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# In 1928, Harry Nyquist developed the relationship between the bandwidth and the baud rate on a channel as (where

B is the baud rate and W the bandwidth in Hz) 1. B = 2W 2. W = 2B 3. B = W/2 4. None of the above In PCM, The total number of frames per seconds is ____________ 1. 2000 2. 4000 3. 8000 4. 16000 In PCM, the receiver has to recognise the start of each frame correctly. This operation is called frame alignment or Synchronization and is achieved by inserting a fixed digital pattern called a ____________into the transmitted bit stream at regular intervals. 1. Parity 2. FAW 3. ALARM 4. FLAG What is the no. of channels available in 34.368 Bit rate Mbit/sec? 1. 30 2. 120 3. 480 4. 1920 EBCDIC is an _______bit code that was developed by IBM Corporation for use in its larger computers. 1. 4 2. 5 3. 7 4. 8 With analog transmission systems using copper cable there are three major categories of impairments,these are 1. Attenuation 2. Distortion 3. Noise 4. All of the above Consider a network of 33 dB gain with an input level of 0.15W. What would be the output? 1. 600 W 2. 300 W 3. 330 W 4. 494 W 30 dB represents multiplying the input power by 1000 and 3 additional dBs double it. In this case the input power is multiplied by 2000. Signal voltage Vs = 0.923 V; Noise voltage Vn = 0.267 V, then calculate the signal-to-noise ratio. 1. 11.95 2. 0.083 3. 3.456 4. 0.289 S/N = Vs^2 / Vn^2 = (0.923/0.267)^2 = 11.95 For good quality communication, the requirement is, 1. not more than one error bit in one million bits. 2. not more than one error bit in one thousand bits. 3. not more than one error bit in one hundred bits. 4. not more than one error bit in ten thousand bits.

The quality parameters in transmission are: 1. Error Seconds (ES) 2. Non Severely Error Seconds (NSES) 3. Degraded Minutes (DM) 4. All of the above The quality parameters are: 1.Error Seconds (ES) 2.Severely Error Seconds (SES) 3.Non Severely Error Seconds (NSES) 4.Degraded Minutes (DM). In order to send data/message from one point to another, which of the following are required? Source Medium Receiver All of the above Which of the following is a DTE Teleprinter Computer with a key board DTA Both 1&2 In data communication, source and receiver data equipment is called Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), Which of these is characteristics of Simplex Transmission? 1. An O/P Terminal can only transmit and never receive. 2. An input Terminal can only receive and transmit. 3. Message always flows in both direction . 4. None Of the above Baudot Code is 1. 7 bit code 2. 5 bit code 3. 4 bit code 4. 6 bit code Parity checking method 1. can detect single error. 2. can detect multiple errors. 3. Both 4. None Of the above Keyboard of computer is encoded in 1. Baudot code 2. ASCII code 3. BCDIC code 4. EBCDIC Code EBCDIC gives how much no. of combination 1. 128 2. 256 3. 64 4. 32 In telegraph terminology,1 is characterised as 1 1 or 0 None Of the above Information carrying capacity of a transmission channel is determined by the following characteristics Bandwidth (BW). Signal-to-noise (S/N) Ratio. Both None Of the above

Nyquist Theorem states that Sample rate > 2 * highest frequency component Sample rate < 2 * highest frequency component Sample rate = 2 * highest frequency component None Of the above Calculate the number of level required for transmission if the B.W. of a channel is 300-3400 Hz and S/N ratio is 20 dB. 8 16 32 64 Which of the following is not RZ CODES? Manchester Coding Biphase-M Coding Biphase-S Coding Baudot Coding OSI is short for 1. Open Sided Interface 2. Open System Interface 3. Open System Interconnection 4. None Of the above The Network layer converts 1. DATA to SEGMENTS 2. SEGMENTS to PACKETS 3. PACKETS to FRAMES 4. FRAMES to BITS 1.The Application, Presentation and Session layers create DATA from users' input. 2.The Transport layer converts the DATA to SEGMENTS 3.The Network layer converts the SEGMENTS to PACKETS 4.The Data Link layer converts the PACKETS to FRAMES 5.The Physical layer converts the FRAMES to BITS. Which of the following are the examples of Application layer protocols: 1. Telnet 2. SMB 3. NCP 4. All of the above Which of the following is not example of Presentation Layer 1. SMTP 2. MPEG 3. ASCII 4. GIF The layer which establishes, manages, maintains and terminates communication channels between software programs on network nodes is 1. Presentation Layer 2. Session Layer 3. Transport Layer 4. Network layer Examples of Transport layer protocols are: 1. TCP 2. SMTP 3. FTP 4. NCP Star , Bus and Ring are examples of 1. Transport Layer 2. Data Link Layer 3. Application Layer 4. Network layer

This is the layer that actually interacts with the operating system or application whenever the user chooses to transfer files, read messages or perform other network-related activities. 1. Application layer 2. Presentation layer 3. Session layer 4. Network layer In which layer, the appropriate physical protocol is assigned to the data 1. Data Layer 2. Session Layer 3. Transport Layer 4. Physical Layer Which of these are characteristics of LAN? 1. Speed 4, 10, 16 up to 100MBPS 2. Distance Few KMs 3. Shared access to medium 4. All of the above Which of these are advantages of bus topology: 1. Fault diagnostics 2. Least amount of media is used 3. Fault isolation 4. None Of the above Advantages of star topology are 1. Control/fault diagnostics is centralized. 2. Ease of service 3. One device per connection 4. All of the above Data Rate of Twisted Pair (Shielded) for Bus Topology is 1. 10 mbps 2. 2mbps 3. 1 mbps 4. None Of the above The type of access used in GSM technology is ______ FDMA/TDMA CDMA OFDMA PDMA The type of Access technology which can enhances the battery life is ? FDMA CDMA FDMA/TDMA ALL The type of access used in narrow band analog radio system . FDMA/TDMA FDMA CDMA ALL

## THERMAL RUNAWAY PHENOMENON

Resulting in bulging of battery case & and possibly leakage of acid also. This is an extract from the information sent by the battery manufacturer along with our comments to clarify the points: * Thermal runaway is an abnormal phenomenon happening in the charging process, which is shown as a bloated battery. Thermal runaway means a state of operation where heat generation increases faster than heat dissipation, which may be happened on severe overcharging or electrolyte dry-out. The result is an increase of the battery's temperature. At elevated temperature, the internal oxygen cycle is accelerated, and the developed heat causes further increase of the battery temperature.With this self-accelerating cycle, the thermal runaway takes place, and the battery will then be severely deformed and bloated. Several precautions are listed as follows to prevent the thermal runaway: * Avoid the dry-out of batteries: Do not charge at voltages higher than gassing voltage (2.4V/cell) for too long duration, e.g. >12 hours. Clarification: What this conveys is that batteries on float should be charged from 2.25 - 2.3V/Cell and current limit is controlled to < 0.3C. Keeping too low a current limit will also increase charging times and lead to deep discharging of batteries where the charging time is inadequate to charge the battery before it is again discharged. * Any defective battery, e.g., the short-circuited or aged battery, in a long string of batteries should be removed immediately to prevent the overcharging of other batteries. Clarification: What this conveys is that in old / defective batteries where one or more cells are shorted out, results in the other batteries getting over charged. Similarly, if batteries with different charge status are connected in series will again lead to some batteries getting overcharged. Charge equalization of batteries (connected in parallel and then charged from the same source) before use is of prime importance. * The internal oxygen cycle reaction usually happens in the overcharging stage, where the originally decreasing current density may increase instead in the constant-voltage-charging mode. If the cut-off condition for the charger is based on the reduction of the current density, this setting may be too low to be fulfilled when the battery is aged. The charger hence continues to overcharge the battery until thermal runaway takes place. Clarification: What this conveys is that in old batteries due to less conduction area available on the plates, the current density will be higher for the same charge rate resulting in over charging of the battery * Always avoid the local overheating of batteries. Be equipped with heat dissipating devices or temperature sensors in order to stop charging when necessary. Clarification: What this conveys is also about the ambient (temperatures) conditions should be less than 30 DegC, batteries are not exposed to direct heat, sunlight, etc and proper / adequate air circulation is required to avoid this phenomenon