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LAPORAN PRAKTIK SIMULASI SISTEM TENAGA LISTRIK

ANALISIS SHORT CIRCUIT

DISUSUN OLEH :
DIMAS NUR ROSIT SIDIK S.

10501244016

PEND.TEKNIK ELEKTRO / D

JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN TEKNIK ELEKTRO


FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS NEGERI YOGYAKARTA
2013

A. Tujuan
Setelah melakukan simulasi terhadap diagram satu garis, diharapkan mahasiswa dapat:
1. Menganalisis gangguan yang ada pada rangkaian tersebut (gambar 1 dan 2).
2. Menganalisis short circuit yang terjadi pada bus.
3. Mengetahui titik gangguan yang terjadi pada rangkaian tersebut.

B. Hasil Percobaan dan Analisis Data


Setelah melakukan simulasi tentang gangguan short circuit yang ada pada
rangkaian, dapat kami identifikasikan gangguan-gangguan yang terjadi. Yakni gangguan
pada bus bar. Berikut merupakan gangguan yang terjadi pada bus bar dengan short
circuit reportnya.

C. Gambar Rangkaian

D. Data besarnya fault pada modul


F1 = E/X = 59.03 (0.4184) = 24.70
F2 = E/X = 20.75 (1.388) = 28.80
F3 = E/X = 7.841 (1.388) = 10.88

Persentase perbandingan :
Tabel Perbandingan:
No.

FAULT

DATA MODUL

1
2
3

F1 / Bus 1
F2 / Bus 2
F3 / Bus 3

24.70 kA
28,80 kA
10,88 kA

DATA
SIMULASI
24,80 kA
25,10 kA
10,90 kA

E. Hasil Short Circuit ETAP Power Station

Fault Bus 1

24,8 kA

Selisih
0,1 kA
3,70 kA
0,02 kA

Persentase
%
0,4 %
12,8 %
0,1 %

Short Circuit Report Bus 1

Fault Bus 2

25,10 kA

Short Circuit Report Bus 2

Fault Bus 3

10,90 kA

Short Circuit Report Bus 3

Untuk Perhitungan manual pada rangkaian dapat diuraikan sebagai berikut :


Task 1
Base line to line voltage (EL-L)
13.8 KV
Base line current, kA
0.4184
Base line to netral
19.04
impedance, ohms
Step 1 (table 27)

4.16 kV
1.388
1.73

Transformer T1,
X= 0.07 (10/20) = 0.035 per unit
Transformer T1
X= 0.055 (10/5) = 0.110 per unit
Transformer T1
X= 0.055 (10/5) =0.130 per unit
Transformer T1
X= 0.055 (10/5) = 0.110 per unit
Transformer T1
X= 0.055 (10/7.5) = 0.0734 per unit
Transformer T1
X= 0.055 (10/1.5) = 0.367 per unit
Reactor X1,
X= 0.08 (10/7.5) = 0.107 per unit
Cable C1, from tables N1.3 and N1.6 for 250 kemil at 1 in spacing,
X= 0.0922 0.0571 = 0.0351 /1000 ft
(There are no reactance corrections as this is three conductor cable in nonmagnetic
duct)
For 3500 ft, the conversion to per unit on a10 MVA 13.8 kV base is
X= (3500/1000) (0.0351/19.04) = 0.0064 per unit
Cable C2, 300 kemil at 1 in spacing,
X= 0.0022 0.0571 = 0.00331 /1000 ft
For 2500 ft, the conversion to per unit on a10 MVA 4.16 kV,
X= (2500/1000) (1/2) (0.00331 /1.73) = 0.0239 per unit

Step 2 (table 29)


Transformer T1,
X/R = 21
R= (0.035/21) = 0.001667 per unit
Transformer T1
X/R = 16
R = (0.110/16) = 0.00688 per unit
Transformer T1
X/R = 16
R = (0.130/16) = 0.00812 per unit
Transformer T1
X/R = 12
R = (0.11/12) = 0.00916 per unit
Transformer T1
X/R = 14
R = (0.0734 /14) = 0.00524 per unit
Transformer T1
X/R =10
R = (0.367 /10) = 0.0367 per unit
Reactor X1,
X/R = 50
R = (0.107 /50) = 0.00214 per unit
Cable C1, ac resistance at 500C from table 20 is 0.0487/1000 ft, correctin for 750C =
1.087 for 3500 ft of cable converted to per unit on a 10 MVA 13.8 kV base,
R= (3500/1000) (1.087) (0.0487/19.04) = 0.00972 per unit
Cable C2, ac resistance from table 20 is 0.0407/1000 ft, for 2500 ft of two cable in
parallel on a 10 MVA 4.16 kV base at 750C,
R= (2500/1000) (1.087/2) (0.0407/1.73) = 0.0320 per unit
69 kV sytem,
X/R = 22
R= (0.01/22) = 0.000445 per unit
Generator 1,
X/R = 45
R = (0.036/45) = 0.0008 per unit
46 kV system,
X/R = 9
R = (0.0125/ 9) = 0.001389 per unit
Generator 2,
X/R = 29
R = (0.18/29) = 0.0062 per unit
Large synchronous motor M1, X = 1.5 Xd= 1.5 (0.333) = 0.5 per unit, X/R = 30,
R= (0.5/30) = 0.01667 per unit,
Large induction motor M2, X = 1.5 Xd= 1.5 (0.971) =1.457 per unit, X/R = 30,
R= (1.457/30) = 0.04857 per unit,
Low - voltage motor group 50 150 hp, using X = 3.0 Xd= (3.0 / 1.2) 50 =12.5 per
unit, X/R = 9,
R= (12.5/9) = 1.389 per unit,
Low - voltage motor group below 50 hp is ommited
Step 3 (table 28)
69 kV sytem,
X= 1.0 (10/1000) = 0.01 per unit
Generator 1,
Xd= 0.09 (10/25) = 0.036 per unit
46 kV system,
X= 1.0 (10/800) = 0.0125 per unit
Generator 2,
Xd= 0.09 (10/5) = 0.18 per unit
Large synchronous motor M1, using the assumption that the horse power rating of an 0.8
power factor machine is its kVA rating,
Xd= 0.20 (10/6) = 0.0333 per unit, each motor
Large induction motor M2, using the assumption that hp = kVA,
Xd= 0.17 (10/1.75) = 0.971 per unit,
Low - voltage motor group, 0.4 MVA, from 50 to 15o hp,
First cycle X = 1.2
Xd= 0.20 (10/0.4) = 5.0 per unit,
Low - voltage motor group, 1.12 MVA, less than 50 hp each

First cycle

X = 1.67

Xd= 0.28 (10/1.12) = 2.5 per unit,

Step 4 (table 31)


S5 to bus 1, two circuits in parallel, each with M1 motor Xd and T5 transformer X,
Xd= (1/2) (0.333+0.0734) = 0.2034 per unit
S6 to bus 1 (after combining all the motors of one substation for an equivalent low
voltage motor Xd= 2.5 (5) / (25 + 5) = 1.667), four circuits in parallel, each with an
equivalent low voltage motor Xd in series with a T6 transformer,
Xd= (1/4) (1.667+0.367) = 0.5085 per unit
S7 to bus 4, two M2 induction motors,
Xd= (1/2) (0.971) = 0.48855 per unit
S8 to bus 2, three circuit, each as for the S6 to bus 1 calculation,
Xd= (1/3) (2.034) = 0.678 per unit
S9 to bus 3, two M2 induction motors,
Xd= (1/2) (0.971) = 0.48855 per unit
S10 to bus 3, two M2 induction motors,
Xd= (1/2) (2.034) = 0.1.017 per unit
Step 5 (table 32)
S1 ,S2 ,S5 ,S6
X

S3 ,S4 ,S7 ,S8


X

0.045
0.036
0.2034
0.0176
0.0176

0.1425
0.29
0.5094
0.678
0.0719

22.22
27.78
4.91
1.97
56.88

Step 6 (table 33)


Fault at F1
X
0.3286
0.107
0.4356
0.0719
0.0617
0.1164
0.1781
0.0176
0.016

2.30
13.90
16.20
5.62
56.82
62.44

S9 ,S10 ,
X
7.02
3.45
1.96
1.47
13.90

0.4855
1.017
0.3286

Fault at F2
X

Fault at F3
X

0.0176
0.1164
0.1340
0.107
0.3286
0.4356
0.0719
0.0423

0.1340
0.0179
0.0468
0.107
0.1538
0.3286
0.1048

7.46

2.30
13.90
23.66

2.060
0.983
3.043

7.46
13.90
21.36
6.502
3.043
9.545

The resulting symmetrical (alternating only) first cycle (momentary) short circuit rms
current are
At F1, Isym = (1.0/0.016) (0.4184) =26.15 kA
At F2, Isym = (1.0/0.0423) (1.388) =32.81 kA
At F3, Isym = (1.0/0.01048) (1.388) =13.25 kA
Found using a 1.6 multipling factor according to ANSI/IEEE C37.010 1979 [2] and
ANSI/IEEE C37.5 1979 [3]. These total (asymmetrical) first cycle (momentary) short
circuit rms current are
At F1, Itot = 1.6 (26.15) = 41.8 kA
At F2, Itot = 1.6 (32.81) = 52.5 kA
At F3, Itot = 1.6 (13.25) = 21.2 kA
The asymmetrical (total) first cycle (momentary) short - circuit rms current for fuse
application are
At F1, Itot = 1.55 (26.15) = 40.73 kA
At F2, Itot = 1.55 (32.81) = 50.86 kA
At F3, Itot = 1.55 (13.25) = 20.54 kA
Value of per unit E/X for each fault bus are readily obtained from table 37 when E =
1.0 (as for this example); they are the final entries in the 1/X columns, opposite the fault point X entries. Values converted to actual current are
At F1, E/X = 59.03 (0.4184) = 24.70 kA
At F2, E/X = 20.75 (1.388) = 28.80 kA
At F3, E/X = 7.841 (1.388) = 10.88 kA
At F1, X / R= 0.0169 / 0.000537 = 31.47
At F2, X / R = 0.0482 / 0.00348 = 13.85
At F3, X / R = 0.1275 / 0.00488 = 26.13

E. Kesimpulan
1. Adanya selisih pada data modul dengan data simulasi adalah adanya perbedaan dalam
pengisiian nilai Xd pada generator.
2. Untuk besar / kecil nya arus fault dapat diatur dengan cara mengubah nilai Xd pada
generator ataupun nilai Z pada reactor.
3. Pada F1/ Bus 1 , semakin besar nilai Xd generator 1 maka arus fault pada F1 / Bus 1
akan semakin kecil begitu pula sebaliknya.

4. Pada F2/ Bus 2 , semakin besar nilai Xd generator 2 maka arus fault pada F2 / Bus 2
akan semakin kecil begitu pula sebaliknya.

5. Pada F3/ Bus 3 , semakin besar Z pada reactor maka arus fault pada F3 / Bus 3 akan
semakin kecil begitu pula sebaliknya.