. Reptiles

    Carolina anole: Anolis carolinensis

    Brown anole: Anolis sagreEXi Black racer: Coluber constrictor diamondback rattlesnake: Crotalus adamanteus Red rat snake: Elaphe guttata Southern five-lined skink:Eumeces inexpectatus Green iguana: Iguana iguanaEX Rough green snake: Opheodrys aestivus Pygmy rattlesnake: Sistrurus miliarius Box turtle: Terrapene carolina

    • 3. Amphibians

    Southern toad: Bufo terrestris Green tree frog: Hyla cinera

    • 4. Mammals Opossum: Didelphis virginiana Gray squirrel: Sciurus carolinensis Florida panther: Felis concolor ssp. coryi [state animal] Bobcat: Lynx rufus Raccoon: Procyon lotor Gray fox: Urocyon cinereoargenteus Florida black bear: Ursus americanus ssp. floridanusT White-tailed deer: Odocoileus virginanus Key deer: Odocoileus virginanus claviumT

    Wild hog: Sus scrofaEX

    • 5. Invertebrates

      • a. Spiders Golden orb weaver: Nephila clavipes Star spider: Gasteracantha elipsoides

      • b. Butterflies Gulf fritillary: Agraulis vanillae

    Monarch: Danaus plexippus Atala: Eumaeus atala Long-tailed skipper: Goniurus proteus Zebra longwing: Heliconius charitonius[state butterfly] Giant swallowtail: Heraclites cresphontes

    • c. Insects Freshwater Mosquito: Psorophora confinnis Black saltmarsh mosquito: Aedes taeniorhynchus Fire beetle: Pyrophorus spp. Honey bee: Apis mellifera

    Palmetto bug: Periplaneta americana Lubber Grasshopper: Romalea microptera d. Gastropods Tree snail: Liguus fasciatusSSC e. Crustaceans Land crab: Gecarcinus lateralis

    For superscript by species name: C = commercially exploited, SSC = species of special concern, T = threatened. Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission listings. EX = exotic.

    NAME(S): Pine Flatwoods DISTRIBUTION

    Pine Flatwoods are found scattered throughout Florida. They are especially common in flat, sandy central and northern regions of the state. The Apalachicola, Ocala, and Osceola National Forests are

    among the sites to visit in order to explore natural pine Flatwoods. Tosohatchee State Reserve and Oscar Scherer State Recreation Area also have Flatwoods ecosystems. In general, mostly Western Flatwoods, but also Eastern Flatwoods physiographic regions. Most extensive terrestrial ecosystem in Florida, occur throughout the southeastern coastal plain; occupy 50% of Florida's land area. Most extensive community in south Florida except for freshwater marsh, i.e. the Everglades. Occur in areas of low flat topography, relatively poorly-drained, acidic sandy soils, sometimes underlain by organic matter and occupies old, flat shallow marine deposits.

    II. DESCRIPTION

    • A. ABIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

      • 1. PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

    Low relief, flat, low runoff

    • 2. GEOLOGY/SOILS

    Poorly drained, fine-textured sands, low clay

    • 3. HYDROLOGY

    Poor permeability results in standing water, pine needle litter decreases evaporation

    • 4. FIRE

    S. Fl. Slash pine is among the most fire tolerant pines, exceeded in tolerance only by long-leaf pine, grass-stage very fire resistant. Saw palmetto and wire grass highly flammable, promote fire. Cutthroat grass, broom sedge and wire grass do not flower without fire. Ideal fire frequency is once every 4 to 7 years; range managers recommend 2-year burn cycle. Some Ecological Effects of Fire in Pinelands:

    • a. Matter cycles and energy flows Release minerals as ash Increase decomposition rates Recycles stems, leaves, bark and wood

    Reduce plant cover thus increase intensity of sunlight Stimulates an increase of net primary production

    • b. Plant community composition

    Release seeds

    Reduces competition

    Stimulates vegetative reproduction

    Stimulates flowering and fruiting

    Selectively eliminates some species

    Influences succession rate and direction

    • c. Wildlife habitat and populations Increases forage available for herbivores

    Regulates insect populations (food for birds)

    Eliminates some insects

    • B. BIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

      • 1. GENERAL FLORAL DESCRIPTION Characterized by an open overstory of pines, extensive low shrub understory, and a sparse herbaceous (grassy) layer. Dominant trees include mostly Dade County slash pine (P.Elliottii var. densa), but also longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). Understory includes a wide variety of shrubs including saw palmetto and wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera). Herbaceous layer is mostly grasses, dominated by wiregrass (Aristida stricta).

    a. CANOPY LAYER Dominated by slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa). May reach 30 m but often stunted because of underlying hardpan. Density varies considerably from tens of trees to 5,000+ per hectare.

    b. OTHER LAYERS

    Shrubs vary considerably, shrub canopy ranges from 0.5-2m tall, often discontinuous or

    multi-layered. Herb layer may be sparse or absent

    c. ENDEMICS Nemastylis floridana (ixia) Panicum abscissum Cutthroat grass Polygala rugelii Yellow bachelor's button Sabal etonia Scrub palmetto d. EXOTICS Melaleuca quinquenervia Melaleuca Schinus terebinthifolius Brazilian pepper e. DIVERSITY

    Dry pineland: 303 Seasonally wet pineland: 361

    2. GENERAL FAUNAL DESCRIPTION

    Birds and small mammals comprise largest diversity followed by amphibians, reptiles, and large

    mammals, particularly deer. Animal density often low, particularly birds and mammals. Pine Bark beetle (Ips spp.) may be a keystone animal.

    III. FACTORS INFLUENCING SPECIES ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION A. ABIOTIC FACTORS

    Fire, and elevation, topography, and soil conditions that affect water flow and drainage.

    IV. SUCCESSION

    Fire maintains the species composition of pine Flatwoods. In the absence of fire, hardwood species generally invade. Pines do not regenerate in their own shade. Succession changes lead to changes in the soil, oaks for example can penetrate the hardpan of spodosols, invasion of bay head species can increase soil organic matter content.

    V. HUMAN USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE

    Early settlers attempted agriculture and introduced livestock. Area has since been largely been cleared

    for urbanization and fire frequencies have decreased.

    NAME(S): Rockland Pinelands, Pine Rocklands, Rocky Pinelands

    I. INTRODUCTION

    We pursued our way through a pine-barren, the ground being formed of coral rocks jutting out in sharp

    points like oyster beds, which caused us great suffering by cutting through our boots and lacerating our feet at every step. We suffered also very much for lack of water, not a drop even of that which was stagnant was to be met with in this parched up region. It was certainly the most dreary and pandemonium region I ever visited; nothing but barren wastes where no grateful verdure quickened, and no generous plant took root - where the only generous herbage to be found was stinted, and the shrubbery was bare, where the hot-steaming atmosphere constantly quivered over the parched and cracked land-without shade-without water-it was intolerable-

    excruciating. ...

    But there was neither brook, nor bird, nor any living thing except snakes to be met

    with. (Army Surgeon J.R. Motte, describing a trek to Long Pine Key 24 April 1838). II. DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fla. Keys, Big Cypress Swamp

    • A. Upland areas of extreme southern Florida underlain by limestones. Most of the rock lands have

    been cleared for housing and agriculture.

    • B. Geographic Range: Southern Florida (Dade, Broward, Collier and Monroe Counties).

    • C. Remnants: Outside Everglades National Park less than 2% of original pine rock lands remain and

    only three sites exceed 50 ha.

    III. DESCRIPTION

    • A. ABIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

      • 1. PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

    Upland rock outcrops, usually with little relief, may be marked with solution holes

    • 2. GEOLOGY/SOILS

    Underlain by three Pleistocene marine limestone’s - Miami, Key Largo and Tamiami Formations

    a.

    b.

    Soils are shallow with high organic content. Plants often establish in organic matter trapped

    between solution features.

    c.

    Shallow depressions in the rock contain fine, reddish-brown sandy loam, which are slightly

    acidic and have less than 10% organic matter. The name "Redlands" is derived from this soil

     

    type.

    d.

    In lower areas marls may develop over the limestone.

    e.

    Rockdale - common soil type on rock lands.

    • 3. HYDROLOGY

    Well-drained due to limestone solution features, higher pinelands seldom flood, lower pinelands adjacent to wet prairies may remain inundated for several months of the year.

    • 4. FIRE

    a.

    Fires usually burn only at the surface and do not enter the sparse canopy.

    b.

    Open canopy allows rapid drying of litter

    c.

    Ideal fire frequency is once every 2-3 to 10-15 years

    d.

    Hardwood shrubs and palms experience little mortality due to fire

    e.

    Pineland herbs grow rapidly and reproduce following fire, several species flower infrequently

    except in burned areas.

    Andropogon cabansii Imperata brasiliensis Ipomoea microdactyla Liatris tenuifolia Stenandrium dulce Tripsacum floridanum

    B. BIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    • 1. GENERAL FLORAL DESCRIPTION

    Over 300 species of plants have been accounted for in the rockland pinelands many of which are indigenous herbaceous species. The dominant tree species of the rock pinelands is the South

    Florida variety of slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa), the principal shrub is saw palmetto (Serenoarepens), and cabbage palm (Sabalpalmetto) is also common. Several hardwood trees and shrubs are supported, including live oak (Quercus virginiana). High degree of plant endemicity. 20+ species including milk pea (Galactiapinetorum) and narrow-leaved poinsettia (Poinsettiapinetorum). Although coonti (Zamia pumila) may have been abundant historically in pinelands, no physical evidence of coonti from any archaeological site in South Florida has been found. Did early Seminole settlers introduce it and prehistoric Indians never utilize it?

    • a. CANOPY LAYER

    Dominated by slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa) with a low density of about 500 trees per hectare.

    • b. OTHER LAYERS

    1. Subcanopy: Rarely developed but may occur where fire has been suppressed. Species include live oak, poison wood, wild tamarind, and silver thatch palm 2. Shrub composition and size varies considerably, open canopy and little soil development makes conditions harsh. More than 90 species have been recorded in shrub layer. Most of

    these are tropical. Only 7 flatwood species occur.

    3. Herb layer may be sparse or diverse, more than 250 herb species occur in rocklands, with more than half restricted to rocklands.

    • c. ENDEMICS 42 taxa including Cassia keyensis (Big Pine partridge pea) Galactia pinetorum (narrow-leaf milkpea) Jacquemontia curtissii Melanthera parvifolia Poinsettia pinetorum Myrcianthes fragrans var. simpsonii (Simpson's stopper)

    • d. EXOTICS Albizzia lebbeck (Mother-in-law's tongue) Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper) Neyraudia reynaudiana (silk reed) Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass)

    • e. DIVERSITY

    One of richest communities in southern Florida

    Total Number of Plant Species Dry Pineland: 303 Seasonally Wet Pineland: 361

    Total Number of Shrub Species Lower Florida Keys and Long Pine Key: 60 Biscayne Pinelands: 40 Big Cypress Pinelands: 30

    • 2. GENERAL FAUNAL DESCRIPTION

    Animal density often low, particularly birds and mammals. Keystone Species include Pine Bark beetle (Ips spp.) Some of the animals associated with the rock pinelands include the pine

    warbler (Dendroica pinus), redshoulder hawk (Buteo lineatus), eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and pigmy rattler. Pinelands are also considered to be one of the

    habitats most frequented by the white tail deer (Layne 1984), which has been one of the sources of meat for humans in South Florida across time.

    IV. FACTORS INFLUENCING SPECIES ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION A. ABIOTIC FACTORS

    Fire plays a major role in the maintenance of plants in pinelands. The establishment of pine seedlings after fires is improved, the flowering and growth of herbaceous species are intensified, and growing conditions of the saw palmetto are improved by fire. It is estimated that if fire were excluded from pinelands in this region for a period of twenty to thirty years, the natural succession would be tropical hammocks with a relict overstory of pines. Hammocks provide little ground-level fuel for fire, so fire frequency is reduced.

    V. SUCCESSION

    Fire maintains the species composition of pine rocklands. In the absence of fire, hardwood species

    generally invade. Pines do not regenerate in their own shade. Successional changes lead to changes in the soil. Organic matter accumulates, shading increases, soil moisture increases and resistance to fires increases. Hammock species increase in the absence of fire, including: Metopium toxiferum, Swietenia mahogoni, Bursera simarouba, and Dipholis salicifolia. VI. HUMAN USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE

    Various plants were used as sources of food by prehistoric and Native American Indian populations such as spike sedge, saw palmetto, and coontie. Some plants were used medicinally, such as broom grass and slash pine. Mammals were exploited for food and pelts. The rockland pinelands were the first area to be settled and developed and are the most extensively modified of all S. Fl communities. Over 98% of original rock pinelands have been depleted.

    SPECIES LIST FOR PINE FLATWOODS

    I. PLANTS

    • 1. Trees

    S. Fla. Slash pine: Pinus elliottii var. densa Cabbage palm: Sabal palmetto [state tree] Live oak: Quercus virginiana Sand live oak: Quercus geminata Melaleucaex: Melaleuca quinquenervia

    • 2. Shrubs Saw palmetto: Serenoa repens Gallberry: Ilex glabra St. John's Wort: Hypericum fasciculatum Rusty Lyonia: Lyonia ferruginea Wax myrtle: Myrica cerifera Brazilian pepperex: Schinus terebinthifolius

    • 3. Vines Muscadine grape: Vitis rotundifolia

    • 4. Herbs Broom sedge: Andropogon virginicus Wire grass: Aristida stricta Tickseed: Coreopsis leavenworthii [state wildflower]

    • 5. Aquatic Herbs Saw grass: Cladium mariscus White-topped sedge: Rhynchospora colorata

    II. ANIMALS

    • 1. Mammals Florida panther: Felis concolor ssp. coryi White-tailed deer: Odocoileus virginanus Gray fox: Urocyon cinereoargenteus Black bear: Ursus americanus

      • 2. Reptiles and amphibians Oak toad: Bufo quercicus Black racer: Coluber constrictor Eastern diamondback rattle snake: Crotalus adamanteus Southeastern five-lined skink: Eumeces inexpectatus Eastern hognose snake: Heterodon platyrhinos Box turtle: Terrapene carolina

      • 3. Birds Common flicker: Colaptes auratus

    Northern bobwhite: Colinus virginianus Pine warbler: Dendroica pinus Red-bellied woodpecker: Melanerpes carolinus Morning dove: Zenaida macroura 4. Invertebrates Pine bark beetle

    For superscript by species name: C = commercially exploited, SSC = species of special concern, T = threatened. Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission listings. EX = exotic.

    I. PLANTS

    • 1. Trees

    SPECIES LIST FOR ROCKLANDS

    S. Fla. Slash pine: Pinus elliottii var. densa Cabbage palm: Sabal palmetto [state tree] Live oak: Quercus virginiana Silver thatch: Coccothrinax argentataC Mother-in-law's tongue: Albizia lebbeckEX Gumbo limbo: Bursera simaruba Wild tamarind: Lysiloma latiliquum Poison wood: Metopium toxiferum West Indian mahagony: Swietenia mahoganiT

    • 2. Shrubs Saw palmetto: Serenoa repens Marlberry: Ardisia escallonoides Wax myrtle: Myrica cerifera Myrsine: Myrsine floridana Brazilian pepper: Schinus terebinthifoliusEX Florida trema: Trema micranthum Coontie: Zamia pumilaC Rough velvetseed: Guettarda scabra Tetrazygia: Tetrazygia bicolorT

    • 3. Herbs: [many endemic and listed herbs] Wire grass: Aristida stricta Silk reed: eyraudia reynaudianaEX

    • 4. Vines Muscadine grape: Vitis rotundifolia

    II. ANIMALS

    • 1. Birds

    Boat-tailed grackle: Quiscalus major Northern cardinal: Cardinalis cardinalis Northern bobwhite: Colinus virginianus Bluejay: Cyanocitta cristata Northern mocking bird: Mimus polyglottos [state bird] Eurasian collared dove: Streptopelia decaoctoEX Morning dove: Zenaida macroura Palm warbler: Dendroica palmarum Common flicker: Colaptes auratus Red-bellied woodpecker: Melanerpes carolinus

    • 2. Reptiles Black racer: Coluber constrictor Eastern diamondback rattlesnake: Crotalus adamanteus Pygmy rattlesnake: Sistrurus miliariusEX Red rat snake: Elaphe guttata Brown anole: Anolis sagreiEX Carolina anole: Anolis carolinensis Gopher tortoise: Gopherus polyphemusSSC

    • 4. Mammals Opossum: Didelphis virginiana Florida panther: Felis concolor ssp. coryiT [state animal] Bobcat: Lynx rufus Raccoon: Procyon lotor Gray fox: Urocyon cinereoargenteus White-tailed deer: Odocoileus virginanus Key deer: Odocoileus virginanus claviumT

    • 5. Invertebrates

      • a. Spiders Golden orb weaver: Nephila clavipes Star Spiders: Gasteracantha elipsoides

      • b. Butterflies Zebra longwing: Heliconius charitonius [state butterfly] Giant swallowtail: Heraclites cresphontes Atala: Eumaeus atala Monarch: Danaus plexippus Gulf fritillary: Agraulis vanillae Long-tailed skipper: Goniurus proteus

      • c. Insects Freshwater Mosquito: Psorophora confinnis Honey bee: Apis mellifera Lubber Grasshopper: Romalea microptera Fire ant: Solenopsis geminata Black saltmarsh mosquito: Aedes taeniorhynchus

    For superscript by species name: C = commercially exploited, SSC = species of special concern, T = threatened. Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission listings. EX = exotic.

    Also Read chapter 6; Table 6.1 Representative Native Pine Rockland Plants

    Hammocks Ecosystem

    Ham mocks Ecosystem This presentation will introduce you to the distribution of this ecosystem in S

    This presentation will introduce you to the distribution of this ecosystem in S Florida. Characteristics, Dominant species. How it compares to hammocks in northern Florida and temperate areas. Growth or decline, controlling factors. Different types.

    Ham mocks Ecosystem This presentation will introduce you to the distribution of this ecosystem in S

    INTRODUCTION:

    INTRODUCTION: Hammocks are fertile areas in the souther n U.S., in South Florida they are found

    Hammocks are fertile areas in the southern U.S., in South Florida they are found on slight elevations characterized by hardwood vegetation and humus-rich soil.

    Hammocks are broad-leaved, evergreen forests with a closed canopy

    There are only about 40 acres of tropical hardwood hammocks left in the Reserve, with the largest single community located on Cannon Island. Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (RBNERR) has hammocks on sand and shelly ridges, limestone outcroppings, and some shell mounds.

    Plants favoring alkaline conditions thrive on these ridges; some are natural and some have been enhanced by the Calusa Indians

    INTRODUCTION: Hammocks are fertile areas in the souther n U.S., in South Florida they are found
    Along both coasts of southern Florida, scattered throughout the Everglades, and especially in the Florida Keys,

    Along both coasts of southern Florida, scattered throughout the

    Everglades, and especially in the Florida Keys, there exist dense, a thick dense vine-entangled forests called tropical hardwood hammocks.

    Geologists believes that their origin dates back some 110-20 thousand years ago, when coral reefs were exposed by receding ancient seas. Deprived of its life-giving seawater, the living coral soon died, leaving slowly fossilizing limestone behind to support some of Florida's - even North America's - rarest plant and animal communities.

    Struggling for existence on the same rocky substrate as the tropical hardwood hammocks is another rare plant community known as pine rocklands. Dominated by hardy south Florida slash pines, the pine rock land community inhabits fossilized coral limestone's where frequent ground fires are the norm.

    The different burning frequencies of hammocks and pinelands plays a major role in maintaining the natural balance between these linked but distinctly different habitats.

    Without fire, the hammock understory would eventually take over the pineland and change it into a hardwood hammock.

    The tropical hardwood hammock is a self-maintaining community that usually remains untouched by fire or flood

    The tropical hardwood hammock is a self-maintaining community that usually remains untouched by fire or flood. These tiny "islands" support over 20 species of broad-leafed trees, shrubs, and vines, most of which are native to the West Indies. Subject to thin soils and relatively low rainfall in a tropical climate, tropical hardwood hammocks form a low canopy beneath which is a dense, sometimes impenetrable tangle of shrubs and vines. Hidden in the hammocks are some of Florida's rarest and most beautiful animal life.

    Historically, tropical hammocks were found as far north as Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic coast and to the mouth of the Manatee River on the Gulf coast. These more northerly hammocks had unique characteristics of their own. Today, most of the northern hammocks have been destroyed, leaving only remnant stands in south Florida, mostly in the Florida Keys.

    These hammocks have fewer invasive species than other communities, but Brazilian pepper is often found at the perimeter.

    DISTRIBUTION:

    DISTRIBUTION: Where in South Florida are Hammocks usually found? Atlantic coastal Ridge Florida keys Big Cypress

    Where in South Florida are Hammocks usually found?

    Atlantic coastal Ridge Florida keys Big Cypress Swamps/ Big Cypress National Preserve

    Hammocks are general found on higher grounds than surrounding areas.

    Craighead estimated that there were once more than 500 hammocks on Miami Rockland scattered among pine rock land.

    Hammocks can be successional phases of pine Flatwoods, scrub, pine Rockland's and beach strand vegetation.

    Map Of South Florida Hammocks

    Map Of South Florida Hammocks
    Map Of South Florida Hammocks
    Map Of South Florida Hammocks

    Different Types of Hammock Communities

    Different Types of Hammock Communities Tropical Hardwood Hammock These upland hardwood forests occur only in south

    Tropical Hardwood Hammock

    These upland hardwood forests occur only in south Florida and are characterized by tree and shrub species on the northern edge of a range that extends southward into the Caribbean.

    These communities are lightly distributed along coastal uplands south of a line from about Vero Beach on the Atlantic coast to Sarasota on the Gulf coast.

    They occur on many tree islands in the Everglades and on uplands throughout the Florida Keys.

    This cold-intolerant tropical community has very high plant species diversity, sometimes containing over 35 species of trees and about 65 species of shrubs.

    Characteristic tropical plants include strangler fig, gumbo-limbo, mastic, bustic, lancewood, ironwoods, poisonwood, pigeon plum, Jamaica dogwood, and Bahama lysiloma.

    Live oak and cabbage palm are also sometimes found within this community Hammocks in the Florida Keys may also contain several plants, including lignum vitae, mahogany, thatch palms, and Manchineel, which are extremely rare within the United States.

    Coastal Beach Hammocks

    Coastal Beach Hammocks Maritime hammocks are characterized by a canopy of Virginia live oak ( Quercus

    Maritime hammocks are characterized by a canopy of Virginia live oak (Quercus virginiana) and occur north along the Atlantic coast to Virginia, and west along the Gulf coast to Texas. The maritime hammock community is found just inland from the coastal strand. This community becomes established on older dunes that are stable enough to support the growth of trees.

    Plant species include live oak, cabbage palms, wild coffee, coral bean and several species of ferns.

    This maritime hammock provides habitat for many species of animals including tree frogs, squirrels, scrub jays, blue-tailed skinks and both resident and migratory song birds.

    Unfortunately, these areas are well-suited for development because of the stable, well-drained soil, leading to the rapid decline of maritime hammock communities.

    Besides their ecological importance, many maritime hammocks contain shell mounds, or middens (A mound or deposit containing shells, animal bones), left by Florida’s original human inhabitants and provide an important archeological link to Florida’s history.

    Coastal Beach Hammocks

    Coastal Beach Hammocks On the east coast, tropical species appear in the understory of these oak-

    On the east coast, tropical species appear in the understory of these oak- dominated forests in Florida around the latitude of Daytona Beach, Volusia County, and on the west coast at Tarpon Springs, Pasco County.

    On calcareous substrates, such as shell mounds, tropical species may form the canopy of coastal forests as far north as Levy and Volusia counties on the west and east coasts of Florida.

    In South Florida, maritime hammocks extend south on the sandy barrier islands to Cape Florida, Miami-Dade County on the Atlantic side, and Cape Romano, Collier County, on the Gulf side. They may also occasionally be found along the mainland shores of the lagoons and bays separating the barriers from the mainland.

    In Monroe County they are also found in scattered locations on Ten Thousand Islands and Cape Sable. In the Florida Keys they are replaced by the more diverse tropical hardwood hammock community including coastal berms or limestone substrate.

    Hammocks in Northern Florida

    Hammocks in Northern Florida These higher, hammock lands were located in a north-south band between Lake

    These higher, hammock lands were located in a north-south band between Lake City and Live Oak. Soils tend to be loamy and reasonably good for agriculture.

    Similar forests are found in the western portion of the region (west of the Suwannee River) across northern Madison County.

    A number of modest streams drain these highland forests, flowing eventually into the Suwannee or Aucilla rivers and their tributaries. Numerous lakes, ponds, and other wetlands dot the landscape, and probably were more extensive in the past than they are today.

    Within the hammock areas the resultant pattern is a mosaic of forests and wetland habitats cross-cut by rivers and streams. Such a mosaic of resources presented aboriginal peoples with many potential village locations.

    The lower, wetter forested areas were less suitable, but still offered resources and attracted aboriginal settlement, especially within the pockets of mesic forest adjacent to water sources.

    Hardwood Hammock Characteristics

    Hardwood Hammock Characteristics ‐ Hammock may be derived from Seminole name for home. Seminoles Also used

    Hammock may be derived from Seminole name for home. Seminoles Also used Hardwood Hammocks as some of their first encampments.

    Hardwood because broadleafed evergreen and semideciduous trees predominate, as opposed to pines that generally have a softer wood.

    Refers to an area of higher elevation, usually on limestone outcroppings – two other common foundations are sand and shell mounds. The elevation must be high enough to prevent seasonal flooding.

    Together with Pine Rocklands, represent South Florida’s upland communities.

    Characteristics Continued

    Historically found as far north as Cape Canaveral on the east coast and the Manatee River on the West coast, but human development has destroyed much of the land.

    Characteristics Continued ‐ Historically found as far north as Cape Canaveral on the east coast and

    Northern Everglades Hammocks are dominated by temperate trees.

    Southward, towards Miami, tropical species predominate making most people refer to the Hammocks in Everglades National Park, the Florida Keys and the Atlantic coast (south of Pompano Beach) as tropical hardwood hammocks. South Florida represents the northern extent to which many of these species grow. Live Oaks are the only significant temperate species in tropical hardwood hammocks.

    -Hammocks are important habitats for ferns and orchids of West Indian Origin.

    Most of the tropical species have seeds that are dispersed by birds, providing a possible explanation for how they got to South Florida from the West Indies, where these plants occur naturally and more abundantly.

    Florida Keys generally have the most sensitive and rare tropical tree species (like lignumvitae, West Indian Mahogany and Black Ironwood), unfortunately the Keys hammocks are the most endangered.

    Characteristics Continued

    Characteristics Continued ‐ The soil is composed of organic matter (from high amounts of litter that

    The soil is composed of organic matter (from high amounts of litter that fall from trees) that accumulates on top of a mineral substrate and is moist but rarely inundated.

    Hammocks generally developed where the surface rocks were harder than surrounding areas – resulting in slower weathering of the rock.

    Sinks are produced where chemical weathering caused the rock to collapse and exposes groundwater – contributing to higher humidity.

    The edges of Hammocks are nearly impenetrable. outermost rim often dominated by saw palmetto with sharp, upward curving teeth and may be hiding wildlife like Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake. Next rim of vegetation is a tangle of vines and shrubs (saw greenbrier and poisonwood) this combination shields hammocks from wind.

    Canopy Characteristics

    Canopy Characteristics ‐ Closed Canopy • blocks sunlight which prevents much growth at ground level •

    Closed Canopy blocks sunlight which prevents much growth at ground level minimizes temperature fluctuations

    Low canopy, of 20m or less in height, due to shallow soils and relatively little rainfall for tropical species

    Tallest trees don’t get very tall – only a few reach as much as 55 ft. damaged by cold spells while protecting lower levels targets for lightning knocked down by hurricanes due to surprisingly shallow roots

    Canopy Characteristics ‐ Closed Canopy • blocks sunlight which prevents much growth at ground level •

    Fire Characteristics

    Fire Characteristics ‐ Hardwood Hammocks are intolerant of fire. ‐ The Characteristics which keep fire out
    Fire Characteristics ‐ Hardwood Hammocks are intolerant of fire. ‐ The Characteristics which keep fire out

    Hardwood Hammocks are intolerant of fire.

    The Characteristics which keep fire out include an open understory, with little fuel accumulation a cool, humid interior or moist climate

    In dry years fires can occur which may destroy humus soil. Soil fires are slow but persistent and kill trees through root damage. However, when fires do not burn the upper soil levels, the can regenerate relatively quickly in about 40 years they regain a closed canopy).

    ‐ Hardwood Hammock is the climax community , which means that it is the final stage

    Hardwood Hammock is the climax community, which means that it is the final stage in succession for South Florida’s ecosystems if limiting factors prevent the complete development.

    ex. if fire doesn’t maintain Pine Rockland or other firemaintained ecosystems and if water doesn’t maintain wetlands.

    Plant species

    Plant species The dominant plant species found in South Florida’s tropical Hammocks are Gumbo limbo (Bursera

    The dominant plant species found in South Florida’s tropical Hammocks are

    Gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba), Black Ironwood (Krugiodendron ferrum) Inkwood (Exothea paniculata) Lancewood (Ocotea coriacea), Marlberry (Ardisia escallonoides), Pigeon plum (Coccoloba diversifolia)

    Plant species The dominant plant species found in South Florida’s tropical Hammocks are Gumbo limbo (Bursera

    Satinleaf (Chrysophyllum oliviforme) Poisonwood (Metopium toxiferum) White stopper (Eugenia axillaris) and the buccaneer palm (Pseudophenix sargetii)

    Animal species

    Animal species The tropical Hammocks offer refuge for migratory birds like Kirtlands warbler ( Dendroica kirtlandii

    The tropical Hammocks offer refuge for migratory birds like Kirtlands warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius), and gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis )

    Pictured from top then left to right

    Tropical Hammocks are also a refuge for local species such as the Everglades mink (

    Tropical Hammocks are also a refuge for local species such as the Everglades mink (Mustela vison), Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana), marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris), Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium),gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and the Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus).