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THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

IN PROFILE 2011

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

IN PROFILE 2011

The Army in Profile 2011 Published by Army Headquarters All text and images copyright Commonwealth of Australia and the Australian War Memorial unless otherwise accredited. For further information, please email Army Headquarters at army.brandmanager@defence.gov.au Indigenous Australian readers are advised that this publication may contain images or names of persons who are now deceased, which may cause offence. The Project Team would like to thank and acknowledge all those who contributed to this publication. Further thanks to the staff from Army newspaper for some of the articles and the 1st Joint Public Affairs Unit for many of the photographs. Cover image by LS Andrew Dakin 20110718adf8106603_264

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THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

IN PROFILE 2011

CONTENTS
Chief of Army Foreword 7 The 7th Brigade 17 CSS Brigade: Year in Review A Cold Change 10 16 21 27 29 32 34 38 40 42 43 Australias Federation Guard On Duty Talisman Sabre 2011 The Claws Are Out Exercise Saunders 2011 Chief of Army Scholarship: Study Tour 2011 Caring For Armys Wounded, Injured and Ill First For Arafura Games Australian Army Cadets 56 58 62 64 68 72 74 76 78 80 82 Moving South Operation ASTUTE Operation TOWER Operation ANODE Operation RESOLUTE Regional Force Surveillance Units Support Operation RESOLUTE Operation QUEENSLAND FLOOD ASSIST Operation YASI ASSIST 104 107 108 108 110 113 116 126

CHAPTER1: MOMENTS FOR CELEBRATION


Gratitude to a Distinguished Leader Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith Awarded the Victoria Cross For Australia Royal Military College of Australia Centenary Year A Year of Friendship The Battle For Greece and Crete: 70th Anniversary Commemorations RSPCA Awards Sarbi the Purple Cross Counter-Terrorism Capability Recognised Welcome, Mr President The 45th Anniversary of the Battle of Long Tan Meritorious Unit Citation Awarded to MTF1 NORFORCE: Modern Warrior, Traditional Values

CHAPTER 5: LOOKING BACK


110 Years Young 1911: Preparation For War 1941: A Nation in Turmoil and a Defence Strategy Shattered 1951: Korea 1971: Farewell to The Dat The Australian Withdrawal From Vietnam Named, Remembered & Honoured 153 155 158 163 170 174

CHAPTER 4: VALE
Corporal Richard Atkinson Sapper Jamie Larcombe Sergeant Brett Wood, MG Lance Corporal Andrew Jones Lieutenant Marcus Case Sapper Rowan Robinson Sergeant Todd Langley Private Matthew Lambert Craftsman Beau Pridue Corporal Ashley Birt Captain Bryce Duffy Lance Corporal Luke Gavin 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149

Parit Sulong The Missing Men of the Battle of Muar 178

CHAPTER 3: OPERATIONS
Operation SLIPPER A Short History of the Second Australian Mentoring Task Force A Crucial Connection Operation KRUGER Farewells Iraq Operation PALATE II Operation MAZURKA Operation PALADIN Operation RIVERBANK Service in the Sinai Operation AZURE 86 87 93 94 98 98 99 99 100 103

CHAPTER 6: ARMY MODERNISATION


Armys Future: 2011 and Beyond ... Plan Beersheba Armys Future Structure The Army Reserve 2011 and Beyond Army and Diggerworks: the Soldier Combat Ensemble Land Network Integration Centre Project Land 121 Emerging From the Shadows Knowledge is Power Directorate of Army Research and Analysis Simulation in 2011 Image Index 184 186 188 190 192 195 196 199 200 203 206

CHAPTER 2: AROUND ARMY


The 1st Brigade A New Home for the 7th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment: Supporting the Families of the 1st Brigade AUSTF 8 (Rear) 49 52 54

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CHIEF OF ARMY

FOREWORD
It gives me great pleasure to launch this edition of the Army in Profile. This book provides a permanent record of the highlights of a memorable year for the Australian Army. Sadly it also pays tribute to twelve of our mates who died while serving overseas in Afghanistan and Timor Leste. Their sacrifice is recorded on a separate Roll of Honour in this edition. However, I wish once again as the Chief of the Army to pay tribute these men and express my sincere condolences to their families and loved ones. Likewise, I wish to place on the record my best wishes to our soldiers who were wounded on operations either physically or mentally. Ensuring that the Army stands behind you and your families as you recover from your wounds is one of my most important priorities as Chief of Army. In 2011 Army demonstrated its versatility and flexibility in responding to a diverse range of challenges. We sustained our performance across the spectrum of operations. A full schedule of the operations to which Army supplied force elements is included in this edition. Every soldier who served on one of these operations in 2011 enhanced our reputation and deserves credit for this. Apart from our most demanding operations in Afghanistan, Timor Leste, Solomon Islands and we were called upon to render significant assistance to our fellow citizens on Australian soil. The New Year had barely dawned when we were asked to respond to the floods in Queensland. Our people performed magnificently, standing shoulder-to-shoulder with their fellow Australians in the midst of this time of crisis.

The spontaneous expressions of respect and affection from their fellow citizens to our soldiers demonstrated that the Army holds a special place in the esteem of Australians. We must all be conscious of this. The Army is one of this nations oldest and most revered institutions. It has existed almost continuously since Federation. Indeed, the Army holds some of Australias most prized traditions on trust. At all times we need to remember that service within the Army, while demanding and sometimes dangerous, carries rich rewards and privileges. For our part we must uphold and reflect community values as well as provide opportunities for all suitably qualified men and women to serve in our ranks. The portrait of our Army that emerges in this publication is of large, inclusive organisation. But we need to do even better in that regard. It is appropriate that we continue to dedicate our primary focus to current operations. .However, the entire Army workforce, both civilian and uniformed, produced excellent results in 2011. The major reforms that my predecessor Ken Gillespie initiated under the banner of the Adaptive Army were implemented with vigour and are already producing handsome results. Similarly Army continues to find new and more efficient ways to achieve effects while saving resources through the Strategic Reform Programme. This has placed demands on all of us but I believe that we have improved the way we do business and those responsible for the main effort in this programme deserve congratulations. Army is in the midst of its most comprehensive re-equipment programme since the end of the Second World War and its most significant restructuring since the end of the Vietnam War. Our move to introduce like combat brigades under Plan BEERSHEEBA will impose more efficient use of scarce resources while significantly improving our capability.

It will yield a force generation and sustainment model that will provide the Government and people of Australia with the Army that they have said they need in official policy announcements going back to the turn of this Century. I am determined to drive these improvements towards fruition during my terms as the Chief of the Army. These changes will also enable us to take the Army to sea under the new maritime concept of strategy authorised by successive governments since 2000. Our future lies in the littoral approaches to Australia as an integral part of the Australian Defence Force, capable of conducting decisive joint operations. This provides enormous challenges as well as enticing opportunities for the Army. But it places land forces at the heart of Australian Grand Strategy. This is the first time that I have had the privilege to launch an edition of the Army in Profile. I am deeply honoured to have been appointed to the Chief of Army. I would like to thank my predecessor Ken Gillespie for handing over an Army in such robust good health. But I also wish to thank all of soldiers and our civilian workforce for your service to the nation in 2011. This book constitutes a fitting tribute to all your efforts.

Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO, Chief of Army.


PHOTO: Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO, Chief of Army, talks to Australian Defence personnel in a Royal Australian Air Force C130 Hercules aircraft prior to take off from Kabul, Afghanistan.

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

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CHAPTER 1

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GRATITUDE TO A

DISTINGUISHED LEADER
I WILL LEAVE THE ARMY AT MIDNIGHT ON JUNE 26 WITH ABSOLUTELY NO REGRETS. IF I WAS GIVEN THE OPPORTUNITY, I WOULD DO IT ALL OVER AGAIN, SAID THE CHIEF OF ARMY, LIEUTENANT GENERAL KEN GILLESPIE, AC, DSC, CSM, THE WEEK BEFORE HE WAS DUE TO RETIRE AFTER 43 YEARS OF SERVICE.
Colonel Max Johnson, gathered the senior class members and asked our perspective on how to fix the problem. He gave us the confidence to talk to him, as he shouldve been a revered person. In the end, we saw him as a friend we could talk honestly and openly to, Lieutenant General Gillespie recalled. The lesson struck home and became a principle by which Lieutenant General Gillespie interacted with others through his career. I had my feet kept on the ground due to having a wonderful bunch of friends spread across the ranks who I started out and served with, including RSMs [Regimental Sergeants Major], Lieutenant General Gillespie explained. The nice part about that was every time they thought I was straying from the path and not being as human as I could be, they gave me a gentle nudge and asked, what did you mean by that? They werent frightened of me. They were game to tell me life as they saw it, and gave me a different perspective, which kept my feet rooted in reality. He related this experience as advice for all members of the Army, regardless of rank. No-one should be frightened of anybody. You shouldnt hold someone in awe because of the position they are in, Lieutenant General Gillespie added.

I am in awe of some people; however its because theyve earned my respect. Sometimes they are not senior to me and dont operate in the military sphere at all, he said. If you can survive in an organisation like Army, when people arent frightened of you, and they can look you in the eye and give you the point knowing it wont be held against them, its a wonderful way of exercising good leadership.

PHOTO: Former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), inspects the Australian Federation Guard during his farewell parade.

LEADERSHIP
Lieutenant General Gillespies illustrious career began in January 1968 when he stepped off a bus at the Balcombe Army Apprentice School in Victoria at the age of 15. His time as a soldier during his four-year bricklaying apprenticeship shaped the leadership style he used during his numerous command appointments and, most importantly, as Chief of Army for the past three years. Indicative of the development of his leadership is a story he related concerning an experience at the Apprentice School. When I was an apprentice in 1970, I was one of the senior class members and we had issues between the staff and apprentices. The CO [Commanding Officer] of the school, Lieutenant

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PHOTO: Former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd) has breakfast with troops at Camp Rocky, the staging area for Exericise TALISMAN SABER.

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CAREER
Lieutenant General Gillespies career highlight was reaching the pinnacle of the Army, working his way up from the rank of Sapper. The crowning achievement was the last three years leading one of the finest institutions in Australia, Lieutenant General Gillespie asserted. There were also other career highlights along his journey, including commanding troops on operations on three occasions in Namibia, East Timor, on Operation Slipper after 11 September 2001, and as Commander of Joint Operations during his term as Vice Chief of the Defence Force. Along with the high points in his career, there were also challenges, with the most significant the operational deaths of soldiers. Dealing with the families of the bereaved and those who have been wounded was difficult, Lieutenant General Gillespie admitted. The response of families of the soldiers who had suffered encouraged him to turn the tragic events into positives and improve the way Army deals with veterans and their reintegration into the workforce. I felt genuine loss in each of the events weve had. On every occasion with the families, there was more to take away from their strength and character than many people realise, he said. Ive tried to give back to them by focusing very hard as the Chief to make Army much more humanised, to deal with people with more dignity. Weve changed the way we look after our wounded, from discharge to pension, to rehabilitation and continuing performance in the workforce. For those who have had to separate from the service, Ive tried to make them feel valued and give them a different sort of life, one they might have had if they had been serving in the Army a decade ago.

THE FUTURE
The future of our Army is bright. The need for an Army remains apparent, and life is not getting easier in terms of international security, Lieutenant General Gillespie emphasised. The Army is professional, has wonderful and talented people at all levels of command. I believe it runs so well because of the quality of our leadership from top to bottom. Lieutenant General Gillespie has yet to decide what he will do on his first day out of the Army which, coincidentally, will be his birthday. I joined the Army at 15, straight out of school and worked non-stop at it since. Ive never felt the need to search for something else to do. The Army has provided me with many, varied careers and different challenges. I will do something. I would like a better balance of work and life than Ive had over the past six years and golf will certainly be a part of it. His final message to Army is one focused on pride. I think Armys performance under the most arduous of circumstances, such as during SUMATRA ASSIST and the warfighting roles around the world, performing challenging, gut-wrenching hard work makes me tremendously proud. I think the culture of the organisation is one the nation should be proud of. If we didnt have the culture, we wouldnt have had the successes over the past 10 years when our troops havent let us down.
PHOTO LEFT: Former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd) chats with participants in the Australian Defence Force Paralympic Sports Program.

FAREWELL
I will leave Army a very proud CA, proud of 43 years service and proud of the institution Im leaving. Its an awesome institution and deserves as much respect at home as it enjoys internationally, reflected Lieutenant General Gillespie. He mentioned in particular the honour of serving with the people military and civilian within the Army. I will truly miss the families, the soldiers, the civilian staff and the veterans I have had the privilege of knowing and working with over this time. The opportunity to be with people, to have the sense of the Army family and having friends who have lasted a lifetime was wonderful.

PHOTO ABOVE: Former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd) pays his respects at the Menin Gate daily remembrance ceremony.

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CORPORAL BENJAMIN ROBERTS-SMITH AWARDED THE

Corporal Roberts-Smith was invested by the GovernorGeneral, Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, AC, CVO, at his units home at Campbell Barracks in Perth. Amongst those to share a beer with him at the post-ceremony function was fellow Victoria Cross recipient and SASR member Corporal Mark Donaldson, VC who said his mate was a naturally talented soldier. He does everything well across the board, Corporal Donaldson said. To do his job properly as a trooper, then to step up to a corporals position, take command and inspire leadership, came to him naturally. Sergeant P who was Corporal Roberts-Smiths Patrol Commander during the action on 11 June 2010 and who received a Star of Gallantry for his role in the battle was also amongst those to congratulate him. Whatever job he takes on, he does it to the best of his ability, Sergeant P said. Hes good at it, hes an out and out good soldier and obviously extremely brave. Corporal Roberts-Smith said he knew his life would change after receiving the award. Having been mates with Mark [Donaldson] for quite some time, Ive had a bit of an insight into what it would be like and I think I knew what I was getting into, he said. The bottom line is lifes going to change drastically, particularly with the media.

VICTORIA CROSS FOR AUSTRALIA


By Sergeant Andrew Hetherington

The reality of it is the world will turn and Ill come back to work and there will be things Ill have to do on the side, but my main focus, as always, will be to come back to work and run my patrol and get prepared to go back to Afghanistan.

CITATION:
For the most conspicuous gallantry in action in circumstances of extreme peril as Patrol Second-in-Command, Special Operations Task Group on Operation SLIPPER. My heads still spinning. It feels extremely humbling and makes me feel extremely proud to be a part of the unit, but more so the Squadron for what we achieved on the day and being a part of something where we took the fight to the Taliban and we won. The boys did some amazing things. This was the reaction from Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith, VC, MG of the Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) on 23 January 2011, following his awarding of the Victoria Cross for Australia (VC), making him Australias most decorated serving soldier. You read all the other recipients stories and think thats awesome, he said, never thinking that he would be awarded a VC. Its still surreal. I was just like everyone else in Afghanistan; I was doing my job I know its a clich but its true. You always go over there and fight as hard you can and never go over there half-hearted.

IT FEELS EXTREMELY HUMBLING AND MAKES ME FEEL EXTREMELY PROUD TO BE A PART OF THE UNIT, BUT MORE SO THE SQUADRON FOR WHAT WE ACHIEVED ON THE DAY AND BEING A PART OF SOMETHING WHERE WE TOOK THE FIGHT TO THE TALIBAN AND WE WON.

EXTREME PERIL
Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith enlisted in the Australian Regular Army in 1996. After completing the requisite courses, he was posted to the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment where he saw active service in East Timor. In January 2003, he successfully completed the Australian Special Air Service Regiment Selection Course. During his tenure with the Regiment, he deployed on Operation VALIANT, SLATE, SLIPPER, CATALYST and SLIPPER II. Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith was awarded the Medal for Gallantry for his actions in Afghanistan in 2006. On 11 June 2010, as part of the Shah Wali Kot offensive, a troop of the Special Operations Task Group conducted a helicopter assault into Tizak, Kandahar Province, in order to capture or kill a senior Taliban commander. Immediately upon the helicopter insertion, the troop was engaged by machine gun and rocket-propelled grenade fire from multiple, dominating positions. Two soldiers were

PHOTO: Victoria Cross Recipient Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith, VC, MG.

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wounded in action and the troop was pinned down by fire from three machine guns in an elevated fortified position to the south of the village. Under the cover of close air support, suppressive small arms and machine gun fire, Corporal Roberts-Smith and his patrol manoeuvred to within 70 metres of the enemy position in order to neutralise the enemy machine gun positions and regain the initiative. Upon commencement of the assault, the patrol drew very heavy, intense, effective and sustained fire from the enemy position. Corporal Roberts-Smith and his patrol members fought towards the enemy position until, at a range of 40 metres, the weight of fire prevented further movement forward. At this point, he identified the opportunity to exploit some cover provided by a small structure. As he approached the structure, Corporal Roberts-Smith identified an insurgent grenadier in the throes of engaging his patrol. Corporal Roberts-Smith instinctively engaged the insurgent at point-blank range resulting in the death of the insurgent. With the members of his patrol still pinned down by the three enemy machine gun positions, he exposed his own position in order to draw fire away from his patrol, which enabled them to bring fire to bear against the enemy. His actions enabled his Patrol Commander to throw a grenade and silence one of the machine guns. Seizing the advantage, and demonstrating extreme devotion to duty and the most conspicuous gallantry, Corporal Roberts-Smith, with a total disregard for his own safety, stormed the enemy position killing the two remaining machine gunners. His act of valour enabled his patrol to break-in to the enemy position and to lift the weight of fire from the remainder of the troop who had been pinned down by the machine gun fire. On seizing the fortified gun position, Corporal Roberts-Smith

then took the initiative again and continued to assault enemy positions in depth during which he and another patrol member engaged and killed further enemy. His acts of selfless valour directly enabled his troop to go on and clear the village of Tizak of Taliban. This decisive engagement subsequently caused the remainder of the Taliban in Shah Wali Kot District to retreat from the area. Corporal Roberts-Smiths most conspicuous gallantry in a circumstance of extreme peril was instrumental to the seizure of the initiative and the success of the troop against a numerically superior enemy force. His valour was an inspiration to the soldiers with whom he fought alongside and is in keeping with the finest traditions of the Australian Army and the Australian Defence Force.

PHOTO ABOVE: The Victoria Cross for Australia. PHOTO RIGHT: Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith and other SASR members of the Special Operations Task Group prepare to deploy to the Shah Wali Kot Offensive.

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ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF AUSTRALIA

CENTENARY YEAR
The year 2011 marked the centenary of officer training in the Australian Army. From the early days of the Royal Military College (RMC) to todays state of the art training, there have been a multitude of changes in the way officer training has been conducted in Australia. However, one quality remains the same it is world class training that produces the highest calibre of leaders.

General announced that King George V had granted the College the title Royal. Henceforth the establishment would be known as the Royal Military College of Australia. On that day, a proud and enduring tradition was born. Celebrations to mark a century of officer training at RMC continued throughout 2011 culminating with the presentation of new Colours to the College by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on 22 October 2011.

THE OPENING CEREMONY 27 JUNE 1911


The establishment of a military college for the training of Army officers was one of Lord Kitcheners recommendations following his 1909 review of the military forces of the Commonwealth of Australia. In May 1910, the first Commandant of the College Brigadier General William Throsby Bridges was appointed. The site selected by Brigadier General Bridges for the new College was a lush grazing property located on the Molonglo River. The historic property was named Duntroon by its first owner, Robert Campbell, in 1833. Bridges considered the site ideal, noting that Duntroon House would make a suitable Officers Mess and there was plenty of room to build cadet accommodation and training facilities. The slopes of nearby Mount Pleasant would shelter the College from the prevailing winds. The first intake of 32 Australian and 10 New Zealand Cadets arrived on 21 June 1911. The colleges opening ceremony was hosted by the Governor-General six days later, on June 27. The ceremony included a parade at which time the Governor-

PHOTO ABOVE: The new Queens Colour Ensign and the new Regimental Colour Ensign. PHOTO LEFT: The Royal Military College Corps of Staff Cadets is presented with New Colours By Her Majesty the Queen.

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CENTENARY EVENTS 2011


31 January Presentation of the Duntroon Society Plaque and Portrait of W.J. Urquhart Staff Cadet No. 1 The first of RMCs centenary events took place on 31 January 2011 with the presentation of the Bastiaan Plaque by members of the Duntroon Society, and the unveiling of a portrait of Staff Cadet No. 1, Walter J. Urquhart. The plaque was unveiled by Mrs Margaret Morrison, widow of Duntroon Society founder the late Major General A.L. Alby Morrison. Mrs Morrison was assisted by Major General Michael Jeffery (Retd) and Colonel Colin Richardson. Later that day, a portrait of Staff Cadet Urquhart was presented by his granddaughter, Carol Urquhart-Fisher. The portrait depicts Walter Urquhart at various stages of his Army career: as a cadet, an officer in the Australian Light Horse and as a Brigadier. 1 April Presentation of Medals and Memorabilia belonging to A.M. Forbes, Staff Cadet No. 2 On 1 April 2011, at the Third Class Lanyard Parade, Dr Jim Forbes, a graduate of the RMC class of 1942, presented medals and memorabilia belonging to his father, Alexander Forbes, Staff Cadet No. 2. These are now on display in the Cadets Mess.

14 April Centenary Commemoration Coin Launch On 14 April 2011, the former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), unveiled an Australian legal tender coin issued by the Perth Mint to celebrate the College centenary. Struck from 1 ounce of 99.9 per cent pure silver, the coin bears a design inspired by the history of RMC as a prestigious military training facility. The Perth Mint released only 7500 of these commemorative coins. Each coin was accompanied by an RMC badge and presented in a themed gift box with a numbered certificate of authenticity.

PHOTO RIGHT: The Bastiaan Plaque. PHOTO LEFT: Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II inspects the Guard at the Royal Military College - Duntroon.

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11 June Queens Birthday Trooping the Colour at Rond Terrace and Freedom of Entry to the City of Canberra In 2011, the annual Trooping the Colour ceremony was moved from the RMC parade ground to Rond Terrace on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin. Around 3000 Canberra residents braved freezing conditions to witness the parade, which included three cheers for Her Majesty and a 21-Gun Salute fired from Mount Pleasant. Immediately following the Trooping of the Colour ceremony, the parade formed to exercise the Corps of Staff Cadets and Band of the Royal Military Colleges right to Freedom of Entry to the City of Canberra. Chief Minister for the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Ms Katy Gallagher, invited the Corps of Staff Cadets (which has held the right since June 2001), and the Band (which received the right in 2004) to march through the streets of Canberra, as tradition dictates, with swords drawn, bayonets fixed, drums beating, band playing and the colours flying. During the march up Anzac Parade, the Corps and the Band were ritually challenged by the acting Chief Police Officer of the ACT, Commander Bruce Hill, who required them to show cause as to why he should allow them to proceed with their march. With the presentation of the appropriate Freedom of Entry scrolls, the acting Chief Police Officer stood aside and allowed the march to continue past the saluting dais where the Chief Minister accepted the parades compliments on behalf of the citizens of Canberra. The Freedom of Entry march concluded with the Corps and Band saluting the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier as they marched past the Stone of Remembrance in the forecourt of the Australian War Memorial.
PHOTO: The annual Trooping the Colour ceremony has held at Rond Terrace on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin.

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18 June Centenary Rugby Carnival The RMC Centenary Rugby Carnival concluded with a final score of RMC First XV 22, OCS New Zealand 6 thus ending the inaugural match for the Bridges Cup. In spite of a ferocious Kiwis Haka prior to kick-off, RMC outplayed their New Zealand rivals in a game reflecting the traditional good spirit between the two establishments. The Bridges Cup is named after the first Commandant of RMC, Major General Sir William Throsby Bridges, reflecting his visits to the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, UK; the United States Military Academy at West Point; and the Royal Military College of Canada at Kingston before the establishment of RMC at Duntroon in 1911.

A YEAR

OF FRIENDSHIP
By Ms Kate Kovacevic The Australian Army actively engages with foreign military forces to meet Defence and Government objectives, and to enhance Armys capacity to conduct successful coalition operations. Australia and the Republic of Korea (ROK) have common strategic interests, particularly in seeking a peaceful resolution to tensions on the Korean peninsula. Both countries have made significant and practical contributions in order to secure regional security and stability, including sending troops to Afghanistan, Iraq and East Timor, and conducting operations to eradicate piracy. The relationship between Australia and the ROK was strengthened by Australias participation in the United Nations Commission on Korea which began in 1947 and continued during the Korean War (19501953). During the Korean War, more than 18 000 Australian troops served under United Nations command, with 339 Australians losing their lives. To mark the 50th anniversary of diplomatic relations, the governments of Australia and the ROK designated 2011 as a Year of Friendship.
PHOTO: Chief of Army, Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO warmly welcomed Republic of Korea Chief of Staff General Sang-Ki Kim during his visit to Australia.

PHOTO: The Royal Military College, Rugby Club hosted the Centenary Rugby Carnival at Portsea Oval, 18 June 2011. The game is between RMC Old Boys vs Officer Cadet School New Zealand Old Boys.

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The bilateral relationship between the nations was recognised during a visit to Australia by the ROKs Chief of Staff, General Sang-Ki Kim, in August. General Kims visit was doubly significant as 2011 marked the 60th Anniversary of landmark Australian battles in Korea at Kapyong in April 1951, and Maryang San in October 1951. The Chief of Army, Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO welcomed General Kim, whose visit marked a milestone in Armys relationship with the ROK. It was also the first occasion Army has formally received a Chief of Staff from the ROK. Army seeks to enhance the bilateral relationship with the Republic of Korea, which is founded in history and based on common strategic interests, Lieutenant General David Morrison asserted. A number of key events occurred during General Kims visit, including tours of Army barracks; a wreath-laying at the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, in Holsworthy; an Honour Guard; an official welcome by the Chief of Army in Canberra; and a wreath-laying ceremony at the Australian War Memorial. At Holsworthy, General Kim told his hosts, Coming to the 3rd Battalion is a great event and a pleasure for me. If we have to work together in the future we will be able to harness great power. Army seeks to enhance relations with the ROK by increasing practical cooperation in senior officer dialogue, attendance at junior officer professional development courses, counterterrorism, contingency exercises, peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief.

We value our relationship and embrace this opportunity to deepen cooperation with the Republic of Korea, Lieutenant General Morrison added. General Kims visit marks the beginning of closer ties between Australia and the ROK.

THE BATTLE FOR GREECE AND CRETE:

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUSTRALIA AND THE ROK WAS STRENGTHENED BY AUSTRALIAS PARTICIPATION IN THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON KOREA WHICH BEGAN IN 1947 AND CONTINUED DURING THE KOREAN WAR (19501953).

70TH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATIONS


By Ms Rebecca Constance April and May of 2011 marked the 70th anniversary of the Battle for Greece and Crete battles which were critical to the European theatre of World War II. The Campaign for Greece began with the Italian invasion on 28 October 1940.

THE COMBINED GREEK AND BRITISH COMMONWEALTH FORCES FOUGHT BACK WITH TREMENDOUS COURAGE AND TENACITY, BUT WERE VASTLY OUTNUMBERED AND OUT-GUNNED.
Within weeks, the Italians had been driven out of Greece, and Greek forces pushed on to occupy much of southern Albania. In March 1941, a major Italian counterattack failed and Germany was forced to come to the aid of its Axis ally. Operation MARITA was launched on 6 April 1941, with German troops invading Greece through Bulgaria in an effort to secure the southern flank.
PHOTO: Members of Australias Federation Guard led a commemorative ceremony at the Phaleron Commonwealth War Cemetery in Athens, Greece.

PHOTO: Chief of Army, Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO presents a gift to Republic of Korea Chief of Staff General Sang-Ki Kim during his visit to Australia.

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The combined Greek and British Commonwealth forces fought back with tremendous courage and tenacity, but were vastly outnumbered and out-gunned. Within 24 days, their defence of mainland Greece had collapsed, resulting in an evacuation of the remaining Allied forces to the island of Crete. On Crete, the Allies faced a German airborne invasion Operation MERCURY launched on 20 May 1941. The Battle for Crete was unprecedented in three respects: it was the first battle in which German paratroopers were used on a massive scale; it was the first primarily airborne invasion in military history; and it was the first time invading German soldiers encountered mass resistance from a civilian population. At the end of the first day of fighting, the Germans had suffered very heavy casualties and none of their objectives had been achieved. The next day, through miscommunication and the failure of Allied commanders to fully grasp the situation, Maleme airfield in western Crete fell to the Germans, enabling them to fly in reinforcements and overwhelm the defenders. The battle for Crete lasted around 10 days and resulted in the loss of over 600 Australian soldiers with a further 5000 taken prisoner. The 70th Anniversary commemorations of the Battle for Greece and Crete saw Australias Federation Guard (AFG) participate in several ceremonies in honour of the Australian and Allied soldiers who fought and died defending Greece from the German onslaught. Major activities in Crete included ceremonies at the HellenicAustralian Memorial in Rethymno, the Allied War Cemetery in Souda Bay and the German War Cemetery in Maleme. Veterans of the conflict, including a delegation from Australia,

attended ceremonies alongside the Minister for Veterans Affairs, the Honourable Mr Warren Snowdon MP, and the former Deputy Chief of Army, Major General Paul Symon, AO. Speaking after the Hellenic-Australian memorial service, Major General Symon described the ceremony as especially significant for the Australian Defence Force (ADF). What weve commemorated here today was a really remarkable battle, he observed. AFG Contingent Commander Lieutenant Luke Haitas felt privileged to have been part of the ceremonies given his Greek heritage. We are extremely proud to have had this opportunity to represent Australia and honour our veterans. The role that the AFG plays in these commemorations is vital in maintaining our military traditions, asserted Lieutenant Haitas. While in country, AFG personnel met their Greek counterparts, the Greek Presidential Guard. The Presidential Guard Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Peter Miliopolous, emphasised the importance of the relationship between the two units. Australias Federation Guard reminds me of the relationship we have with the Australian military we are blood brothers, he commented. Its an honour to have personnel from the ADF come to visit us. We have the same spirit were brothers-in-arms, added Lieutenant Colonel Miliopolous. This was a particularly fitting sentiment representative of the strength of the Greek-Australian relationship and appropriately reflective in time of war and peace.
PHOTO: Veterans of the WWII battle for Greece and Crete attend the commemorative ceremony at the Phaleron Commonwealth War Cemetery in Athens, Greece.

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RSPCA AWARDS SARBI THE


By Ms Rebecca Constance

PURPLE CROSS
In what can only be described as an extraordinary journey and a fortunate life, Armys most famous four-legged soldier, Sarbi the Explosive Detection Dog (EDD), received the RSPCAs most prestigious animal bravery award, the Purple Cross. Sarbis tale began in September 2008 when, following Coalition contact with insurgents, the black Labrador-cross was declared Missing in Action. Early on in the contact, an RPG [rocket-propelled grenade] exploded within five metres of Sarbi and me and part of the shrapnel broke the clip that had her lead attached to my body armour, Sergeant D, her handler, explained. Sarbi was running free while the contact continued and, a short while after, I was hit by a couple of more RPGs and wounded. Sergeant D took cover in a hole on the side of the road. Sarbi came within five metres of him, but a .50 calibre machine-gun fired over their heads and she ducked away. At that time the last coalition Humvee was coming past me so I had to jump onto it and wasnt able to recover her, Sergeant D continued. I was wounded along with eight others and had to get to medical treatment. Even though I was concerned for them, I was worrying about Sarbi too.
PHOTO: Explosive Detection Dog Handler Corporal Adam Exelby and dog Sarbi who received the Purple Cross from the RSPCA.

and how they could give her back, Sergeant D said. We had reports saying she was still in the area, and some said she had died. It weighed heavily on me that Id left her there. Sarbi remained missing in action for almost 14 months. A US soldier knew his Australian mates were missing an EDD and spotted her wandering with an Afghan man near an isolated patrol base in north-eastern Uruzgan Province. Once she responded to some basic commands given in English, the US soldier knew he had found Sarbi. Sarbi was flown to Tarin Kot to be reunited with her handler, and where a thorough veterinary check revealed that she was in robust health and a good eight kilograms heavier than when she had gone missing! It is Sarbis remarkable tale of loss and recovery that prompted the RSPCA to recognise Sarbis contribution to the Australian Army at the Animals in War Sculpture at the Australian War Memorial on 5 April 2011.

treatment for the animals of the Light Horse Brigade. Since the awards inception in 1993, only eight animals have received the Purple Cross. I am very proud of the professional and dedicated work of our combat engineers and dog handlers, and the vital role they play in keeping our soldiers safe on deployment, said the former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd). I am thrilled that the RSPCA has chosen to honour Sarbi and, by extension, all of Armys working dogs and their handlers. Sarbis Army career as an EDD officially came to an end in December 2011, when she was retired from service to live with her handler. Retirement will no doubt be as much of an adventure for Sarbi as her service with the Australian Army, but it will also be an opportunity to put her paws up and enjoy life as a much-loved family pet.
PHOTO: Sarbi and her handler from the Special Operations Task Group watch a C-130 Hercules transport aircraft being loaded before boarding.

I THINK THERES NO DOUBT THAT SARBI HAS SHOWN AN INCREDIBLE RESILIENCE AND STRENGTH THAT SHOULD BE RECOGNISED.
Sarbi was awarded the Purple Cross by RSPCA Australias National President Mrs Lynne Bradshaw. It [the award] recognises the deeds of animals that have shown outstanding service to humans, particularly if theyve shown exceptional courage, Mrs Bradshaw explained. I think theres no doubt that Sarbi has shown an incredible resilience and strength that should be recognised. The award was named to honour the Purple Cross Society, established soon after the outbreak of World War I to raise funds for the supply of equipment and to pay for veterinary

I spent 10 days with US soldiers trying to find her. US military intelligence staff made recordings and played them on local radio stations to let people know Sarbi was missing

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COUNTER-TERRORISM CAPABILITY

RECOGNISED
In 2011, Australian Defence Force (ADF) service for Special Forces counter-terrorist and special recovery duties was formally recognised with a new award; the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Counter Terrorism / Special Recovery (ASM CT/SR). The ASM CT/SR recognises service in the Tactical Assault Group (TAG), honouring the contribution of the members of Special Operations Command who provide a capability that, by its very nature, is not widely understood or articulated. The Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) held a ASM CT/ SR medal presentation on 29 September, with 95 medals and clasps presented at Campbell Barracks in Perth. Over 250 people attended the event to witness presentations to serving, ex-serving and the family of deceased unit members. A few days earlier, on 25 September 2011, the work of the TAG was acknowledged in a special function hosted by the 2nd Commando Regiment (2 Cdo Regt). The Commanding Officer, 2 Cdo Regt, Lieutenant Colonel C, emphasised that it was crucial to recognise the roles TAG East and West soldiers had played since 1979. The key aspect of the role the unit plays is short notice response; essentially, we maintain a permanent operational footing, Lieutenant Colonel C explained. As a result of this need, weve recognised each soldiers commitment and ongoing support to an operation.

(TAG East) based on the 4th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (4 RAR Cdo) was established. This capability was retained when 4 RAR (Cdo) was re-roled and raised as the 2 Cdo Regt. In mid-2010, the Parliamentary Secretary for Defence Support, the Honourable Dr Mike Kelly, AM, MP, announced that the Government had accepted the recommendation of the inquiry conducted by the Defence Honours and Awards Tribunal.

The inquiry recommended that 60 or more continuous days service in the TAG since its inception in 1980 (as well as service in the Interim TAG in 1979) should be recognised by a new award the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Counter Terrorism / Special Recovery.

Lieutenant Colonel C described the soldiers training as necessarily extremely complex to equip them to respond to a multitude of threats and operating environments. We need to ensure that everyone in the unit is prepared through the individual training continuum, [with skills] such as counter-terrorism driving, method of entry skills and other specialist capabilities, he said. We also need to collectively respond to situations in different environments such as high rise buildings, ships at sea, at anchor or alongside, commercial aircraft, as well as complex strongholds containing multiple locations and potential chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats. Counter-terrorism (CT) training and response has been the remit of the Australian Armys Special Forces for the last four decades. As the nature of terrorism has evolved, so too has the Armys strategic response with the TAGs focus to provide siege and hostage recovery and counter-terrorism capabilities. The TAG comprises a Regimental Special Operations Command and Control Element, intelligence and specialist support staff, a squadron or company headquarters as applicable, and land, water, sniper, and signals troops. The counter-terrorism and special recovery capability was first raised in 1979 as an interim TAG within the Special Air Service Regiment. A permanent TAG was established in 1980. The CT capability was expanded in 1997 when a second TAG

PHOTO: Special Operations Task Group soldiers wait to board the next UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter.

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WELCOME,

MR PRESIDENT
By Mr Graham McBean and Major Arthur Dugdale

On 17 November, the Prime Minister, the Honourable Julia Gillard MP, introduced the President of the United States of America (US), Barack Obama, to an enthusiastic and largely military audience at Royal Australian Air Force Base Darwin. The introduction also included personal thanks from the Prime Minister to members of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) for their assistance during periods of natural disaster; their commitment to operations in areas such as East Timor, the Solomon Islands and Afghanistan; and for their continued hard work while training in Australia. Thank you for the way that you uphold the standards of our country. We are so tremendously proud of you, Prime Minister Gillard told those assembled. President Obama then addressed the audience of around 1800 which included US Marines and members of the local Darwin community. He described the close bond between Australia and the US, formally acknowledged in 1951 with the signing of the ANZUS Treaty, now in its 60th year. President Obama also thanked Australian troops and their families for maintaining a close working relationship between US and Australian forces from Australias Pearl Harbor at Darwin in World War II through to current operations in Afghanistan. You work together so well, its often said you cant tell where our guys end and you guys begin, Mr Obama asserted. Today, I want to say thank you. Thank you for a job well done. Thank you for your incredible sacrifices. Thank you for your families sacrifices. And welcome home. In a joint statement, the Prime Minister and the President announced initiatives designed to enhance bilateral collaboration and offer increased opportunities for combined training and exercises. They described the initiatives as strengthening an already robust partnership that had been an anchor of stability and peace in the Asia-Pacific region.

President Obama emphasised that the region was of huge strategic importance to the US and the deepening of the ANZUS alliance sent a clear message of US commitment. Prime Minister Gillard acknowledged that such a political decision also carried a personal dimension for the military. We are conscious that when we talk about the American Australian alliance, when we talk about ANZUS, really were talking about you, because you are the ones who do the heavy lifting, you are the ones who make this alliance live day in, day out, through the work that you do. Under new force posture initiatives established between the two countries, up to 2500 US Marines and other personnel will rotate through Australian bases within the next five years. US troops will arrive in early 2012 with an expected 250-strong liaison element of Marines based at 1st Brigades Robertson Barracks. US troop rotations will last up to six months at a time and joint and separate training will be conducted during the Northern Territorys dry season. Closer cooperation between the Australian and US Air Forces has also been announced and will result in increased rotations of US aircraft throughout northern Australia. Importantly, a closer training partnership with US Marines will provide significant benefits for the Australian Army and Navy, as the ADF further develops its expertise in amphibious operations in the coming decade.

PHOTO PREVIOUS PAGE: The President of the United States of America, Barack Obama, addressed troops at RAAF Base Darwin. PHOTO LEFT: The President of the United States of America, Barack Obama, inspects the RMC Band during his official visit to Canberra.

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PHOTO: Veterans of the 1966 Delta Company 6 RAR march in front of members of the current 6 RAR at the parade to mark the 45th anniversary of the Battle of Long Tan.

THE 45TH ANNIVERSARY OF

THE BATTLE OF LONG TAN


On the 45th Anniversary of the Battle of Long Tan, the brave veterans of D Company, 6 Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (6 RAR), were formally recognised with the award of a Unit Citation for Gallantry in a moving parade at Gallipoli Barracks in Brisbane. Long Tan veterans, their families, official guests and members of Mentoring Task Force 1 gathered to watch the 6 RAR parade which began with a trooping of the colours. Mounted in front of the parade ground were 18 self-loading rifles adorned with slouch hats, representing those killed during the Vietnam War battle. The Governor-General, Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, AC, CVO thanked D Company veterans on behalf of all Australians. Two former D Company platoon commanders, Geoff Kendall and David Sabben, accepted the Unit Citation on behalf of the Long Tan veterans. A number of individual medals were also awarded for the Battle of Long Tan at this parade and at other ceremonies at Government House. The audacity of believing that a handful of soldiers could halt a force of thousands is simply unimaginable, The GovernorGeneral, Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, AC, CVO told the assembled audience. Long Tan is commonly regarded as the definitive Australian battle of the Vietnam War. 108 Australian and New Zealand soldiers fought a pitched battle against more than 2000 North Vietnamese soldiers and Viet Cong in a rubber plantation not far from the small village of Long Tan on 18 August 1966. The men of D Company fought a desperate battle in torrential rain for four hours. They were almost overrun and were only saved by a timely ammunition resupply, accurate artillery fire from the nearby Australian base, and the arrival of reinforcements by armoured personnel carrier. 18 Australians were killed and 24 were wounded, the largest number of casualties in one engagement since the arrival of the Australian Task Force two months earlier. After the battle, the bodies of 245 enemy soldiers were discovered, with evidence that more bodies had been carried away. In 1969, on the third anniversary of the battle, a cross was raised at the site by the men of 6 RAR. Veterans from the battle gathered at the cross to remember the fallen, and the day was commemorated as Long Tan Day from that time on. Over time, Vietnam veterans came to adopt the day as the national day of commemoration for all who had served and died in Vietnam. In 1987, following the welcome home parade for Vietnam veterans in Sydney, the then Prime Minister, Bob Hawke, announced that Long Tan Day would be known as Vietnam Veterans Day.

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MERITORIOUS UNIT CITATION


The members of Mentoring Task Force 1 (MTF1) were presented a Meritorious Unit Citation on 18 August, Long Tan Day, at a parade held at Brisbanes Gallipoli Barracks in front of a crowd of family and friends. Predominantly from the 7th Brigade, MTF1 comprised men and women from over 55 Australian Defence Force (ADF) units. The Governor-General, Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, AC, CVO presented the citation to the unit, also presenting a number of individual awards to members of the task force. MTF1 was reunited for the parade, and its former Commanding Officer, the Commanding Officer of the 6th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (6 RAR), Lieutenant Colonel Mark Jennings, commented that it was a great honour and privilege for the unit to be recognised with the Meritorious Unit Citation. MTF1 is a great example of how the ADF is operating in Afghanistan at the moment, he told the crowd. Lieutenant Colonel Mark Jennings also described such recognition as a great honour and privilege. MTF1 was a great example of Australians on operations, he said. We lost six brave young warriors last year. Their sacrifice will never be forgotten by us or their families. The Meritorious Unit Citation was awarded to the unit for sustained distinguished service in warlike operations on Operation Slipper in Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan, between 20 January and 30 October 2010. MTF1 contributed markedly to improved security and development through its partnering with the 4th Brigade, Afghanistan National Army. During the eight-month deployment, MTF1 conducted over 1700 patrols involving more than 560 small arms fire incidents. Over 100 improvised explosive devices and more

AWARDED TO MTF1
than 250 weapons and explosives caches were located. The Task Force suffered more than 50 improvised explosive device strikes and almost 40 battle casualties, including six men who were killed in action. MTF1 displayed remarkable endurance and courage to build positive relationships with the local people, tribal leaders and officials of the Afghan Government. Major General John Cantwell, commander of ADF units in the Middle East Area of Operations during 2010, also addressed the parade. Today your endeavour, your remarkable courage, your quiet determination, sacrifice and pain will be recognised, he told MTF1 members, their families and friends. It cant be paid back, we know that, and you know that, but as a society, as Australians, as service men and women, we salute you sincerely and with an enormous thanks and pride. Both Major General Cantwell and Lieutenant Colonel Jennings paid tribute to the fallen members of MTF1. In remembering them, Lieutenant Colonel Jennings said, MTF1 lost six brave young warriors last year, their sacrifice will never be forgotten by us or their families our thoughts go out to them and the pain will never go away for any of us. As a fitting final command to MTF1, Lieutenant Colonel Jennings voice rang out over the parade: MTF1, for the final time, to history dismissed! The parade also saw the award of a Unit Citation for Gallantry to the D Company, 6 RAR, veterans of the Battle of Long Tan, fought in Vietnam 45 years earlier on 18 April 1966.

NORFORCE:

MODERN WARRIOR, TRADITIONAL VALUES


By Ms Rebecca Constance In 2011, the North West Mobile Force (NORFORCE), which was raised in 1981, celebrated 30 years of protecting Australias northern borders and forging strong and enduring relationships between Army and Australias northern Indigenous communities. NORFORCE can trace its heritage to the 2/1st North Australia Observer Unit, colloquially known as the Nackaroos. The Nackaroos were hand-picked bushmen, physically and mentally tough and known for their ability to live off the land in some of the most inhospitable and isolated parts of northern Australia. The Nackaroos were formed in 1942 in response to the perceived threat of Japanese invasion and tasked with assisting in the defence of northern Australia. Relying on local Indigenous knowledge, they conducted reconnaissance, scouting and coastal surveillance patrols across the Kimberley and the Northern Territory. These patrols were reduced in July 1943 as the Japanese threat subsided, with the unit ultimately disbanded in 1945. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the need for regional force surveillance in remote northern Australia was again recognised, and the integrated NORFORCE Regiment of Regular and Reserve was tasked with land, sea and air surveillance, detecting activities that could threaten Australias sovereignty. Armys presence in the top end was further cemented in 1985 with the establishment of two additional Regional Force Surveillance Units the Pilbara Regiment in Western Australia, and the 51st Battalion, Far North Queensland Regiment, in Cape York, in Far North Queensland. With an area of operations that covers a hostile and capricious environment, NORFORCE crosses two time zones and covers over 11 000 kilometres of coastline and 1.8 million square kilometres (14 per cent of the total land mass of Australia). The Regiments strength, however, lies in the local knowledge and survival skills of its Indigenous members. NORFORCE has forged links with the local Indigenous communities, attracting significant numbers of Indigenous Australians to its ranks. This is essential to the Army, asserted Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO, Chief of Army. I take pride that the Army was ahead of many other organisations in offering equal opportunities for Indigenous Australians. NORFORCE was at the cutting edge of this trend. NORFORCE comprises approximately 520 Regular and Reserve soldiers. Of this number, around 75 per cent are Indigenous and drawn mainly from the area they patrol. This

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utilises invaluable local knowledge, cultivates the exchange of traditional skills and strengthens the close bond between Army and these remote communities. For the soldiers of NORFORCE, irrespective of background, all belong to the one skin group, Green Skin. For the Indigenous members of NORFORCE, their work as Green Skins is also about custodianship of ancestral lands. I used to follow my grandfather all the time out bush, and he taught me about the country: to maintain it, respect it, because it keeps you alive. In NORFORCE we look after the country and make sure its kept good, and no-one is in there trying to destroy it, explains Patrol Commander Corporal Ronald Roe1. In commemorating 30 years of NORFORCE, the parallels between the Nackaroos and the Green Skins are readily identifiable. The Regiments motto Ever Vigilant is an apt description not only of NORFORCEs core business of surveillance and border protection, but also of the respect with which the Regiment treats the land and Indigenous communities.

PHOTO: North West Mobile Force soldier Private Corinthian Noketta from the Wallman Community in Turkey Creek radios information to command elements during a patrol activity during Operation RESOLUTE on Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Kathy Marks, NORFORCE Brothers in Arms, Sydney Morning Herald Good Weekend, 10 December 2011.
1

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

AROUND ARMY

CHAPTER 2

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THE 1ST

BRIGADE
The year 2011 was a busy and challenging year for the 1st Brigade Armys mechanised brigade with the focus on two supporting operations. The first operation involved raising 1600 personnel to deploy to Iraq, East Timor and Afghanistan. The second comprised the reintegration of these soldiers into the Brigade in order to support Armys Force Generation Cycle in 2012. The 1st Brigade led the way with Mentoring Task Force 2 (MTF2), a battlegroup based on the 5th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, comprising some 27 units in total. Signalling the transition from supporting to preparing for operations was the Welcome Home Parade held on 3 September 2011 for those who had deployed throughout the year. Thousands of family members and Top End locals lined the streets of Darwin, dressed in the distinctive yellow we missed you t-shirts, to cheer the soldiers home and recognise their service to the nation. It was a proud day for the Brigade, but one tinged with sadness for the families of those MTF2 soldiers who did not come home.
PHOTO LEFT: Corporal Andrew Pulsford from the 2nd Cavalry Regiment, based in Darwin, is given a hug by his children after the Welcome Home Parade in Darwin. PHOTO RIGHT: A 2nd Cavalry Regiment crewman scans the horizon for danger in his Australian Light-Armoured Vehicle (ASLAV) during Exercise Eagles Run at Mt Bundey, Northern Territory.

In August, the 1st Brigade re-set its focus on the road to war, and the gradual development of individual, collective, combat team and battlegroup competencies. Mount Bundey Training Area became home for many, just as the monsoonal build-up was hitting its energy-sapping worst. By the end of the year, the units sights were set squarely on Exercise HAMEL in JuneJuly 2012, and the ultimate certification of the Brigade as combat ready.

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PHOTO: 1st Armoured Regiment M1A1 Abrams tanks lined up at the rally point prior to starting a combined-arms battle group live-fire assault in the Shoalwater Bay training area during Exercise PREDATORS STRIKE.

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A NEW HOME FOR THE 7TH BATTALION, THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN

PRESENTATION OF NEW COLOURS


The rain clouds eased over Torrens Parade Ground in Adelaide for three crucial hours on 10 September as 7 RAR was presented its new Colours by the Governor-General, Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, AC, CVO. Dressed in electric blue, the Governor-General provided a striking contrast against the sea of khaki as she presented the new Colours in front of a cold but enthralled crowd of around 1000 people. The presentation of new Queens and Regimental Colours is a solemn and symbolic ritual, the Governor-General told the assembled crowd. Colours unite a battalion, celebrate its history and confirm its camaraderie. Standing to attention behind the Colours party was the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Mick Garraway, and more than 200 of his soldiers. Our Colours represent the history, the traditions, the sacrifices and the fighting standards of those who have served in this unit, many of whom join us today and whose standards we strive to maintain. We accept them humbly, Lieutenant Colonel Garraway said. The Colour party trooped the old Colours through the ranks one final time, closing a chapter for past members, whose association dates back to 1965 and is steeped in RAR folklore. Lieutenant Colonel Garraway spoke enthusiastically of the opportunities ahead for 7 RAR as the soldiers made a new home in the city of churches. We have commenced a new era in the battalion. Our relocation to this fine city has been accompanied by a growth in numbers and a growth in capability, he announced.
PHOTO: Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, AC, CVO Governor General presents the new Queens Colours during the parade.

REGIMENT:
By Major Haydn Barlow and Sapper Nick Wiseman 2011 saw a major reorganisation of the Brigade, with the 7th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (7 RAR) Battlegroup relocating to the most advanced Army facilities in Australia, at Adelaides Horseshoe Barracks. Working accommodation, training facilities, fitness centre, health centre, community facilities and a combined mess were among the $623m worth of new facilities incorporated into Horseshoe Barracks, located within Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Base Edinburgh and officially opened on 9 September. This move increased the Brigades training area flexibility and provided the South Australian community with a new Army organisation to call its own. The facilities include a purpose-built driver training area on base for armoured crewmen to maintain sound individual vehicle skills. A 24-lane Weapon Training Simulation System has been built specifically for use by 7 RAR troops to refine their collective and individual shooting skills in barracks. The Battalion also has an urban operations training facility collocated within the barracks area. The project has also improved base engineering services at RAAF Base Edinburgh, providing substantial upgrades to electrical, water, sewage, storm water, gas, communications,

security and transport infrastructure. Speaking at the official opening of Horseshoe Barracks, Defence Parliamentary Secretary Senator the Honourable David Feeney described the new facilities as among the best in Australia. He was accompanied by the Chief of Army, Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO and Commander 1st Brigade, Brigadier Gus McLachlan, AM, ADC. Lieutenant General Morrison, AO commented that the move considerably enhanced the Armys training ability. The raising of 7 RAR and its relocation to Adelaide improves Australias security through the development of a stronger, more versatile Army, he said. Upgrades are also planned for the Cultana Training Area, including new permanent camp accommodation. Other additions include a new urban operations training facility capable of supporting a battlegroup-sized element and a new field firing training system range allowing the use of armoured vehicles in live-fire training. The upgrades and additions at Cultana expand the operational area from 470 to 2000 km, enabling the conduct of joint training.

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SUPPORTING THE FAMILIES OF THE

1ST BRIGADE AUSTF 8 (REAR)


By Lieutenant Colonel Matt Pearse In 2011 the 1st Brigade pioneered a new way to manage, care for and support the members and families of those deployed with the Mentoring Task Force 2. To facilitate this support, the 1st Brigade raised the Australian Task Force 8 (Rear) (AUSTF 8 (Rear)). At its peak, Headquarters AUSTF 8 (Rear) managed the training and administration of more than 550 non-deployed soldiers from the 1st Combat Engineer Regiment (1 CER) and the 5th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, while concurrently providing initial return to Australia administration and welfare for over 1000 soldiers deployed to the Middle East and East Timor. AUSTF 8 (Rear) was also the single point of contact for all incident management and welfare support for soldiers as they were re-established in Australia. Headquarters AUSTF 8 (Rear) also supported the families and friends of Corporal Richard Atkinson and Sapper Jamie Larcombe, both from 1 CER, who were killed in action while deployed on Operation SLIPPER in Afghanistan in February 2011. AUSTF 8 (Rear) utilised a variety of communication methods to keep partners and families informed of operational progress and to pass on important welfare and support information. These included the employment of local and remote unit

welfare officers, bi-monthly letters, Facebook sites, telephone calls, open-forum information briefings, monthly family fun days in Darwin (supported by the Defence Community Organisation and Darwin Council), and an SMS alert system. AUSTF 8 (Rear) worked closely with key support agencies to develop a robust post-deployment reintegration plan. Two information nights were held in Darwin to provide advice on couple and family reunion, and the development of support and coping skills. A number of Corps and Combined Arms professional development activities were conducted to allow soldiers to discuss and actively share their operational experiences. A community expo was also held at Robertson Barracks to help returning soldiers particularly single soldiers reconnect with a wide variety of community, sporting and educational organisations. AUSTF 8 (Rear) has proven very successful. Partners and families were able to establish healthy support networks within the Army community, thus allowing deployed soldiers to focus on the task at hand, confident in the knowledge that their families were being well looked after and supported.
PHOTO: Soldiers from 5 RAR conduct a Beat the Retreat parade. Robertson Barracks opened its gates to the public for a display of Army vehicles and equipment.

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THE 7TH
By Lieutenant Bill Heck

BRIGADE

Members of the 8th/9th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (8/9 RAR), were on the ground in Grantham as the water subsided, initially searching for those who perished in the torrent. Brigadier Paul McLachlan described what he had witnessed in Grantham and some of the flood-affected areas as absolute carnage. The worst-affected areas of Brisbane and Ipswich were trashed, and no-one was prepared for the destructive wall of water that washed away Grantham. Grantham continually shocked everybody who went in there, including guys with early operational experience in East Timor and an Engineer Corporal who was part of the tsunami response, he said. Brigadier Paul McLachlan commented that the most important quality ADF personnel brought to the flood effort was their attitude. Without fail, every single place we visited we had people come up and comment on the dedication and the work ethic of my soldiers. When JTF 637 finally stood down and the soldiers had wrung out their socks, 7 BDE shifted their focus to combined arms warfighting incorporating simulation and using the Battle Management System Command and Control (BMS-C2) at the combat team level. A pivotal task for 7 BDE in 2011 was field testing the new Tactical Operational Command and Control Headquarters (TORC2H) BMS-C2 introduced to Defence under Project LAND 75 phase 3.4. The BMS-C2 is widely considered a quantum leap in Defence capability in enabling synchronised command and control (C2) from formation to combat team level. Exercises BLUE DIAMOND and DIAMOND STRIKE prepared the combat teams and the Brigade headquarters in combined arms effects and planning, culminating with the Brigade Combined Arms Training Activity on Exercise DIAMOND DOLLAR.

DIAMOND DOLLAR saw the fully integrated employment of the new M777 gun, Army Reconnaissance Helicopter, M1A1 Battle Tanks and Cavalry elements in a field firing environment at the combat team level. This type of synchronisation, with its full range of capability, firepower and mobility, was a first for Army and set the conditions for 7 BDEs commitment to TALISMAN SABRE 11. Critical to 7 BDEs success on the Exercise was the digitised C2 capability which also showed its flexibility as it was stepped up into Legais following the break-in and clearance. This technology is a game changer it completely revolutionises the way a Commander controls his forces because he no longer needs to fight for information, Brigadier Paul McLachlan said. The efficacy of the TORC2H BMS-C2 enabled increased situational awareness and supported commanders at all levels from brigade to combat team, to rapidly and effectively coordinate, plan and execute operations in significantly compressed time-frames. Preparation for the deployment of AUSTF10 assumed priority in the Brigade post TALISMAN SABRE 11. Elements of the Brigade will be deployed into every operational force element heading into the MEAO in 2012, including Combined Team Uruzgan 3, FCU 7 and AATT-K, with 8/9 RAR leading the charge as the main element of Mentoring Task Force 4 (MTF4). The Commanding Officer of 8/9RAR, Lieutenant Colonel Kahlil Fegan, emphasised that the battlegroups training focus was on honing foundation warfighting skills starting with sections, then building up to and including combat teams. My aim this year was to ensure we mastered our foundation warfighting skills and practised rolling out with all the attachments we are likely to take on operations, he said. MTF4 will deploy in early 2012 and will represent the first time since the Vietnam War that 8/9 RAR deploys in a direct combat role.

2011 was a year for 7th Brigade (7 BDE) to refresh and rebuild following the deployment of Mentoring Task Force 1 (MTF1) in 2010, and prior to mounting and deploying force elements for operations in 2012. The year began with 7 BDE as Combined Joint Task Force (JTF) 637, coordinating the deployment of Australain Defence Force (ADF) personnel to assist civilian authorities with the Queensland flood emergency. From there, the tempo never waned with successive training events at combat team and headquarters level, to Exercise TALISMAN SABRE in July 2011. The Brigade is now on a firm footing to launch Australian Task Force 10 (AUSTF10) into the Middle East Area of Operations (MEAO) following a six-month training program on the road to war. As the flood waters rose in January 2011, 7 BDE members cut short their Christmas leave and returned to assist in the disaster relief effort in Brisbane and central and western Queensland. For many operational veterans, the floods aftermath in the affected areas was among the most confronting experiences encountered in their military careers. Brigadier Paul McLachlan, Commander 7 BDE, assumed command of JTF 637 on 17 January from Colonel Luke Foster.
PHOTO: Officer Commanding Alpha Company, 8/9 RAR, and Emergency Support Force Group Commander, Major Nathan Ravenscroft (left), discusses the required search areas with Queensland Police Force members in Grantham.

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17 CSS BRIGADE:
The 17th Combat Service Support Brigade (17CSS), commanded by Brigadier David Mulhall, comprises over 1000 Army Reserve and 2000 Regular personnel based in nine units across Australia. The Brigade is responsible for providing general Combat Service Support, Combat Health and policing to land-based forces in joint, combined and inter-agency operations. The Brigade experienced a busy year in 2011, concurrently supporting operations, exercises and Defence Aid to the Civil Community tasks. The year commenced with 17 CSS Brigade providing support to the Joint Task Force established to assist flood and cyclone-affected areas of Queensland. The Brigade provided essential logistic capabilities including drivers, environmental health support, logistic staff planners and Lighter Amphibious Resupply Cargo craft for riverine support. The Brigades focus then moved to Exercises SHAKEOUT and WARHORSE in the lead-up to 17 CSSs road to war for Exercise TALISMAN SABRE and Exercise HAMEL. Commander 17 CSS Brigade was appointed Coalition Forces Logistic Component Commander with a combination of United States and Australian staff to exercise command of the theatre logistics system. Concurrently, the Brigade raised and deployed a Force Support Group as the lead logistic element for the provision of general Combat Service Support, Military Policing support and life support to exercise participants over the period 1 June to 8 August 2011.

YEAR IN REVIEW
In early September, 17 CSS Brigade generated a Logistic Planning Team which deployed to the United Kingdom as part of Exercise SUMAN WARRIOR 2011. This international engagement opportunity was based on the concept of several nations working on a Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Response task. The Brigade has contributed capabilities to all the Australian Defence Forces (ADF) major operations and exercises during 2011, including Security Detachments for Operation KRUGER, Detainee Management Teams for Operation SLIPPER, Force Communication Elements on Operation ASTUTE and a number of specialists as members of Force Installation Teams and Force Extraction Teams.

The year 2011 has also seen significant restructure within 17 CSS Brigade. The Combat Health Support (CHS) Force Modernisation Review took effect from 14 November, brigading all Forces Command health assets under the command of 17 CSS Brigade. The CHS restructure sees the establishment of a Combat Health Operating System designed to deliver integrated health care through the development of a Land Based Trauma System, a superior Health Training Continuum and Force Health Protection, Health Knowledge

and Materiel Systems. The new CHS structures include the 1st Close Health Battalion (formerly 1st Health Support Battalion), the 2nd General Health Battalion (formerly 2nd Health Support Battalion), the 3rd Health Support Battalion and 1st Psychology Unit. Other significant changes to 17 CSS Brigades command and control structure include the transfer of 3rd Recovery Company, 15th Transport Company and 1st Petroleum Company from 9 FSB to the 2nd Force Support Battalion.

THE BRIGADE EXPERIENCED A BUSY YEAR IN 2011, CONCURRENTLY SUPPORTING OPERATIONS, EXERCISES AND DEFENCE AID TO THE CIVIL COMMUNITY TASKS.
On 17 September, the Ipswich community welcomed home Force Support Unit 4 (FSU 4) led by the 9th Force Support Battalion (9 FSB) at Royal Australian Air Force Base Amberley. FSU 4 was responsible for the coordination and provision of logistic support to Australian forces in the Middle East Area of Operations, assisting more than 2350 ADF personnel during the period December 2010 to August 2011.

PHOTO: Craftsman (CFN) Joe Tentori, an Armourer with the 10th Force Support Battalion (10 FSB) goes over some of the finer points of his trade with Metal Smith CFN Peter Shaw at the Forces Support Group during Exercise Hamel.

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PHOTO: Aurora Australis in the sunset.

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A COLD

CHANGE
By Corporal Rob Serafin Following a nine-day journey on the Australian Antarctic Divisions ice-breaker ship, the Aurora Australis, Lieutenant Colonel Dave Buller took command at Australias busiest Antarctic station, Casey. In a year marking the centenary of the pioneering 19111914 Australasian Antarctic Expedition led by Sir Douglas Mawson, Lieutenant Colonel Buller began his unique 12-month deployment with the Australian Antarctic Division. The voyage on the Australis introduced Lieutenant Colonel Buller to the unique and surreal environment of the Antarctic region. As he ventured further south, the cooler climate and icebergs in the distance added to the extraordinary experience. I was very privileged and humbled to be in such an aweinspiring and unfettered environment, where I was constantly surrounded by spectacular views and inquisitive wildlife. Spending 2011 in Antarctica was a challenge Lieutenant Colonel Buller was ready to embrace, and a deployment of polar opposites to his previous service in Bougainville, East Timor, the Solomon Islands and Afghanistan. At the outset, Lieutenant Colonel Buller acknowledged that he had expected the conditions to be tough but, despite the hardships, he knew the posting would include a substantial novelty factor. I went, planning to grow a full beard to keep me warm over winter something I could never do in the mainstream Army. On loan to the Antarctic Division to lead Casey, Lieutenant Colonel Buller was acting in a non-military capacity. His understanding of logistics, amphibious operations and the diversity of his Army career experiences were crucial factors in his securing the position from a short list of military and civilian personnel. Living and working in cold and windy conditions with a great deal of snow and ice, as well as long periods of darkness in winter and light in summer, are just some of the hardships Lieutenant Colonel Buller experienced during his 12-month tenure. Lieutenant Colonel Bullers responsibilities included the day-today running of the station, ensuring that its communitys needs were met. This involved planning the air, sea and land-based projects that operate from Casey, as well as ensuring that

THE OVERRIDING FEELING ON ARRIVAL AT CASEY WAS THAT I WAS VERY PRIVILEGED AND HUMBLED TO BE IN SUCH AN AWE-INSPIRING AND UNFETTERED ENVIRONMENT, WHERE I WAS CONSTANTLY SURROUNDED BY SPECTACULAR VIEWS AND INQUISITIVE WILDLIFE.
The ship started ploughing through ice floes when we passed 60 degrees south, with increasing numbers of penguins and seals watching us as we passed by, Lieutenant Colonel Buller recalled. The overriding feeling on arrival at Casey was that

station resources could support such activities. Lieutenant Colonel Buller also oversaw the upgrade, replacement and repair of key station services ranging from accommodation, powerhouse, waste processing facilities and runway maintenance. To achieve what was required, I needed current knowledge of the entire Casey operating area, so I got out a fair bit to understand the environmental factors that were needed to inform decision-making and planning of station projects, he explained. It wasnt all work for the team at Casey there was a unique social and recreational aspect to the posting that involved glacier and iceberg tours (via inflatable boat), land-based trips

to field huts using Hagglunds (tracked snow vehicles), quad bikes and skis. The Australian Antarctic Division has more than 100 scientists working at Casey, Davis, Mawson and Macquarie Island stations on various research projects. The Antarctic summer is the busiest period for station personnel, with a number of scientific projects such as studies on human impact on Antarctic environments, monitoring of wildlife and glacial behaviours, all conducted in and around bases like Casey.
PHOTO: Aurora Australis conducting resupply over ice at Mawson station.

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AUSTRALIAS FEDERATION GUARD

ON DUTY
By Captain Kathryn Christie

to walk in their footsteps and visit some of their gravesites, commented Greek-Australian Lieutenant Luke Haitas, the contingent commander and AFG Operations Officer. In June an Army-led contingent from the AFG participated in the Festa della Repubblica (Republic Day) Military Parade in Rome. The day commemorates the referendum in which the Italian people decided on a new form of government following World War II and the end of Fascism. AFG Guard Sergeant Major, Warrant Officer Class Two Mick Dewar, marched in the parade as part of the Australian Flag Party. We were one of many international delegations carrying their national flag through the parade and we marched through the centre of Rome past the Colosseum, along the Fori Imperiali, past the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and saluted the Italian President and our Governor-General along the way, he explained. On 24 July Army-led AFG contingent supported the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angel Commemorative Medallion Ceremony in Papua New Guinea. The Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels were civilians employed by the Australian forces during World War II. They carried supplies to the troops and helped evacuate sick and wounded troops. The Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels are synonymous with the infamous Kokoda Trail. The Medallion Ceremony was held at Bomana War Cemetery, a scenic and beautifully presented burial ground for over 3500 Allied servicemen and the largest single resting place for Australian service personnel. AFG member Private Jessie Mather, who participated in the Catafalque Party, had a more personal link to the ceremony. During World War II Private Mathers grandfather served as an engineer in Papua New Guinea. He always talked about the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels, they had great mateship with them and

felt indebted to them. It was humbling to have the opportunity to commemorate those who helped my grandfather and his mates, she commented. As the major centenary anniversaries for World War I and the 70th anniversaries of World War II battles approach, AFG Army members look forward to the opportunities to represent the ADF and their service both domestically and overseas.

Australias Federation Guard (AFG) was established in 2000 to provide the Australian Government and the Australian Defence Force (ADF) with a permanent ceremonial capability. The AFG has its home in Canberra and has gained a reputation as a highly professional ceremonial unit, serving both in Australia and overseas. While the AFG is tri-service, it is commanded by an Army Officer Commanding, Executive Officer and Guard Sergeant Major. The Army component of the AFG comprises personnel from all corps and trades, and all members are required to fulfil ceremonial duties.

The AFG fulfils an important role for the Governor-General and the Prime Minister by providing Guards of Honour and Credential Guards for visiting Heads of State, Heads of Government and ambassadors. In 2011, these dignitaries have included Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the President of the United States, Barack Obama, and the Presidents of Malta, Cyprus and the Seychelles. The AFG has assisted at numerous commemorative services overseas in 2011 including the 70th Anniversary of the Battle for Greece and Crete, the 65th Anniversary of the Republic of Italy, the 60th Anniversary of the Korean War, and the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angel Medallion Ceremony in Papua New Guinea. On 15 May 2011, Army led a contingent from the AFG to the Mediterranean to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Battle for Greece and Crete. The contingent supported 16 ceremonial activities during the deployment at Australian, Allied and Axis memorials. The contingent also supported a DVA mission of Australian World War II veterans who served in the region in 1941. We are extremely lucky to have the opportunity to be a part of these commemorations in Greece and Crete. Several of our contingent have relatives who served in Australian and even German forces during the war, so this will be a rare chance

THE AFG HAS ITS HOME IN CANBERRA AND HAS GAINED A REPUTATION AS A HIGHLY PROFESSIONAL CEREMONIAL UNIT, SERVING BOTH IN AUSTRALIA AND OVERSEAS.
The AFG plays an important role in marking national days of significance such as Australia Day, ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day. The Anzac Day Guard at the Australian War Memorial and at Martin Place in Sydney are provided by the AFG. Overseas, Guardsmen mount a Catafalque Party at Anzac Cove, Turkey, and Villers-Bretonneux in France. This year, for the first time, a Catafalque Party was also mounted at the Menin Gate in Belgium.

PHOTO: Party from Australias Federation Guard stands at attention at the Festa della Repubblica (Republic Day) military parade in Rome.

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PHOTO: The crowd at the ANZAC Day 2011 Parade with Australias Federation Guard preforming in the centre.

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TALISMAN SABRE

2011

Exercise TALISMAN SABRE is a biennial military training exercise involving forces from Australia and the United States (US). In 2011, the exercise was designed to train participating forces in the planning and conduct of combined operations on a variety of missions, including conventional warfare, peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance operations. The variety of missions creates complexity and, when added to the scale of the exercise, its true impact can be appreciated. Geographically, Exercise TALISMAN SABRE 2011 (TS11) was conducted across six Defence training areas in Queensland, the Northern Territory and the Coral, Timor and Arafura Seas. It involved 8500 Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel and 14 000 US servicemen and women from the US Navy, Army, Air Force and Marine Corps. In excess of 30 ships, 120 aircraft and 1500 road vehicles participated in the exercise.

Brigade and the US Armys 2/23rd Infantry Battalion utilising classic insurgent tactics. The coalition forces primarily comprised the Australian Armys 7th Brigade (7 BDE) and the US Marines 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit based in Okinawa. Command and control for the exercise was based on the USS Blue Ridge. Other land scenario events were played out at the Townsville Field Training Area, the Delamere Range facility and Bradshaw Field Training Area in the Northern Territory, and in the ports of Brisbane, Gladstone and Alma.

SIGNIFICANT ACTIVITIES
The initial land activity was a joint live fire exercise incorporating naval gunfire, air-delivered munitions and mortars. It successfully exercised Australian and US Joint Terminal Attack Control teams, providing them a rare opportunity to guide fire support from Australian and US F/A-18s, Australian Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter (ARH) Tigers and Australian and US combat ships. An amphibious landing conducted by the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit on 19 July at Freshwater Beach was a major activity for TS11. The assault on the beach employed around 15 amphibious vehicles and 350 marines and sailors. The activity was particularly valuable in assisting with the development of the Armys future amphibious capability aspirations, as well as providing US forces with a suitable location and scenario to conduct an amphibious operation not a common occurrence in the average training year.
PHOTO: An Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV) crewman, 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, secures the loading ramp of the vehicle as part of an amphibious assault on to the beach of Freshwater Bay during Talisman Sabre 2011.

THE SCENARIO
The fictional nation of Kamaria, to the north of Australia, was created to set the scenario for realistic exercise events. The scenario described Kamaria as seeking to expand its interests in the South Pacific region with displays of aggression inciting regional unrest. The United Nations responded by authorising the establishment of a US and Australian coalition to restore peace in the region. Under this construct, initial conflicts saw naval and air engagements across the north of Australia. Land engagements within the Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) ensued, with enemy forces represented by the Australian Armys 1st

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The integration of air support was tested with ARH Tigers and Black Hawks of Battle Group Cavalier providing combat aviation support to 7 BDE, engaging in force-on-force and live fire training. As part of the battlegroup, the Tigers provided close air support to the manoeuvre brigade with the objective of creating a fully integrated combined arms effect against the enemy. The 2nd Health Services Battalion deployed a new Weatherhaven hospital at Camp Growl in SWBTA. During the training activities, the battalion treated more than 150 mock patients, simulating a realistic range of battlefield injuries and illnesses such as severe burns and malaria. This was achieved while members were also caring for the genuinely sick and injured, with the unit well supported by around 20 reservists, mainly senior specialists who were new to the Weatherhaven facility. The Weatherhaven hospital is flexible in design, is thermally efficient and has robust tactical shelters which can be configured to form a complex. Also part of the health support plan was the integration of US Marine Corps medical personnel and Australian Army Black Hawks to form an aeromedical evacuation capability, again testing and confirming the interoperability of the two nations forces in coalition operations. The Marines 40th Medical Battalion regarded the activity as positive reinforcement of the contribution made by both countries which combined to create a very effective capability. Army Reserve units contributed significantly to the achievement of training objectives, with the integration of 44 members from the Regional Force Surveillance Units (RFSU)

and the US 1/158th Long Range Surveillance Unit, also Reservists. Reconnaissance and infiltration deep into enemy territory was conducted, enhancing coalition operations and improving exposure to a range of procedures and capabilities, while also boosting the experience levels of soldiers from both countries. The RFSU soldiers came from the Pilbara Regiment, the 51st Far North Queensland Regiment and NORFORCE. A task force including 300 soldiers from the US Armys 1st Battalion, Airborne 501st Infantry Regiment and seven soldiers from the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, flew from Alaska to complete a tactical parachute insertion at SWBTA. Other highlights and exercise milestones included the use of ScanEagle Unmanned Aerial Vehicles from the Australian Armys 20th Surveillance and Target Acquisition Regiment to support soldiers on the ground during live fire training, the conduct of a US Army night live fire, and over 1000 Australian and US troops honing their urban warfare tactics in the Urban Operations Training Facility at SWBTA.

SCENARIO CONCLUSION
TS11 was designed to ensure that all forces faced challenging obstacles and included fewer conventional situations such as displaced persons, humanitarian assistance and a simulated mass grave scenario. Through the use of clever obstacle and diversionary tactics, the Kamarian forces imposed significant delays on the coalition forces and, as a consequence, the coalition forces had not fully achieved their objectives by the end of the exercise.

PHOTO: Right Hand Aircrewman Corporal Howard Campbell from 5th Aviation Regiment, Australian Army, raises Chief Petty Officer Kathy Canady, 4th Medical Battalion, United States Navy, on a hoist from Australian Army Black Hawk helicopter 224.

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THE CLAWS
By Captain Nic Williams

ARE OUT
0300h. Combat Team Marlins Operations Officer is on the phone with 2nd Operational Conversion Unit, Royal Australian Air Force, confirming from over 2000 miles away that the 12 FA/18s are ready to launch. Members of the Royal Australian Electrical & Mechanical Engineers are hard at work adding the finishing touches to ensure that the day at war proceeds without a hitch. 0445h. Launch the FA/18s, time on target 0715, the Squadron flight leader orders as he begins to brief the six Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter (ARH) Tiger crews on their role in the Joint Air Attack Team. The Forward Arming and Refuelling Point (FARP) is busy preparing the ammunition for the scheduled coordinated joint fires strike. 0645h. Six Tigers (three troops of two) launch. The flight line team is proud and relieved to have all the aircraft ready for their mission. The aircraft crews are focused and businesslike. 0715h. Shack. The first of eight Hellfire missiles and 18 Guided Bomb Units hits the enemy target. The missiles are followed by 25 other explosions over the next 15 seconds. This is one of only five radio conversations over the five-hour mission which coordinated 12 FA/18s, six ARH and a KC-30A mid-air refueller in order to achieve this time on target mission. All this was just the start of the Tigers day. One troop now breaks off to escort a Black Hawk airmobile insertion of an infantry company. The second pushes deeper into enemy territory to provide precision fire to a reconnaissance strike team in order to secure the landing zone. The third troop returns to the FARP to rearm and change crew for the main effort. The FARP swings into action and reloads the Tiger in record time as operations calls in to confirm H hour. The Tiger crew launches. Marlin 41 in hot was the call the infantry combat team heard as the ARH engaged with 30mm semi-armour-piercing high incendiary explosive rounds providing simultaneous close range fires onto the enemy location; with Australian Light Armoured Vehicles (ASLAV) and danger close artillery, the engineers scramble to prepare Bangalores for the enemys obstacles. The obstacle is blown; the M1A1 Abram tanks and infantry press through the ASLAV and Tiger fire support to clear the enemy pits. The Royal Australian Air Force BAE Hawk is overhead preparing to destroy any enemy reserve. The Joint Fire Observer (JFO) calls across the radio, Dagger call sign, clear the air, the Hawk is taking too long. I want to bring the Tiger back in now to destroy those armoured vehicles.

Marlin 41 engages with 70mm high explosive rockets and 30mm cannon from high above the friendly location.

SIR, I WANT THOSE TIGERS OVER ME EVERY TIME I GO IN, WAS THE OVERWHELMING CALL FROM THE INFANTRY SOLDIER TO THE BRIGADE COMMANDER IN THE AFTERACTION REVIEW.

Tigers over me every time I go in, was the overwhelming call from the infantry soldier to the Brigade Commander in the after-action review. This was the mid-point of a two-month campaign waged by 1 AVN for Exercise DIAMOND DOLLAR and Exercise TALISMAN SABRE. In total, eight Tiger aircraft and 120 personnel deployed from Darwin via Royal Australian Air Force C-17 Globe Master aircraft and road convoy to Rockhampton. 1 AVNs contribution to Exercise TALISMAN SABRE 2011 was a clear demonstration that both the Regiment and the Tiger are well and truly postured to provide capability for the rest of the Australian Defence Force.

REORG
In one day, the members of The 1st Aviation Regiment (1 AVN) were able to show diggers on the ground an effect that, until now, they thought only the United States Army could provide. And what was their reaction? Sir, I want those

PHOTO: Australian Army Tiger Pilot and aircraft Battle Captain, Captain Gary Whitehead from the 1st Aviation Regiment.

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EXERCISE

SAUNDERS 2011
Some 400 kilometres inland from Broome in Western Australia is the remote community of Fitzroy Crossing. It is here that the 19th Chief Engineer Works (19 CE Wks) of the 6th Brigade (6 BDE), supported by other units, conducted the Army Aboriginal Community Assistance Program (AACAP) for 2011. AACAP is also known as Exercise SAUNDERS, named after Captain Reginald Saunders, the first Indigenous Australian to be commissioned in the Australian Army. Although based out of Fitzroy Crossing, AACAP focused on the much smaller Indigenous communities of Joy Springs and Bayulu. The members of AACAP are a diverse team comprising dental, health, and training and construction specialists. Led by Major Glen Billington, the team deployed to the region throughout May, June and July 2011. AACAP is a cooperative initiative of the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. Armys aim is to improve environmental health conditions within remote Aboriginal communities. AACAP began in 1997 in various locations in the Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. The tradition of locating AACAP in remote localities continued in 2011 with the eighteenth AACAP (AACAP 18) that Army has supported in the past 15 years.
PHOTO: Captain Reginald Walter Saunders

With 19 CE Wks as the mounting headquarters, the 2011 contingent comprised 50 Regular and Reserve personnel from 15 units across 6 BDE, 17th Combat Services Support Brigade and the 2nd Division (2 DIV). This year, a number of projects were delivered using contracted services, with overall direction provided by Armys specialists in Project Engineering. The construction activities were led by 19 CE Wks, with trade support from 21st Construction Regiment as well as civilian contractors. Their combined efforts resulted in the construction of four residential houses and a specialist medical clinic. Fitzroy Crossing is in the NORFORCE area of operations. Exercise SAUNDERS 2011 saw NORFORCE increase its level of community engagement. The aim of this increased engagement was to make contact with the remote community prior to the arrival of the larger AACAP Group, and follow up once the training and construction were complete. As a result, Armys relationship with that community was extended beyond the four-month presence of the engineer, health and training group. This approach will be continued into the future, utilising the knowledge and assistance of the local Regional Force Surveillance Unit. Some of the training Captain Mick Webster and the Land Warfare Centre Detachment South Australia of 2 DIV offered to the community included small engine operation and maintenance, and hygienic food preparation. Specialist dental, medical and veterinary support was provided by members of the 1st Health Support Battalion and the 5th Combat Services Support Battalion.

Exercise SAUNDERS not only provides an opportunity for Army personnel to practise core health training and skills, but also allows them to learn from people who routinely live and operate in remote regions. The health team gained valuable experience from the program working alongside local dental, medical and veterinary teams. A highlight of the deployment was joining the Royal Flying Doctor Service to provide support for regional health clinics. Exercise SAUNDERS 2011 was very successful and packed a big punch. AACAP projects benefited the Indigenous communities around Fitzroy Crossing by allowing Army to make best use of its construction, health and training expertise and logistic capability. Through community engagement, NORFORCE was able to reinforce Armys commitment to the Australian people, no matter where they live. Importantly, AACAP 18 capitalised on Armys ability to collectively deliver a range of services to remote communities that would not normally be available in a single project.

AACAP PROJECTS BENEFITED THE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES AROUND FITZROY CROSSING BY ALLOWING ARMY TO MAKE BEST USE OF ITS CONSTRUCTION, HEALTH AND TRAINING EXPERTISE AND LOGISTIC CAPABILITY.

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CHIEF OF ARMY SCHOLARSHIP:


By Major Darryl Kelly and Warrant Officer Class One Jodie Stewart

STUDY TOUR 2011

Once selected, the real challenge for these young leaders begins. Each recipient is allocated study criteria covering individual aspects of his/her respective campaigns. This requires careful research, deliberate rehearsal, detailed map appreciation and an understanding of the campaigns overall significance in World War I. On a daily basis, irrespective of weather conditions, the parties ventured out to investigate their battlefields. In Gallipoli, the soldiers traversed many kilometres, often in driving rain and freezing conditions, across the hills and gullies, seeking an understanding of exactly what happened, and the conditions the ANZACs experienced. To use their own words, experience was the best education. They also examined how the leadership of yesterday could inform and assist them as leaders today. I developed a good understanding of what it must have been like to have landed and fought at Gallipoli. They were subjected to relentless enemy shelling and sniping. It was far from easy. They had to live with rotting corpses, lice, flies and open toilets, commented Corporal Erin Moore. The experience and feelings of the team on the Western Front were similar to those of their mates at Gallipoli. They toured areas etched forever in Australian consciousness: places such as Fromelles, Pozieres, Polygon Wood, Hamel, Mont St Quentin, Villers-Bretonneux and the Menin Gate. What the soldiers endured [here] was a profoundly deep and emotional experience, observed Corporal Rebecca Piper. For Bombardier Shane Fender, the tour took on a personal flavour as they travelled through the French and Belgian battlefields. Etched on the wall of the Villers-Bretonneux

memorial was the name of a great uncle. Later that day, he visited the grave of another uncle who lies at rest in Belgium. The horror and heroism of the Western Front and Gallipoli were appropriately articulated by Afghanistan veteran Lance Corporal Nicholas Lines. It wasnt until I stood on the battlefield that I really got a sense of how horrible the front line was to volunteer was an act of bravery in itself, he asserted.

IT WASNT UNTIL I STOOD ON THE BATTLEFIELD THAT I REALLY GOT A SENSE OF HOW HORRIBLE THE FRONT LINE WAS TO VOLUNTEER WAS AN ACT OF BRAVERY IN ITSELF
The tour culminated with each group participating in ANZAC Day commemorations both at dawn and throughout the day. The scholarship diggers were perfect ambassadors as they mingled with the crowds and provided personal briefs on the campaign and the fallen soldiers who lay around them. Corporal Matt Luhtasaari enjoyed a special moment as he recited the immortal words of the Ode of Remembrance at Lone Pine. Before leaving Turkey, the Gallipoli team had one more visit to make. This was to the Commonwealth War Cemetery at Hydra Pasha, hidden away in the suburbs of Istanbul. It is here that our forgotten ANZACs those captured at Gallipoli and in the Sinai, and those who died in Turkish captivity, now lie. The cemetery is rarely visited and the loneliness was evident as the three JNCOs roamed through the fading headstones, pausing in a silent tribute to each of the fallen Aussies, just to tell each one: rest soundly mate youre not forgotten.

The Chief of Armys Im an Australian Soldier Scholarship promotes the study of military history and recognises soldiers who excel in the core behaviours of the Im an Australian Soldier initiative. The scholarship aims to develop selected soldiers through an historical study tour of the sites of significant Australian campaigns. For six junior non-commissioned officers (JNCOs), the 2011 scholarship presented the opportunity of a lifetime a chance to visit some of the famed battlefields of World War I. The Chief of Armys Im an Australian Soldier Scholarship is an annual award open to soldiers and JNCOs.

This year, Bombardier Peter Smith and Corporal Matt Luhtasaari from the 1st Recruit Training Battalion and Corporal Erin Moore from the 10th Force Support Battalion, accompanied by historian Major Darryl Kelly, visited the battlefields of Gallipoli. Bombardier Shane Fender from the 7th Field Regiment, Corporal Rebecca Piper from the Royal Military College and Lance Corporal Nicholas Lines from the 2nd Combat Engineer Regiment travelled to the Western Front under the leadership of Warrant Officer Class One Jodie Stewart.
PHOTO: The Chief of Army Im an Australian Soldier Scholarship recipients with guests and former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd).

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CARING FOR ARMYS

WOUNDED, INJURED AND ILL


By Ms Kloe Croker On 1 June 2011, former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), convened the Wounded, Injured and Ill Diggers Forum at the Hyatt Hotel in Canberra which was attended by over 115 delegates. The forum presented a development opportunity to ensure that Army listens and learns from its soldiers and their families. Service providers and senior commanders were also invited to the forum. Feedback generated from the forum was utilised to enhance Armys comprehensive and integrated approach to the management of its wounded, injured and ill personnel and their families. Key elements addressed during the workshops included medical treatment in theatre and at home, communication, rehabilitation and access to support services. Former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), opened the forum, with the Minister for Veterans Affairs and Defence Science and Personnel, the Honourable Mr Warren Snowdon MP, among the distinguished guests. Among the topics discussed at the forum was the Casualty Administration and Support Framework which was established in 2010 to support wounded soldiers during their recovery. Army continues to learn from its experience in managing wounded, injured and ill soldiers, with the Casualty Administration and Support Framework evolving to become the Army Support to Wounded, Injured and Ill Program (SWIIP). SWIIP recognises that, regardless of the nature of the wound, injury or illness, Army as an organisation must work to assist soldiers to overcome the challenges they face on the road to recovery. Since the 2010 Wounded Injured and Ill Diggers Forum, Army has been working to increase support to soldiers and their families. Full-time Army Casualty Administration Support Officers and part-time Regional Casualty Administration Support Officers have been appointed at various locations around the country to coordinate support requirements. Other support structures include the Wounded Digger Website, Soldier Recovery Centres and an increased use of the welfare-board framework.
PHOTO: Sapper Michael Clarke from the 2nd Combat Engineer Regiment meets with former Chief of Army Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), at the Chief of Army Wounded, Injured and Ill Digger Forum.

THE FORUM PRESENTED A DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY TO ENSURE THAT ARMY LISTENS AND LEARNS FROM ITS SOLDIERS AND THEIR FAMILIES.

Soldier Recovery Centres are being established in Army barracks in the main areas of troop concentration to optimise soldier recovery from physical and psychological health problems. Each soldier has a program specifically tailored to suit his/her individual needs and physical conditioning. This program may include activities designed to maintain military training, or to provide educational opportunities for future development. The first Soldier Recovery Centre has been established in Townsville, with more to be opened throughout 2012. Army is committed to offering seriously wounded, injured and ill soldiers more opportunities to prepare for life after service in the Army. This includes providing targeted training

and education as part of an extended transition. Armys involvement in the Australian Defence Force Paralympic Sports Program is another element of SWIIP supporting the recovery process. SWIIP also works closely with the Department of Veterans Affairs and other relevant agencies such as ComSuper, to assist soldiers to access the relevant benefits. The Chief of Armys Wounded, Injured and Ill Diggers Forum will continue as an annual event. Army will continue to listen and learn from its wounded, injured or ill soldiers so as to provide the best possible care and assistance.

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FIRST FOR
By Ms Kloe Croker

ARAFURA GAMES

In May 2011, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) entered a team with acquired disabilities in the Arafura Games and Oceania Paralympic Championships for the first time. Both events were held in Darwin in the Northern Territory, and are recognised international sporting competitions for athletes from the Asia-Pacific region. The competition began in 1991 and is now held every two years. Soldiers in the ADF Paralympic Sports Program were members of the tri-service team that represented the ADF in a number of sports including swimming, track and field, and power-lifting. A number of Army soldiers competed in the team from the ADF Paralympic Sports Program. Warrant Officer Class two Dennis Ramsay won an impressive total of five medals in the track and field events. These included the Arafura 5000m wheelchair (silver), 1500m wheelchair (bronze), Oceania 5000m wheelchair (silver), Oceania 1500m wheelchair (silver) and Oceania javelin seated (silver). Private Clint Vardy competed in swimming and track, Sergeant Michael Lyddiard competed in swimming, and Private Stephen Osborne competed as a representative of the Australian Paralympic Power-lifting Team. The ADF Paralympic Sports Program is a clinical rehabilitation program which uses adaptive sport to optimise functional independence, physical fitness and promote positive self-image and self-esteem. Members of the ADF Paralympic Sports Program also participated in the second Winter High Performance Camp from 24-29 July. The camp was conducted at Jindabyne

with assistance from the volunteer guides of Disabled Sports Australia. The guides developed the soldiers skills in sit skiing, conventional skiing and snowboarding. The annual winter and summer camps provide seriously wounded, injured and ill soldiers the opportunity to participate in recreational and competitive sports under the guidance of internationally recognised Australian sporting coaches.

PHOTO: Sergeant Michael Lyddiard competing in the 50m butterfly at the Arafura Games.

PHOTO: Warrant Officer Class two Dennis Ramsay competes in the 5000m wheelchair event at the 2011 Arafura Games.

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AUSTRALIAN ARMY

CADETS
By Major (AAC) Benjamin Robinson

The Australian Army Cadets (AAC) is a personal development program for young people conducted by the Australian Army in cooperation with the community. The program is designed to benefit the nation by developing individuals, their communities and the Australian Army. In 2011, the AAC comprised 217 units located in every state and territory: almost 15 000 cadets, over 1100 part-time volunteer officers and instructors of cadets, 160 Army Reserve personnel, 18 Australian Regular Army personnel and 38 Australian Public Service employees (of whom 29 were fulltime officers/instructors of cadets). The success of the AAC is the result of much hard work, particularly over the last six years. Significant effort is devoted to ensuring that the program remains focused on achieving positive youth development outcomes. The AAC optimally develops its youth through: ongoing and regular participation in activities and experiences; its use of a military-style hierarchical structure and environment including the adoption of military uniforms, titles, ranks, customs and traditions; and the sequential building of skills through adolescence in the transition to adulthood. This includes providing leadership opportunities and using more experienced cadets in the planning and conduct of activities and in senior advisory and representational roles.

Over 2000 activities were conducted by the AAC in 2011. These included field-based annual camps and bivouacs, ceremonial and remembrance functions, community service and support to charities, activities with Australian Defence Force (ADF) units, weekly parade nights, promotion and specialist courses, and national and international exchanges. These activities were conducted by AAC units, which are collectives of cadet units operating in district AAC battalions, whole AAC regions, and at the national and international levels. In 2011 the AAC once again conducted its highly successful national Adventure Training Award (ATA) at the Buckland Training Area in Tasmania. Over the course of a week, cadets from every AAC region participated in activities designed to test their resolve and skills in the areas of fieldcraft, navigation, first aid, teamwork and endurance. The reward for successful completion of this gruelling individual assessment was the award of the prized ATA Boomerang and Torch Badge. The Chief of Army Cadet Team Challenge (CACTC) was conducted at Canungra in 2011 for teams from each of the eight AAC regions. Cadets participated in assessed activities in the areas of fieldcraft, navigation, first aid, weapon handling, drill and leadership. The CACTC is regarded as the AACs premier team event, with the winning team for 2011 the New South Wales AAC Brigade.

In addressing the CACTC participants, the former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), asserted: The cadet force is a really important part of Armys future; youre all a part of Armys future. Not all of you will go on to serve, but those of you who do will play a great role in the future of our nation and its worth my time to be here on this weekend watching you participate in this challenge.

The AACs involvement in the Army Cadet Exchange program has resulted in the development of many friendships with international partners over the past five years. In 2011, 21 cadets and six Army Cadet Staff travelled to the Cayman Islands, Canada, the Republic of Korea, and the United States of America. In return, cadets from the Cayman Islands, Canada, the Republic of Korea, and the United States of America were hosted through a range of cultural and cadet activities in NSW and the ACT.

PHOTO: Lieutenant General Ash Power, AM, Chief of Joint Operations speaks with Northern Territory Army Cadets at Larrakeyah Barracks, Darwin.

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

OPERATIONS

CHAPTER 3

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Afghanistan

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE SECOND AUSTRALIAN MENTORING

TASK FORCE
By Colonel Darren Huxley

On 17 May 2010, personnel from 27 different units and headquarters across the three Services of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) met in Darwin and formed Battle Group Tiger.

OPERATION

SLIPPER
Operation SLIPPER is Australias military contribution to the international campaign against terrorism, maritime security in the Middle East Area of Operations (MEAO), and the eradication of piracy in the Gulf of Aden. Major General Angus Campbell, AM, assumed his command of all Australian Defence Force (ADF) units deployed in the MEAO assigned to Operation SLIPPER on 13 January 2011. Under Operation SLIPPER, Australian forces contribute to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, undertaking a peace enforcement mission as per Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, UN Security Council Resolution 1833, and at the invitation of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. ISAF seeks to bring security, stability and prosperity to Afghanistan and aims to prevent the country again becoming a safe haven for international terrorists. Around 1550 ADF personnel are based in Afghanistan as part of Operation SLIPPER while approximately 800 personnel are deployed across the broader MEAO. Australias military contribution to Afghanistan is part of the Governments comprehensive approach to supporting global security and Australias national security by fighting terrorism and supporting efforts to prevent Afghanistan being used as a safe haven and training ground for terrorism.

On 5 June 2010, Battle Group Tiger began its mission-specific training, culminating with a mission rehearsal exercise in early September 2010 as its final preparation for combat in Afghanistan. In the space of four months, Battle Group Tiger completed three collective field activities, 19 individual courses or training activities, took pre-deployment leave, and prepared approximately 1200 personnel for potential service in the Middle East. It was a whirlwind of preparation, particularly for the administrative staff, with Chief Clerk Warrant Officer Class two Glen Snijder and Quartermaster Captain Noel Allport drowning in paperwork and equipment respectively. Battle Group Tiger deployed on Operation SLIPPER as a task group of the Australian Middle East Joint Task Force (JTF) 633, and was assigned under the North Atlantic Treaty
PHOTO: Villagers from Charmestan, Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan, speak with leaders from the Afghan National Army and their Coalition Force mentors about the presence of a new Patrol Base in the area, Patrol Base Mohammed.

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PHOTO: Afghan National Army leads the patrol out of the base heading towards the Shura (Afghan meeting) with village elders, in southern Afghanistan.

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Organisation (NATO) operational control of Combined Team Uruzgan a newly established coalition headquarters commanded by United States Army Colonel Jim Crieghton. Battle Group Tiger officially commenced its mission as the second Australian Mentoring Task Force (MTF2) in October 2010, taking over in Uruzgan Province from the 6th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, Battlegroup. MTF2 operated in three major regions within Uruzgan. Combat Team Delta patrolled the Dorafshan bowl, the Baluchi Valley and journeyed to all reaches of the Chora district.
PHOTO: Captain Matt Whitwell talks with local elders in Sorkh Lez during a community engagement.

Combat Team Bravo initially conducted operations in the Dorafshan bowl, but then settled down in the Mirabad Valley. Combat Team Charlie roamed the Deh Rawud district and patrolled into the Tangi and Tagaw valleys on a regular basis. Between October 2010 and June 2011, MTF2 conducted 12 major operations in conjunction with coalition and Afghan partners. It assisted in the design and construction of five company-sized patrol bases and provided oversight for the Afghan National Armys (ANA) construction of another two bases. MTF2 resupplied up to nine Australian bases every month by ground convoy and almost every day by air. It also administered, equipped and commanded in excess of 1000 personnel at the height of operational activity. MTF2 mentored indirectly over 2500 Afghan soldiers in routine military tasks, from the functioning of a Brigade headquarters to the duties of a rifle section. It advanced the 4th Afghan Brigade to new levels of capability, boosting Brigade members confidence in their own operational independence.

IT ADVANCED THE 4TH AFGHAN BRIGADE TO NEW LEVELS OF CAPABILITY AND GAVE THEM SIGNIFICANT CONFIDENCE IN THEIR OWN OPERATIONAL INDEPENDENCE
Three brave Australians gave their lives in support of the MTF2 mission and five were severely wounded. A number of other courageous personnel either suffered minor wounds or endangered their own lives to save or assist others. All personnel displayed the courage, commitment and loyalty befitting an Australian Army unit at war.

PHOTO: Sergeant Jason Johnson from the Mentoring Task Force 2, shakes hands with village local during a Afghan National Army lead patrol through the region, in southern Afghanistan.

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A CRUCIAL

CONNECTION
Australian Defence Force (ADF) women are engaging with the local population in Afghanistan as members of the International Stabilisation Assistance Forces Female Engagement Teams (FETs). The FETs support education programs, economic development and the provision of health services to the local population and provide an opportunity for Afghan women to discuss their concerns openly with female soldiers and seek ways to improve their lives and those of their families. The FETs also provide school supplies and medicine to the villagers. Corporal Jenny Sapwell, Mentoring Task Force2 (MTF2), describes her participation in a FET patrol with a female interpreter in the village of Sorkh Lez. There were no problems entering the qualas [compounds] and speaking to the women. It was great to engage with them, as it is rare to see females out of their homes, let alone be able to speak to them. Captain Sarah Vesey, Joint Task Force Headquarters, regularly attends activities and development sites in Uruzgan and is encouraged by the increasing number of females taking an active role in the community. A simple measure of progress is the number of women doing their shopping in the bazaar. It has gone from very few, to about 100 a day, Captain Vesey said. In a significant milestone for women in Afghanistan, Uruzgan Provincial Governor Mohammed Omar Shirzad recognised the role of women in Afghanistan by hosting more than 150 Afghan and Coalition Defence servicewomen at an International Womens Day function on 6 March 2011.

A SIMPLE MEASURE OF PROGRESS IS THE NUMBER OF WOMEN DOING THEIR SHOPPING IN THE BAZAAR.
FETs work in close conjunction with the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in Uruzgan, a multinational effort led by Australia, which has a female development assistance program. Within this program there are specific female engagement projects relating to womens education and health care. The PRT also works with the Director of Womens Affairs in the Provincial Government. Together, the FETs and the PRT work to improve living conditions and access to basic services for rural Afghan women and their families in Uruzgan. These people represent one of the most isolated and disadvantaged population groups in the country.

PHOTO: Corporal Ali Lenicka visits Malalai Girls School during a female engagement patrol throught Tarin Kot, Afghanistan.

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OPERATION KRUGER
Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel who deployed as part of Operation KRUGERs Australian Security Detachment (SECDET) completed a successful eight-year mission on 28 July 2011. The SECDET was first deployed to Baghdad in 2003 in the immediate aftermath of the Iraq war and contributed over 18 rotations during a period of prolonged insurgency. Throughout its mission, the SECDETs composition, structure and location continuously evolved to meet the dynamic nature of the operating environment. The SECDET provided consistent and professional close personal protection to key Australian government personnel, ensured the physical security of the embassy precinct, and protected vehicles travelling within Baghdad and in other areas of Iraq. Testament to the success of the eight-year mission is the SECDETs impressive legacy which ensured that no diplomats or embassy personnel were injured by insurgent action. The SECDETs mission was completed following a phased transition to contracted security similar to that provided to other Australian diplomatic missions. Over 1900 ADF personnel served in the Baghdad SECDET mission. They worked closely with Coalition and Iraqi Security Forces throughout Operations CATALYST and KRUGER to ensure close coordination with those responsible for security in Iraqs International Zone.

FAREWELLS IRAQ
OVER 1900 ADF PERSONNEL SERVED IN THE BAGHDAD SECDET MISSION. THEY WORKED CLOSELY WITH COALITION AND IRAQI SECURITY FORCES THROUGHOUT OPERATIONS CATALYST AND KRUGER TO ENSURE CLOSE COORDINATION WITH THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY IN IRAQS INTERNATIONAL ZONE.
Chief of Joint Operations, Lieutenant General Ash Power AO, CSC, commented that a review of the SECDETs operational record offered a sobering and reflective look at Iraqs recent history. When violence peaked in Iraq during 2004-2005 and again in 2006-2007, SECDET personnel also felt its intensity with 15 personnel wounded in action through a combination of insurgent rocket and IED attacks, Lieutenant General Power observed. Throughout the bulk of the mission, the SECDET comprised a mix of infantry and cavalry soldiers utilising the Australian Armys Australian Light Armoured Vehicles (ASLAV) for
PHOTO: Australian Defence Force members of Security Detachment Seventeen on parade during their farewell ceremony at the Australian Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq.

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protected mobility. In 2008, the ASLAV-25 vehicles were replaced with an ASLAV Personnel Carrier fleet augmented by up-armoured civilian vehicles. In late 2009, the SECDETs composition changed to solely up-armoured civilian vehicles. In August 2006, Corporal Sarah Webster was wounded in an attack at the SECDETs working accommodation. Despite this, she described the SECDET as an exciting deployment. Everything I have been trained to do in my job, I got to employ as part of SECDET. When the exiting, SECDET personnel lowered their flag in Baghdad for the last time, they also took the opportunity to remember Private Jake Kovco who was killed in a firearms incident while serving with the SECDET in 2006. Over the course of the SECDET mission, our soldiers have done their duty with the character for which Australian soldiers are renowned courage, initiative and teamwork. The cessation of the SECDET mission closes another chapter in Armys long contribution to the people of Iraq and to the reconstruction and rehabilitation of Iraq as a nation, observed Chief of Army, Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO. Two ADF personnel remain in Iraq serving as United Nations Military Observers under Operation RIVERBANK.

PHOTO: ASLAVs drive along the parade ground that stretches between two crossed swords called the Swords of Qadissiya.

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Jerusalem, Israel Sinai, Egypt

Baghdad, Iraq

Kabul, Afghanistan Kandahar, Afghanistan

OPERATION OPERATION

MAZURKA PALATE II
Operation PALATE II is the Australian Defence Force (ADF) contribution to the United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan (UNAMA). UNAMA is a political mission that was established on 28 March 2002 by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1401 to promote reconciliation and rapprochement, and to manage humanitarian relief, recovery, and reconstruction in Afghanistan. Two Australian Army officers serve as Military Advisers within the UNAMA Military Adviser Unit. Their duties include maintaining contact and liaison with all military forces throughout Afghanistan on behalf of UNAMA. The ADF officers are based in Kabul and Kandahar. The 25 Australian Defence Force (ADF) members of Operation MAZURKA work to assist the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in the Sinai, Egypt. The MFO is a non-United Nations organisation established in 1981 to oversee longstanding peace agreements in the region. The MFO is maintained by 11 nations including Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Fiji and France. Australias involvement in the MFO began in early 1982 with the formation of an Australia-New Zealand combined helicopter squadron. ADF members assist in the peace process by monitoring the border, preparing daily operational briefings and supporting the Headquarters. Operation MAZURKA is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Stuart Graham.

OPERATION

PALADIN
The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is committed to Operation PALADIN in Jerusalem, which constitutes Australias contribution to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation (UNTSO). The UNTSO was established in 1948 to supervise the truce agreed at the conclusion of the first Arab/Israeli War. Since 1956, members of the Australian contingent have been employed in a variety of roles, including as staff officers in the UNTSO Headquarters in Jerusalem, and as Military Observers throughout the region. Operation PALADIN is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Nick Bolton.

OPERATION

RIVERBANK
The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has two officers deployed to Iraq to support the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI). The ADF contribution is known as Operation RIVERBANK. A Colonel is based in Baghdad and currently fulfils the role of Senior Military Adviser to the Special Representative of the Secretary General within UNAMI. A Lieutenant Colonel in Kirkuk acts as Military Adviser to the UNAMI.

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SERVICE IN THE

SINAI

ANZAC Day activities took members of AUSCON to Cairo and Jerusalem. AUSCON also provided ceremonial support to commemorations of the charge of the Light Horse at Beer Sheva (Beersheba). The MFO mission is to observe, report and verify in a particularly volatile and critical area of the Middle East. The role of MFO in the peace process cannot be understated, and AUSCONs mission is to provide highly skilled personnel to support the MFO in supervising the implementation of the Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel. For many years the situation in the Sinai and for the MFO was stable and calm. However, 2011 has seen significant change in Egypt. Due to the uncertainty within the region, it is vital that all AUSCON members are properly trained, proactive and complement all other elements of the MFO in order to develop the synergy necessary for force success and cohesion. The presence of the MFO ensures interaction between Egypt and Israel is maintained, bringing the parties together to discuss and resolve issues that relate to the Treaty of Peace. The success of the MFO can be measured by time. The Treaty of Peace has been maintained over 29 years, with contributing nations understanding the strategic benefit of maintaining peace in this area of the world. The ADFs longstanding commitment to this role demonstrates an unwavering support to the ideals of the MFO. Although considered a minor operation, Operation MAZURKA provides critical niche capabilities and enhances the reputation of the ADF on the world stage.
PHOTO: Thunder of a light horse charge. This photograph has been described as one of the charge of the 4th Light Horse Brigade at Beer Sheva on the 31 October 1917.

By Lieutenant Colonel Stuart Graham For 17 years Australia has deployed 25 Australian Defence Force (ADF) members to support the 2400-strong Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in the Sinai. This contingent is an integrated force and is drawn from 11 contributing nations. The ADF provides specialist expertise in the operational, planning and administrative appointments. Deployments for the Commanding Officer and the Second in Command are of 12 months duration, with the remainder of the Australian Contingent (AUSCON) deploying on a six-month rotation of 12 persons every three months. This deployment cycle ensures the continuity of skills and capabilities in AUSCON MFO responsibilities. AUSCON standing within the MFO community continues to be enhanced through participation in shooting, driving and sporting competitions. Although a small contingent, and not always on the winners podium, AUSCON is always well represented at such events. Competing against the four main battalions and the other larger contingents, the Aussie reputation of having a go and doing our best always holds AUSCON in good stead. The two AUSCON Physical Training Instructors play a significant role in AUSCONs success in the sporting arena. Physical training sessions are conducted three times a week, with the Canadians and Kiwis often joining in. Even though AUSCON is a long way from home, the friendly rivalry with Australias neighbours from across the ditch is even present in the Sinai! AUSCON physical training sessions also include weekly range practice with the F88 and 9mm Self Loading Pistol conducted by one of the four security sergeants. A professional development program coordinated by the Regimental Sergeant Major involves all members of AUSCON delivering a military history presentation related to the area of operations. The Sinai is a region with a rich history and remarkable scenery. On occasion, representational duties have provided AUSCON with an opportunity to visit many of the sites of significance to Australias military history. In 2011,

AUSCON WORKS ALONGSIDE A DIVERSE GROUP OF NATIONALITIES, WITH A MIX OF MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PERSONNEL CREATING A TRULY MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT.
AUSCON works alongside a diverse group of nationalities, with a mix of military and civilian personnel creating a truly multicultural environment. With AUSCON personnel working in a diverse range of MFO appointments, the work ethic of the contingent is well recognised within the MFO community. Forged by past rotations, this is a reputation of which AUSCON is justifiably proud.

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South Sudan

OPERATION

AZURE
Operation AZURE involves the deployment of Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel to the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The ADF contingent of 17 includes six Military Observers and 11 other personnel who specialise in air movements, aviation safety and logistic support. The United Nations Security Council authorised establishment of UNMIS on 24 March 2005 following the signing by the government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement to end a civil war that had lasted more than 20 years. UNMIS supports implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and assists with the protection of civilians. Australias contribution to UNMIS under Operation AZURE has temporarily transitioned to the new United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) pending agreement between the UN and the Australian Government on an enduring contribution to UNMISS. Operation AZURE is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Craig Delaney.

PHOTO: Captain Paul Lambert visits locals in the village of Manikakara, southern Sudan, near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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MOVING

SOUTH
By Lieutenant Colonel Craig Delaney Sudan is a country that has historically been plagued by conflict. The North-South civil wars have cost the lives of 1.5 million people. A continuing conflict in the western region of Darfur has driven two million people from their homes and reportedly killed more than 200 000. The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established by the United Nations Security Council on 24 March 2005 following its determination that the situation in the country constituted a threat to international peace and security. After six years and 13 Australian Defence Force (ADF) rotations, Operation AZURE effectively came to an end on 9 July 2011 with the establishment of the worlds newest nation, South Sudan. Operation AZURE, like any other operation, has seen the ADF maintain a reputation for being able to get the job done. Where others may see obstacles, the Aussie can do attitude shines through. It is amazing how Aussies find themselves doing tasks, jobs and providing guidance outside their area of expertise, simply because they are known as being achievers, said Lieutenant Colonel Delaney. We have a lot to live up to because of the talents and achievements of the Australians who have served before us. The contingent has a proven track record for managing in testing circumstances. The issues and challenges coordinating logistic support for the 10 000 troops of the member nations from around the world were numerous. Each contingent, including a number of supporting units, came from not just many different countries, but also varied religious beliefs. This continually posed complex challenges in coordinating support, which was required in a timely manner. These challenges were compounded by the fractured national, state and local government systems which required differing levels of clearance to run ground and air resupply, explained Lieutenant Colonel Delaney. These challenges were further compounded as UNMIS was required to liquidate, in UN terms, by 31 August 2011 and move out of North Sudan. This involved the repatriation of

the majority of contingents in the north and the relocation of others to the south to form the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). The ADF contingent is now located in Juba, the largest city and capital of the Republic of South Sudan. Here, the ADF will continue to provide support to the new mission under Operation ASLAN. UNMISS mandate is to create a secure environment conducive to the peaceful resolution of internal securityrelated issues in support of peace and stability in South Sudan.

Despite the enduring challenges Sudan faces, the ADF contingent is inspired by the attitude of many of the local people: The Sudanese people have a tremendous strength and courage despite the turmoil. Their spirit and optimistic outlook is truly admirable adds Lieutenant Colonel Delaney, To be a part of such a historic moment in Sudans troubled history is both an honour and a privilege, and one experience of many that will stay with us for life.

PHOTO: Sergeant Lewis meets one of the locally employed staff constructing a referendum support base in Unity state, southern Sudan.

AFTER SIX YEARS AND 13 ADF ROTATIONS, OPERATION AZURE EFFECTIVELY CAME TO AN END ON 9 JULY 2011 WITH THE BIRTH OF THE WORLDS NEWEST NATION, SOUTH SUDAN.
Operation AZURE is the ADF contribution to UNMIS. The latest ADF team, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Craig Delaney, comprises six military observers and 11 other personnel. The team specialises in air movements, aviation safety and logistics support to ensure UNMIS is able to perform its role of supporting the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between North and South Sudan.

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Timor-Leste

OPERATION

ASTUTE
The Australian-led International Stabilisation Force (ISF) comprises of Navy, Army and Air Force personnel from Australia and New Zealand and is commanded by Colonel Luke Foster. Operation ASTUTE is the military codename for the Australian arm of the ISF. The ISF operates at the invitation of the Government of Timor-Leste and in support of the United Nations. Its role is to maintain stability and provide a secure environment for ongoing development in Timor-Leste. The ISF currently numbers around 460 personnel, 380 of whom are from the Australian Defence Force (ADF). The Australian commitment includes elements of the 8th Brigade and Army Aviation. Support elements comprise engineers, logistics and supply personnel, and Army Aviation from the wider ADF. The New Zealand contingent of the ISF, known as Gyro 11, consists primarily of troops from the 1st Battalion of the New Zealand Army.
PHOTO: Share and share alike Officer Commanding ANZAC Company, Major Robert Miller, gets a taste of village life during an ANZAC platoon visit to a village in the remote Timor-Leste district of Viqueque.

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OPERATION

TOWER
Operation TOWER is the Australian Defence Forces (ADF) contribution to the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) and is commanded by Wing Commander Nick Burma. The UNMIT was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1704 following civil unrest in Timor-Leste in 2006. UNMIT is the United Nations fifth Timor-Leste mission since 1999 and the third since Independence in 2002. With representation from 13 countries, the UNMIT Military Liaison Group conducts daily monitoring of the security environment and provides military advice on the restoration and maintenance of security. ADF members are also employed as staff officers based at UNMIT headquarters in Dili. Military Liaison Officers play a crucial role in security reform. They also contribute to the professional development of the Timor-Leste Defence Force (F-FDTL) by designing and delivering Liaison Officer training to F-FDTL officers and senior non-commissioned officers. The Prime Minister of Timor-Leste and the senior leadership of the F-FDTL have officially recognised the importance of this training, enhancing the ADFs profile with the F-FDTL and positively reinforcing Australias contribution to UNMIT.

OPERATION

ANODE
Operation ANODE is the name of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) contribution to the Australian-led Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI). RAMSI is also known as Operation HELPEM FREN (Pidgin English for Helping Friend). RAMSIs mission is to assist the Solomon Islands Government in the maintenance of security, law and justice, economic governance and in improving the machinery of government. The military component of RAMSI comprises personnel from four troop-contributing nations: Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Tonga. The main task of the military component is to provide security for RAMSIs multinational Participating Police Force (PPF), which works alongside the Royal Solomon Islands Police in maintaining law and order. Specialist military staff in RAMSIs headquarters also provide coordination between the multinational military effort and the PPF. The Combined Task Force consists of approximately 160 personnel, of whom 115 are Australian. These personnel are primarily drawn from the New South Wales-based 5th Brigade, including the 4th/3rd and 1st/19th Battalions of The Royal New South Wales Regiment, and the 1st/15th Regiment of The Royal New South Wales Lancers. ADF personnel are deployed at the invitation of the Solomon Islands Government. The Combined Task Force deployed in support of Operation ANODE is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Campbell Smith.

Timor-Leste

Solomon Islands

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Christmas Island Cocos Islands

OPERATION

Norfolk Island Lord Howe Island

RESOLUTE
Operation RESOLUTE is the Australian Defence Forces (ADF) contribution to the whole-of-government effort to protect Australias borders and offshore maritime interests. At any one time, up to 400 ADF personnel at sea, in the air and on the land operate alongside personnel from Customs and other agencies as part of Operation RESOLUTE. Operation RESOLUTE is the only ADF operation that defends the homeland of Australia and its assets. The Operation RESOLUTE area of operations covers approximately 10 per cent of the worlds surface including Australias Exclusive Economic Zone, which extends up to 200 nautical miles around the mainland, Christmas, Cocos (Keeling), Norfolk, Heard, Macquarie and Lord Howe islands. Armys contribution to Operation RESOLUTE includes the Regional Force Surveillance Units (RFSUs) which conduct patrols of land-based security operations, and a Transit Security Element of approximately 37 personnel from either Army or Air Force aboard the Armidale Class Patrol Boats.

Heard Islands

The RFSUs are tasked with the land and littoral surveillance of the inhospitable areas of northern Australia. They play a vital role in the detection of threats through continual surveillance of the northern coastline and hinterland of Australia. They also undertake reconnaissance patrols by foot, vehicle and watercraft, and conduct surveillance from static observation posts and through systematic communication and liaison with police, Customs, regional authorities and local landowners. The RFSUs are under the command of three separate headquarters: the 51st Battalion, Far North Queensland Regiment, in Cairns; the Pilbara Regiment in Karratha; and the North West Mobile Force in Darwin.

PHOTO: Soldiers from the 51st Battalion, Far North Queensland Regiment.

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REGIONAL FORCE SURVEILLANCE UNITS SUPPORT


By Lieutenant Peter Croce

OPERATION RESOLUTE
The stark beauty of dawn breaking over the remote landscape marks the start of another day at the office for the Regional Force Surveillance Unit (RFSU) members who remain concealed in their observation posts. Staying out of sight and delivering vital intelligence is the daily job description for the Armys RFSU elements stretching from Cairns, Far North Queensland, to the Pilbara, Western Australia, while undertaking Operation RESOLUTE. Unit members, from a wide range of backgrounds, deliver the vital land-based capability for border protection operations and execute their responsibilities with a deep passion for RESOLUTE, the only Australian Defence Force (ADF) operation that detects and deters illegal activity in Australias waters. Commander Northern Command, Air Commodore Ken Watson, says the RFSUs play a vital role in the detection of threats through the continual surveillance of the northern coastline and hinterland of Australia. They are an integral and valued part of the RESOLUTE team. Many current indigenous leaders have been members of the RSFUs in the past, so along with a current contribution to Australias security, the RFSUs are contributing to nation building, Air Commodore Watson said. Members across all ranks process the information at Headquarters Northern Command, coordinating and controlling the whole-of government effort to develop future plans and logistics. From Headquarters Joint Task Force 639 at Larrakeyah Barracks, Darwin, Commander Northern Command controls the ADF units assigned to Operation RESOLUTE. He also controls Army assets and personnel when Defence aid to the civil community is requested in the Northern Territory and Kimberley regions. With headquarters in Cairns, Broome and Darwin, the three RFSUs include: 51st Battalion, The Far North Queensland Regiment; The Pilbara Regiment; and North West Mobile Force. The RFSUs deploy reconnaissance patrols by foot, vehicle and watercraft. Surveillance is conducted from static observation posts and by systematic communication and liaison with police, customs, other regional authorities and with local landowners.
PHOTO: Corporal Tabuai is an Army Reservist with the 51st Battalion, Far North Queensland Regiment.

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PHOTO: The enormous task of making the roads passable again in West End, Brisbane is tackled by Army Reserve soldiers from the 9th Battalion Royal Queensland Regiment who assisted Queensland emergency services as part of Operation QUEENSLAND FLOOD ASSIST.

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OPERATION

QUEENSLAND FLOOD ASSIST


By Mr Graham McBean, Sergeant Andrew Hetherington and Corporal Melanie Schinkel The Australian Army played a critical role in responding to the worst natural disaster in Queenslands history. In total, over 1900 Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel were deployed as Joint Task Force 637 (JTF 637) on Operation QUEENSLAND FLOOD ASSIST. As the majority of Australians surveyed the devastation of Grantham, Brisbane, Ipswich and the Lockyer Valley on the six oclock news, JTF 637 responded early in the crisis, bringing in significant specialist capabilities followed by boots on the ground as the water began to subside and the clean-up began. No-one was prepared for the torrent that swept cars away in Toowoomba, the destructive wall of water that descended on Grantham, or the tragic loss of so many lives. For many operational veterans, the devastation in the wake of the floods was among the worst sights they had encountered. Brigadier Paul McLachlan, Commander JTF 637, commented. It was the worst carnage I have seen. Grantham has continually shocked everybody who has been in there, including guys with experiences of East Timor early in operations and an engineer corporal who was part of the tsunami response. As the disaster unfolded, rotary-wing aircraft provided vital response capability, bringing supplies to isolated towns and regions, and executing daring airlift rescues by day and night. Troops from the 8th/9th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (8/9 RAR), were involved in the heart-wrenching search and recovery tasks in the Grantham and the Lockyer Valley. Brigadier Paul McLachlan observed that the most important quality ADF personnel brought to the flood effort was attitude. Without fail, every single place that we have visited we have had people come up and just comment on the dedication and their work ethic. People are amazed at just how hard every person is working. The dedication, professionalism, humility and the support for those involved has been amazing. Former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), visited the soldiers on the ground during rescue and clean-up operations. Lieutenant General Gillespie commented that The recovery effort went very well; a strong bond has been established between the troops and the local people, the police, council and other officials. He added, It was particularly pleasing to see regular and reserve forces working seamlessly together in such a strong fashion. I was particularly proud to observe that, in the face all of that damage, what I call Team Australia came together to help other suffering Australians: it doesnt get much better than that.
PHOTO: Two soldiers from 8/9 RAR look over the devastation in the town of Grantham.

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PHOTO: A CH47 Chinook helicopter airlifts an ADF Water Purification Unit from Rockhampton to Theodore. The unit provided safe drinking water to the residents of Theodore.

DELIVERING HOPE WITH THE NECESSITIES 5th AVIATION REGIMENT


A Chinook from 5th Aviation Regiment transported 13 tonnes of essential supplies from St George to the floodisolated cotton-growing town of Dirranbandi in mid-January. Dirranbandi is around 120 kilometres south of St George and has 450 residents. The town became isolated as the main roads were cut by floodwaters. Local resident Kimberley Gillan said the town appreciated the delivery. Daily necessities like bread, milk and baby formula had been getting pretty scarce.

blokes sitting outside their house having a beer. They asked us, Do you want a beer? The soldiers replied, No, sorry, were on the dry. These locals were covered in mud, their house was decimated and they had half of their belongings on the median strip. One of the blokes looks at it all and says, Well, bugger me, and I thought I was in a bad way!

ARMY PITCHES IN
Soldiers with hand tools and heavy equipment including front-end loaders, Mack dump trucks and skid-steer loaders, and engineer support participated in the massive clean-up effort, performing such tasks as road clearance, kerbside collection, engineering reconnaissance and assisting volunteers. Soldiers delivered about 800 000 litres of drinking water by truck. Army Bushmaster vehicles and other heavy machinery were used to transport people and stores, as well as to clear debris. Infantry personnel supported search and clean-up operations. Engineers cleared debris by hand and with heavy machinery, as well as conducting structural integrity inspections of buildings. An Army Chinook helicopter provided heavy lift support. Nine Army Black Hawk helicopters undertook search, recovery and transport tasks. Four Army Kiowa observation helicopters conducted search operations.

11th BRIGADE
Personnel from 11th Brigade answered the call to provide clean water to the residents of Theodore, located approximately 200 kilometres south of Rockhampton. Captain Darren Carter, 31st/42nd Battalion, The Royal Queensland Regiment, Sergeant Brian Shephard and Sergeant Chris Chase, both from 35th Field Squadron, deployed to Theodore on 6 January 2011. The team arrived aboard a Black Hawk and a Chinook that carried their water purification unit in an external sling. The team also helped locals to clean their homes. We had more than 100 people come by to get water and wed sometimes see some people four times a day, Captain Carter commented. The local population appreciated their assistance. Even though they had little to offer, they demonstrated both generosity and humour in their dealings with the Army team. Captain Carter recalled, One day we were walking back from our site to our accommodation and there were a couple of

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PHOTO: Sapper Matthew Vayro assists local residents in removing debris from the streets and verges into an Army Front End Loader in Karalee, Queensland.

PHOTO: Army Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicles drive through the town of Grantham, Queensland.

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PHOTO: Army Aircrewman guide Forest Hill residents to a waiting Black Hawk helicopter for transfer to Gatton to escape rising flood waters.

BLACK HAWK RESCUE


For more than nine hours on 11 January 2011, Black Hawk 220s aircrew battled the most arduous flying conditions they had ever encountered to help around 200 flood-stricken Forrest Hill, Laidley and Gatton residents. Captain Tony Southwood, a Black Hawk pilot from the Oakeybased Army Aviation Training Centre, was on board Black Hawk 220 assisting its pilot. He recalled that the weather became so bad that, at one point, they had to land for their own safety. Our average visibility was only about two kilometres. The rain was heavy and we had lightning and thunderstorms rolling on top of us, so we had to land and shut down until it was safe enough for us to continue our tasks. Captain Southwood said.The most significant rescues he witnessed involved Laidley Hospital patients and a family of six trapped on the roof of their Laidley home. It was so hard to stop the tears from forming in my eyes. Aircrew were carrying tiny crying babies onto the aircraft it was very powerful stuff, he explained. Corporal Robert Nelson rescued four children, their mother and grandmother by individually hoisting them by sling about 25 metres from their verandah rooftop into the helicopter. Corporal Nelson, who has served in East Timor, regards these as his first real rescues in a four-year career as an aircrewman. He explained that rescuing the family of six was particularly difficult because two of the children were very young and too small for the sling. Although I have trained a lot to do this, its nerve-racking picking up a real person from that height. For me, it was a tiring but rewarding day because I helped people who were stranded and had no other way of escaping the rising floodwaters.

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CLEANING UP THE CAPITAL


Blue skies and receding waters were followed by a welcome flood of Enoggera-based soldiers much to the relief of Brisbane and South-East Queensland residents. The soldiers were deployed throughout Brisbane to assist in the mammoth clean-up of Queenslands capital. More than 90 soldiers from 9th Battalion, The Royal Queensland Regiment, were among the first to deploy to the West End, just south of the Brisbane River, on 14 January. The diggers worked as many as 22 hours in a day before the floodwaters finally peaked, clearing mud and debris from the streets. They performed tasks such as sandbagging, patrolling and casualty evacuation before changing their focus to reopen Brisbanes flood-devastated roads. Engineers from the 2nd Combat Engineer Regiment (2 CER) and 21st Construction Squadron brought heavy machinery and specialist skills to clean-up operations in South-East Queensland. Sapper Naomi McCutcheon, a plant operator from 2 CER, was removing piles of debris with a loader for several long days. Im just taken aback by the amount of devastation in this area its incredible, she said at the time, You just cant really understand until you get here and see it. I wish I could do more because there are many other suburbs that need our help.

PHOTO LEFT: Soldiers from 2 CER load a truck with water-damaged furniture and household items from a home in Chelmer, Brisbane. PHOTO FAR LEFT: Private Louis Farrell from B Company 9th Battalion Royal Queensland Regiment works hard to clear the mud from an intersection in West End, Brisbane after the deluge of flood-waters subsided.

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OPERATION

YASI ASSIST
By Mr Graham McBean and Lance Corporal Mark Doran In a summer of natural disasters, more than 1200 soldiers, sailors and aircrew from Joint Task Force (JTF) 664 responded within hours of Tropical Cyclone Yasi crossing the North Queensland coast. Many soldiers reported for duty, arriving in the disaster zone while their partners and families managed posting cycle relocations in and out of the Townsville area. Commander JTF 664, Brigadier Stuart Smith, thanked the military families for both their understanding and their sacrifices, commenting, Some families have recently arrived in North Queensland and many of their removals have been affected by the floods, so it really has been a demanding time. Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel were warmly received by the North Queensland community and their efforts and contribution proved highly effective. Army has the ability to bring lots of manpower into a site to repair damage and move debris off roads in a coordinated fashion, and provide early reconnaissance in hard-hit areas, Brigadier Smith explained. The teamwork and rapid response capability of the ADF, allied with the hard work and initiative displayed by its personnel, ensured the effectiveness of the ADF contribution to community recovery in the aftermath of Cyclone Yasi.
PHOTO ABOVE: An Australian flag flies amongst the trail of destruction left behind by Cyclone Yasi in Townsville as soldiers from the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment help clean the streets. PHOTO RIGHT: Corporal Chris Hanley, Transport Driver from 3rd Combat Service Support Battalion hands out water to the children of South Johnstone State School on their first day back at school after Cyclone Yasi tore through Far North Queensland.

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PHOTO: A LCM8 docks at Mourilyan Harbour during Operation YASI ASSIST.

WORKING TOGETHER
Army and Navy joined forces in the aftermath of Cyclone Yasi when an amphibious beach team from the 10th Force Support Battalion and 35th Water Transport Squadron established a beachhead in Mourilyan Harbour to receive Armys Landing Craft Medium (LCM8) and the Navys Landing Craft Heavy. The landing craft delivered critical supplies, including food and water, for the civilian population at Tully Heads, as well as assets and personnel from the 3rd Combat Services Support Battalion. These included engineering equipment, trucks and ambulances for Operation YASI ASSIST. LCM8 crewman Private Tate Ellis explained that, once they had delivered the first load of food and water, they would return immediately to Townsville to prepare for another trip north. On the next trip, we brought up a bladder containing 35 000 litres of diesel for use by the units operating in the area, Private Ellis added. It was fantastic to get out and do the job to help and support the locals.

ASSETS DEPLOYED:
HQ JTF 664 Command and Control. Army personnel supporting operations including reconnaissance, liaison, emergency relief, recovery and clean-up. Small Army watercraft amphibious landing capabilities, light sea lift of emergency supplies and equipment. Land Craft Heavy amphibious landing capabilities, medium sea lift of emergency supplies and equipment. Six Black Hawk helicopters search, recovery and transport.
PHOTO: Private David Wallis, Water Transport from 10 Force Support Battalion in Townsville is part of the LCM8 crew involved in transporting diesel from Townsville to Mourilyan Harbour refuelling Army vehicles involved in Operation YASI ASSIST.

One Chinook helicopter search, recovery and transport. Eight Kiowas search and reconnaissance operations.

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ON CLEAN-UP DUTY
Armed with chainsaws, axes, shovels and a generator, the soldiers of 3 Brigade got down and dirty to lend a hand in the Cyclone Yasi clean-up. The Officer Commanding Alpha Company, 51st Battalion, The Far North Queensland Regiment, Major Steve Paton, said that the soldiers presence lifted the spirit of local communities. Many people exhibited an obvious sense of relief when they saw help arriving. Our role included route reconnaissance and establishing access along the major highways and roads to key infrastructure, Major Paton said. Many soldiers from Lavarack Barracks were quickly deployed throughout Townsville to help repair damage and clear debris. Lieutenant Tobias Pitt, from Bravo Squadron, 3rd/4th Cavalry Regiment, noted that the main challenge lay in coordinating the effort since all areas had been equally affected. We started working in the Gulliver area at noon straight after Tropical Cyclone Yasi had passed and finished at dusk each night, Lieutenant Pitt explained. The work was coordinated with the State Emergency Services Queensland, while the Queensland Police Service cordoned the roads we worked on.
PHOTO RIGHT: Happy to help in the clean up on Operation YASI ASSIST is Sergeant Steven McGowan, an Engineer from 16 Squadron, 15 Troop, 3rd Combat Engineer Regiment. PHOTO MIDDLE: Corporal Alan Thomas from B Squadron 3rd/4th Cavalry Regiment joins in the clean-up work of clearing the streets of Townsville during Operation YASI ASSIST. PHOTO FAR RIGHT: Private Barrett assists the township of Cardwell cleaning the streets of fallen trees and debris after Cyclone Yasi tore through the town.

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AIR SUPPORT WELCOMED IN CYCLONE ZONE


Air assets from the 5th Aviation Regiment (5 Avn Regt) in Townsville and the Army Aviation Training Centre in Oakey thundered into the Cassowary Coast regional area bringing troops and vital supplies. Six Black Hawks, one Chinook and eight Kiowa aircraft were force assigned to provide critical Defence Assistance to the Civil Community in the cycloneravaged areas of North Queensland. The Kiowas were used as observation platforms to meet the commanders information requirements on the status of the affected communities, the condition of roads and the level of damage to infrastructure such as power lines. The Chinook and Black Hawks moved troops, equipment, water and food into the disaster area. The Commanding Officer of 5 Avn Regt, Lieutenant Colonel James Brown, described the work as steady, allowing the commander the flexibility to hurdle blocked roads and receive instant information. The weather was the biggest challenge for us; all our aircraft were flown to Mackay to weather out the storm because of concerns about the tidal surge, Lieutenant Colonel Brown added. We had missions which were cut short because of the weather and a number of tasks were modified because the cloud cover and rain were too extreme for operations. Aircraft and crews from 5 Avn Regt were also involved in the evacuation of Theodore and in assisting Emergency Management Queensland in the Queensland flood relief efforts at towns such as Emerald, Ipswich, Biloela and Rockhampton.

Lieutenant Colonel Brown said that, although the Army Aviation Training Centre was not an operational unit, the way it had responded to the two urgent Defence Assistance to the Civil Community requests had been magnificent. As usual, the work we did under the conditions was a testament to the training and dedication of the air and groundcrews of 5 Avn Regt, as well as the whole of the aviation capability. The 6th Aviation Regiment from Holsworthy also responded quickly and effectively at extremely short notice to look after the people of Queensland, Lieutenant Colonel Brown added. The task force for Operation YASI ASSIST was formed early and quickly established command and control elements under the command of Brigadier Stuart Smith. This enabled the local disaster management groups requests to be handled through Headquarters 3rd Brigade.

PHOTO: Soldiers from Support Company, 1st Battalion The Royal Australian Regiment land in an A15 Chinook in Cowley Beach Training Area to assist in the clean up of towns affected by Cyclone Yasi.

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SUPPORT DELIVERED:
About 2800 ration packs in the Cairns district, and more than 390 ration packs and about 400 bottles of water in the Innisfail district. Almost 50 tonnes of stores delivered to the Cairns district and about 20 tonnes to the Townsville district. More than 160km of road cleared in the Townsville district. Debris removed from about 260km of road in the Townsville district, 35km in the Cairns district and about 45km in the Innisfail district. Yards and grounds of more than 90 community properties cleared in the Townsville district and 40 community properties in the Innisfail district. Trees cut and cleared from almost 210 sites and debris cleared from about 90 houses in the Innisfail district. Almost 250 tonnes of debris collected from the Innisfail district. Doorknocks conducted on about 5000 homes in the Townsville district and more than 450 homes in the Innisfail district. About 210 civilians moved by air and road in the Cairns district, 90 in Townsville and 14 in the Innisfail district.

PHOTO: A Black Hawk from the Joint Task Group 664, the Aviation Task Group for Operation YASI ASSIST, lands for re-fueling at the Tully Airport after completion of a troop transport task.

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

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CHAPTER 4

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CORPORAL RICHARD ATKINSON


Corporal Richard Atkinson, a 22-year-old member of the Darwin-based 1st Combat Engineer Regiment (1CER), was killed on operations in Afghanistan on 2 February 2011. Corporal Atkinson was born in Hobart in 1988 and joined the Army in 2007. In the same year, he successfully completed his Recruit and Combat Engineer basic training prior to being posted to 1CER. He was promoted to Lance Corporal in 2009, having displayed exceptional leadership in unifying his section during their preparation for operations in Afghanistan. His dedication to his section was further rewarded with his promotion to Corporal, just prior to their deployment. Corporal Atkinson was leading his Combat Engineer section as a Search Commander when he was killed in action. He is survived by his fiance, parents, brother and sister-in-law.

SAPPER JAMIE LARCOMBE


Sapper Jamie Larcombe, a 21-year-old member of the Darwinbased 1st Combat Engineer Regiment (1CER), was killed on operations in Afghanistan on 19 February 2011. Sapper Larcombe was born in Kingscote, South Australia, in 1989. He joined the Army in 2008 and successfully completed his Recruit and Combat Engineer basic training. Corporal Atkinson was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Defence Medal; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with International Security Assistance Force Clasp. He was also awarded the Army Combat Badge. Corporal Atkinsons service in the Australian Army included deployments on Operation PADANG ASSIST (Indonesian Earthquake) in October 2009 and Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from October 2010 to February 2011. He was subsequently posted to 1CER in Darwin. Sapper Larcombe was described by his Army mates as dependable and genuine, with a wisdom instilled by his country upbringing that was widely respected. His service in the Army saw him awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Defence Medal; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. Sapper Larcombe is survived by his partner, parents, and three younger sisters. During Sapper Larcombes service in the Australian Army, he deployed on Operation PADANG ASSIST (Indonesian Earthquake) in October 2009 and Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from October 2010 to February 2011.

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SERGEANT BRETT WOOD, MG


Sergeant Brett Wood, a 32-year-old member of the Sydneybased 2nd Commando Regiment, was killed in Afghanistan on 23 May 2011. He was serving with the Special Operations Task Group when he was killed in action by an improvised explosive device. Sergeant Wood was born in Ferntree Gully, Victoria, in 1978 and joined the Army in 1996. Following recruit training, he joined the 6th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment. Sergeant Wood successfully undertook commando selection and training and was posted to the 4th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (Commando), in November 1998. Sergeant Wood had considerable operational experience. His first deployment was to Bougainville in 2000. In 2001, he deployed to East Timor on Operation TANAGER and in 2003 to Iraq on Operation FALCONER. In 2006 Sergeant Wood deployed to Afghanistan as part of Operation SLIPPER. He was awarded the Medal for Gallantry for leadership in action as a Team Commander during this tour. Sergeant Wood received a Special Operations Commander Australia Commendation for his service with the Tactical Assault Group East in 2007. In 2009 he returned to Afghanistan as a Section Commander. In March 2011, Sergeant Wood deployed to Afghanistan for the third time. Sergeant Wood is survived by his wife. He was awarded the Medal for Gallantry; the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasps: East Timor, International Coalition Against Terrorism and Iraq 2003; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Iraq Campaign Medal; the Australian Service Medal with Clasps: Bougainville, Counter Terrorism and Special Recovery; the Defence Long Service Medal; the Australian Defence Medal; the United Nations East Timor Medal; the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. He was also awarded the Special Operations Command Australia Commendation and Unit Citation for Gallantry and the Infantry Combat Badge. Sergeant Wood was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and the United States Meritorious Service Medal. Sergeant Woods service in the Australian Army saw him deploy on a number of operations: Operation BEL ISI II (Bougainville), March August 2000 Operation TANAGER (East Timor), April August 2001 Operation FALCONER (Iraq), February May 2003 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), April September 2006 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), July November 2009 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), March May 2011

LANCE CORPORAL ANDREW JONES


Lance Corporal Andrew Jones was a 25-year-old member of the Amberley-based 9th Force Support Battalion serving in Afghanistan with the Force Support Unit. Lance Corporal Jones was killed on operations on 30 May 2011. He was born in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1986 and joined the Army in 2004. Following recruit training, he completed his Initial Employment Training as a cook, and joined the Catering Platoon of the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment. He was posted to the 9th Force Support Battalion in 2008. Lance Corporal Joness first operational deployment was to East Timor in 2008. His second, to Afghanistan, commenced in November 2010. Lance Corporal Jones was a loyal, reliable and committed soldier who was dedicated to serving his country. He was a team player who loved his job. His was a quiet, amiable personality and he enjoyed a joke with his mates. Lance Corporal Jones was a skilled cook who was always the first to volunteer to deploy on exercise. In 2010, he was promoted to Lance Corporal after completing his Junior Leader Course. He is survived by his parents, two younger siblings and his girlfriend. Lance Corporal Jones was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal,; the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Timor-Leste; the Australian Defence Medal; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force . During Lance Corporal Joness service in the Australian Army, he deployed on Operation ASTUTE (East Timor) from July to October 2008 and Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from November 2010 to May 2011.

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LIEUTENANT MARCUS CASE


Lieutenant Marcus Case was a 27-year-old member of the Sydney-based 6th Aviation Regiment (6 Avn Regt). Lieutenant Case was deployed to Afghanistan as a Heron Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operator. This was his first deployment to Afghanistan. He was killed on operations in Afghanistan on 30 May 2011. Lieutenant Case was born in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1984. He enlisted in the Army Reserve on 25 June 2002 and was posted to the 5th/6th Royal Victorian Regiment. In 2003, he commenced the Commando Selection and Training process with the 1st Commando Regiment (1 CDO). On completion of his training, he was posted to 1 CDO, which included an operational tour to East Timor in 2007. On 19 March 2008, Lieutenant Case transferred to the Australian Regular Army, graduating as an officer before undertaking pilot training at the Army Aviation Training Centre in Oakey. On 10 December 2009, he was posted to 6 Avn Regt in Sydney. Lieutenant Cases first deployment was to Malaysia in July 2005 as an infantryman with the Rifle Company Butterworth. In January 2011, he was part of the Aviation Battle Group deployed to Queensland to assist in ADF flood relief operations. A keen and motivated officer, Lieutenant Case was an excellent pilot. He lived a very rich life, taking every opportunity that was offered to him and making the most of it. He was confident and capable and regarded as a man who would tackle and complete any task.

SAPPER ROWAN ROBINSON


Sapper Rowan Robinson was a 23-year-old member of the Sydney-based Incident Response Regiment (IRR). Sapper Robinson was on his second deployment to Afghanistan, having deployed on Operation SLIPPER in 2007. Lieutenant Case is survived by his parents and five siblings. He was the youngest of six children. He was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Timor-Leste; the Australian Defence Medal and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. During his service in the Australian Army, Lieutenant Case deployed on Operation ASTUTE (East Timor) from June to September 2007; Operation QUEENSLAND FLOOD ASSIST in January 2011; and Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) in May 2011. Sapper Robinson was serving with the Special Operations Task Group when he was killed in action on 6 June 2011. Born in Wahroonga, NSW, in 1987, Sapper Robinson joined the Army in 2006. Following his initial recruit training, he was posted to the 3rd Combat Engineer Regiment. After four years of service, he joined the IRR at the beginning of 2010 where he completed his reinforcement cycle. Sapper Robinsons mates described him as a superb young man who was fit, happy go lucky and a great team member. He was a dedicated and professional soldier whose skill belied his youth. His easy-going nature made him popular with his peers and superiors. Sapper Robinson is survived by his mother, father, sister and two brothers. Sapper Robinson was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Defence Medal and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. He was also awarded the Army Combat Badge. During Sapper Robinsons service in the Australian Army, he deployed on Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from September 2007 to April 2008 and from March to June 2011.

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SERGEANT TODD LANGLEY


Sergeant Todd Langley was deployed as a Commando Section Commander in the Special Operations Task Group on the seventh operational deployment of his career. Sergeant Langley was killed on operations in Afghanistan on 4 July 2011. Born in Margaret River, Western Australia, in 1976, Sergeant Langley enlisted in the Army Reserve on 18 April 1993 and transferred to the Regular Army on 14 September 1994 to serve with the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment. On completion of the Commando Selection and Training course in 2004, he was posted to the 4th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (Commando), remaining with the unit through its transition to the 2nd Commando Regiment (2 CDO). Sergeant Langley was an extremely experienced Section Commander who always set an example to those who worked with him. He was an exemplary Commando and leader who gave his best, and inspired those around him to achieve similar standards. Sergeant Langley was universally respected by all members of 2 CDO. Sergeant Langley is survived by his wife and four children. He was awarded the Commendation for Distinguished Service 2002 and 2008; Australian Active Service Medal with Clasps: Timor-Leste and International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Counter Terrorism and Special Recovery; the Defence Long Service Medal; the Australian Defence Medal; the United Nations Transitional Administration East Timor Medal; the United States Meritorious Service Medal;

PRIVATE MATTHEW LAMBERT


Private Matthew Lambert, a member of the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR), based in Townsville, North Queensland, was serving in Afghanistan with the Mentoring Task Force 3. He was killed on operations on 22 August 2011. Private Lambert was born in Kogarah, NSW, in 1985. He joined the Army Reserve in southern Queensland, enlisting in the 9th Battalion, The Royal Queensland Regiment, in August 2005. In February 2007 he transferred to the Australian Regular Army and was posted to 2 RAR in Townsville. Private Lambert was a highly respected soldier who excelled in any task he was assigned, and was committed to serving his country in Afghanistan. Private Lambert is survived by his parents and family. Private Lambert was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Service

and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. He was also awarded the Infantry Combat Badge and the Unit Citation for Gallantry. During Sergeant Langleys service in the Australian Army he deployed on a number of operations: Operation TANAGER (East Timor), October 2000 May 2001 Operation CITADEL (East Timor), May October 2003 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), February May 2006 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), May August 2007 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), December 2008 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), July November 2009 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), March July 2011.

Medal with Clasp: Timor-Leste; the Australian Defence Medal; the Timor-Leste Solidarity Medal; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. During Private Lamberts service in the Australian Army he deployed on Operation ASTUTE (East Timor) from June to November 2009 and Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from June to August 2011.

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CAPTAIN BRYCE DUFFY


Captain Bryce Duffy was a member of the 4th Field Regiment, The Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery (4 FD REGT), based in Townsville, and was serving in Afghanistan with the Mentoring Task Force 3.

CRAFTSMAN BEAU PRIDUE


Craftsman Beau Pridue was deployed to East Timor with the Timor-Leste Task Group Rotation 3. Craftsman Pridue was on his first deployment. He died as a result of injuries sustained in a vehicle accident in East Timor on 15 September 2011. Craftsman Pridue enlisted in the Army Reserve on 15 December 2007 under the Army Reserve Traineeship and Apprenticeship Program as a Fitter Armament. He was posted to the 111th Workshop Company, 8th Combat Service Support Battalion, and was deemed qualified in his trade in December 2010. Craftsman Pridue was a keen surfer with a jovial nature that kept morale high in the workshop. He was popular with his colleagues, and was a highly respected and professional soldier who completed tasks reliably and competently. Craftsman Pridue was awarded the Companys Most Efficient Soldier for 2010.

Captain Duffy was killed on operations on 29 October 2011. He was born in Sydney, NSW, in 1984 and educated in Brisbane. He joined the Australian Defence Force Academy in January 2003 where he completed a Bachelor of Science. He graduated from the Royal Military College Duntroon in December 2006 and was posted to the 1st Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery (1 FD REGT), based in Brisbane. Captain Duffy served with 1 FD REGT between 2007 and 2010. He was posted to 4 FD REGT in Townsville in January 2011 as the Assistant Operations Officer prior to his second deployment to Afghanistan in September. Captain Duffy was a well-known and highly regarded young officer. He was recognised by his commanders for his strength of character, determination and diligence. His peers remember him as an officer who maintained the highest personal standards. His selfless dedication to duty was demonstrated by the fact that he had volunteered for his second tour of duty in Afghanistan at short notice after a fellow officer was wounded in action. Captain Duffy is survived by his partner, parents and family.

He is survived by his parents and family. Craftsman Pridue was awarded the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Timor-Leste; the Australian Defence Medal; and the Timor-Leste Solidarity Medal. During Craftsman Pridues service in the Australian Army he deployed on Operation ASTUTE (East Timor) from June to September 2011.

He was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; ; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Defence Medal; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force; He was also awarded a Meritorious Unit Citation 1st Mentoring Task Force Afghanistan 20 January to 30 October 2010. During Captain Duffys service in the Australian Army he deployed on Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from January to October 2010; Operation YASI ASSIST (Australia) in February 2011; and Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from September to October 2011.

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CORPORAL ASHLEY BIRT


Corporal Ashley Birt was serving with the Combined Team Uruzgan in Afghanistan. He was killed on operations on 29 October 2011. Corporal Birt was born in Nambour, Queensland, in 1989. He enlisted in the Australian Regular Army in June 2007 and was allocated to the Royal Australian Engineers as a Geospatial Technician. Following his Engineer Initial Employment Training and Specialist Technical Geospatial Basic Course in December 2008, he was posted to the 1st Topographical Survey Squadron (1 TOPO SVY SQN) as a Geospatial Technician. He was promoted Lance Corporal in February 2011 and Corporal in April 2011. Corporal Birts colleagues described him as a popular soldier who was proud to serve with 1 TOPO SVY SQN. He maintained a very high level of physical fitness and played hockey at the highest level. His natural leadership style, maturity, sound work ethic and dedication to his specialist trade saw him rapidly promoted through the ranks. Corporal Birt is survived by his parents and brother.

LANCE CORPORAL LUKE GAVIN


Lance Corporal Luke Gavin, a member of the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR), based in Townsville, North Queensland, was serving in Afghanistan with the Mentoring Task Force 3. Lance Corporal Gavin was killed on operations on 29 October 2011. Born in Manly, NSW, in 1982, Lance Corporal Gavin enlisted in the Army in 2004. On completion of his basic training and Initial Employment Training, he was posted to 2 RAR as an infantryman in 2005. He was promoted Lance Corporal in January 2009. He was a highly qualified soldier, having completed specialist training as a combat first aider, a Pashtun linguist and an Infantry Support Weapons Operator. He was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Solomon Islands II; the Australian Defence Medal; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. During Corporal Birts service in the Australian Army he deployed on Operation ANODE (Solomon Islands) from July to September 2010; Operation QUEENSLAND FLOOD ASSIST from January to February 2011; and on Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan) from May to October 2011. Lance Corporal Gavin was a well-respected member of 2 RAR whose positive attitude and loyalty were appreciated by his superiors and colleagues alike. His subordinate soldiers were motivated by his professionalism, mateship and outstanding specialist skills. He was also known as a devoted husband and father. Lance Corporal Gavin is survived by his wife and three children. He was awarded the Australian Active Service Medal with Clasp: International Coalition Against Terrorism; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal; the Australian Service Medal with Clasp: Timor-Leste; the Australian Defence Medal; the Timor-Leste Solidarity Medal; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Medal with Clasp: International Security Assistance Force. During Lance Corporal Gavins service in the Australian Army he deployed on the following operations: Operation ASTUTE (East Timor), May October 2006 Operation ASTUTE (East Timor), October 2007 March 2008 Operation ASTUTE (East Timor), May 2009 February 2010 Operation SLIPPER (Afghanistan), June October 2011

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

LOOKING BACK

CHAPTER 5

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110 YEARS
By Ms Natalie Alexander

YOUNG
The Australian Army celebrated its 110th birthday on 1 March 2011 with a commemorative service and breakfast at the Australian War Memorial. The ceremony, led by former Chief of Army Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), began at 7 am with the procession of the Army Banner by members of Australias Federation Guard, accompanied by the Band of the Royal Military College, Duntroon. As members of the Army and other Defence personnel flanked the War Memorials Pool of Reflection, Lieutenant General Gillespie delivered the birthday address which reflected on the long and proud history of the Australian Army. He spoke of the strong affinity between the Australian community and the Army, one of the first Commonwealth institutions founded after Federation in 1901. The need for the unified defence of our island continent was a major impetus behind the Federation movement, Lieutenant General Gillespie observed. The Australian Army has always been a truly national institution and has seen the service of almost two million personnel over the past century. Australia continues to have an Army for, and of, the whole Australian nation. Lieutenant General Gillespie acknowledged that the Armys 110th birthday provided an opportunity to remember both the Armys achievements and its losses in Afghanistan over the past 12 months. Before we celebrate, we must pause to reflect on the work our people are doing for our nation, in Afghanistan, and in many other parts of a troubled world.
PHOTO: The former Chief of Army Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd), addresses the crowd at the Australian Army 110th Birthday Commemorative Service.

While the Army and the Australian community had paid a high price for its Afghanistan commitment, the Army remained committed to its mission, and to other planned and unplanned tasks such as operations in flood and cyclone-affected communities at the beginning of 2011. The nation remains well served by its Army and the young men and women who have volunteered to constitute it, Lieutenant General Gillespie asserted. In my 43 and a bit years of service, Ive seen many changes in Australian society and in our Army. What that service qualifies me to say with the utmost confidence is that the current generation of young Australians who make up the bulk of the Army are very impressive people indeed. The former Chiefs address was followed by the laying of wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier by Lieutenant General Gillespie, Private Shane Fitzpatrick, one of the Armys youngest soldiers, and Mrs Lorna Ward, the oldest surviving female veteran of World War II.

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY HAS ALWAYS BEEN A TRULY NATIONAL INSTITUTION AND HAS SEEN THE SERVICE OF ALMOST TWO MILLION PERSONNEL OVER THE PAST CENTURY. AUSTRALIA CONTINUES TO HAVE AN ARMY FOR, AND OF, THE WHOLE AUSTRALIAN NATION.

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1911:

PREPARATION FOR WAR


By Mr Roger Lee

THE YEAR 1911 WAS CRITICAL TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY. HOWEVER, MOST AUSTRALIANS REMAIN UNAWARE OF THE DRAMATIC RESHAPING OF THE ARMY BETWEEN FEDERATION IN 1901 AND THE OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR I IN 1914.
When the independent colonies joined to become a Federation, they brought with them complex and established military legacies, despite their common British colonial heritage. The desperate need for standardisation within the colonial forces saw a British pattern adopted for the new nations military. However, a vast gulf existed between intention and realisation. The first ten years of the new Australian military force were characterised by political and social strife, experimentation and, at times, neglect. The year 1911 stands out as the turning point for establishing a credible military capability in Australia a capability that would be utilised in 1914, but would not have existed without the developments of 1911.
PHOTO: Lord Kitchener, seated with Defence Minister Joseph Cook and Major General John Hoad (opposite), leave Spencer Street Station, Melbourne in January 1910 on an official visit. Kitchener toured the colony advising the Australian Government on defence prepraration.

In the years following Federation, debate raged between the proponents of two distinct standpoints. The first was espoused by those who saw Australias defence as relying principally on the Royal Navy with a limited capability Army designed solely for the protection of Australias vital assets. Opposing them were those who advocated the development of an Australian Army with genuine expeditionary and major combat capability, and with the ability to operate as part of an Empire response force wherever British interests were threatened. The rise of Japan and the politics of the British Empire in those early years further complicated the debate. An annual subsidy paid to the Royal Navy to encourage the stationing of major warships in Australian waters was a constant source of annoyance to the Imperial commitment defence lobby as it diverted scarce resources from the preparation of a capable Australian Army.

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Internally, successive federal governments sought to extend their control over the military by reorganising command and control arrangements and allowing the Government more day-to-day involvement in what was traditionally regarded as internal military affairs. Several reviews during the period also highlighted the perilous state of Australias defences. Warships were obsolete, military equipment was old and inadequate, and war stocks of ammunition and replacement equipment were practically non-existent. The internal debate over defence priorities and even the various reorganisations of the Army sent confusing messages concerning Australias defence policy to London and to the Empires principal Defence body the Committee on Imperial Defence. The Australian Government recognised the parlous state of the nations defence preparedness and, in 1909, invited Field Marshal Lord Kitchener to inspect and comment on Australias defence preparation. Kitchener toured the country in 1910 and made a number of recommendations, many of which were adopted and implemented in 1911. Not even Kitchener, however, could avoid becoming embroiled in the arguments between those who favoured an independent Australian defence policy and those who advocated a collaborative Empire approach. Those in favour of an independent approach were, with considerable justification, very suspicious of Kitcheners motives, believing him to be a partisan promoter of the Empire approach. The public reaction to the Kitchener visit encapsulated the view of a large proportion of the population. Kitchener, the hero of Omdurman, was subjected to pop star-like adulation, and the constant refrain throughout his visit was Empire solidarity1. Not for the first time perhaps, the politicians failed to understand the popular view in developing their policies.

Lord Kitchener was polite but critical of what he found and made a number of recommendations to improve Australias defence preparedness. While his central proposal was the introduction of a scheme of compulsory military training, it was his related finding that proved significant. Kitchener was the first senior Imperial figure to acknowledge that, due to its remoteness, Australia could be invaded by an organised enemy long before the Royal Navy could react. This conclusion provided the justification for the establishment of a capable Australian Army. Whether that Army could be sent overseas on Imperial duties would continue to be a major political issue. Without a capable Army, however, the debate was irrelevant.

Responsibility for implementing the Kitchener recommendations fell to the Fisher Labor Government which had won government in its own right with a landslide at the April 1910 elections. The new Minister for Defence was Senator George Pearce who received a personal briefing from Kitchener on his findings. Much changed in 1911 as a result of the Kitchener visit. The existing military service schemes were restructured to provide the level of trained manpower that Kitchener suggested. The unpaid volunteer units of the Militia were merged into the paid Citizen Military Forces. Kitchener also recommended a standing (part-time) Army of 81 000 in peacetime, expanding to 135 000 full-time in war. This would enable the Army to provide credible local defence and attain a standard that would allow its inclusion in an Empire army. The Royal Military College at Duntroon opened its doors on 27 June 1911. All of this pointed to a serious attempt to create a capable fighting force. Australian involvement in Imperial defence was heightened by the presence of the Prime Minister at the 1911 meeting of the Committee of Imperial Defence. At this conference, the contentious idea that, in times of great emergency, all the Dominions under the leadership of Great Britain should subscribe to mutual support was finally agreed. As part of this, the requirement for common equipment, organisation and training across the Empire was formally established. The Dominions remained adamant that this was not an openended agreement committing forces to an Imperial-led army. What none of the participants could have realised was that 1911 was a critical year for the Australian military. Without the focus on equipment, organisation and training that began in 1911, it is questionable whether Australia could have dispatched the 20 000 men of the first Australian Imperial

Force to World War I as quickly or as successfully as it did. It is also arguable that, without these preparations, the Australian contingent either would have been unsuitable for service alongside the other Empire forces, or would have paid a much higher price to gain the necessary skills.

KITCHENER WAS THE FIRST SENIOR IMPERIAL FIGURE TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT, DUE TO ITS REMOTENESS, AUSTRALIA COULD BE INVADED BY AN ORGANISED ENEMY LONG BEFORE THE ROYAL NAVY COULD REACT.
Kitchener estimated that his scheme would produce for Australia 84 infantry battalions, 28 light horse regiments, 49 field artillery batteries, 7 heavy artillery batteries, 7 communications companies and 14 field engineer companies all from a population of just under four million. Kitchener also recommended the establishment of an Australian officer training college to prepare staff officers and to train the instructors of the Militia forces. The basis of this instruction was the Imperial system and its methods. Kitchener also recommended strengthening rifle clubs as the third tier reserve of trained riflemen.

Omdurman was the site of the 1898 battle in which an Anglo-Egyptian army led by Lord Kitchener defeated the Sudanese.

PHOTO: Lord Kitchener in the Domain of Government House, on the occasion of a review of cadets.

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PHOTO: 15 February 1942, British troops surrender to the Japanese in the city area, after the unconditional surrender of all British Forces following the successful invasion of Malaya and Singapore Island by the Japanese 25th Army.

1941: A NATION IN TURMOIL AND A

DEFENCE STRATEGY SHATTERED


By Mr Roger Lee While most Australians know that World War II began on 3 September 1939, few realise that 1941 was the year that Australias remoteness and international insignificance major influences on its defence policy effectively ended. In the 40 years following Federation, Australia had relied on these strategic realities, as well as the Royal Navy, to guarantee its security. Prior to 1941, Australia had become engaged in war through choice, and when it was in the national interest to do so. The events of 1941 demonstrated that Australia was no longer able to pick and choose its international involvement; the actions of other nations could involve Australia against its will. One of the elder statesmen of Australian history, T. B. Millar, once observed that, Australian political leaders maintained the colonial reliance upon the Royal Navy out of a desire to reap the benefits of independence without the international responsibilities. He added that Australias pre-war policy over Japanese expansionism was a triumph of self-interest and pusillanimity over principles of any kind. The year 1941 became the period of reckoning for two decades of misguided defence policies. When Japan attacked the United States in December 1941, the whole basis of Australian defence planning collapsed, and the war ceased to be something remote and largely irrelevant to Australians. The consequence of this act of aggression for Australia was the collapse of previous defence strategic assessments. The results were calamitous, but thanks to a new ally, not as calamitous as they could have been. Having failed comprehensively to learn any lessons from the previous world war, Australia entered World War II in a far worse state than in 1914. The Army was still a part-time force, hopelessly under-strength and equipped with museumstandard equipment. The Army could not be sent for service beyond Australian territory; thus, as occurred in 1914, an entirely new and separate force the Second Australian Imperial Force (AIF) had to be raised. A belated recognition in the late 1930s of the threat posed by expansionist Japan, combined with a growing suspicion that the much-hyped Fortress Singapore was not the deterrent to Japan it was purported to be, resulted in some hasty and largely ineffective remedial work on the Australian Army. Muddled thinking about Japan and likely Japanese intentions further confused government policy when war eventually broke out for the war was against Germany. The problem was that the British Government quite reasonably wanted

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Australian troops sent to Europe. The Australian Government was watching events to the north, not in Europe, and was caught up in the swell of popular pro-Empire support and forced to raise troops to go to the direct support of the British. To placate nervous Australian politicians, the British authorities continued to talk up the Singapore deterrent, while belatedly trying to hasten completion of the fortifications. With an ongoing domestic political distrust of Japan, the Australian response to war was much slower than in 1914. It was not until January 1941 that the first Australian soldiers engaged the enemy in North Africa. A total of three AIF Infantry divisions were raised and saw service in the Western Deserts of Africa and the Mediterranean theatres of war. In recognition of the uncertainty surrounding Japanese intentions in the Pacific, the Australian Government raised another AIF infantry division and sent it to reinforce Singapore. The part-time domestic forces were also ramped up, with the Militia called up on the outbreak of war. Training rates were increased, although the conscripts theoretically could only be held for the legislated 90 days. The approach to preparing the part-time troops the pre-war bulk of the Australian Army was amateurish and half-hearted. The Australian Government did not, however, consider the implications of unfolding events. The fall of France required the Royal Navy to undertake tasks in the Atlantic and Mediterranean that were previously the responsibility of the French Navy. The Royal Navy suffered heavy casualties in ships in 193941, not least during the evacuation of Crete. In mid-1941 the Vichy French Government allowed the Japanese to enter French Indo-China (now Vietnam), bringing Japanese bases much closer to Singapore than pre-war planning had envisaged.

Between 1939 and 1941, defence policy wavered between support for the Empires war effort in Europe and a desire to retain sufficient military strength in Australia to deal with any southward strike by Japan. The inevitable result of these conflicting directions was a policy that saw the AIF raised very slowly and deliberately held back from deployment. This policy prevented Militia members from joining the AIF for overseas service, thus depriving the AIF of many good recruits and potential leaders. Overall, the mobilisation was poorly conceived and incompetently executed. For the first few years, even domestic security was largely left to the Returned Service Leagues private Army, the Volunteer Defence Corps. Domestic defence industry preparedness was equally woeful. There was insufficient industrial capability to provide for the new forces being raised and the Army had to rely initially on supplies of complex equipment such as tanks, aircraft and artillery from overseas. In the early years of the war, Australia was not a high priority with overseas suppliers and, consequently, the Army remained seriously underequipped for most of the war. The Japanese strike into South-East Asia resolved all the domestic political doubts, quickly establishing new national defence priorities and overcoming much of the political grandstanding of the previous two years. While Singapore did not fall until early in 1942, the last weeks of 1941 demonstrated that Britain was already so overextended that, unless Australia could find a new ally, it would largely be responsible for its own defence. While neither the British nor the Australian Governments could have anticipated the fall of Singapore, Britains inability to provide adequate supplies of modern equipment to the garrison in Singapore demonstrated

that the key assumptions of the pre-war strategy were already beginning to unravel. The Australian Government recalled the AIF from the Middle East and began to look increasingly to the United States for military and materiel support. An Australian military historian recently summarised the change in Australian defence policy in 1941 as: Australia moved rapidly from a strategy of defending the country with Great Britains last man and last shilling to defending it with the United States last man and last dollar! The year 1941 provides many good lessons for strategic planners, chief among them the dangers in believing in the predictability of future conflicts. This was a year that demonstrated all too clearly the risks of pursuing strategies built on wishful thinking, financial rationales or flawed assumptions.

THE YEAR 1941 PROVIDES MANY GOOD LESSONS FOR STRATEGIC PLANNERS, CHIEF AMONG THEM THE DANGERS IN BELIEVING IN THE PREDICTABILITY OF FUTURE CONFLICTS.
In 1941 Australians were forced to consider the unthinkable Australia was a part of Asia and a long way away from traditional and culturally similar allies. Australia was forced to look beyond the traditional paradigm for allies and supporters during a period that revealed the true extent of the decline of the British Empire and Britain as a world power. In many ways, 1941 was the beginning of an independent, confident new Australia free from the Empire entanglements that guided its development in the 40 years following Federation.

PHOTO: SINGAPORE, 12 August 1941. Taken the morning after Singapore and Pearl Harbour bombed by the Japanese. Members of HQ Royal Australian Engineers 8th Division - all taken POW and only myself survived. NX26178 Sapper Rae Brown.

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PHOTO: General J. Van Fleet (far left) inspecting 3 RAR while bestowing the Presidential Unit Citation for their action in Kapyong.

1951:

KOREA
By Dr Andrew Richardson During 1951, the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR), fighting as part of a British Commonwealth Brigade in Korea, was engaged in the two most significant and commemorated battles of the Australian Armys deployment to the three-year Korean War. The battles of Kapyong (2324 April 1951) and Maryang San (28 October 1951) were significant confrontations with a numerically superior enemy force, and saw 3 RAR win the first honours for the newly formed Royal Australian Regiment.

KAPYONG
The massive Chinese Fifth Phase Offensive was launched on 22 April 1951 to drive the United Nations forces into the southern part of the Korean peninsula. 3 RAR and the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (2nd PPCLI) as part of the 27th Commonwealth Infantry Brigade, were ordered 60 kilometres north-east of Seoul to the Kapyong River Valley to stem the enemys advance. 3 RAR dug in on the high ground on the east of the river to form one part of a defence-in-depth blocking position, with 2nd PPCLI on the western side. The South Korean 6th Division retreated in the face of overwhelming Chinese numbers on the afternoon of 23 April. The Australians and Canadians, with the 1st Battalion Middlesex Regiment (1 Mx), the 16th Field Regiment

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(16 Fd Regt), Royal New Zealand Artillery, and Company A, 72nd US Tank Battalion, in support, settled in to face the impact of the enemy advance. 3 RAR fought off waves of attacking infantry with A and B Companies at the front facing extremely heavy fire and bearing the brunt of the attack. Battalion Headquarters 3 RAR was forced to withdraw to 1 Mxs position south-west of its four companies, some four kilometres from its fighting troops. This effectively left the companies isolated overnight. 16 Fd Regt provided effective fire support which held off the enemy, despite having to relocate its position due to enemy encroachment. As the morning of 24 April dawned, the open ground below A and B Companies positions revealed Chinese forces in great numbers. The artillery, tanks and a company of American mortars poured fire onto the open ground in support of the Australians, causing extremely heavy casualties and a localised withdrawal by Chinese forces. B Company was ordered off its position to higher ground, and then subsequently reordered back to its former position, necessitating a bayonet charge to remove the Chinese now occupying it. This attack failed, placing the Australians in even greater peril. The Chinese attempted to outflank the Australian positions to the east, meeting D Company on a feature called Hill 504. Again, 16 Fd Regt used its firepower in support, allowing D Company to repulse repeated attempts on its position. In the early afternoon, two United States Corsairs accidentally delivered a napalm airstrike on D Companys position, killing two soldiers. Shortly afterwards, orders came through to conduct a fighting withdrawal of all four companies southwest through the 1 Mx position. This proved extremely

difficult with the pursuing enemy maintaining contact well into the night, before 3 RAR was able to break contact and continue its withdrawal. 3 RAR lost 32 killed in action. Along with its Canadian, British, New Zealand and United States allies, 3 RAR managed to hold the advancing Chinese divisions in the Kapyong River valley for 24 hours, allowing United Nations forces further south to shore up a defensive line. It then successfully conducted a fighting withdrawal to extricate itself from encirclement and rejoin its parent brigade, exemplifying the discipline, courage and skill required to succeed in its mission. For their courageous actions, both 3 RAR and 2nd PPCLI were awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation by the United States Government.

PHOTO: View from the hill occupied by A Company, 3 RAR towards C Companys position in the foreground at Kapyong.

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MARYANG SAN
Later that year, as part of a large United Nations offensive, 3 RAR was again involved in a significant action this time at Maryang San. The 28th British Commonwealth Brigade was part of a four-division attack Operation COMMANDO just north of the 38th parallel. 3 RARs contribution was to assist in the capture of Hill 355 (Kowang San) by a British unit and, in the second phase of the battle, take Hill 317 (Maryang San) itself. The Americans had tried to capture Maryang San and failed on two previous occasions. Maryang San was mountainous and rugged, with opportunities for both entrenched defence and attackers to move under cover of foliage. The assault against Kowang San was launched on 3 October 1951. Well-entrenched Chinese positions caused heavy casualties among the United Nations allies. With the final capture of this first hill (Kowang San) delayed until late on 4 October, 3 RARs Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Frank Hassett, launched his attack against the eastern ridge of Maryang San at 4.45 am on 5 October, having first positioned his companies in the foothills of the objective under cover of darkness. With A Company creating a diversion on the south-eastern spur, B Company made its way up to the crest of the eastern ridge, allowing D Company to fight on to take the objective. C Company remained in reserve. Under cover of mist from the Imjin River, progress was reasonably solid until late morning when the mist lifted. Suddenly exposed halfway up the steep hillside of the main ridge, D Company pushed through a severe firefight to take one of Maryang Sans knolls, leaving further heavily defended knolls still to capture. D Company continued on with the support of 3 RARs Medium Machine Gun Platoon, taking a further two knolls under heavy grenade, small arms and machine-gun fire,
PHOTO: View from the northernside of Hill 355.

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PHOTO: Senior personnel from 3 RAR, 1951. Lieutenant Colonel Frank Hassett is second from left.

PHOTO: Maryang San is the peak in the middle distance, captured by 3 RAR in October 1951.

but counting on accurate supporting mortar and artillery fire to suppress the defenders as much as possible. At this point, Hassett threw C Company in to support D Company and make a final push for the summit of Maryang San. A Company was absorbing heavy Chinese fire on the southern flank allowing D Company (and C Company) to progress along the knolls without additional defenders to negotiate. C Company climbed the remaining 130 metres up the steep slope and removed the Chinese from the summit at 5 pm. Thereafter they resisted heavy counterattacks, while A Company cleared the Chinese from their positions south-east. The summit had to be defended for a further two days against shelling and mortar fire. Having secured Maryang San, Hassett was directed to assault The Hinge to assist the attack by the Northumberland Fusiliers on Hill 217. B Company attacked along the ridge from Maryang San towards The Hinge with Hassett coordinating supporting fire from his headquarters on the summit of Maryang San, which was also subject to fierce bombardment. B Company took The Hinge on the morning of 7 October and continued to hold it through what Captain A.G.W. Keys described as the Communists biggest artillery effort of the war.

Three separate Chinese counterattacks failed to budge the Australians from their position and, by dawn on 8 October, the Chinese had abandoned their assault on The Hinge and withdrawn from Hill 217. The objectives had been won. In five days of fighting, 3 RAR had destroyed two Chinese battalions, killed at least 283 Chinese, and taken 50 prisoners, with a loss of 29 killed and 89 wounded in action.

IN FIVE DAYS OF FIGHTING, 3 RAR HAD DESTROYED TWO CHINESE BATTALIONS, KILLED AT LEAST 283 CHINESE, AND TAKEN 50 PRISONERS, WITH A LOSS OF 29 KILLED AND 89 WOUNDED IN ACTION.
Kapyong was a defensive operation, while Maryang San was an offensive operation. Both however, demonstrated 3 RARs ability to conduct close combat with great skill and courage under different tactical circumstances, great adversity, and against overwhelming numbers. Kapyong and Maryang San are Battle Honours proudly emblazoned on the Colours of the Royal Australian Regiment.

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1971: FAREWELL TO THE DAT

THE AUSTRALIAN WITHDRAWAL FROM VIETNAM


The Australian Army began its commitment to the Vietnam War in 1962 with the deployment of the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam. In 1965 the first formed unit, the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment Group, was deployed as part of the United States (US) 173rd Airborne Brigade. The desire for a distinct Australian area of operations led to the deployment in 1966 of the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) to Phuoc Tuy province. 1 ATF commenced operations with two battalions and supporting arms, including New Zealand sub-units, adding a third infantry battalion in December 1967 and a tank squadron in early 1968. By 1971, the enemy provincial forces had been pushed out of Phuoc Tuy province and Highway 15 the main route between Saigon and the port of Vung Tau was open to unescorted traffic. Despite 1 ATF success in Phuoc Tuy, opposition to the war continued to grow in Australia. The commitment of National Service conscripts to operations in 1966 was the focus of much of this opposition. Some members of the Australian Labor Party, then in opposition, had been active in the anticonscription movement in 1916. Conscription for service outside Australia had been contentious ever since; even in World War II, conscripts could only be deployed to a designated area including the territories of Papua and New Guinea.

THE ENEMYS TET OFFENSIVE IN 1968 HAD RAISED SERIOUS DOUBTS IN AUSTRALIA AND THE US AS TO WHETHER THE VIETNAM WAR WAS WINNABLE.
The enemys Tet Offensive in 1968 had raised serious doubts in Australia and the us as to whether the Vietnam war was winnable. In 1970, Australian opposition to the war culminated in a series of Moratoriums coordinated demonstrations in all major Australian cities. The first was in May 1970, the second in September and the third in June 1971. Events in Vietnam such as the Mai Lai massacre, the invasion of Cambodia and the release of the Pentagon Papers, progressively lent moral and, in the latter case, intellectual justification to the Moratorium organisers.

PHOTO: June 1971. South Vietnam. A centurion tank of C squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment, moving through the jungle. The Squadron supported soldiers of 3 RAR and 4 RAR in Operation Overlord on the border of Phuoc Tuy and Long Khan Provences, to the north od 1 ATF base at Nui Dat.

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US public opinion had also turned against the war. President Nixon was elected in December 1968 and began to plan the American withdrawal from Vietnam. The US military leadership planned a balanced withdrawal, and the first contingent albeit a relatively small percentage of the US commitment of over 500 000 troops headed home in June 1969. At the same time, the US requested that the Australians remain in Phuoc Tuy to secure Vung Tau and the highway connecting it to Saigon. The year 1969 was a tumultuous period for the Australian Government which had become increasingly focused on its own leadership woes and internal politics after winning the Federal election by a narrow margin. Despite mounting pressure, no decision was made on the Vietnam commitment until April 1970, when the Government announced that the 8th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, would not be replaced at the end of its tour in November of that year. Unlike the US withdrawal plan, the Australian approach was simply not to replace units as they reached the end of their tours, with little regard for the impact on the capabilities of 1 ATF. In March 1971, the Government announced further reductions in the force, including the withdrawal of the tank squadron, the Royal Australian Air Force bomber squadron and some light transport aircraft. There was no plan to retain a balanced force as the Australians drew down and the enemy, noting the signs, began to return to the province. In July and August 1971, during Operation OVERLORD, the 4th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, and Royal New Zealand Regiment (4 RAR/NZ), supported by tanks and artillery, fought a series of actions in bunker systems around the Courtney rubber plantation against the 274th Viet Cong Regiment, successfully capturing the bunkers. In September, following the withdrawal of the tanks, 4 RAR/NZ encountered

the 33rd North Vietnamese Army Regiment near Nui Le in what was to be the last major Australian action of the war. Without tank support, three Australian assaults were driven back and the enemy moved to counterattack the Australians. The lack of bunker-busting capability was exacerbated by the fact that the light anti-armour weapons issued to the Battalion had been withdrawn because they were defective. As the enemy retreated under cover of darkness, the Australians had suffered heavier casualties than in earlier, similar actions. The lesson of maintaining force balance and tailoring operations to the capabilities of the force was relearned at a high cost. In August 1971, the Australian Government announced that 1 ATF would cease combat operations in Phuoc Tuy province in October, and the logistics base at Vung Tau would close in February of 1972. In October, the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, returned to Australia on HMAS Sydney, leaving 4 RAR/NZ to guard Nui Dat. 4 RAR departed the Dat on 7 November 1971 and sailed on HMAS Sydney on 9 December. The last logistics units departed Vung Tau on 5 March 1972. The Australian Army Training Team was to remain in Phuoc Tuy until precipitately withdrawn in December 1972 following the Labor election victory. While debate on the Vietnam War tends to focus on whether Australia should have committed troops to the conflict in the first place, the year 1971 offers valuable lessons on how (or how not) to extract forces from a lost war.

PHOTO: Nui Dat, South Vietnam. November 1971. The last Australian troops to leave Nui Dat, home of the 1st Australian Task Force in Vietnam for more than five years, rumble past the main gate of the base aboard armoured personnel carriers on their way to Vung Tau.

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NAMED, REMEMBERED &

HONOURED
By Mr Alan Cooper

On a cloudy July evening in the north of France a poignant and moving ceremony was held to dedicate fourteen headstones at the Fromelles (Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery. Marking the 95th anniversary of the Battle of Fromelles, relatives of the young soldiers who died in World War I were able to witness the results of the Unrecovered War Casualties teams work. Family members, dignitaries and Fromelles residents gathered on the 19 July 2011 as a mark of respect for the young men of Australia who travelled half way around the world to serve the country and its allies. The ceremony honoured a commitment and a pledge that these young men would not be forgotten. Since 2008, the process of exhuming, identifying and reburying the remains of 250 Australian and British soldiers from a World War I burial site near the French town of Fromelles has been underway. In 2009, the remains of 250 soldiers were recovered from several burial pits near Pheasant Wood on the outskirts of Fromelles. In January and February 2010, the bodies were reinterred in a new Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery, the Fromelles (Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery. On 19 July 2010, the 94th anniversary of the Battle of Fromelles, the remains of the last unknown soldier were laid to rest, and the Fromelles (Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery was dedicated in the presence of a large crowd. His Royal
PHOTO: Fromelles (Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery, in northern France.

PHOTO: Children from the Cobbers School, Fromelles assist with the ceremony at the Fromelles Military Cemetery.

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Highness Prince Charles, The Prince of Wales, Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, CV, CVO the Governor-General of Australia, and other dignitaries were joined by the families and descendants of many of those who were lost during the Battle of Fromelles. The painstaking excavation work at Fromelles has resulted in the identification of 110 of those recovered as Australian soldiers and these men have been reburied by name. A further 100 of those remaining are believed to be Australian while two others may be soldiers from the British Army. A further 38 are unidentified known unto God in the parlance of military cemeteries. The identification of those who died during the Battle of Fromelles is a challenging task and one that affects the emotional fibre of many Australian families today. Meticulous forensic analysis was required in accordance with international standards to establish identity where possible.

analysis and matching historical archival material such as individual military records, Commonwealth War Graves Commission records and information provided by families. Anthropologists, geneticists, archaeologists and members of the British Ministry of Defence, Australian Department of Defence and the Australian High Commission are represented in the Data Analysis Team. By following thorough analysis on a case-by-case basis, the team provides recommendations to the Joint Identification Board. The Board considers the evidence of the Data Analysis Team in order to catalogue the identities of the remains in one of three categories: Category 1 soldiers identified by name. All soldiers allocated a Category 1 identification have had their identity established beyond reasonable doubt. Category 2 soldiers identified by nationality. Category 2 identifications have had their origin established, usually through artefacts. Category 3 soldiers yet to be identified by name or nationality. Category 3 identifications comprise those soldiers with no evidence to support an identification of any kind. While the Joint Identification Board convenes as a group, decisions on Category 1 and 2 identifications are made by a single decision-maker representing a particular country. This member has been appointed to confirm identification in accordance with the strict practices and procedures that have been established by the Fromelles project. Both the Team and the Board rely on the information and DNA samples collected from families, with the Australian Army setting the standards in this work.

Everyone involved in the ongoing project maintains the conviction that many more of those who are known unto God will be commemorated in the Fromelles (Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery with a personal headstone. This will finally restore their identity and their dignity while also acknowledging their service and sacrifice at the Battle of Fromelles.

REMEMBERING
Fourteen soldiers were remembered on 19th July 2011: Captain Thomas Francis Sheridan, 29th Battalion 3310 Corporal Frederick Fletcher, 55th Battalion 1168 Corporal David Frederick Livingston, 29th Battalion 1590 Corporal Charles William Murray, 30th Battalion 4420 Lance Corporal William Andrew Craigie, 54th Battalion 4744 Private Albert Clive Bromley, 53rd Battalion 4811 Private Percy Geason, 55th Battalion 1390 Private Herbert James Haslam, 29th Battalion 2056 Private Matthew Hepple, 30th Battalion 3227 Private George William Hungerford, 53rd Battalion 325 Private Maurice Leslie Reid, 32nd Battalion 4299 Private Arthur Russell, 54th Battalion 743 Private Daniel Bernard Ryan, 30th Battalion 311 Private Leslie Gordon Walsh, 31st Battalion

THE IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE WHO DIED DURING THE BATTLE OF FROMELLES IS A CHALLENGING TASK AND ONE THAT AFFECTS THE EMOTIONAL FIBRE OF MANY AUSTRALIAN FAMILIES TODAY.
The work of identifying more of those remaining will continue until 2014. Each year a Data Analysis Team and a Joint Identification Board will convene at Australia House in London to continue the work of Fromelles. The Data Analysis Team considers a variety of evidence and provides a method for collegiate analysis. The evidence includes archaeological artefacts, anthropological data, DNA

PHOTO: Major General Brian Dawson, Senior Australian Representative to NATO and EU, representing the Chief of Army payed his respects as the last post is played.

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PARIT SULONG

THE MISSING MEN OF THE BATTLE OF MUAR


By Ms Dale Morley

At 1105, Lieutenant General Gordon Bennett sent Lieutenant Colonel Charles Anderson, Commanding Officer of the 2/19th Battalion, the following message: Regret that there is little prospect any success attacks 78M 80M to help you ... You may at your discretion leave wounded with volunteers ... Sorry, unable to help after your heroic effort. Good Luck. Gordon Bennett. The convoy sat waiting. Every now and again sporadic shots would ring out. Occasionally someone in the convoy would retaliate using one of the handful of weapons which remained. At 1430 the ammunition ran out and, for a short period, the road was bathed in an eerie silence before the convoys position was overrun by the enemy. The Japanese yelled, shouted and gesticulated at the wounded, directing them to move to a nearby building. A few of the more able-bodied tried to assist those who were more seriously wounded. Others dragged themselves to the building. Those who did not move quickly enough or failed to comprehend the directions they were given were hit with rifle butts, kicked, bayoneted or shot. Once the group was assembled, they were ordered to remove all equipment, personal effects and clothing. By now, the road was busy with Japanese troops moving forward. The prisoners sat huddled together naked, bloody and broken. Passing troops kicked, punched and prodded the prisoners with bayonets. Their clothes and equipment were searched and the clothes tossed back into the centre of the huddled mass. The men were forcibly moved again to a little shed and then later to a public works accommodation building. Inside, men fell on top of
PHOTO: South East view of the public works depot used to hold allied wounded before the massacre.

one another, with bodies two or three deep. During the chaos, the steady stream of advancing Japanese never ceased the invasion force was marching on Singapore. At sunset, the guards busied themselves moving machine-guns to the south of the building. Prisoners were carefully tied with their hands behind their back and the rope around their necks then secured to the next prisoner in the line. When a prisoner died or fell unconscious, he was cut from the line and left where he fell. When the guards ran out of rope, signal wire was used. As night fell, even this ran out, leaving the last 20 or so prisoners untied. The wounded prisoners were moved to the rear of the building and shot with rifles and machine-guns. The sound of automatic gunfire rang out, then gradually subsided, leaving only the sound of sporadic rifle shots. Prisoners who had been left inside the building or beside it were collected and dragged to the rear of the building, adding to the group of dead and dying. Cans of fuel and paraffin oil were collected and poured over the prisoners and an attempt made to cremate them. Exactly what happened to the remains of those 144 Allied soldiers has been disputed since the end of the war. Four men survived that night, but only two survived the war. The first was Lieutenant Ben Hackney who was left near the building when guards thought he was dead. He escaped later to the jungle where he partially recovered before being recaptured, spending the rest of the war as a prisoner. The second man was Private Reg Wharton, who escaped to the jungle before being recaptured. He rarely spoke of his wartime service and, after his death in 1984, his family found a small exercise book which gave a short account of his time in the Army and briefly touched on what he had endured.

IN THE EARLY AFTERNOON OF 22 JANUARY 1942, AFTER A WEEK OF BLOODY AND DESPERATE FIGHTING AROUND MUAR, MALAYA, THE ALLIED GUNS FELL SILENT. IN THE SMALL PROVINCIAL VILLAGE OF PARIT SULONG, A MEDICAL CONVOY OF THE MOST SERIOUSLY WOUNDED AUSTRALIAN AND INDIAN SOLDIERS AND A FEW BRAVE VOLUNTEERS SAT ALONE ON THE BATTLEFIELD WITH LITTLE HOPE OF HELP.

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The question of what became of the wounded Allied soldiers bodies has been the subject of speculation for many years. Hackney reported seeing the flames of a large fire and Wharton wrote of having fuel poured over him and being set alight. Historians contend that the fire could not have been sufficiently hot, or burned sufficiently long to completely cremate such a large number of remains. Yet no sign of the massacre was located after the war by either the graves recovery teams or the investigators for the war crimes trials. In December 2005 Professor Richard Wright and historian Ms Lynette Silver made a submission to Army Headquarters suggesting that, based on their research, the Japanese did not have the time or the fuel to cremate over a hundred sets of remains. Considering that none of the wounded were ever located, it is reasonable to assume that those remains may have been buried at the killing field. Both Richard and Lynette were asked to present their claims to a panel of experts for consideration. What followed was a rigorous review of all available information on the battle, the massacre and subsequent attempts to locate the remains. After lengthy discussions on the case with the Australian Defence Staff in Kuala Lumpur and the Malaysian National Heritage Commission, a joint investigation of the site was arranged to ascertain whether a mass grave of Allied soldiers existed at Parit Sulong. In March 2011, a team of over 30 Australian and Malaysian forensic experts, archaeologists, surveyors, geophysicists, researchers and investigators from the Australian Armys Unrecovered War Casualties Unit (UWC-A) and the Malaysia Heritage Commission, jointly led by Dr Stephen Chia of the University of Science, Malaysia, and Ms Dale Morley from UWC-A, worked at the site of the old public works depot and the adjacent police compound.

The site had long since been abandoned and was heavily overgrown. It was carefully cleared and then surveyed by the National Heritage Commission. The building in which the prisoners were held still stands, allowing accurate surveying of the site. Teams systematically excavated the area described by Ben Hackney in his account, right down to the virgin clay, and examined the ground for any sign that a mass grave had existed. Geophysicist Dr Rosli Saad and his team used groundpenetrating radar and resistivity testing at the site, particularly close to the homes which had been built in the area. Hundreds of artefacts were removed from the dig site. Each artefact was carefully examined by archaeologist Squadron Leader Tony Lowe, and anthropologist Squadron Leader Denise Donlon, then photographed and recorded. The artefacts were almost exclusively discarded domestic items and animal bones. While the excavation was taking place, Ms Lynette Silver, Lieutenant Colonel Paul Vercoe, Commander Russell Lain and Mr Muhamad Mansur spoke to locals who had information relating to the Japanese advance through Muar and the ensuing massacres, not only of Allied troops, but of members of the local populace. After three weeks of shifting and searching through tonnes of soil, no sign of a mass grave was uncovered. The site gave no indication that the area had been involved in a violent battle, or that over 100 Allied troops and an unknown number of innocent civilians had been killed in that location. While there was now no possibility of a mass grave located at the site, the question of what happened to the wounded Allied soldiers remains.

WHAT IS KNOWN IS:


Of the soldiers left in the convoy, only Hackney and Wharton survived the war. No remains of any of the soldiers left in the convoy were located after the war. The Japanese attempted to cremate the remains at the place where they were killed. During the same battle, the Japanese disposed of bodies by throwing them into the river and by cremating them. There are also eyewitness accounts of remains from both sides left in the open for up to two months. There was no sign of a grave, bodies or equipment when Hackney was led back through the area following his recapture five weeks later. Locals confirmed that Parit Sulong floods on a regular basis, and that the floods extend past the building which Hackney described in his statements. No mass grave exists in the vicinity of the public works depot where the soldiers were killed. As a result of ongoing research into the massacre, a clearer picture of what happened on 22 January 1942 and in the days and months that followed has emerged. Records show that the area flooded two months after the battle and has flooded annually since. Over the years, any trace of the soldiers and their equipment is likely to have been washed into the Simpang Kiri River. In 1945 when the Allies returned to the area to investigate the massacre, one investigator commented that he saw bones, helmets and equipment in the marshy area between the

river and the land. While some of these remains could have belonged to the hundreds of Allied soldiers who were shot and pushed off bridges along the Simpang Kiri River during the same period, they could also have been the remains of the wounded soldiers killed on the evening of 22 January 1942. Of the 4000 Allied soldiers who fought in the Battle of Muar, only 809 succeeded in rejoining the main force in Yong Peng. Many were killed in the battle or died in captivity as prisoners of war. Over 260 Australian soldiers who fought in the Battle of Muar are still missing.

PHOTO: Excavation of old war time Parits (monsoonal drains).

THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY

ARMY MODERNISATION

CHAPTER 6

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ARMYS FUTURE:

2011 AND BEYOND ...


The year 2011 has marked a very busy period for the Modernisation and Strategic Planning Division in Army Headquarters. The first year was one of learning and gaining an understanding of how the Modernisation Division could best work within the Department of Defence to ensure the achievement of Armys program of modernisation. The second year focussed on taking charge of Armys future with efforts primarily involving close work with Capability Development Group (CDG) and, in particular, the Defence Material Organisation (DMO). Future Land Warfare Directorate, Land Warfare Studies Centre and the Army History Unit together to form the Directorate of Army Research and Analysis. These two initiatives will help win the battle for resources, thus assisting us to develop more rapidly as a professional force. We worked hard to ensure that those projects already in the Defence Capability Plan (DCP) were integrated effectively into the Army. The central document for Armys modernisation is now the Army Objective Force Handbook. This utilises the guidance provided by higher level references such as the Defence White Paper and the Defence Planning Guidance as a basis to establish the form and function that will characterise the Army of the future. The other important document is the Army Modernisation Handbook, which describes how Army must drive its own future. These two handbooks, along with the 2009 Adaptive Campaigning - Future Land Operating Concept, are the three essential references for understanding the way Army modernises and for describing the shape of the future force. We have pushed hard to achieve Army modernisation targets such as the digital networking of the field Army, Armys significant role in amphibious operations, a single distributed synthetic environment for simulation as a tool to assist training and experimentation, and planning for the replacement of the entire armoured fleet. The single biggest project for 2011 and one which incorporates all these elements of modernisation is Plan BEERSHEBA.

The centrepiece of BEERSHEBA is three like brigades (known as Multi-role Manoeuvre Brigades) working to a 36-month Force Generation Cycle. This has significant implications for enabling the brigades and organisations of our Army, in particular, the Army Reserve. The implementation of Plan BEERSHEBA will enhance Armys ability to sustain operations offshore for lengthy deployments and enable better management of equipment allocations, as well as facilitating transfers for soldiers between brigade locations. It will also significantly enhance the professionalism of Armys contribution to the ADFs amphibious role. Modernisation Division is all about integration. There are two aspects to this integration. The first involves ensuring that people in other areas of Defence who generally see the DCP in terms of individual equipment programs recognise that Army is keen to ensure that the equipment introduced into service will create real capability. Capability is best described with reference to systems such as the Battlefield Operating System and involves synchronisation of many of the equipment programs in the DCP. It also involves all elements of the fundamental inputs to capability. The second aspect of integration concerns the optimal conversion of equipment to capability. As new equipment is introduced, it needs to be integrated into an Army that is at war and constantly training and preparing for operations. An Army in this state does not have the luxury of stopping to receive new equipment and then converting this to capability. To this end, Modernisation Division has been instrumental in establishing two integration centres. The Land Network Integration Centre (LNIC), based in Fyshwick in the Australian Capital Territory, features a full version of Armys digital network constructed to test that what is acquired actually works. The second integration centre is Diggerworks. Diggerworks is an organisation established

by a memorandum of understanding between six two-star generals and civilian band two officers that has fundamentally changed the way soldiers are equipped. Both centres are highlighted in this section of the Army in Profile 2011. Some of the capability enhancements of 2011 are already in evidence. The new G-Wagons part of the roll-out of vehicles under Land 121 to replace the ageing Rovers are beginning to appear in units. Shadow, the new unmanned aerial vehicle, has arrived in Australia and is bound for Afghanistan for operation in early 2012. The capability of the soldier has been significantly improved through the creation of Diggerworks with Land Systems Division in DMO and with DSTO. There have been significant developments in Counter Improvised Explosive Device (IED) efforts through our work with the Counter IED Task Force. Likewise, the digital network and battle management system received a boost with trials conducted during Exercise TALISMAN SABRE by the LNIC. In Afghanistan, lifesaving enhancements have been made to the ASLAV with the fitting of a mine-resistant seat for the driver and a belly plate underneath the entire vehicle to achieve a level of protection closer to that of the Bushmaster. The year 2011 has been a period of consolidation for Modernisation Division and a year marked by success with a number of Army initiatives coming to fruition.

IN 2011, SIGNIFICANT SUCCESSES HAVE BEEN ACHIEVED WITH TANGIBLE STEPS TAKEN TOWARDS ARMYS MODERNISATION.
In 2011, significant successes have been achieved with tangible steps taken towards Armys modernisation. This chapter of Army in Profile highlights some of these achievements. As a new organisation, we have worked overtime to build the framework of operation to ensure that Armys needs in new or renewed capability were clearly articulated. We worked towards ensuring optimum use of Armys information and resources, demonstrated in the creation of iArmy and, within it, the new Army Lessons Learned environment. This involved close cooperation with the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) and tied that organisation closely to Armys modernisation processes, particularly in experimentation and project analysis. We also brought the

Major General John Caligari, DSC, AM Head Modernisation and Strategic Planning Army

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PLAN BEERSHEBA

By Lieutenant Colonel Eamon Lenaghan

ARMYS FUTURE STRUCTURE


Plan BEERSHEBA involves, in the first instance, the development of Multi-role Combat Brigades, based on the 1st, 3rd and 7th Brigades, which have fundamentally common structures containing all elements of the combined arms team. The 2nd Division will support these brigades, providing additional capacity. Second, Plan BEERSHEBA involves adjustments to the three enabling brigades (6th, 16th, and 17th) to equip them to better support deployed forces. Third, some adjustments have been identified to enable Special Operations Command to more effectively align its force structure to its standing tasks. Finally, changes will be effected within the Deployable Joint Force Headquarters (1st Division) to better support the force generation of Defences amphibious forces. Army is committed to the development of a world class amphibious capability. An infantry battalion will be dedicated to providing tip of the spear amphibious capability, enabled by other elements from the Ready and enabling brigades. This is an affirmation of Armys commitment to a truly joint amphibious capability. Plan BEERSHEBA demands a greater operational capability from the Reserve. The 2nd Division will be closely aligned with the Army Force Generation Cycle and will be responsible for defined capability outputs in direct support of Ready

forces. Its warfighting focus will remain on stability operations and this task will provide the basis for the structure, training and equipping of the Reserve force. The work conducted in 2011 will see the implementation of Plan BEERSHEBA over the next 10 years and will ensure that the Australian Army optimises its forces to maximise capability in order to remain robust and relevant well into this centurys third decade.

On 31 October 1917, the 4th Light Horse Brigade charged the Turkish defences at Beersheba, winning a significant victory. Less well known is the reorganisation, re-equipping and retraining of the Desert Mounted Corps that occurred in the months prior to the battle that underwrote this feat of arms. Army has adopted the name Beersheba for the next phase of the Adaptive Army initiative. Plan BEERSHEBA describes a phased program to adjust Armys force structure so that it can generate optimal capability to conform to strategic guidance and meet the challenge of contemporary warfare. It aims to learn lessons from over a decade of continuous operations, and maximise capability through the application of Armys Force Generation Cycle. Plan BEERSHEBA seeks to ensure that Army is a robust, relevant and affordable element of Australias defence as described in Force 2030. It positions Army to contribute to the development of joint capability, and the introduction into service of the Defence Capability Plan. The year 2011 saw the further evolution of Plan BEERSHEBA and the securing of Government agreement in October. Considerable effort was devoted not only to the plan itself, but also to seeking stakeholder endorsement across Army, Defence and Government.

PLAN BEERSHEBA DESCRIBES A PHASED PROGRAM TO ADJUST ARMYS FORCE STRUCTURE SO THAT IT CAN GENERATE OPTIMAL CAPABILITY TO CONFORM TO STRATEGIC GUIDANCE AND MEET THE CHALLENGE OF CONTEMPORARY WARFARE.

PHOTO: Major General John Caligari, DSC, AM, former Head Modernisation and Strategic Planning Army, inspects a BAY Class ship in the United Kingdom in preparation for the HMAS Choules arriving in Australia.

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THE ARMY RESERVE


The Army Reserve has a new role to deliver specified capability to support and sustain Australian Defence Force (ADF) preparedness and operations. To fulfil this role, the Army Reserve has four core tasks and several supporting tasks. The core tasks include: delivery of specified warfighting capabilities with an emphasis on stability operations; provision of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, and domestic security as part of a whole-of-government approach; provision and maintenance of specialist individual capabilities; and contribution to Army surge capabilities. Underpinning these tasks is a commitment to the promotion of Armys image and the ethos of the ADF through the Army Reserves strong bonds with regions and local communities. Plan BEERSHEBA is Armys plan for the next phase of the Adaptive Army Campaign. Under Plan BEERSHEBA, the Army Reserve will consist of six brigade-sized formations within the 2nd Division with units, sub-units, teams and individuals integrated within Armys Combat Support and Combat Service Support brigades. The 2nd Division formations will be paired, with each pair aligned to, and on the same Force Generation Cycle as its partnered full-time Multi-role Combat Brigade (MCB).

2011 AND BEYOND


In each Ready year, the paired Army Reserve formations will be required to produce a battalion-sized group which may be used in its entirety or as a capability brick by the Ready MCB commander for operational deployments or in major exercises. In order to fulfil the enduring annual Army Reserve capability requirements, the generic structure of the 2nd Division formations developed for Plan BEERSHEBA include: a Royal Australian Artillery mortar capability under the command of an Infantry battalion, the re-roling of all Army Reserve Royal Australian Armoured Corps units to the production of Bushmaster crews, and the embedding of the Brigade Operational Supply Company within each Combat Services Support Battalion.

DURING 2011, SIGNIFICANT WORK HAS BEEN DEVOTED TO ESTABLISHING THE ARMY RESERVE WITHIN THE ARMYS TOTAL FORCE CONCEPT.
During 2011, significant work has been devoted to establishing the Army Reserve within the Armys Total Force concept. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the Australian Regular Army and the Australian Public Service. Complementing this work has been the Cadet, Reserves and Employer Support Divisions (CRESD) Plan SUAKIN.

Plan SUAKIN is designed to develop the Reserve workforce required for Plan BEERSHEBA and to enable better use of the Army Reserve in Force 2030. CRESD has developed a sophisticated Personnel Cost Model and a Predictive Behaviour Model which facilitate accurate costings for operations, as well as determining what incentives best motivate different skill groups for specified tasks. These

decision support tools will be an essential part in progressing the Army Reserve components of Plan BEERSHEBA and integral to designing the Army Reserve of the future.

PHOTO: Army Reservists will have a more defined role under Plan BEERSHEBA and are well entrenched in Armys Total Force Concept.

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ARMY AND DIGGERWORKS:

THE SOLDIER COMBAT ENSEMBLE


By Lieutenant Colonel Nathan Juchniewicz In the past, the individual load carriage and personal protection systems employed by the Australian Defence Force (ADF) have been sub-optimised to meet the requirements of the entire organisation. This has meant that there has been one type of combat uniform and limited types of body armour, irrespective of job or role. Army has identified the need for a Soldier Combat Ensemble (SCE) that is designed to be functional and fulfil its intended purpose. This means that different types of combat uniform, load carriage and body armour systems are required for different roles and tasks.

The SCE is best described as a soldier system designed to provide protection to individual combatants from physical threats and the environment as well as facilitating an efficient means for individuals to carry mission loads in a close combat environment. In broad terms, the SCE includes: combat clothing (combat uniform, footwear and cold weather clothing); personal protection systems such as body armour, combat helmets and eye protection; and individual load carriage systems such as equipment pouches and field packs. A tiered structure has been introduced within the SCE to cater for the different roles and tasks of close combatants. This structure includes Tier 1 systems for specialist unique roles such as tank crew; Tier 2 systems that focus on the dismounted close combatant; and Tier 3 systems that are designed to be general purpose. After two years of design, development and evaluation by soldiers, 2011 was the trial of truth for the equipment on operations. Components of the SCE were issued to the Mentoring Task Force and to the Special Operations Task Force operating in Afghanistan, with a commercial off-theshelf enhanced combat uniform and new lightweight body armour with a more integrated load carriage system. Armys intent is to ensure that the SCE will continue to evolve, with each iteration developed on an annual basis and provided to the Readying Force Elements of the ADFs land component. This will ensure that the equipment is capable of evolving rapidly to include new technologies and/or reflect changes in the operating conditions. Another ongoing development is the new Tiered Body Armour System (TBAS). The current version (version 3) was first introduced to the Mentoring Task Force in April 2011 after

two years of trials. Based on the feedback from this task force, the next version of TBAS (version 4) will be introduced in mid-2012, reflecting a 12-month development process. This success is also indicative of the contribution of the recently created Diggerworks. This is an organisation of Army personnel in the Defence Materiel Organisation and the Defence Science and Technology Organisation. Diggerworks key role is to conduct soldier engagement while coordinating rapid trialling and implementation of soldier combat systems. Over the past two to three decades, Army has successfully evolved its soldier survivability systems. With the adoption of an iterative development path and with the coordination of Diggerworks, Army is now positioned to continuously evolve its soldier combat systems to meet the demands of contemporary operations.

A SOLDIER SYSTEM DESIGNED TO PROVIDE PROTECTION TO INDIVIDUAL COMBATANTS FROM PHYSICAL THREATS AND THE ENVIRONMENT.
PHOTO LEFT: An Mentoring Task Force - 3 Soldier with new Crye Cam and Tiered Body Armour System. PHOTO RIGHT: Soldier Combat Ensemble differs depending on role and enhances soldiers survivability on operations.

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LAND NETWORK

INTEGRATION CENTRE
By Lieutenant Colonel Darcy Rawlinson As early as 2006, Army identified the need for a specialist organisation to inform decisions on its emerging land network capability. By mid-2010, the Land Network Integration Centre (LNIC) had been raised within Army Headquarters. The LNIC is manned by a mix of military and specialist contractor staff whose role is to inform Armys networking decisions while supporting the development of Armys Land Network Capability. The year 2011 began at a hectic pace for the LNIC, with a number of significant tasks reaching fruition. These included the establishment of an Operational Data Exchange Network (ODEN) in Afghanistan, the implementation of a Battle Management System (BMS), the Multinational Experiment 5 (MNE5) and a trial of Time-Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) satellite terminals. The ODEN enhancements fulfil an urgent operational requirement to provide both the International Security Assistance Force and the Australian Army data networks that operate from the Main Operating Base down to patrol bases. The network was designed, built and tested by the LNIC and was deployed into theatre within six months of the identification of the initial requirement. The ODEN uses the latest technology and includes capacity for future expansion to accommodate the introduction of new capabilities into theatre. A priority for LNIC includes maximising opportunities to improve Armys networking capability and ensuring that Army continues to learn from its digitisation experience. During Exercise TALISMAN SABRE 2011, the LNIC designed and implemented a BMS for the Opposing Force in order to promote the benefits of digitisation and provide broader exposure to Armys network capability. The LNIC also supported the MNE5 and a trial of TDMA satellite terminals. MNE5 is a coalition experiment to provide interoperability among major coalition partners. This experiment was the first opportunity for the new BMS Command and Control to connect to allied command support

THE LNIC WILL CONTINUE TO WORK WITH ARMY UNITS, THE DEFENCE MATERIEL ORGANISATION AND INDUSTRY TO IDENTIFY, TRIAL AND DEMONSTRATE NEW TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE ARMYS NETWORKING CAPABILITIES.

systems. The trial of TDMA satellite capabilities will be used to inform future phases of the JP2008 Military Satellite Communication project and enhance Armys understanding of adaptable satellite waveforms. The LNIC will continue to work with Army units, the Defence Materiel Organisation and industry to identify, trial and demonstrate new technology to enhance Armys networking capabilities.

PHOTO: The Land Network Integration Centre team with former Chief of Army, Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM (Retd).

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PROJECT

LAND 121
By Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Weir Project LAND 121 phases 3, 4, 5A and 5B aims to provide field vehicles, modules and trailers with a longer versatility and lifespan than the assets currently in service. In enhancing this capability, Army will be providing the backbone of mobility systems for the future land force. In total, LAND 121 seeks to deliver 7501 protected and unprotected vehicles across the range of light, lightweight, medium and heavy fleet segments. In addition, each category will provide trailers to enhance payload-carrying capability and modules to enable specialist functions. The light and lightweight capability segment will deliver six vehicle variants, two trailer variants and a range of specialist modules including canine, ambulance, surveillance and mobile command posts. These will account for around half of Armys unprotected tactical training requirement. The medium and heavy capability segment will deliver eight to ten unprotected, and eight to ten protected vehicle variants. Fifteen to 20 module variants and seven to ten trailer variants will also be provided. This represents the entire protected and deployable medium and heavy requirement, and around one half of the unprotected tactical training requirement. The Protected Mobility Vehicle (PMV) Light capability will provide a fleet of around 1300 PMVs and associated trailers for command, liaison and light cargo-carrying functions. These vehicles will provide a protected replacement for the Land Rover fleet, affording increased force protection in operational environments. Overall, Project LAND 121 seeks to deliver a networked and integrated capability as a significant contribution to the modernisation of the land forces. Ongoing cooperation with a number of C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers & Intelligence), force protection and specialist projects will see the delivery of vehicles with a generational advancement on current fleet technology.

PROJECT LAND 121 AIMS TO PROVIDE FIELD VEHICLES, MODULES AND TRAILERS WITH A LONGER VERSATILITY AND LIFESPAN THAN THE ASSETS CURRENTLY IN SERVICE.
The Australian Government has agreed that around 3040 per cent of Armys land fleet should be protected to allow operational deployment, with the remainder unprotected and used for tactical training. Between 30 and 50 vehicle types will be delivered across all of the projects phases. Vehicle variant types range in payload capacity from one tonne to upwards of 60 tonnes. In most payload categories, there are specialised variants such as Recovery, Integrated Load Handling Systems and command vehicles.

PHOTO: The Mercedes G-WAGON introduced under Project Land 121 phase 3.

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PHOTO: The RQ-7B Shadow 200 during flight testing at Woomera.

EMERGING FROM
By Major Keirin Joyce

THE SHADOWS
Delivered in August 2011 following some 20 years of development, the RQ-7B SHADOW 200 is Armys new Tactical Unmanned Aerial System under Joint Project 129 Phase 2. A market survey in late 2008 demonstrated conclusively that there was only one system in service that could meet the majority of Armys requirements the RQ-7B SHADOW 200. Further evidence was provided by the US Army and Marine Corps which had already given the Shadow 200 a thorough workout. The Australian Government approved its acquisition in July 2010. The Shadow 200 has created a whirlwind of activity for Army in 2011 and is the first of two US Army systems to come into service with the Australian Army. Both systems are purposedesigned to enable expeditious operational deployment. The first operational rotation of Australian Army personnel has been trained in the US, simulation equipment has arrived, and the first test flights have been flown at Woomera. While the Shadow 200s sorties are shorter in duration than those of its predecessor, the Scaneagle, it provides a substantial increase in capability. The Shadow 200 has the capacity to carry concurrently an electro-optic camera, infra-red camera, laser pointer, laser rangefinder, laser target designator and communications relay payload.
PHOTO ABOVE: Soldiers receiving Shadow training.

Deployment of 20 Surveillance and Tactical Acquisition Regiment over the Australian summer to replace the Scaneagle in Afghanistan is on schedule, and this long-running project will finally emerge from the shadows and fulfil its mission to seek to strike.

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KNOWLEDGE

IS POWER
The Army Knowledge Group (AKG) is a sub-unit of the Land Warfare Development Centre and is located at Puckapunyal. The role of AKG is to facilitate Army learning through the management, integration and delivery of lessons, doctrine and technology-based learning products through an Army Knowledge Domain (AKD). The most visible and best known element of this initiative is iArmy. In order to facilitate Army learning, AKG is further divided into areas of subject matter expertise (SME) including Doctrine Wing, Centre for Army Lessons, Army Learning Production Centre, iArmy and AKD. SME staff are tasked with ensuring that Army as a learning organisation embraces the latest and most appropriate technologies and practices in order to best facilitate effective learning. iArmy is one of Armys most recent technology initiatives, developed and launched in 2011 to capture Armys tacit knowledge in a single portal. It is the visible dashboard of AKD. Comprising over 3500 individual databases, iArmy incorporates the key knowledge areas produced for Army by the AKG: doctrine, lessons and e-learning. iArmy was formally launched on 17 March 2011 and achieved immediate success with an average of 75 000 plus hits per month on the site. iArmy version 2.0 was designed to provide more utility for the Army community and was launched in September 2011. The iArmy version 2.0 portal evolved with the assistance of user feedback. The scope of iArmy has subsequently been expanded to support the development of military-specific applications, thus making Armys knowledge available to all ranks and to all locations across the Australian Army.

iARMY IS ONE OF ARMYS MOST RECENT TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES, DEVELOPED AND LAUNCHED IN 2011 TO CAPTURE ARMYS TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN A SINGLE PORTAL.

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DIRECTORATE OF ARMY RESEARCH

AND ANALYSIS
The Directorate of Army Research and Analysis (DARA) was formed in early 2011 with the merging of the Land Warfare Studies Centre (LWSC) and the Directorate of Future Land Warfare and Strategy. DARA is a Canberra-based directorate of the Land Warfare Development Centre which is based in Puckapunyal. Within the Directorate, DARA retains the names and functions of the three branches of Future Land Warfare, Strategy and LWSC. To study the future is to also study past and present trends, and the inclusion of LWSC and the creation of a

closer working relationship with the Army History Unit have enhanced research and analysis capabilities to support modernisation. DARAs mission is to lead Armys conceptual thinking through the conduct of research and analysis and promotion of professional debate into the changing character of land warfare and Australias strategic environment, in order to support Armys modernisation and provide advocacy for Armys role in the defence of Australia and its national interests.

This mission will be achieved through three broad lines of operation. The first involves support to modernisation, with DARA developing concepts to support the Army modernisation objectives. The second line of operation comprises the review of strategic guidance and the provision of advice on its implications for Army. The third involves advocacy to promote the wider understanding and appreciation of land warfare, provide an institutional focus for applied research into the study of land warfare, and raise the level of professional and intellectual debate within the Australian Army Throughout 2011, DARA has continued to develop such concepts as riverine and near coastal operations, land force ballistic missile defence, gaining and maintaining access in an era of anti-access and area denial, mobilisation, and regional engagement and security framework. A major output has been the rewriting of Armys Modernisation Handbook, the essential guide to Armys program of modernisation. DARA conducts independent analysis, commentary and input into contemporary and emerging issues of importance. This line of operation informs senior leadership of developments in technology, the human dimension, conceptual thinking and potential capabilities which can be harnessed. It also provides analysis of current trends, with the aim of identifying future threats and opportunities. In 2011 this analysis has included reviewing the Army after Afghanistan, support to the development of amphibious capability and the land force in a maritime strategy, engagement and cooperation with international allies, and support to joint experimentation. Collaboration with the Defence Science and Technology Organisation and the Army History Unit, liaison with national and international strategic think tanks, and the investigation of technological breakthroughs, including high speed watercraft and jet packs, have also been the subject of independent analysis by DARA.

DARA welcomes new ideas and professional debate, regardless of origin. Through the provision of open forums across the wider Army, DARA seeks this expression of opinion without the requirement for staffing through levels of command.

PHOTO: Near coastal and riverine operational concept to enhance Army capability.

PHOTO: What does the future hold for capability?

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PHOTO: Simulation options are endless and Armys Simulation wing leads Armys efforts.

SIMULATION

IN 2011
Simulation is a key element of Armys efforts to modernise. It enables a learning by doing approach to a range of activities at relatively lower cost, significantly lower risk, and with greater regularity than traditional live training. This is important because, while professional military judgement, subject matter expertise and historical study and analysis can offer solid theoretical analysis, simulation provides tools and supporting methods which can test the decision-making of staff, small groups and individuals. Allied Auroras 11 is an American, British, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian armies program activity designed to technically test the ability to conduct a distributed formation-level multinational exercise. This testing is conducted through the use of different simulation and national Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence (C4I) systems and effectively proves the concept of the distribution of simulation and C4I. Interoperability gaps in terminology, doctrine and computer systems are also identified for further analysis within the program. Interfaces have been constructed between Armys constructive simulation, OneSAF, and C4I systems. The development of these simulation systems means that battlegroups and formations do not have to concentrate in one geographical area to conduct training. Domestic and coalition training can now be conducted over distributed networks providing efficient and effective training while allowing soldiers to remain in home locations. During 2011 significant advances have occurred in the development of Virtual Immersive Combat Environment (VICE) products to support Armys training and education. VICE provides Army with a common set of desktop simulations (modified commercial games) that can be utilised at Battle Simulation Centres, on unit training networks, or on soldiers personal computers in barracks or at home. The Australian Army is a world leader in employing this type of technology. The VICE software (VBS2, VBS2 Fires and Steel Beasts Professional) can be used for a variety of training activities and educational experiences, although it is best used for small unit decision-making tasks. VICE represents a grass roots modernisation approach for the Australian Army. It facilitates experiential learning in complex environments for all members from the soldier through to the combat team.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE SIMULATION SYSTEMS MEANS THAT BATTLEGROUPS AND FORMATIONS DO NOT HAVE TO CONCENTRATE IN ONE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA TO CONDUCT TRAINING.

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IMAGE INDEX
LAC Benjamin Evans 20110425raaf8490713_0094 1 & 208 Steve Dent 20110803adf8550446_026 28 CPL Janine Fabre 20110518adf8270845_192 29 CPL Janine Fabre 20110518adf8270845_143 31 CPL Zenith King 20110405adf8485572_015 32 FLTLT Michael McGirr 20100524adf8442556_077 33 CPL Chris Moore 20101021adf8262658_117 35 ABIS James Whittle 20111117ran8484535_072 3637 David Foote 20111116AUSPIC_0062 38 LACW Kylie Gibson 20110818raaf8540677_0246 41 LACW Kylie Gibson 20110818raaf8540677_0542 4243 Unknown 20061016ara8243523_10 4445 LSIS Andrew Dakin 20110709adf8106603_095 4647 LSIS Andrew Dakin 20110903adf8106603_062 48 CPL Hamish Paterson 20110916adf8248214_011 49 LSIS Andrew Dakin 20110709adf8106603_002 5051 LSIS Andrew Dakin 20110910raaf8161479_0104 53 LSIS Helen Frank 20110930ran8100087_158 55 PO Damian Pawlenko 20110113adf8095516_043 56 CPL Hamish Paterson 20101015adf8248214_051 59 Unknown IA29443 6061 Unknown 3 Aurora 63 ABIS Jo Dilorenzo 20110922adf8114832_119 23 CPL Rodney Welch 20111209raaf8161479_0194 45 PO Damian Pawlenko 20111001adf8095516_086 6 CPL Melina Mancuso 20111117adf8164101_0005 89 CPL Bernard Pearson 20110624adf8237482_0048 11 ABIS Jo Dilorenzo 20090720adf8114832_008 1213 SGT Brian Hartigan 20100304adf8223206_005 14 SGT Rob Nyffenegger 20100721adf8243116_512 15 Unknown MG_9761a 16 LT Aaron Oldaker 20100419_909_0301 19 Lauren Black 20111022adf201084LJB_054 20 Dave Patterson 20111022UNSW00000s145_2286 21 Grace Costa 20111022dps8513881s145_1495 22 Grace Costa 20113101dps8513881_010 23 Philip Vavasour 20111106dps8434824_s080_317 2425 LAC Bill Solomou 20110618raaf8526959_030 26 Steve Dent 20110803adf8550446_010 27

ABIS Jo Dilorenzo 20101202adf8114832_258 91 ABIS Jo Dilorenzo 20111121adf8114832_020 92 Unknown 20110514_US_9398 95 CAPT Cameron Jamieson 20080222adf8267338_263 9697 Australian War Memorial A02684 100101 Unknown 20110115_ADF_8235241_001 102 Unknown 20111212_ADF8118726_001 105 CPL Melina Mancuso 20110917adf8164101_248 106 CPL Janine Fabre 20110726adf8270845_028 111 CPL Janine Fabre 20110726adf8270845_012 112 CPL Janine Fabre 20110114adf8270845_052 114115 PO Damian Pawlenko 20110113adf8095516_107 117 CPL Janine Fabre 20110106adf8270845_245 118 PO Damian Pawlenko 20110115adf8095516_017 120 PO Damian Pawlenko 20110113adf8095516_076 121 PO Damian Pawlenko 20110111adf8095516_226 122123 CPL Janine Fabre 20110114adf8270845_029 124 CPL Janine Fabre 20110115adf8270845_027 125 CPL Melina Mancuso 20110204adf8164101_047 126 CPL Melina Mancuso 20110209adf8164101_109 127

CPL Melina Mancuso 20110208adf8164101_142 128 Lance Corporal Mark Doran 20110207adf8439709_001 129 CPL Melina Mancuso 20110206adf8164101_010 130 Lance Corporal Mark Doran 20110204adf8439709_008 131 CPL Melina Mancuso 20110208adf8164101_107 131 CPL Melina Mancuso 20110207adf8164101_194 132 Lance Corporal Mark Doran 20110207adf8439709_074 134135 Unknown 20110719adf0000_004 150151 CPL Janine Fabre 20110301adf8270845_050 152 Australian War Memorial P00717.001 154 Australian War Memorial PB1454 157 Australian War Memorial 127902 159 Australian War Memorial P00086.004 161 Australian War Memorial 83857 162163 Australian War Memorial 147847 165 Australian War Memorial 042315 166 Australian War Memorial 044421 168 Australian War Memorial 044485 169 Australian War Memorial FOD-71-0305-VN 171 Australian War Memorial CUN/71/0539/VN 172

Unknown 20110714rn00000_001 174 Unknown 20110719adf0000_005 175 Unknown 20110719adf0000_002 177 Dale Morley PWD Depot Building 178

CPL Janine Fabre 20110602adf8270845_232 65 Lauren Black 20110425adf201084LJB_059 6667 Specialist Marcus Fichtl US Army 110719-A-TW035-003 69 Corporal Melanie Schinkel 20110720adf8529717_004 70 SGT W. Guthrie 20110717adf8178707_0211 73 Australian War Memorial ART28159 74 LAC Vasilis Solomou 20110303raaf8526959_0009 76 LCPL Mark Doran 20110601adf8439709_055 79 Cpl Zenith King 20110509adf8485572_009 80 CPL Glen McCarthy 20110508raaf8298528_0279 81 Steve Dent 20111005ARA_PA059734_v2 83 ABIS Jo Dilorenzo 20111027adf8114832_081 8485 Spc. Edward A. Garibay 110226-A-5634G-002 87 ABIS Jo Dilorenzo 20101202adf8114832_002 8889 CPL Christopher Dickson 20110102adf8144078_045 90

Dale Morley Q4 181 Unknown ARMY20110912adfPicture1 182183 Unknown HMSPA Intro 2 187

Unknown 20110127adf8261939_008a 189 Unknown Soldier Combat Ensemble2 Unknown Soldier Combat Ensemble1 Unknown Land Network Intrigation centre Unknown G Wagon 2Land 121_1 Unknown Shadow 200#4 Unknown Shadow 200#3 190 191 193 194 196 197

Unknown AMKG#6 199 Unknown Jetpacks DARA1 Unknown Riverine Craft DARA2 Unknown Simulation 2 200 201 202

ABIS Jo Dilorenzo 20110726adf8114832_006 204205 Pte K 20111111adf5022010_620 206207