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I Can Fly Programme Online Initiatives General Aviation Knowledge

Pilot Qualities and Cadet Pilot Programme

Have you consider joining Cathay Pacific as one of our cockpit crew? Apart from the requirements listed under Careers at the Cathay Pacific website, what other qualities do we look for when conducting an interview? The right candidate will possess the following qualities: - Acute judgement and problem solving skills - Excellent command of English - Motivation and Aspiration - Leadership and Team Spirit - Enthusiastic about a career in aviation - Technical Aptitude A 60-week training will be provided to the right candidate. The programme consists of a written test covering 42 subjects, flight training and examinations and flight simulator training. In addition, topics of aerodynamics, navigation, radio communication, meteorology will be introduced. Moreover, cadet pilots are required to accumulate more then 200 flying hours inorder to graduate from the Cadet Pilot Programme. If you possess all of the above qualities, we are looking forward for your consideration to join our team.

I Can Fly Programme Online Initiatives General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell, and your Answer is... Q: There is a height requirement for pilots. Do you know why? A: There is a height requirement for pilots and the optimum height is 160cm or above. The reasons are: Because the aircraft cockpit is very small, aspiring pilots should not be too tall. So, if you are as tall as the basketball player, you are best advised not to pursue a career as a pilot. Even if you adjust the seat to squeeze yourself in, your head will hit the switches the overhead. This is not only an issue about comfort but the safety of the flight as well. However, pilots cannot be too short, either as one will be required to control the rudder pedals to steer the aircraft to control the control panels in front and next to him/her to see out of the cockpit window Therefore, candidates will be asked to take a seat in the simulator during the interview so as to ensure that they can fit in the cockpit and reach the control panels. (Source: Boeing 747-400 First Officer Patrick Lau)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge 26 May 2003

Cabin Air Quality


If you think there is no fresh air in the enclosed aircraft cabin, think again. Air circulation systems in commercial aircraft are designed to the specifications of international aviation regulations as well as guidelines laid down by aircraft manufacturers, including Boeing and Airbus. Cabin air is maintained fresh and chilled. So, how does the cabin ventilation system work? 1. Circulation: In flight, fresh air is introduced into the cabin continuously. The entire cabin air volume is exchanged every 3 minutes. 2. Airflow: The airflow movement is designed to minimise the potential for spreading of bacteria through the cabin.

3.

Filter: The HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters, are highly efficient (99.97% ) in removing dust and airborne contaminants such as droplets, bacterium and large viral particles. This filter type is also used hospital operating theaters.

4.

Humidity/Air Quality: The cabins low humidity is also inhospitable to germs survival and growth.

So, next time, when you travel on a long haul flight, such as from Hong Kong to London, dont think that you are still breathing in the air from the departuring country.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge 26 May 2003

Show and Tell, and your Answer is... Q: Would the cabin crew make a public announcement and seek medical assistance immediately if a passenger was found to be ill? The cabin crew will not make an inflight public announcement nor seek medical attention immediately if a passenger is found to be ill on board. Its mandatory for all Cathay Pacific cabin crew to attend a safety training programme to prepare them in handling any normal emergency procedures in the aircraft. Their lesson on first aid includes topics on nosebleeds to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, oxygen therapy and emergency childbirth. Cabin crew also go through an annual refresher course to maintain their skills. They are also required to sit and pass an examination before they are allowed to operate on an aircraft. For minor injuries and accidents, fully stocked first aid kits are carried aboard. They contain ammonia inhalants, paraffin gauze dressing, bandages, triangular bandage compresses, safety pins, eye dressing, scissors, forceps, tourniquet, disposable gloves, which will be used to help passengers when needed. Portable oxygen is available too. The Cathay Pacific aircraft is also equipped with a well-stocked doctors kit for an emergency. For minor injuries, this kit will not be used. If needed, the cabin crew will first inform the Captain who will then seek professional medical advice from MEDLINK. The kit can only be used with guidance from doctors/nurses on board. If not advised by MEDLINK, cabin crew will not make public announcement for medical assistance.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Flight Simulator

Boeing Flight Simulator

Airbus Flight Simulator

Have you ever wondered how pilots from international airlines land their aircraft when they have no reference to a new airports runway or facilities? Thanks to flight simulators, pilots have been able to land safely. A flight simulator is similar to the cockpit of an aircraft and it is used for flying training. It can create simulations like take-off, landing, speed control, air turbulence as well as portray the runways and nearby landscape of different airports. The flight simulator gives pilots a real flying experience made possible with computer programmes. For instance, the simulator will vibrate along with windscreen effects like blur views with lightning if the mode of thunderstorm is turned on. Many pilots have been trained in flight simulators. They provide good opportunities for pilots to improve their flying skills, especially during emergencies such an engine failure. The flight simulator can also help to test a pilots familiarity with the aircraft system, his response and decision-making skills.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell, and your Answer is...

Q: Cathay Pacific pilots are divided into three groups according to aircraft fleet type Boeing 744, Boeing 777 or Airbus. Different aircraft are employed on different routes, so Boeing 744 aircraft will be used mainly on long-haul routes such as from Hong Kong to London and Vancouver, while the Boeing 777s will be used on short- and medium-haul routes such as to Bangkok or Seoul. If a pilot is assigned to a particular fleet now, will it limit his or her ability to fly on routes currently being operated by other aircraft types? A: Although different aircraft types are scheduled to operate different routes, a pilot has the ability to fly an aircraft anywhere. Apart from factors such as the range of an aircraft and length of the runway, where an aircraft is deployed is a purely commercial decision. Passenger and cargo loads along with fuel consumption, etc, are taken into account when making this commercial decision. So where a pilot regularly flies does depend on which type of aircraft they currently fly. Cathay Pacific cadet pilots are assigned to join either the 747-400, 777 or Airbus fleet after their 60 weeks training in Adelaide. But chances are that pilots will not stay with a single fleet throughout their career. When they change, pilots are required to be trained on the new aircraft type and sit a series of exams before thay are allowed to change their pilot license. This training covers ground school, simulator and flying training which will last for a minimum of 2 to 3 months. Piloting an aircraft is a lot like being able to drive a car. Any Hong Kong motorist can drive from Central to Kowloon Tong, as long as they follow the roads and obey the traffic signs. Air corridors are like roads in the sky, and every pilot is taught how to follow them. A pilots may not have flown to every airport in the world, but he or she could get there with the help of internationally accepted rules laid down by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and by using the following: Jeppesen Chart: 1. airport information, including length and width of runway, frequencies of control tower and ground; 2. geographical environment of airport, such as the highest level nearby the airport like mountains or high-rise buildings; And, Instrument landing systems (ILS) of aircraft and airport. (Source: Boeing 747-400 First Officer Patrick Lau)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Pilot Ranks

Pilots board the aircraft almost an hour prior a flights department to make pre-flight preparations, so passengers rarely have a chance to meet them. Have you ever thought how many pilots it takes fly an aircraft? Each airline operates according to its own guidelines. Generally at Cathay Pacific, the number of pilots operating a flight depends on the flight time: Short-haul flight (8 hours or less, such as Taipei): Two pilots Captain + First Officer Regional/medium-haul flight (flight time 8 -10 hours, such as Sydney): Three pilots: Captain + First Officer (Relief Commander*) + Second Officer Long-haul flight (flight time: 10 hour or more, such as London): Four pilots: Captain + 2 First Officers (Relief Commander*) + Second Officer * Relief Commander is the pilot who will substitute for the Captain when he is resting So, what are the pilot ranks? Pilots are promoted based on their seniority and flying experience. Once pilots graduate from the Cadet Pilot Programme, they will start out as a Second Officer, then progress to Junior First Officer, First Officer, Senior First Officer and Captain. Their uniform varies by the number of stripes on their sleeve and epaulettes.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Their experience, responsibilities and the seat that they sit in is described below:
Epaulettes Rank and Job Duties Accumulated years of experience

Second Officer The most junior pilot inflight Mainly take part in radio communication Simulator training at least once a month Normally occupies the pilot seat when the aircraft reaches cruising level Junior First Officer Second Officer will be promoted to Junior First Officer after a series of checks and interview A monthly evaluation flight is required Start taking part in take-off and landing First Officer Have substantial experience in take-off and landing Like other senior pilots, they have checks every half a year Usually occupies the right-hand seat Senior First Officer Will act as the Commander while Captain is away from his seat for rest. 4-8 2-3 1-2 When they first join

Captain/Commander The most experience pilot inflight, being promoted to the position after a series of tests The Commander of the flight Occupies the left-hand seat in the cockpit

10

Though captain is the commander of the flight, he/she will still have promotional opportunities to Senior Captain and Training Pilot, but they will still have only four bars

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

on their uniform, just like a normal Captain. Promotional opportunities depend on the airlines business development and therefore differs between pilots and some by make Senior Captain sooner while others may have to wait. (Source: Boeing 747-400 First Officer Patrick Lau) Show and Tell, and your Answer is... Q: Since pilots are frequent flyers, do you think they will have a special passport with visas worldwide? A: If pilots are required to have their visa application approved on every single trip, then their passports would be as thick as the Yellow Pages! In fact, pilots have get around through their special crew card issued by the local civil aviation authorities and approved by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). With the ICAO crew card, pilots can have their necessary immigration procedures speeded up. Apart from the ICAO card, most international airports have also established a special crew channel for cockpit and cabin crew to pass through. These counters are usually located at the two ends of the Immigration Hall. When passing through the counters, they are required to present their ICAO card and passport. Although most countries exempt crew from visa application, they still have to show their crew visa and passports when visiting countries like United States. Airlines will usually facilitate the application of the ICAO card from the local civil aviation authorities for their crew. In Hong Kong, the Civil Aviation Department is the local authority responsible for issuing the ICAO card. Information like name, date of joining, ICAO number and a photograph of the crew in uniform are shown on the card. Dont ever think ICAO card is just another card. Its almost like our identity card in aviation industry. Its number is widely used at work - on flight documents which contains information on take-off and landing. Instead of having pilots names recorded, these documents will show their ICAO card numbers. The ICAO number is given according to the date of issuance. Therefore, its also a way for crew to recognise their seniority by looking at the number. The ICAO card can only be used during duty travel and crew cannot travel alone with it. The ICAO card will have to be supplemented with a General Declaration Form prepared by the airline. The form which contains the crews name list, will be handed to the local immigration authorities by the captain or the inflight services manager. (Source: Boeing 747-400 First Officer Patrick Lau)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Roles of pilots

Do you remember how teamwork was mentioned as one of a pilots qualities in the first chapter of the General Aviation Knowledge? If you have sit in the cockpit you will see a close working relationship between pilots from the moment they commence pre-flight preparations until the moment they shut down the aircrafts engines at their destination. Work during a flight is distributed according to who plays the role of Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Non Flying (PNF). On Cathay Pacific flights, the PF will first carry out a series of operation procedures, with the help of the PNF reading out the items from the flight checklist, the PF and PNF will check simultaneously and the PF will report when each has been done. The two pilots will counter check each others operations. However, the PF role is not necessarily taken by the Captain. Standard Operation Procedures determine the respective roles of each pilot, and lay down things that must be done and should not be done. Details, such as the conversation that should take place between the two if they switch PF and PNF roles, are specified and must be followed word for word. Even though the control systems at the left and right pilot seats are the same, the two will not operate them at the same time. Two pilots are always required at the controls. That means neither the PF nor the PNF should leave their seat for a prolonged period. If one needs to use the washroom, especially during a short-haul flight where there will be only two pilots operating, then he/she must return as quickly as possible.

(Source: Boeing 747-400 First Officer Patrick Lau)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell and Your Answer is Q: Cathay Pacifics fleet includes both passenger and freighter aircraft. Our freighters are B747-200 and B747-400 aircraft. Your pilot leaders are all from the passenger fleet. Do you think they can fly on a freighter of the same aircraft type? Who serves meals on a freighter? Do pilots cook for themselves? A: Cathay Pacific Cargo aircraft have their own set of crew who fly only freighter aircraft. However, your pilot leaders are capable of flying cargo flights, if required, if their license covers freighters of the same model. That means B747-400 passenger aircraft pilots can fly the B747-400F freighter, but they cannot fly the B747-200F which requires a flight engineer.

photo caption: Can you tell whats the differences between the cargo flights and passenger flights from this picture? The answer is: Cargo flight has fewer windows. Freighters are aircraft that transport cargo. So, what do you think the differences of the between passenger flight and freighter are? Answer as below: 1. Configurations

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

photo caption: cabin of freighter

Passenger flight:

Only cargo space at the belly of the aircraft can be used to transport goods. The upper and main deck are compartments with passenger seats, gallery and washrooms. There is only a small cabin with 6 passenger seats at the upper deck and the remaining inflight area are cargo space, which is comparatively larger than normal passenger flights.

Freighter:

Photo caption: cargo space at freighters main deck

2. Air system Passenger flight: The air system cargo area runs automatically, only that of cabin can be adjustable. The adjustable air system is specially designed to cater the needs of the special cargo, such as flowers and fruits, etc

Freighter:

3. Electrical system Passenger flight: Inflight entertainment, telecommunication systems, electrical equipment at gallery are available inflight Nose door and electrical systems are available for cargo handling

Freighter:

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

4. Emergency system

Photo caption: Emergency door on freighter

Passenger flight:

Larger passenger doors would allow two passengers to get through in case of evacuation Small doors are used on freighters as the maximum number of passenger carried is eight.

Freighter:

Photo caption: the lunch made by our pilot leader Ray

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

No cabin crew will be on duty on freighters as they are mainly used for transporting goods. Pilots will, therefore, have to make their own meals. Of course, they are not required to cook for themselves but they will have to reheat the inflight meals prepared by the Cathay Pacific Catering Services HK Limited.

Though freighters are said not to carry passengers on board, there are exceptional cases. So, who will be the passenger? Airline staff or those special guests like the companion of special cargo, such as the horse groomer will then be only passenger on board. They will take the 6 passenger seats outside the cockpit. Then, the pilots will demonstrate the safety demonstration and they will also have to reheat their own meals too. Apart from large animals, freighters carry goods like corrosive or inflammable substances which are forbidden on passenger flights. Of course, those goods with strong smells, like durains are one of the frequent flyers on freighters. (Source: Boeing 747-400 Senior First Officer Ray Cheung)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Pilots pre-flight preparations


Dont ever think that pilots jump straight into their pilot seat, switch on the engine and take off. Pilots will have to arrive at least in 1 hour and 20 minutes prior the flight departure to go through pre-flight preparations. Pre-flight preparations are not simple. They include the studying and analysing five major documents, which run to as many as 40 pages. They must also make two important decisions. Details as below:

Five documents: 1. Weather Weather will have direct impact on the flight time. Therefore, pilots study the weather information of the countries or locations where the flight will take them. Weather forecasts for wind direction and strength, thunderstorms, turbulence and other unstable conditions are taken into account. Pilots will also review weather information of nearby areas. Such information will be useful in case of emergency if an emergency landing or diversion is required. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Latest information, operational changes and operating hours of airports, such as temporary closure of a runway, as well as special arrangements in the sky will be included. 3. Flight Plan The flight plan contains detailed information of flight time, fuel consumption rate, wind direction and speed at different altitudes, respective altitudes of each way points, as well as the distances, location and necessary fuel requirements and flight time between two way points. The information will be input into the computer system and checks, such as fuel consumption rate and the arrival at waypoints, will be carried out.

2.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

4.

Notification To Captain (NOTAC) If there is any cargo that requires special handling on the flight, such as dry ice, the Captain will be informed on the quantity carried and where it is stored. Its special handling requirement, safety standard and limitations will be noted.

5.

Others Information such as a security alert at an airport, reports on damage to aircraft systems and passenger information will be reviewed.

Two major decisions 1. Fuel required

Pilots must decide how much fuel is required for the flight. They also add some margin for safety, just weather turns bad or in case of holding or forced to make a diversion.
2. Special Operating Procedure Pilots make adjustments to the standard operating procedures based on the weather forecast and their experience. Wind shear is one of the examples where special operating procedures on take off climbing and accelerating apply. In addition to the five major documents and two important decisions, pilots are required to check flight instruments in the cockpit and exterior aircraft parts to ensure all is normal. (Source: Boeing 747-400 First Officer Patrick Lau)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell and Your Answer is Q: As mentioned in the article on the pre-flight preparations of General Aviation Knowledge, pilots will check the exterior aircraft parts during walk-around. Do you know what aircraft parts will pilots check? A: One of the major tasks of the pre-flight preparations is the walk-around. It involves a detailed checkup of the aircrafts exterior and aircraft parts. This is carried out after the normal checkup conducted by the engineering team. The walk-around is very important as it minimizes the possibility of defects or system errors after take-off. This task will be done by the Pilot Non Flying (PNF), i.e. Captain or First Officer, but second officers are not permitted to carry out external inspections.

PNF will have detailed checkup of the aircrafts exterior and aircraft parts, with reference to the arrows shown in the diagram above For safety reason, PNF will have to wear the high visibility jacket when they carry out the inspection at the apron. They will also need to bring a torch with them if the check is done at night. Inspection will start from the head of an aircraft and the parts to be checked are summarised as below: 1. Engine

ensure the exterior of the engine is not damaged or no screws are loose check if there was a bird strike or any dead birds trapped inside the engine

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

2.

Gears and Tyres

Wheel steering ground lock pins at nose gear and body gear are removed No fuel leakage or damage to the gears

3.

Tyres are pumped with ambient air Tyres are not worn

Wipes - Windshield wiper stop visible Fuselage Crew, passenger and cargo doors that are not in use are closed Fuselage skin in acceptable condition

4. -

5. Navigation lights and landing lights - Navigation lights and landing lights at wings, flap and fin are functioning - Light lens unbroken and lights illuminated 6. Air exit and inlet cowl - Ensure air exit and inlet cowl are not blocked 7. Oil pressure system - No fuel leakage 8. Control services - Aileron, rudder, flap are not damaged or stuck with branches

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Navigation Bag and Documentation

Do you know why cockpit crew who operate long haul flights such as Hong Kong to New York are required to stay at the destination before their return flight? However, this overnight arrangement may not apply to those who operate short haul flight such as Hong Kong to Taipei. Based on a mandatory requirement called minimum crew rest, it ensures crew get enough rest before they operate on an aircraft. The mandatory crew rest requirement of different airlines may vary, yet their ultimate objective is to ensure flight safety. Safety is always a top priority at Cathay Pacific. The maximum working time for our cockpit crew will depend on the flight time and the calculation of the number of rest hours to be allocated is fairly complicated. Take a long haul flight for example, pilots will have a minimum of 13 rest-hours after the flight if it is operated by 3 cockpit crew. In contrast, its 18 rest-hours if the same flight is operated by 4 cockpit crew. Such arrangement would also have taken the acclimatised time into account. Air crew are required to rest for a certain number of hours based on the mandatory crew rest requirement. Cockpit crew are considered to be working once they report for duty and their working hours will end half an hour after the flight landed. Such arrangement is to eliminate the possibility of mistakes due to fatigue as well as to ensure flight safety. Cockpit crew will normally stay at outports after their long haul flight and their length of stay varies from one to three days. As a result, they would carry suitcases just like any traveller. In addition to the suitcase, you may have noticed pilots will include a hand carrier too. Do you know whats inside this special bag? The hand carrier is divided into two types: 1. Navigation Bag

The navigation bag includes documentation of each flight which is prepared by the staff at the flight despatch. Such information will be available for review before a flight departure.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Apart from the Five Documents including the weather information, Notice to Airmen (NOTAM), flight plan, Notification to Captain (NOTAC) and other flight information which was discussed in the last chapter, a mini Jeppensen chart which contains necessary airport details will be included for reference. Other miscellaneous items in the navigation bag include earplugs, disposable earmuff for the headphone, disposable wipes for cleaning the microphone of the headphone etc. 2. Briefcase

The briefcase contains personal necessities which differs from one pilot to another. However, there are some common items such as pen, notebook, sunglasses, torch, windbreaker, lip balm and lotion (which is useful for a chilled inflight environment). Besides, some pilots will also bring along a sleep suit for their change during rest time during a long haul flight. Licence, ICAO card, Cathay Pacific staff card and passport are definitely a must. (Source: Boeing 747-400 Senior First Officer Ray Cheung; Special thanks to Airbus Second Officer Ricky Wong and Nick Tong)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell and Your Answer is... Q: Is Black Box black in colour? Where do you think it locates?

The so-called Black Box is not black in colour; in fact it is bright orange so that it can spotted easier if it has to be found on the ground. There are two units; one is a Cockpit Voice Recorder which picks up pilots conversations, and the other the Flight Data Recorder which records the functions and movements of the aircraft. Each can reveal vital information during the investigation of an incident. The boxes are installed in the cargo area towards the tail of the aircraft. They are watertight, heat proof and can withstand heavy impacts. The Cockpit Voice Recorder functions like an ordinary tape recorder. It records the conversation between the cockpit crew, Air Traffic Control, as well as announcements made by cockpit and cabin crew. Although the tape is only 30 minutes long it loops round continuously so that will always record the last 30 minutes of any flight. The Flight Data Recorder records the movements of the elevator, rudder, landing gear, aileron and flaps. It also captures information on the altitude, speed, direction, change in altitude, fuel consumption, data from the engines and many other things. It is routinely used as a reference to see if pilots are following standard operating guidelines and whether they responded appropriately to problem.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Identification of aircraft
Do you know how to identify an aircraft? In fact, all you have to do is to pay attention to their engines, winglets, fuselage size and number of deck. . Below is the quick reference:

Aircraft type Single/Doubl e deck Winglets Length Height Single No 73.9m 18.51m Single No 63.73m 18.51m Single Yes 57.12m 12.92m Double Yes 70.66m 19.41m Single Yes 75.3m 17.73m Single Yes 57.12m 12.92m

Other information: Wing span 60.93m Seat 382 Background Cathay Pacific is information the first airline to acquire this efficient, high capacity aircraft in May 1998

63.3m 336 Fondly known as the Triple Seven

45.23m 251/311 The Airbus A330 is a twin-engine aircraft used for regional and medium haul routes

64.92m 345/373/389 It is the largest commercial jetliner ever built and is also called the Jumbo.

63.45m 286 Cathay Pacific is the launch customer of this worlds longest commercial airline, the long range of the aircraft permits nonstop flights will full loads throughout the year from Hong Kong to virtually any major destination in the world.

45.23 243/249 The Airbus Industrie A340 enables us to fly even more longhaul destinations, such as Rome and San Francisco

(Source: Airbus First Officer Sophia Chan and Senior First Officer Mark Lam)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell and Your Answer is... Q: Please identify the following aircraft.

2.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

3.

Photo 1:

Boeing 747-400 Since it possess the following characteristics: Double deck Four engines Winglets

Photo 2:

Boeing 330-300 Since it possess the following characteristics: Single deck Two engines Winglets Boeing 340-600-300 Since it possess the following characteristics: Single deck Four engines Winglets Ultra Long fuselage

Photo 3

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Aircraft parts

As discussed in the chapter on Pre-flight preparation, pilots will have to study a series of documents and weather information is one of the five major documents to be analyzed. While weather forecast can give pilots a general idea of what the weather is like, it is unreliable as the weather changes so rapidly. Pilots will then have to rely on other sources for weather information during a flight. The weather radar is vital to flight safety. This instrument is used to detect thunderstorms and by inference, severe weather turbulence. The weather information will be displayed on a black-and-white TV screen and pilots can use this to navigate the aircraft around the storms. The system has a radar aerial fitted in the nose of the aircraft which can scan up to 90 degrees left and right and tilt 15 degrees up and down. It uses a pulse radar technique from a conical beam, whereby pulse returns that have been reflected back off water droplets in a cloud are interpreted and displayed as black areas by the system. Different colours are used to depict differing levels of return. See below for different levels of storm activity and turbulence: 1. Black colour Rainfall rate: Storm category: Condition: Below 0.7mm per hour Very light or no returns, no significant danger

2.

Green colour Rainfall rate: Storm category: Condition: 0.7mm to 4mm per hour Weak (1) The weakest return, however, moderate rainfall possible. Light to moderate turbulence and lightning possible. No hail threat.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

3.

Yellow colour Rainfall rate: Storm category: Condition: 4mm to 12mm per hour Moderate (2) Medium returns with less severe but still heavy rainfall. Light to moderate turbulence, hail (0 to 0.25% chance) and lightning possible.

4.

Red colour Rainfall rate: Storm category: Condition: More than 12mm per hour Strong and above (3-6) Strong returns with heavy rainfall. Severe turbulence, large hail (25-100% chance) and lightning possible.

(Source: Cathay Pacific Airbus Junior First Officer KW Chan & Second Officer Johnny Ko)

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell and Your Answer is... Where do you think wastes in the lavatory are disposed? Wastes that flushed into the lavatories are vacuumed into lavatory service carts which locate at the rear of the aircraft. The waste will be sucked and removed through pipes from the belly of the aircraft when it lands and will then be transferred to sewage facility. So, next time when you see a plane flying overhead, dont worry if there will be disposed item dropped off from the plane.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Fuel Tank

There is a common misinterpretation that the number of fuel tanks associates with the number of engine of an aircraft. But this is false. So, how many fuel tanks are there on an aircraft and where are they? There are eight fuel tanks in a Boeing 747-400 passenger aircraft, three on each side of in the wings, one in the belly and one in the horizontal stablisers at the rear. Fuel must be used in sequence to maintain balance on the aircraft during a flight. That means fuel in the wings must be used at the same time. How much fuel can the fuel tanks hold? A Boeing 747-400 can uplift as much as 172 tonnes. With that much fuel a normal car could drive around the world 70 times! A typical short-haul flight, such as Hong Kong to Taipei may need around 12 tonnes of fuel and a long haul flightm such as Hong Kong to Toronto may need 150 tonnes. Of course, the exact amount needed depends on the distance involved and the loading of both passengers and cargo.

Cathay Pacific I Can Fly Programme General Aviation Knowledge

Show and Tell and Your Answer is... Q: You can see clearly that there are some flashing lights on the exterior of an aircraft at night. Can you tell what colours are they and what are their functions?
Show and Tell and Your Answer is...

Q: Flashing lights on the exterior of an aircraft can be clearly seen at night. Can you tell what colours they are and their functions? Thank you member numbers 9, 19, 29, 39, 49 for your inputs. Please find below the answer to our "Show and Tell, and Your Answer is..." We can see the flashing lights on the exterior of an aircraft at night. The lights combine the function of anti-collision, warning and directional. Can you tell what colours they are? Beacon lights The beacon lights are red anti-collision strobe lights located on the top and bottom of the fuselage. Navigation lights The navigation lights are standard red (left forward wingtip), green (right forward wingtip), and white (tail cone) position lights. Logo lights Logo lights are located on the stabilizer to illuminate the airline logo on the vertical tail surface. Taxi lights The Taxi lights located on the nose gear provide illumination. Wing lights
Wing lights are installed on the fuselage and illuminate the wings and engine nacelles.