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Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
1

Extracts from BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3:
Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings
Table 3.1 Nominal yield and ultimate tensile strengths.
Grade Nominal thickness
t s 40 mm 40 < t s 100 mm
fy (N/mm
2
) fu (N/mm
2
) fy (N/mm
2
) fu (N/mm
2
)
S235 235 360 215 360
S275 275 430 255 410
S355 355 510 335 470
Note: NA will recommend taking strengths from product standard. Figure E.1 Notation and axes.
Modulus of elasticity E = 210 GPa, and shear modulus G = E/2(1+v). Poissons ratio v = 0.3. Linear
coefficient of thermal expansion o = 12x10
-6
/K.

Table 3.1 (Part 1-8) Nominal values of yield strength (f
yb
)
and ultimate tensile strength (fub) for bolt.
Bolt grade 4.6 8.8 10.9
fyb(N/mm
2
) 240 640 900
f
ub
(N/mm
2
) 400 800 1000

NA. 2.23 Clause 7.2.1(B) Vertical deflections and Clause 7.2.2(B) Horizontal deflections
Vertical deflections of beams
Cantilevers Length/180
Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish Span/360
Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) Span/200
Purlins and sheeting rails To suit the characteristics of the
particular cladding
Horizontal deflections of beams
Tops of columns in single storey buildings, except portal frame Height/300
Columns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane runways To suit the characteristics of the
particular cladding
In each storey of a building with more than one storey Height of that storey/300
Note: Circumstances may arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate.

UK NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
Resistance of cross-section
M0
= 1.00
Resistance of members to buckling M1= 1.00
Resistance of cross-section in tension to fracture

M2
= 1.10 (Part 1-1) (and 1.25 (Part 1-8))
tf
b
h

tw
c = cf
c

=

c
w

d

tf
r
y y
z
z
hw
Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
2
5.5 Classification of Cross-Sections
Table 5-2 Maximum width-to-thickness ratios for compression parts
Internal compression parts

Class
Part subject to
bending
Part subject to
compression
Part subjected to bending and
compression (o is portion of c in
compression)
Stress
distribution in
parts
(compression
is +ve)

1 c/t s 72c c/t s 33c When o > 0.5: c/t s 396c/(13o - 1)
When o 0.5: c/t s 36c/o
2 c/t s 83c c/t s 38c When o > 0.5: c/t s 456c/(13o - 1)
When o 0.5: c/t s 41.5c/o
Stress
distribution in
parts
(compression
is +ve)



3 c/t s 124c c/t s 42c When > -1: c/t s 42c/(0.67 + 0.33)
When s -1*: c/t s 62c(1 - )\(-)
c = \(235/f
y
) c = 1 (f
y
= 235 /mm
2
) c = 0.92 (f
y
= 275
N/mm
2
)
c = 0.81 (f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
)

Notes: For a web of a UKB (UB) or UKC (UC) section t is t
w
and c is the web dimension c
w
shown in Figure
E.1. is the ratio of the end stresses (o1/o2), (pure compression ( = 1.0) is o1 = o2) & (pure bending ( = -
1.0) is o2 = -o1). * 1
2
y
Ed
=
Af
N
. s -1 applies where either the compression stress o < fy or the tensile
strain c > f
y
/E.

Table 5.2 contd.
Outstand flanges (with c = (b t
w
2r)/2)

Class
Part subject to
compression
Part subject to bending and compression
Tip for compression Tip in tension
Stress
distribution in
parts
(compression
is +ve)


1 c/t s 9c c/t s 9c/o c/t s 9c/(o\o)
f
y
f
y
+ve
-ve
-ve
+ve
f
y
f
y
c
f
y
+ve
f
y
c
-ve
c o
f
y
f
y
+ve
-ve
c
c/2
+ve
f
y
c
f
y
+ve
-
c
y
f
c
+ve
+ve
c o
-ve
c
-ve
c
+ve
c o
Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
3
2 c/t s 10c c/t s 10c/o c/t s 10c/(o\o)
Stress
distribution in
parts
(compression
is +ve)


3 c/t s 14c c/t s 21c\k
o
k
o
is from Table 4.2 in Part 1-5 (given next)
c = \(235/f
y
) c = 1 (f
y
= 235 N/mm
2
) c = 0.92 (f
y
= 275 N/mm
2
) c = 0.81 (f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
)
Notes: For UB and UC sections t is tf and c is the flange dimension cf shown in Figure E.1. o, the ratio of
the compressed width to the total width of an element, is, for common case of UB and UC sections
subjected to compression and major axis bending, where the NA lies within the web, given by
( ) 1
2
1
2
1
f
y w
Ed
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = r t
f t
N h
c
o . Use of this plastic stress distribution requires that the compression
flange is at least Class 2.

Table 4.2 Outstand compression elements (stress distribution has compression positive)
= o
2
/o
1
(o
1
at outstand tip) 1 0 -1 1 > > -3
Buckling factor ko 0.43 0.57 0.85 0.57 0.21 + 0.07
2

= o
2
/o
1
(o
2
at outstand tip) 1 1 > > 0 0 0 > > -1 -1
Buckling factor ko 0.43 0.578/( + 0.34) 1.70 1.7 5 + 17.1
2
23.8

No equations for the design process are given herein for cross-sections of Class 4.

6.2 Resistance of cross-sections
6.2.3 Tension Design plastic resistance for the gross section is
M0
y
Rd pl,

f A
N = (Equ. 6.6) and the
ultimate resistance of the net cross section is
M2
u net
Rd pl,
9 0

f A .
N = (Equ. 6.7). 6.2.2.2(3) Provided
that the fastener holes are not staggered, the total area to be deducted for fastener holes should be
the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross-section perpendicular to the
member axis. 6.2.2.2(4) Where the fastener holes are staggered, the total area to be deducted for
fasteners should be the greater of:
a) the deduction for non-staggered holes given in 6.2.2.2(3)
b)
|
|
.
|

\
|

p
s
d n t
4
2
0
(Equ. 6.3), where s is the staggered pitch, the spacing of the centres of
two consecutive holes in the chain measured parallel to the member axis; p is the spacing of the
centres of the same two holes measured perpendicular to the member axis; t is the thickness; n is
the number of holes extending in any diagonal or zig-zag line progressively across the member or
part of the member; d0 is the diameter of hole.
6.2.4 Compression Design compression resistance for Class 1, 2 and 3 is
M0
y
Rd c,

f A
N = (Equ. 6.10).
6.2.5 Bending moment: 6.2.5(2) about one axis - In absence of shear the design moment resistance
is
M0
y pl
Rd pl, Rd c,

f W
M M = = (Equ. 6.13) for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections. For Class 3 cross-
sections
M0
y min el,
Rd el, Rd c,

f W
M M = = (Equ. 6.14).
6.2.5(4) Fastener holes in the tension flange may be ignored provided that for the flange
M0
y f
M2
u net
9 0

f A f A .
> (Equ. 6.16), where A
f
is the area of the tension flange.
c
+ve
c
+ve
-ve
c
+ve
-ve
N
u,Rd

A
f,net
f
u

Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
4
6.2.6 Shear Design plastic shear resistance is
( )
M0
y v
Rd pl,
3

/ f A
V = (Equ. 6.18), where shear area A
v
:


for a rolled I and H sections, load parallel to the web is = ( )
f w f
2 2 t r t bt A + + , but not < qh
w
t
w
,
where h
w
is depth of web (h 2t
f
).
for rolled rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness, load parallel to the width is
( ) h b
Ah
+
.

6.2.6(6) Shear buckling resistance for unstiffened webs should be checked according to section 5 of BS
EN1993-1-5:2005 if:
q
c
72
w
w
>
t
h
(Equ. 6.22). BS EN1993-1-5:2005 recommends value of q =
1.2, the conservative value for q is 1.0.

6.2.8 Bending and Shear If V
Ed
is less than 50% of V
pl,Rd
(at same location) then NO reduction in
design resistance moment is required. When V
Ed
>0.5V
pl,Rd
for an I section (with equal flanges)
subjected to bending about the major axis the moment resistance the reduced design plastic
resistance allowing for shear is given by,
( )
M0
y w
2
w y pl,
Rd V, y,
4

f t / A W
M

= (but M
y,V,Rd
s M
y,c,Rd
,
which is from (6.2.5)), and where
2
Rd pl,
Ed
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
V
and A
w
=h
w
t
w
. (Equs. 6.30 and 6.29)
6.2.9 Bending and Axial force For a conservative approach the following simple linear interaction
formula can be used. 1
Rd z,
Ed z,
Rd y,
Ed y,
Rd
Ed
s + +
M
M
M
M
N
N
(Equ. 6.2), where NRd, My,Rd and Mz,Rd are the
design cross-sectional resistances, including any necessary reduction due to shear.

6.2.9.1(4) For Class 1 and 2 doubly symmetrical I and H sections subjected to bending about a single
principal axis and axial force a reduced plastic moment is NOT calculated:
for major (y-y) axis bending, if
Rd pl, Ed
25 0 N . N s (Equ. 6.33) and
M0
y w w
Ed
5 0

f t h .
N s (Equ. 6.34).
for minor (z-z) axis bending, if
M0
y w w
Ed

f t h
N s (Equ. 6.35).
6.2.9.1(5) The reduced plastic moment of resistance for y-y bending is
a .
n
M M
5 0 1
1
Rd y, pl, Rd y, N,

= ,
but
Rd y, pl, Rd y, N,
M M s , (Equ. 6.36) and
for z-z bending is
Rd z, pl, Rd z, N,
M M = for n s a (Equ. 6.37), and
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

= =
2
Rd z, pl, Rd z, N,
1
1
a
a n
M M for n
> a (Equ. 6.38), where
Rd pl,
Ed
N
N
n = and
A
2
f
t b A
a

= , but a s 0.5.

Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
5

6.3 Buckling Resistance of Members
For Class 1 to 3 cross-sections the design buckling resistance is
M1
y
Rd b,

_ f A
N = (Equ. 6.47),
where _ is the reduction factor for the buckling mode (_ for flexural, and _T for torsional or torsional-
flexural).

6.3.1.2 Buckling curves
2 2
1
u u
_
+
= but _ s 1 (Equ. 6.49), where ( ) | |
2
2 0 1 5 0 o u + + = . . , where o is an
imperfection factor. For Class 1 to 3 cross-sections the non-dimensional slenderness for flexural
buckling is
cr
y
N
f A
= , with Ncr the elastic critical buckling force for the relevant buckling mode
based on the gross properties of the cross-section.

Table 6.3A. Buckling curves for _ (flexural) and _
T
(torsional or torsional-flexural)
o (o
LT
) 0.13 0.21 0.34 0.49 0.76
curve ao a b c d
_ _ _ _ _
0.2 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
0.3 0.9859 0.9775 0.9641 0.9491 0.9235
0.4 0.9701 0.9528 0.9261 0.8973 0.8504
0.5 0.9513 0.9243 0.8842 0.8430 0.7793
0.6 0.9276 0.8900 0.8371 0.7854 0.7100
0.7 0.8961 0.8477 0.7837 0.7247 0.6431
0.8 0.8533 0.7957 0.7245 0.6622 0.5797
0.9 0.7961 0.7339 0.6612 0.5998 0.5208
1.0 0.7253 0.6656 0.5970 0.5399 0.4671
1.1 0.6482 0.5960 0.5352 0.4842 0.4189
1.2 0.5732 0.5300 0.4781 0.4338 0.3762
1.3 0.5053 0.4703 0.4269 0.3888 0.3385
1.4 0.4461 0.4179 0.3817 0.3492 0.3055
1.5 0.3953 0.3724 0.3422 0.3145 0.2766
1.6 0.3520 0.3332 0.3079 0.2842 0.2512
1.7 0.3150 0.2994 0.2781 0.2577 0.2289
1.8 0.2833 0.2702 0.2521 0.2345 0.2093
1.9 0.2559 0.2449 0.2294 0.2141 0.1920
2.0 0.2323 0.2229 0.2095 0.1962 0.1766
2.1 0.2117 0.2036 0.1920 0.1803 0.1630
2.2 0.1937 0.1867 0.1765 0.1662 0.1508
2.3 0.1779 0.1717 0.1628 0.1537 0.1399
2.4 0.1639 0.1585 0.1506 0.1425 0.1302
2.5 0.1515 0.1467 0.1397 0.1325 0.1214
2.6 0.1404 0.1362 0.1299 0.1234 0.1134
2.7 0.1305 0.1267 0.1211 0.1153 0.1062
2.8 0.1216 0.1182 0.1132 0.1079 0.0997
2.9 0.1136 0.1105 0.1060 0.1012 0.0937
3.0 0.1063 0.1036 0.0994 0.0951 0.0882
Note: Use linear interpolation for values of _ between 0.1 increments in .





Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
6
Selection of buckling curves for a rolled section (from Table 6.2)
Limits Buckling about axis S235, S275, S355
h/b > 1.2 and t
f
s 40 mm y-y a
z-z b
h/b s 1.2 and t
f
s 100 mm y-y b
z-z c
Hollow sections Hot finished
Cold-formed
any
any
a
c

6.3.1.3 To calculate we may use
c

9 93
1
cr
. i
L
= , where i is the radius of gyration about the relevant axis
of flexural buckling, and Lcr is the buckling length of the member in the plane under consideration
and, for different end restraints, is given in the next table. This approach corresponds to current UK
practice.

Nominal buckling lengths L
cr
in the buckling plane considered for compression members
End restraint (in the plane under consideration) Buckling length, L
cr

Effectively held in
position at both
ends
Effectively restrained in direction at both ends 0.7L
Partially restrained in direction at both ends 0.85L
Restrained in directions at one end 0.85L
Not restrained in direction at either end 1.0L
One end Other end Buckling length, L
cr

Effectively held in
position and
restrained in
direction
Not held in
position
Effectively restrained in direction 1.2L
Partially restrained in direction 1.5L
Not restrained in direction 2.0L
Note: L is the system length and should be taken as the distance between the points of effective
restraint on each axis. Lcr (or LE) is also referred to as the effective length

6.3.1.4 Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling
Non-dimensional slenderness
cr
y
T
N
f A
= (Equ. 6.52), where Ncr =Ncr,TF but Ncr < Ncr,T.
Elastic critical torsional-flexural buckling force is N
cr,TF
=
T cr,
N , when the shear centre and centroid
of the gross cross-section coincide. This mode of instability is relevant to centrally loaded channels
where the centroid and shear centre do not coincide; consult [1] for appropriate formula.
Elastic critical torsional buckling force is Ncr,T =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
T cr,
W
2
T 2
o
1
L
I E
I G
i
t
, where
2
z
2
y
2
o
i i i + = when the
shear centre and centroid of the gross cross-section coincide. L
cr,T
is the buckling length of the
member for torsional buckling.

6.3.2 Uniform member in bending
6.3.2(3) Design buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam is
M1
y
y LT Rd b,

_
f
W M = (Equ.
6.55), where the section modulus W
y
is W
pl,y
for Class 1 or 2 cross-sections and W
el,y
for Class 3
cross-sections. The reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling (ltb) _
LT
can be determined using
Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
7
6.3.2.2 or 6.3.2.3. For both cases the non-dimensional slenderness for ltb is
cr
y y
LT
M
f W
= , where
Mcr is the elastic critical moment for ltb.

6.3.2.2.(2) M
cr
is based on gross cross sectional properties and takes into account the loading conditions,
the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints.

6.3.2.2 General case:
2
LT
2
LT LT
LT
1
u u
_
+
= 1 (Equ. 6.56), where ( ) | |
2
LT LT LT LT
2 0 1 5 0 o u + + = . . ,
and o
LT
can be the imperfection factor for curves b, c and d given in Table 6.3A.

Lateral-torsional buckling curve for cross-sections using Equ. 6.56.
Cross-section Limits Buckling curve
Rolled I sections h/b s 2
h/b > 2
a
b
Welded I sections h/b s 2
h/b > 2
c
d
Others - d
6.3.2.3 If the beam is a hot-rolled section we have
2
LT
2
LT LT
LT
1
| u u
_
+
= , but _LT s 1.0 and _LT
2
LT
1

s (Equ. 6.57), where ( ) | |


2
LT LT,0 LT LT LT
1 5 0 | o u + + = . , and
LT,0
= 0.4 and | = 0.75 (from
NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005). To make the buckling curves for welded sections the same as the
flexural buckling curves in Table 6.3A we take
LT,0
= 0.2 and | = 1.0.

Lateral-torsional buckling curve for cross-sections using Equ. 6.57.
Cross-section Limits Buckling curve
Rolled I sections and hollow sections h/b s 2
2.0< h/b s 3.1
h/b > 3/1*
b
c
d
Welded I sections (plate girders) h/b s 2
2.0s h/b > 3.1*
c
d
Angles (for moments in the major principal plane) and
other hot-rolled sections*
- d
Note: * is from NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005

6.3.2.3(2) To offer further enhancement in buckling resistance the reduction factor for ltb is modified by
f
LT
mod LT,
_
_ = , but _LT,mod s 1(Equ. 6.58), where ( ) ( ) | |
2
LT c
8 0 0 2 1 1 5 0 1 . . k . f = , but f s 1.0
and the correction factor for moment distribution kc is from Table 6.6E.







Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
8
Table 6.6E. Correction factors k
c
.
Moment distribution k
c
Moment distribution k
c
Moment distribution k
c


= 1

-1 s s 1
1.0


33 0 33 1
0 1
. .
.




0.94

0.90

0.91


0.86

0.77

0.82

NA.2.18 For buildings the recommended expression for f should be used in which k
c
is given by:

1
1
C
k
c
= where
diagram moment bending uniform a for
diagram moment bending actual the for
cr
cr
1
M
M
C =

Values of C1 are given in Table C.E.

Nominal buckling lengths L
cr
in the buckling plane considered for beam members in bending

Conditions of restraint at the ends of the beams
Buckling length, L
cr

Normal Destabilizing*
Compression
flange laterally
restrained; beam
fully restrained
against torsion
Both flanges fully restrained against rotation on plan
0.7L
0.85L
Compression flange fully restrained against rotation
on plan
0.75L 0.9L
Both flanges restrained against rotation on plan 0.8L 0.96L
Compression flange partially restrained against
rotation on plan
0.85L 1.0L
Both flanges free to rotate on plan
1.0L
1.2L
Compression
flange laterally
unrestrained;
beam free to
rotate on plan
Restraint against torsion provided only by positive
connection of bottom flange to supports
1.0L +2h 1.2L +2h
Restraint against torsion provided only by dead
bearing of bottom flange on supports
1.2L +2h 1.4L +2h
Note: L is the system length and is length of the beam between its ends. * Exist when a load is applied to
the compression flange of a beam or the tension flange of a cantilever and both the load and the flange are
free to deflect laterally relative to the centroid of the beam.

Methods to determine
LT
.
Simplified method, not requiring calculation of M
cr
. For straight segments of hot-rolled doubly
symmetrical I-sections with lateral restraint to the compression flange at both ends of the segment
considered and with no destabilising loads,
LT
may be conservatively taken as

S235 S275 S355
z
i
L
104
LT
=
z
i
L
96
LT
=
z
i
L
85
LT
=
Note: L here is the distance between points of restraint of the compression flange.

By way of the calculation of the value to M
cr.
. The elastic critical moment for ltb of a beam of uniform
symmetrical cross-section with equal flanges, under standard conditions of restraint at each end,
Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
9
loaded through the shear centre and subjected to uniform moment is
5 0
2
T
2
cr
z
2
cr
2
cr
.
z
w z
I E
I G L
I
I
L
I E
M
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
t
t
.

A generalised loading and support condition formulae for Mcr is
( )

(
(

+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
.
g
z z w
z
z C z C
I E
I G L
I
I
k
k
g
L
I E
C M
2
5 0
2
2
2
T
2
cr w
2
2
cr
2
1 cr
t
t
,
where C1 is the factor depending on the type of moment distribution and support condition.
C
2
is a factor to account for the position of the load vertically with respect to the shear centre (i.e.,
the centroid axis) and zg is the distance from the shear centre to the point of load application.
g is the correction factor for the increase resistance caused by increase curvature of the beam prior
to buckling (
y
z
I
I
g = 1 1/ ).
k is a factor for the fixity of the end rotation about the minor z-z axis, and varies from 1.0 for no fixity
to 0.5 for full fixity, and kwis a factor for the fixity of the end warping, and varies from 1.0 for no fixity
to 0.5 for full fixity. Remember that L
cr
= kL.

Removing the effects due to curvature and position of load application, the formula for a uniform
doubly symmetrical cross-sections, loaded through the shear centre at the level of the centroid
axis, and with the standard conditions of restraint (i.e., k = k
w
= 1.0) is

5 0
2
T
2
cr
z
w
2
cr
2
1 cr
.
z
z
I E
I G L
I
I
L
I E
C M
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
t
t

where C1 is determined from Table C1.E, or for end moment loading from ( = Mmin/Mmax)

2
1
52 0 40 1 88 1 . . . C + = but C
1
s 2.70 (which is for > -0.5 to = +1).

Table C.E. C1 and C2 values for different loading and support conditions
Loading and support conditions Bending moment diagram C1 C2

M M

=-0.75
2.927
= -1
2.752


1.132 0.454


1.285 1.554


1.365 0.630


1.565 1.641
L L L L


1.046

Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
10
6.2.1(7) As a conservative approximate a linear summation of the utilisation ratios of each stress
resultant may be used. Cross-sections subjected to the combination of N
Ed
, M
y,Ed
, and M
z,Ed
this
method may be applied using 1
Rd z,
Ed z,
Rd y,
Ed y,
Rd
Ed
s + +
M
M
M
M
N
N
(Equ. 6.2)
N
Ed
, M
y,Ed
, and M
z,Ed
are the design values of the compression force and the maximum moments
about the y-y and z-z axis along the member. For hand calculation; for preliminary checks.

6.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression
Members of sections with Class 1, 2 and 3, which are subjected to combined bending and axial
compression should satisfy
1 s + +
M1
Rk z,
Ed z,
yz
M1
Rk y, LT
Ed y,
yy
M1
Rk y
Ed

_

_ M
M
k
M
M
k
N
N
(Equ. 6.61) and
1 s + +
M1
Rk z,
Ed z,
zz
M1
Rk y, LT
Ed y,
zy
M1
Rk z
Ed

_

_ M
M
k
M
M
k
N
N
(Equ. 6.62)

Values for N
Rk
= f
y
A
i
, M
i,Rk
= f
y
W
i
in (6.61) and (6.62)
Class 1 2 3
A
i
A A A
W
y
W
pl,y
W
pl,y
W
el,y

W
z
W
pl,z
W
pl,z
W
el,z

For members not susceptible to torsional deformation _LT would be _LT = 1.0.

The interaction factors k
yy
, k
yz
, k
zy
and k
zz
have been derived from two alternative approaches.
Values of these factors may be obtained from Annex A (alternative method 1) or from Annex B
(alternative method 2). The preferred method for the UK is to be that given in Annex B. Not for
hand calculation; need spreadsheet.

Extracts from BS EN 1993-1-8:2005 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-
8: Design of joint
UK norm bolt is class 8.8 and only appropriate classes 8.8 or 10.9 bolts may be designed as
preloaded.

2.2 Numerical values of partial factors relevant to connections
Partial factor,
M
Part 1-8

M2
1.25

M3
or
M3,serv
1.25 or 1.1

M7
1.1
Note: NA to Part 1-8 (not published) to recommend national values.

3.6.1 Table 3.4 lists the design rules for individual bolts subjected to shear and/or tension.
For shear, the design resistance of bearing type connections is given by
M2
ub v
Rd v,

o A f
F = , where A is tensile stress area, and is As where the shear plane passes
through the threaded portion of the bolt, or is the gross cross-section area A where the shear plane
passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt. o
v
= 0.6 for class 8.8 and 0.5 for class 10.9 (but
0.5 where shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt). This resistance should
only be used when bolts are used in holes with nominal clearance (2 mm for bolt sizes to M24).

Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
11
For bearing, the design resistance is given by
M2
u b 1
Rd b,

o t d f k
F = , where o
b
is the smallest of
od;
u
ub
f
f
or 1.0. d is nominal bolt diameter do is the hole diameter for a bolt.

With reference to the figure that, for connections with more than one row of bolts, gives the
definitions to p
1,
e
1
, p
2,
and e
2
we have:

in the direction of the load transfer,
0
1
d
3d
e
= o for end bolts and 25 0
3
0
1
d
.
d
p
= o for inner bolts,
and
perpendicular to the direction of load transfer, k
1
is the smaller of
|
|
.
|

\
|
7 1 8 2
0
2
.
d
e
. or 2.5 for edge
bolts, or
|
|
.
|

\
|
7 1 4 1
0
2
.
d
p
. or 2.5 for inner bolts.

For tension, the design resistance is
M2
s ub 2
Rd b,

A f k
F = , where As is tensile stress area of bolt and k2
is 0.9, except for counter sunk bolts, where it is 0.63.

For combined shear and tension the design resistance is given by 0 1
4 1
Rd t,
Ed t,
Rd v,
Ed v,
.
F .
F
F
F
s + .

3.6.1(10) In single lap joints with only one bolt row, the bolts should be provided with washers (hardened)
under both head and nut. The design bearing resistance for each bolt should be limited to
M2
u
Rd b,
5 1

t d f .
F = (Equ. 3.2)
3.6.1(2) For preloaded bolts the design value of preload Fp,Cdis given by
M7
s ub
Cd p,
7 0

A f .
F = .
3.10.2 Block tearing
For a symmetric bolt group subject to concentric loading the design block tearing resistance is
given by
( )
M0
nv y
M2
nt u
Rd eff,1,
3 1

A f / A f
V + = (Equ. 3.9), where Ant is the net area subject to tension and
Anvis the net area subject to shear.

For a bolt group subject to eccentric loading the design block shear tearing resistance is given
by

( )
M0
nv y
M2
nt u
Rd eff,2,
3 1 5 0

A f / A f .
V + = (Equ. 3.10).

3.5(1) Table 3.3 states that for bolting the minimum end (e
1
) and edge distances (e
2
) should be 1.2d
o
. The
minimum spacing is to be 2.2d
o
.

e1
e2
p1
p2
Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures

Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010
12
References
[1] Gardner, L. and Nethercot, D. A., Designers' guide to EN 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3: design of steel
structures : general rules and rules for buildings, Thomas Telford, London, 2005.

Other useful information
Buckling curves for flexural and tosional-flexural
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
non-dimensional slender ness
R
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r

_

ao
a
b
c
d


Grade 8.8 Bolt strengths
Single bolt
Hole diameter (d0) Tensile area (As) Shear capacity Double shear Tension capacity
(mm) (mm
2
) (kN) (kN) (kN)
M12 14 84.3 30.0 59.9 45.0
M16 16 157 55.8 111.6 83.7
M20 22 245 87.1 174.2 130.7
M24 26 353 125.5 251.0 188.3
M30 33 561 199.5 398.9 299.2

Notations in British Standards and Eurocodes
Parameter BS EC3 Parameter BS EC3 Parameter BS EC3
Area of cross-section A A Axial force P N Yield stress py fy
Width of a cross-
section
B b Moment about
major axis
M
x
M
y
Major-axis second
moment of area
I
x
I
y

Depth of a cross-
section
d d Moment about
minor axis
M
y
M
z
Minor-axis second
moment of area
I
y
I
z

Height of a cross-
section
D h Shear force V V Polar second
moment of area
J I
T

Flange thickness T t
f
Elastic modulus Z W
el
Radius of gyration R i
Web thickness t t
w
Plastic modulus S W
pl
Warping constant H I
w

Root radius r r Bending strength
(ltb)
pb _LTfy Compression
strength
pc _fy
Note: Standard convention for the notation of variables is that the font is italic. This is not observed in all
part to the Eurocodes.