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Computer and Multimedia in Education: Th Theory and d Concepts C

Dr. CK Tan, UMS

What is Educational Technology?

Educational Technology




Teaching g Methodologies

TV, Radio, Digital g TV, , Cellular phone, etc

Dr. CK Tan, UMS

Computer p and Internet


It is the use of computers in the design, development, delivery and evaluation of teaching and learning materials (instruction)

It means: computer-based computer based instruction (CBI) computer-assisted instruction (CAI) computer-assisted language learning (CALL)

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individuals knowledge or behaviour Woolfolk 1998, Woolfolk, 1998 p. p 204 (in Newby, Newby T.J., T J 2000)

To learn is to change (or have the capacity to change) ones level of ability or knowledge in a permanent way which is brought about by experience or interaction of a person with his/her environment

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Cooperative learning Discovery Problem solving Instructional games Simulation Discussion Drill and practice Tutorial Demonstration Presentation
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Focusing questions Highlighting Analogies Mnemonics g y Imagery Concept maps Embedded questions Feedback Case studies Role playing
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LEARNING THEORIES A learning theory is an organised set of principles explaining how individuals learn; that is, how they acquire i new abilities bili i and/or d/ knowledge k l d (Newby, T.J., 2000) Learning Theory Behavioural Perspective Cognitivist Perspective Constructivist Perspective Main Principle reinforcement organised information learn from one another

No one learning theory is the BEST and integrating them with different learning situation may look the best.
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LATIHAN Sub-topik pengajaran: Kaedah: Teknik:

Contoh-contoh aktiviti:

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Instructional Media Real objects and models Text Video Audio Graphics G hi (visuals, ( i l slides, lid overhead transparencies) Multimedia

Key Attributes Actual item or 3-D representation Written words Moving pictures Sound Pi t Pictures, li line drawings, d i maps Combination of various media forms

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


A computer-based process that combines text, graphics, sound, animation and video to create an animation, application that can be used to inform, entertain, educate, or motivate. ti t James E Shuman (2000)
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Klasifikasi Multimedia dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

(Sumber: Ismail Zain, ( , 2002) )

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MULTIMEDIA RESEARCH A research by Computer Technology Research (CTR) in 1993 showed that an individual can understand and dl learn : 20 % of what they see 30% of what they hear 50% of what they see and hear 80 % of what they see, see hear and do Findings indicated that average learning time has been reduced d d significantly i ifi tl and d achievement hi t levels l l increased i d when multimedia is used for learning Prof. James Kulik, 1985, 1986, 1991, 1994
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Sumber: Brent dan Felder (1997) dalam http://courses science fau edu/~rjordan/active learning htm
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The learning g piramid p (Source: in Hofstetter, F.T., 2001)

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Apakah kebaikan dan keburukan multimedia?


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ADVANTAGES OF MULTIMEDIA The advantages of multimedia are as follow : learning l i will ill be b more effective ff ti with ith the th integration i t ti of various multimedia elements will capture the interest and motivation of the learner learner can learn at his/her own free time/will/pace (self-paced, self-directed, self-access) no teaching manpower is needed (role as facilitator only). In addition, it saves cost and time. lots of learning materials and sources are incorporated in a multimedia presentation
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Video A i Animation i
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Text is an effective way to communicate ideas and p provide instructions to users

Font Classification
Classification of font :

Serif Sans serif Square serif Script Decorative / Alternative

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Font Classification


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Font Classification


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Font Classification


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Font Classification


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Never have this scheme in your presentation

Clash scheme
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A graphic is said to be worth a thousand words if it is shown when it is needed

Basically, there are 2 kinds of graphics : Basically bitmaps (based on pixels) vector images (based on mathematical equations)

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Graphic p images g
A digital display is divided into discrete, individually addressable points called pixels Images are produced by assigning a color and intensity to each pixel

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Vector Graphics
It is stored as a set of instruction which describe the dimension and shape of every component of the drawing To display a vector graphic, graphic each instruction is read and converted to the shapes and colors that comprise the image Created by DRAW programs (CorelDraw MacDraw (CorelDraw, MacDraw, etc.) etc )
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Vector Graphics
Advantages: Object orientation: objects in a graphic g p can be manipulated p separately Good for line art and charts Disadvantages: i d The larger g the graphic, g p , the longer g it takes to render the image
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Bit Maps
It is stored as a set of bits in computer memory that h define d fi the h y of each pixel p color and intensity in an image Created by digitizing images (photo, art work) or using PAINT programs (PC P Paintbrush, i b h PaintShop p Pro, etc.) ) Also called raster or pixel maps
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Bit Maps
Advantages: Can C di display l faster f t than th vector t graphics Good for reproducing images with complex variations in color, shading and detail Disadvantages: Require more disk space Fixed Fi d resolution l ti can lead l d to t scalability problems
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Image Depth
Image depth refers to the maximal p number of colors used in bitmap Each pixel can have 1 or more bits of color information attached to it
Bits Colors 1 4 8 24 2 16 256 16.7M Uses Text, line drawing Simple drawings, graphics Natural images Photographic g p realism
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Image File Size

Size (in bytes) = (Height x Width x Color Depth) / 8 Sample file size for different images size and color depths: Monocrome: ( (640 x 480 x 1 bit)/8 ) = 38 KB 256 colors: (640 x 480 x 8 bits)/8 = 307 KB 16M colors: l (640 x 480 x 24 bits)/8 = 922 KB
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Images : Issues
High quality images Big file size High resolutions I Image requirement i will ill affect ff hardware and software selections i l di authoring including h i and d graphic hi software, video graphics adapter, disk space and data transfer rate
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Techniques for reducing image size: R Reduce d size i of f height h i h and/or d/ width id h of image Reduce the number of colors (ex: g depth) p ) image Image data compression

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Image Compression
Data compression reduces file size by eliminating redundancy Compression involves two parts : compression and decompression called codecs Two types of data compression: Lossless output is exactly the same compression (used for programs and data) (done by PKZIP, stacker)
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Image Compression
Second type of data compression: Lossy a set of data will undergo y after a loss of accuracy compression. Typically used on g or graphics, g p , animation, , image audio and video Eliminates info that is difficult for our eyes to detect (Ex: eye is less sensitive to change in color than it is to change in intensity
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Some graphic image formats Bitmap (.bmp) Internal l format f used d by b Windows i d Graphics p Interchange g Format ( (.gif). g ) Used to transmit and exchange g between p platforms Joint images Photographic Expert Group ( jpg/ jpeg) (.jpg/.jpeg) Offers the greatest compression (10 1 without (10:1 ith t visible i ibl loss) l )
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Animation is the use of a computer to create movement on the screen

Frame animation (makes framed-objects framed objects move on the screen) Morphing (transition from one shape into another)

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The concept of animation is to : Bring to life Creating motion Breathe life into Inspirit inspire inspire
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2-D animation software : Animator Pro Rio Animator Animator Toons T Powerpoint

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3-D animation software : 3-D Studio Topas T Playmotion Flying y g fonts o s Lightwave 3D-FX
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Audio A di can be b any f form of f recorded d d voice or music or both

Why is audio used?

Convey meaning provide extra channel of info to audience Different learner, different learning strategies (live web lecture) Add sense of realism, sensation Directing attention to important events Facilitate communication
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Voice Voice is analogue waves Voice is audio narration (whispers, cries, shouts, etc) Expressed in decibels (db)
dB 195 170 70 30 Watts 25 40m 25-40m 100,000 0 00001 0.00001 0.000000001
Dr. CK Tan, UMS

Examples Saturn rocket Jet engine Voice Whispers


Terms related to audio Volume is peak of the wavelength Frequency F i is th the di distance t between the audio waves If 1000 waves are repeated in a second 1000 Hz or 1 KHz Sampling is the process of digitizing analogue signals
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Terms related to audio There are 3 main sampling rate for audio 11, 22.05 and d 44.1 44 1 KH KHz Sample p size is either 8 or 16bit Channel is either stereo or mono

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Comment CD Quality Q lit Close to CD Voice quality Sampling Sample rate size 44 KH KHz 22 KHz 11 KHz 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit Bytes 10 MB 5 MB 2.5 MB

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Audio File Calculation

File size = sampling rate X recording duration in second X (Sample size in bits/8) X number of channels Example: 10 seconds of recording at 22.05 kHz, 8 bit resolution and mono channel = 22050 x 10 x (8/8) x 1 = 220500 bytes
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Video provides a rich and lively resource for multimedia

According to Agnew & Kellerman (1997) , video is: a digital media that shows a sequence of still pictures which produces illusion due to movements of the pictures

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Analog video: continuous value sets that p uses microwaves to produce moving images like what is watch on TV it cannot be played y on a computer when h enlarged, l d it d does not t influence the video quality
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Digital video: consists discrete values between 0 and 1 it is played on a computer and p pixel-based when enlarged, video quality drops
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Importance of video in education : explains abstract concepts shows h motion/animation ti / i ti shows the real real situation p provides o des interactions e ac o s a and d responses (interactive videos) gives affective teaching
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Some common video file formats : .avi .mpg .mov mov .gif g (a (animated a ed g gif) )

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Web Authoring Programs

Also known as Web page editors or HTML editors

H HyperText T t Markup M k L Language (HTML) i is a tagged language used by web browsers to display web pages

E Examples l of f Web W b page editors dit : - MS Frontpage p g - Macromedia Dreamweaver

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Web Authoring Reminder

H Homepage and d web b pages must t be b confined to a folder

All graphical objects/pictures, audio and video id files fil must t first fi t be b copied i d into i t the th same folder before they are hyperlinked

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Upload To Web Site

All files in the folder must be uploaded p to your registered web site

Files are transported to web site using File Transfer Protocol ( (FTP) )p programs g

Examples of FTP programs : - WS FTP Pro - built-in built in FTP in Frontpage

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What Wh t the th experts t say about b t educational software The principle challenges in Interactive (IMM) ) are those of Multimedia ( pedagogy and design Hooper, 1988

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ARCS Pretest PRESENT INFORMATION Time Media I t Interaction ti Strategy

Kellers ll Motivational l Model d l

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Attention Att ti R l Relevance C fid Confidence Satisfaction

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An ideal multimedia team for Interactive Multimedia software production: instructional designer graphic designer animator audio-video experts p g programmer content experts
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Mastery y Learning g Model

Unit 1 Specify learning objectives

Teaching and Learning

Diagnostic evaluation

Achieved objectives ? Enrichment A ti iti Activities Unit 2 Remedial A ti iti Activities

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Typical multimedia screen layout should have fixed locations for content area area, navigational buttons and possibly menu. We must plan the layout so that the content is p presented with g good balance. Divide the screen into regions (Do layout analysis).

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Some important screen design principles: Font: must be readable easily; with proportional spacing between characters Choose suitable background colour to produce a good contrast of your text (foreground) Use drop shadows text for (foreground). photographic background Text and pictures must be arranged in such a way so that they look neat Always adopt a common look especially colour of text and buttons
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Some important screen design principles: Use metaphors for popular interfaces like next, previous or home buttons Example :




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Some important screen design principles: Interfaces must be user-friendly, functional and easy-to-remember and consistent in term of location Certain interfaces can provide feedback after being clicked so that user know the progress of certain action Example: Save button Location of navigational buttons are usually fixed at one location throughout the presentation
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Types of Interactivity
Sims (1996) describes 10 types of i t interactivity ti it Object interactivity Objects are activated through mouse clicks or input devices Linear interactivity Forward and backward movements of electronic pages Hierarchical interactivity Freedom of movements to selected modules via a menu
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Types of Interactivity (cont )

Supporting interactivity Users are provided with help and messages (simple to complex) Updating interactivity g with provided p Problem solving dialogue boxes (discussion) Constructive interactivity The system creates a situation where objects manipulation can take place to achieve certain objectives
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Types of Interactivity (cont )

Reflective interactivity Users are provided with answers from other th users for f comparison i purpose and self-evaluation Hyperlink interactivity provided with vast electronic Users are p resources in databases to solve problems dynamically p y y

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Types of Interactivity (cont )

Non Non-immersive immersive contextual interactivity Virtual reality type of interactions using i all ll the th above b types t of f interactivity Immersive virtual interactivity y type yp of dynamic y Virtual reality interactions using all the above types of interactivity y in a computer p generated VR environment
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Computer Systems and Components p

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Microcomputer Hardware
System y Unit I/O Devices Secondary Secondar Storage

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The Motherboard



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Memory y
RAM (Random Access Memory) holds programs and data temporary volatile l til memory ROM ( (Read Only y Memory) y) fixed start-up instructions CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) flexible start-up instructions
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RAM (Volatile Memory)

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Memory Measure
Unit Kilobyte (KB) ( ) Megabyte (MB) Gigabyte (GB) Terabyte (TB) Capacity 1,024 bytes 1024 KB 1024 MB 1024 GB

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Input Devices
Mouse Mo se Trackball Touch-surface Touch h screen Light g pen p Joystick

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Output Devices

CRTs (Cathode-Ray Tubes) Flat Panel or LCD (Liquid Crystal Flat-Panel Display) - passive-matrix and activematrix (TFT)

Data projectors (LCD Projectors)

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Ink-jet Printer - uses spray technology

Laser Printer - uses laser beam to produce images

Thermal Printer - uses heat elements to produce images

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P i t Printers

D t matrix Dot ti - uses a series of small pins (print head)

Chain printer - connected to several computers

Plotters - special-purpose i l printers i t

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Hard Disks

Also known as fixed disk Metallic disks with multiple platters Fast information (speed ranges from 3600 7200 rpm) Read-write Read write heads Capacity: ranges from f 500 GB to t 1 TB

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Human hair

d t particle dust ti l fingerprint smoke particle p

disk head

disk surface

Materials that can cause a head crash

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Optical p Disks
It uses a laser beam to read light reflection from flat areas (lands 1s) and bumpy areas (pits 0s). 0s) It is used for permanent storage 2 types:

CD-ROM (Compact disc-read-only y) memory) DVD-ROM

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Important p Hardware for Multimedia

Sca e s (use Scanners (useful u for o sca scanning gp printed ted graphics) Digital g cameras (for ( capturing p g images) g ) Digital video cameras (for capturing full motion digital video for video clips production) Webcams - videoconferencing/capture motion video/still images Graphics accelerator

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A program consists of the step step-by-step by step instructions that tell the computer how to do its work Convert data (unprocessed facts) into i f information i (processed ( df facts) t) Two major kinds System software Application software

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S t Systems S Software ft
Behind the scenes activities Designed to handle

Technical details Where programs stored How commands executed Where files saved How output handled

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C t Categories i of f OS

Hundreds of operating systems Three basic categories g

Embedded hand-held Network OS linked computers Stand-alone Stand alone OS desktop

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M j OS Major
Windows 80% of market Mac OS powerful and easy to use UNIX network; originally designed for Web LINUX non proprietary; free off Web (potential for out-sourcing of software)

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Utilities Utiliti
Hard disk crashes Antivirus programs Computer C f freeze-ups Decrease Decrease operation slow slowdowns
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Device drivers

Specialized programs Loaded into memory y each time When y you add a new device, , you y must install the device driver

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L Language t translators l t

p g programming g language g g into computer language Translators and compilers

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Application Software

Used by many people Basic applications C Common t tasks k

Examples of application software: word processor (MS Word) presentation (MS PowerPoint) spreadsheet (MS Excel) database (MS Access) web authoring g tool ( (MS FrontPage) g )
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Software Suites

Convenient and effective data sharing Less expensive M More expensive i Most Widely Used
Microsoft Office Corel C WordPerfect f S Suite Lotus SmartSuite
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Program g Development p
Program development consists of a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs One O of f the th most t popular l program development method is Program Development Life Cycle

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Program g Development p

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It is used for global communication, moving ideas and information. Cyberspace concepts (virtual environment) Started with ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Network) by USA in 1969 Known as WWW, World Wide Web in 1992 at CERN (Center for European Nuclear Research) in Switzerland
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Wired Connections

Telephone lines

Coaxial cable

Fiber-optic cable
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Number of Connections
fiber-optic - 26,000 coaxial - 80 twisted-pair - 1

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Wireless Connections




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H How to t be b connected t d to t i internet t t?

Internet service providers (ISP)

National (Streamyx, (Streamyx Jaring)

Wi l Wireless service i providers id DIGI, Celcom, Maxis

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How modems work ?

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Network Types

Local Area Network (LAN) - networks with computers and peripheral devices
within the same building

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - a networks of LANs

Wide Area Network (WAN) - integration g of LANs and WANs - countrywide/worldwide networks
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Internet Applications pp

Communicating g Shopping Researching Entertainment Education

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Uses of internet for education

Lecture notes, discussion board, online exam

Education portal
LMS, g ( (chats, discussion, online tuitions)

Information showcase
Personal websites/homepage

Educational shareware
Ex: hot-potatoes (for building online quiz)
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Web 2.0
The concept of "Web 2.0" began with a conference brainstorming session between O'Reilly and MediaLive International
Web 1.0 DoubleClick Ofoto Akamai Britannica Online personal websites evite domain name speculation page views screen scraping publishing content management g systems directories (taxonomy) Stickiness --> --> > --> --> --> --> --> --> --> > --> --> --> > --> --> Web 2.0 Google AdSense Flickr BitTorrent Napster Wikipedia p blogging and EVDB search engine optimization cost per click web services participation wikis tagging ("folksonomy") syndication

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Advantages g of Social Networking g Democratization of media Relationships and conversation Creativity C i i and d re-mix i culture l Embrace your passion and identity Community, Community sharing, sharing and connecting Increase transparency in government and organizations Disadvantages Too much content still gets overlooked (lacks quality, what h t is i true?) t ?) Anonymity can create hate culture Teenagers over over-engaged engaged in social networking (social sickness, etc) Can lead to danger when meeting strangers
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WHAT IS A BLOG? A weblog or blog is a personal diary or a collection of links to you. In simple terms, a blog is a website, ebsite where here you o write rite stuff st ff on an ongoing basis. New stuff shows up at the top for visitors comments. (Susana & g 2007) ) Sergio

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WHAT IS FACEBOOK? The Facebook Th F b k platform l tf allows ll developers d l to create Web applications that integrate with Facebooks social network and are delivered via the Facebook Web site. Facebook users can browse available applications and enable the ones they wish to use, granting them permission to access a subset b t of f th their i account t data d t (PennState (P St t 2007).
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WHAT IS GLOGSTER? A Glog is an interactive visual platform in which users create a poster or web page containing multimedia elements including: text, audio, video, images, graphics, d drawings, i and d data d t ( Glogster EDU is the leading global platform for the creative expression p education p of knowledge and skills in the classroom and beyond beyond.
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h // k d l /d k /
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WHAT IS WALLWISHER? Wallwisher is a collaborative tool that lets students be prosumers rather consumers (Sharon Tonner, ( , 2011). ) Wallwisher is an Internet application that allows students to post their thoughts on a common topic using electronic sticky notes on a shared digital wall. ll St Students d t can type t a maximum i of f 160 characters per electronic sticky note that can incorporate an image, audio or video using the appropriate pp p web address link ( (Sharon Tonner, 2011) Dr. CK Tan, UMS 112

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WHAT IS YOUTUBE YouTube is a popular video sharing website p , view, , and share where users can upload, video clips. YouTube allows users to post and tag videos, videos watch those posted by others and post comments. YouTube ties into several bl blogging i applications, li ti giving i i users a quick i k way to blog about a particular video and include a link to it.
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Other Web 2.0 tools (blog) wikispaces com (sharing) google docs (sharing) ning i (social ( i l network) t k) jing (video) slideshare (sharing) yp ( (video) ) skype twitter (social network)
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Breach of privacy and security

Is email secure? snoopware spyware, snoopware, spyware phishing Stealing confidential info (HP numbers, etc) Browser records pages visited C ki record Cookies d
Times and pages visited Other private information
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Privacy Laws
Freedom of Information Act (1970) Privacy Act (1974) Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (1986) Computer Abuse Amendments Act (1994) outlaws tl t transmission i i of f virus Software Copyright Act (1980)

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Computer Threats

Th ft (organised Thefts ( i d crime) i )

Hardware, data, computer time Software piracy

Hackers (for fun and challenge) and crackers crackers (for malicious purposes)

Natural disasters

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Computer Security

Damage to computers, programs or files

3 types:
Virus (damage/delete system files) Worm (self (self-multiplying multiplying and spreads) Trojan (can be virus or worm)

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Security Measures
Protecting Information Encrypting messages Restricting access

(password and firewall)

Anticipating disasters
(di (disaster t recovery plan) l )

Backing g up p data Antivirus

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Ergonomics study of human factors related to things people use Physical Health
Avoiding eyestrain and headache Avoiding back and neck pain Avoiding effects of electromagnetic fields
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Isu-isu Semasa ICT

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Keselamatan dan Ancaman ICT Jenis Ancaman kecurian perkakasan ICT cetak t k rompak k perisian ii serangan virus/ulat pencerobohan sistem komputer bencana alam

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Keselamatan dan Ancaman ICT Langkah yang boleh diambil memohon hakcipta untuk perisian operasi i membanteras b t cetak t k rompak k perisian ii pasang firewall / anti-virus pasang kata laluan pasang perkakasan komputer di tempat yang bebas daripada bencana alam mengupah pengawal keselamatan

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Pemisahan Digital (Digital divide)
Pemisahan digital merujuk kepada perbezaan tahap kemahiran mengguna komputer di kalangan penduduk d l zon-zon geografi dalam fi yang b berbeza. b Di Malaysia, M l i dianggarkan bahawa hanya 59.0% penduduk sahaja mempunyai akses internet (Laporan MCMC 2008) Contoh-contoh pemisahan digital bilangan pengguna internet yang besar di bandar berbanding dengan luar bandar bilangan pengguna memiliki komputer yang besar di bandar berbanding dengan luar bandar bilangan sekolah mempunyai makmal komputer yang lengkap di bandar berbanding dengan luar bandar
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Pemisahan Digital (Digital divide) Sebab-sebab pemisahan digital penduduk di bandar mempunyai pendapatan yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan luar bandar penduduk di bandar mempunyai kemudahan infrastruktur yang lebih (contoh talian telefon) berbanding dengan luar b d bandar taraf pendidikan penduduk di bandar yang lebih tinggi (lebih terdedah kepada teknologi komputer) berbanding dengan luar bandar (lebih suka bertani) kurikulum sekolah
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Pemisahan Digital (Digital divide) Langkah-langkah yang boleh diambil kerajaan memasang lebih banyak kemudahan infrastruktur telekomunikasi di luar bandar seperti telefon, kemudahan i internet tanpa wayar, mobile bil internet i kiosk, ki k etc Kementerian Pendidikan tingkatkan program literasi komputer di kalangan pelajar sekolah-sekolah luar bandar tingkatkan promosi pemilikan komputer jenis jenama murah untuk p penduduk di luar bandar melalui skema mudah bayar, etc ubahsuai kurikulum sekolah untuk mewajibkan pendidikan untuk k meningkatkan i k k literasi li i komputer k pelajar l j
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Traditional Learning versus E-Learning Scenario Traditional learning merangkumi proses penyampaian maklumat/isi kandungan secara bersemuka di bilik darjah/ d dewan kuliah k li h E-learning atau online/mobile learning merupakan proses penyampaian maklumat/isi kandungan melalui internet. internet Ia juga lebih dikenali sebagai pembelajaran tanpa sempadan Sering g didebatkan bahawa traditional learning g lebih popular p p dan efektif manakala e-learning pula lebih menjimatkan kos dan kuasa penyebaran maklumat yang meliputi kawasan geografi fi yang lebih l bih luas l
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Traditional Learning versus E-Learning Perbandingan
Tradisional Learning Kekurangan ruang apabila pelajar meningkat Merupakan pembelajaran synchronous E-Learning Boleh menerima ramai pelajar serentak mengikut kapasiti Pelayan Komputer Pembelajaran asynchronous (nota + forum atas talian) dan synchronous (chat / video conferencing)

Isi I i kandungan k d pembelajaran b l j I i kandungan Isi k d pembelajaran b l j kurang menarik menarik seperti multimedia

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Traditional Learning versus E-Learning Perbandingan
T di i Tradisional l Learning L i Satu kaedah pembelajaran iaitu kuliah atau pengajaran guru kepada pelajar sahaja I ik Isi kandungan d statik t tik EL E-Learning i Kaedah pembelajaran dipilih oleh pelajar; forum, kaedah latih tubi, multimedia I ik Isi kandungan d b beranimasi i i

Bilangan graduan dihasilkan Bilangan graduan dihasilkan kurang ramai

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Penggunaan komputer merosakkan kesihatan Jenis-jenis ancaman kepada kesihatan Bekerja berjam-jam lama di hadapan komputer akan: merosakkan mata (extensive ray emitted from monitor) ) menyakitkan tulang leher/belakang jika kerusi kurang sesuai dipakai

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Penggunaan komputer merosakkan kesihatan Jenis-jenis ancaman kepada kesihatan kepenatan tangan dan jari kerana menaip jika papan kekunci tidak selesa digunakan mengalami bahu bongkok jika ketinggian meja komputer tidak sesuai Bidang penggajian Bid ji yang cuba b mengatasi t i masalah l h kesihatan akibat penggunaan komputer dinamakan ergonomics
Dr. CK Tan, UMS 132

Masalah kecapaian internet secara broadband Antara masalah yang dihadapi ialah: broadband penetration rate yang rendah (< daripada 25% daripada penduduk) broadband penetration rate untuk sekolah adalah tinggi (7474 daripada 9176 sekolah di Malaysia) (Sumber: NST, 30 Mac 2005) berapa ramai guru mempunyai akses internet broadband ?
Dr. CK Tan, UMS 133

Antara kebaikan broadband ialah: pencapaian bahan pembelajaran multimedia yang cepat dapat muat turun bahan-bahan multimedia (audio, video, grafik) dapat guna kemudahan 3G dan 4G

Dr. CK Tan, UMS


Langkah menggalakan penggunaan internet ialah: turunkan yuran penggunaan (Contoh: streamyx RM 66 sebulan hanya mampu diguna oleh penduduk bandar) ) turunkan harga PC atau laptop wajibkan aktiviti P & P berasaskan komputer (Contoh: program Intel Teach yang guna teknologi web 2.0) Banyak kemudahan talian telefon di luar bandar atau turunkan kadar bulanan internet tanpa wayar (Contoh: DIGI, Celcom, Maxis)
Dr. CK Tan, UMS 135