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I certify that the attached work is entirely my own, except where material quoted or paraphrased is acknowledged in the text. I also certify that it has not been submitted in any other unit or course.

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: ______________________________ : VIKNESH NAIR A/L M.DEVAHARAN

Collaboration Form









Page Acknowledgement 1.0 Concept of child development 2.0 Principles of Child Development 3.0 Factors That Influence Development 4.0 Cognitive development 4.1 Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years) 4.2 Preoperational stage (2-7years) 4.3 Concrete operational stage (7-11years) 4.4 Formal operational stage (11years to adulthood) 4.5 Piagets conservation task 5.0 Language development 5.1 Observation task based on Language development carried out during SBE (school based experience) 6.0 Ways a teacher can overcome cognitive and language differences in the Classroom 7.0 Implications of Child Development on Teaching and Learning ( T&L)





I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to my Child Development lecturer, Mdm. Chin for giving me a lot of support and guidelines in completing this coursework. She gave me a lot of input and information on childrens cognitive and language development. Without her help, I would not have finished this task.

I will also like to thank my fellow friends for giving me support and always being there to help me when I was doing this task. Without their help and support, I will not be able to complete this task.

Lastly, I am very grateful and thankful to my family for giving me support and always encouraging me even though they are very far away and because of all their support, I was able to complete this task with just minor problems.

By: Viknesh Nair A/L M.Devaharan

When I started doing this coursework, I faced a lot of problems but Mdm. Chin gave me a lot of guidance in completing this task. Besides that, I often discussed with my classmate about the coursework and tried to learn something new from them so that I would not make any error or silly mistakes. This was indeed an interesting assignment because we need test and observes two students based on their cognitive and language development. I did face a number of problems when completing this task. I could not fathom this task because it was very complicated and the questions were very confusing. Not only that, it was also very difficult to carry out the tests on the pupils because the environment is very noisy and since I went for my PBS at a rural school, most of the students cannot understand nor communicate in English. I had to find students who can at least read in English. Moreover, I was very tired and nearly lose my marbles because I was caught up with a lot of activities and a lot of other assignments. I had to endeavor and burn the midnight oil albeit I was very tired. I seek assistance from Mdm. Chin and I also work hard to find a lot of information about the types of cognitive and language development via the internet and library. I also seek assistance from my classmate. They have been very helpful and I was able to understand the task and the steps needed to complete it. I also manage my time by doing a simple time table which enable me to finish all my work in time. I obtained a lot of knowledge and skills after finishing this coursework and I realized that this coursework was very challenging and quite inviting to me and I am so happy that I was able to complete this coursework although it may have some minor error. Thank you.

1.0 Concept of child development

The physical and quantitative changes that occur in human beings are described as the development of the human being. The development also refers as an ongoing process which will took place beginning with the time of birth until we die. Research claims that growth and development of human beings with respect to the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes are influenced by two main factors like the heredity (genetic) factor and the environmental factor. Though physical aspects, the concept of growth identify as the growth in size, weight, teeth, sensory organ, limbs, and other physical parts of human body and development factor categories that development of skills by way of physical growth, such as walking, seeing, hearing, working and so on and so forth. By the mental aspects, the concept of growth categories that the development of human brain with increase of capability to think and the concept of development classified that the development of thinking skills such as remembering, rationalizing, analyzing, inferring, predicting, creating, problem solving and so on. On the other hand, emotion aspect consist the concept of growth says that the development in terms of feelings and expressions such as happy, sad, frighten, worry, anger ,excited, scared and so on. This aspect plays a vital role in dealing with emotions under tense or happy situation. Besides that, the expansion of communication and social circles are the characteristics of social aspect. The main skill in the development concept would be the self-adjustment in social interactions. In conclusion, The Crow and Crow (1983) say that development is the result of growth of all the aspects of individuals. Karl Garison says that development is the result of human actions which are closely inter-related to the development of physical aspects as well as learning.

2.0 Principles of Child Development

1. Development proceeds from the head downward This is named as the cephalocaudle principle. This principle explains the path of growth and development. This principle mentions that, the child gains control of the head, the arms, and the legs accordingly. By two month of birth infants will control their head and face movements. Then later, they are able to lift themselves up by using their arms. By 6 to 12 months of age, infants start to gain leg control and may be able to crawl, stand, or walk. Coordination of arms constantly precedes coordination of legs.

2. Development proceeds from the center of the body outward. This is the principle of proximodistal development that also illustrates the direction of development. This means that the spinal cord develops before outer parts of the body. The child's arms develop before the hands and the hands and feet develop before the fingers and toes. Finger and toe muscles (used in fine motor dexterity) are the last to develop in physical development. 3. Development depends on maturation and learning. Chronological characteristic of growth and development known as maturation, which provides the children new abilities. Changes in the brain and nervous system account largely for maturation. These changes in the brain and nervous system assist children to extend in thinking (cognitive) and motor (physical) skills. Also, children must mature to a certain point before they can progress to new skills (Readiness). Only at two years old, the brain has developed further and with help from others, the child will have the capacity to say and understand words. Also, a child can't write or draw until he has developed the motor control to hold a pencil or crayon. The child's environment and the learning that occurs as a result of the child's experiences largely determine whether the child will reach optimal development. A stimulating environment and varied experiences allow a child to develop to his or her potential. 4. Development proceeds from the simple (concrete) to the more complex. Children use their cognitive and language skills to reason and solve problems. For example, a preschool child will express the objects according to some property of the object, such as color. Such a response would be, "An apple is red (or green) and an

orange is orange." The first level of thinking about how objects are alike is to give a description or functional relationship (both concrete thoughts) between the two objects. As children develop further in cognitive skills, they are able to understand a higher and more complex relationship between objects and things; that is, that an apple and orange exist in a class called fruit. The child cognitively is then capable of classification.

5. Growth and development is a continuous process. As a child develops, he or she adds to the skills already acquired and the new skills become the basis for further achievement and mastery of skills. Most children follow a similar pattern. Also, one stage of development lays the foundation for the next stage of development. Infants can move their limbs (arms and legs) before grasping an object. By the age of four, most children can walk up and down stairs with alternating feet. 6. Growth and development proceed from the general to specific. In motor development, the infant will be able to grasp an object with the whole hand before using only the thumb and forefinger. Growth occurs from large muscle movements to more refined (smaller) muscle movements.

7. There are individual rates of growth and development. Each child is different and the rates at which individual children grow is different. Although the patterns and sequences for growth and development are usually the same for all children, the rates at which individual children reach developmental stages will be different. Understanding this fact of individual differences in rates of development should cause us to be careful about using and relying on age and stage characteristics to describe or label children. This dismisses the notion of the "average child". Some children will walk at ten months while others walk a few months older at eighteen months of age. Some children are more active while others are more passive. There is no validity to comparing one child's progress with or against another child. Rates of development also are not uniform within an individual child. For example, a child's intellectual development may progress faster than his emotional or social development.

3.0 Factors That Influence Development

There are many factors that influence a childs development. These factors can further develop or they can hinder this process. One major factor in the development of a child is genetics. Traits are passed to an unborn child by each parent. These traits determine the hair color, eye color, body size and build of the child. These traits also contribute to the personality and the temperament of the child. The other major factor in the development of a child is the environment in which the child grows. An environment can be helpful or harmful to a childs development. The environment in which a child develops can include living conditions and location as well as the people and things that the child comes into contact with. Family members, strangers, community, and country all play a part in a childs environment. The community environment includes neighbors, day care, school, friends, and teachers. The country in which a child grows up can influence the way in which the child develops. Each country has its own group of people, languages, cultures, and customs. Children born in different countries learn different ways in which to grow and survive. Children that are born in poverty stricken countries learn lessons that teach how to obtain food and survive. In countries that are not poverty stricken children learn how to survive through safety such as buckling their seat belts or how not to talk to strangers. The first environment a child ever known is in its mothers womb. The child develops in the mothers uterus and is protected for nine months. A mothers responsibility is to keep her body healthy to provide a safe place for the baby to grow. Smoking, drinking, and bad diet can all cause smaller or unhealthy babies to be born. These babies will usually have a harder time in developing both physically and mentally.

4.0 Cognitive development

The theory for cognitive development was created by Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980). His theory provided many central concepts in the field of developmental psychology and concerned the growth of intelligence, which for Piaget, meant the ability to more accurately represent the world, and perform logical operations on representations of concepts grounded in the world. The theory concerns the emergence and acquisition of schemata schemes of how one perceives the worldin "developmental stages", times when children are acquiring new ways of mentally representing information. The theory is considered "constructivist", meaning that, unlike natives theories (which describe cognitive development as the unfolding of innate knowledge and abilities) or empiricist theories (which describe cognitive development as the gradual acquisition of knowledge through experience), it asserts that we construct our cognitive abilities through self-motivated action in the world.. Piaget divided schemes that children use to understand the world through four main stages, roughly correlated with and becoming increasingly sophisticated with age.

4.1 Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years)

The sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages. According to Piaget, this stage marks the development of essential spatial abilities and understanding of the world in several substages: Beginning from birth to six weeks and is associated primarily with the development of reflexes. Three primary reflexes are described by Piaget: sucking of objects in the mouth, following moving or interesting objects with the eyes, and closing of the hand when an object makes contact with the palm (palmar grasp). (Gruber and Vaneche, 1977). Next, sub-stage occurs from six weeks to four months and is associated primarily with the development of habits. Followed by four to nine months and is associated primarily with the development of coordination between vision and prehension. Three new abilities occur at this stage: intentional grasping for a desired object, secondary circular reactions, and differentiations between ends and means. Eventually is associated primarily with the beginnings of insight, or true creativity. This marks the passage into the preoperational stage.

4.2 Preoperational stage (2-7years)

The Preoperational stage is the second of four stages of cognitive development. (Pre)Operatory Thought in Piagetian theory is any procedure for mentally acting on objects. The hallmark of the preoperational stage is sparse and logically inadequate mental operations. According to Piaget, the Pre-Operational stage of development follows the Sensorimotor stage and occurs between 2-7 years of age. It includes the Symbolic functioning, is characterized by the use of mental symbols, words, or pictures, which the child uses to represent something which is not physically present (concrete). Next would be Centration which means characterized by a child focusing or attending to only one aspect of a stimulus or situation. For example, in pouring a quantity of liquid from a narrow beaker into a shallow dish, a preschool child might judge the quantity of liquid to have decreased, because it is "lower"--that is, the child attends to the height of the water, but not to the compensating increase in the diameter of the container. Followed by Intuitive thought which occurs when the child is able to believe in something without knowing why she or he believes it. Rather than that, Egocentrism known as a version of centration, this denotes a tendency of a child to only think from her or his own point of view. Apart from that, the ability to arrange objects in an order according to size, shape, or any other characteristic called as Serialization. For instant, if given different-shaded objects they may make a colour gradient. These processes includes Classification, the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, size or other characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can include another. A child is no longer subject to the illogical limitations of animism (the belief that all objects are animals and therefore have feelings). Eventually, the Inability to Conserve which explained through Piaget's conservation experiments (conservation of mass, volume and number) Piaget concluded that children in the preoperational stage lack perception of conservation of mass, volume, and number after the original form has changed.

4.3 Concrete operational stage (7-11years)

The Concrete operational stage is the third of four stages of cognitive development in Piaget's theory. This stage, which follows the Preoperational stage, occurs between the ages of 7 and 11 years and is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. There are some processes in this stage as we known in the previous stage such as Decentering process, where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it. For example, the child will no longer

perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup; followed with Reversibility which means the ability that child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original state; besides that Conservation known as the understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the object or items; the ability to view things from another's perspective (even if they think incorrectly) named as Elimination of Egocentrism which explains that a child in the concrete operations stage will say that Jane will still think it's under the box even though the child knows it is in the drawer.

4.4 Formal operational stage (11years to adulthood)

The fourth and the final stage in cognitive development of Piaget's theory would be the formal operational stage. This stage, which follows the Concrete Operational stage, commences at around 11 years of age (puberty) and continues into adulthood. Lucidly, biological factors may be traced to this stage as it occurs during puberty and marking the entry to adulthood in Physiology, cognition, moral judgment (Kohlberg), Psychosexual development (Freud), and social development (Erikson). Some two-thirds of people do not successfully complete this stage, and "fixate" at the concrete operational stage.

4.5 Piagets conservation task

Conservation refers to a logical thinking ability which, according to the psychologist Jean Piaget becomes evident in children aged 7-11 during a third Concrete Operational stage of their development. It is part of Piaget's theory of cognitive development, to logically determine that a certain quantity will remain the same despite adjustment of the container, shape, or apparent size (Wikipedia, 2011). Conservation tasks test a childs ability to see that some properties are conserved or invariant after an object undergoes physical transformation, such as a row of quarters being stretched out, or a spherical lump of clay being rolled into a tube. Conservation itself is defined as: the ability to keep in mind what stays the same and what changes in an object after it has changed. The students who can conserve are able to reverse the transformation mentally and understand compensation.

1st Conservation Task- Level 1


: Muhd Nur Akmal Bin Assajawendi : 9 : 3 : Male : 121cm : 24kg : No.31, Jln Batik 3, Kampung Melayu Bekok, 86500 Bekok, Segamat. Johor. : Malay : Father- Assajawendi, pekerja kilang kelapa sawit Mother- Arina Binti Khalid, Suri Rumah

I started off by giving Akmal 2 pictures. Both pictures have a cow and 8 squares of grass and the square of grass are in a fixed position. After handing the pictures to Akmal, I asked Akmal, "Does Cow A eat more grass, does Cow B ate more grass, or do they eat the same amount of grass?" Akmal looked at the picture and said that both cows eat the same amount of grass. After Akmal had answered the question, I passed him another picture which contains a cow and 8 square of grass but the 8 square of grasses were squatted to every angle of the paper. After Akmal had seen the picture, I asked Akmal to compare between Cow A or B and Cow C. I asked Akmal, "Does Cow A/B eat more grass, does Cow C eat more grass, or do they eat the same amount of grass?" He observed both of the pictures for a while and he answered, Both cow ate the same amount of grass. Based on Piagets theory, the concrete operational stage is the third of four stages of cognitive development. This stage which occurs between the ages of 7 and 11 years is where the child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures. Akmal managed to think logically and solve the problem without any doubt or difficulty.

2nd Conservation Task- Level 2


: LISHALINI A/P DAVA DASS : 11 : 5 : Female : 145cm : 31kg : Johor Labis Estate, Health Clinic Division 2, Segamat, Johor. : India : Father- Dava Dass, Doctor, Age 32 Mother- Paramaswary , Teacher, Age 42

At the beginning of the experiment, I took out two empty glasses and filled them with water. Then, I asked Lishalini whether the water volume is more, less or same. When she said both of the water volumes are the same, I placed a round plasticine in each of the glass and asked again whether the water volume in both of the glass are less, more or the same Lishalini still gave an accurate answer which was same. Next, I took out one of the plasticine and reshaped it. I asked Lishalini whether the volume of water in both of the glass will be more, less or same if I were to put the reshaped plasticine back into the same glass. After thinking thoroughly, she gave the correct answer which is the volume of the water remains the same. She told me that the weight of the plasticine does not changes even though we reshaped it. Based on Piagets theory, the formal operational stage is the final stage of cognitive development. By this stage, he or she is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. Their ability for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult. Lishalini managed to make the right assumption because of her reasoning skills.

5.0 Language development

Like Piaget, Vygotsky (1962) was a constructivist but Vygotsky is a sosial constructivist approach which emphasizes on the social context of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction. For Vygotsky, language has a particular role in learning and development by acquiring a language, a child is provided the means to think in new ways and gains a new cognitive tool for making sense of the world. Language is used by children as an additional device in solving problems, to overcome impulsive action, to plan a solution before trying it out and to control their own behaviour (Jones, 1995). Nevertheless, the main purpose of language for children is social. They use the language to obtain the help of others and to solve problems. The child, in it process of development, begins to practice the same forms of behaviour that other formerly practice with respect to the child. The significance of such behaviour is only understood in a social context. Language is actually a tool to the child used for social interaction. The child guides personal behavior by using this tool in a kind of self-talk or "thinking out loud." Initially, self-talk is very much a tool of social interaction and it tapers to negligible levels when the child is alone or with deaf children. Gradually self-talk is used more as a tool for self-directed and self-regulating behavior. Then, because speaking has been appropriated and internalized, self-talk is no longer present around the time the child starts school. The language learning process occurs as a result of give and take. Parents and teachers usher a child through a process of guided discovery, addressing her learning potential. (Withers, 2010) Eventually, children internalize language skills. As young learners experience language development, they "can reflect better on their own thinking and behavior and reach greater levels of control and mastery over their own behavior," according to Adam Winsler, co-editor of "Private Speech, Executive Functioning, and the Development of Verbal Self-Regulation".

5.1 Observation task based on Language development carried out during SBE (school based experience)

I carried out a simple experiment to test the language development of the students, I picked the same two students, who were Akmal and Lishalini and tested them based on Vygotskys theory. I gave both of them two different text (refer appendix) and asked them to read out loud. After reading. I asked them 5 questions to see whether they understand on what they had just read, Both of them did a good job because they can read quite fluent in English. Lishalini is more fluent compare to Akmal. She told me that she had learnt English from her family, peers and friends. Her family also teaches and communicates with her in English (scaffolding). Since Akmal came from a Malay background, he doesnt speak good English and he prefersto speak in Malay. Fortunately, he is learning English with his teachers and peers. Akmal managed to read and understand the text albeit having minor problems. He also pick up this language from their peers.

Vygotsky focused more on the connection between people and the socio cultural context in which they act and interact in shared experience (Crawford, 1996). Most the students in primary school especially in rural area cannot speak in English because of the people around them does not speak in English. Vygotsky believed that the internalization of communications led to a higher thinking skills.


Ways a teacher can overcome cognitive and language differences in the classroom As future teachers, we must bear in mind that we will be teaching a lot of

students who have different cognitive and language development in the classroom. A teacher should manage and organize the class without any problems. Teachers need to divide their students into groups according to their ability so that it will be easier for teachers to carry out the teaching and learning process in the classroom. By doing this, teachers can help all the students based on their differences. Every objective can be accomplished if all the teachers understand their students. Moreover, the activities that we plan must be creative and can make the environment more alive and this will automatically attract the students attention. This will also improve their participation in every activities that are plan whether it is in or outside the classroom. Since there are differences among students, teachers need to plan and think of activities which can make sure all of the students will leant and gain knowledge instant of just focusing on the bright students. Teachers must also arrange the content of the lesson plan before entering a classroom. A well-planned lesson plan will cause enjoyment and fun in the classroom. Not to mention, students will pay more attention because it is fun and interesting. Moreover, teachers will have to take account of the level that their students that they are teaching. Teachers cannot use the technique to teach both Level 1 and 2 because t will cause confusion especially for the weak students. When a teacher is well planned, he or she is ready for anything and have the ability to teach any students who have different cognitive and language development. Not only that, teachers must also know the background of all of the students so that the teacher will know more about the students and can prepare onhow to teach them. When a teacher knows the background of the children, they will know what approaches to take to overcome their problems. Most teacher do not care about their students and do not care about the background of the child. If a teacher continues to do that, they will no understand their students and the problems will never solve.

Lastly, a teacher should also be creative and uses the perfect teaching aids to teach. In order to teach students who has different cognitive and language development, teachers need to make sure the teaching aids they use are effective and able to teach them without any problems. If a teacher is creative, they can teach any students from all walks of life and they can overcome cognitive and language differences in the classroom.

7.0 Implications of Child Development on Teaching and Learning ( T&L) Child development is a vital subjects and it is crucial for every educators to learn. When we have the understanding of child development, we will know the pschology of children. When educators have the basic knowledge on Piaget and Vygotsky theory of cognitive and language development, they will understand and know the approriate ways to teach their pupils from different ages effectively. When educators ingrained the knowledge of Child deveopment in them, they are able to understand children and will think wisely to solve problems in classroom. Not only that, educators can also undertand what is going through the mind of the pupils. They are able to delve into their heart and mind and know how to approach them and help them to improve themself. A lot of teachers nowadays are feared and hated by students beacuse they do not know how to approach them. That is why it is crucial for educator to have the basic knowlegde of Child Development so that they can approach and teach students effectively. Moreover, educators will also fathom the emotion of the childrens when they are in the classroom. It is vital for the educators to knows how to treat children emotionally. Educators are not encouraged to pay more attention to brilliant students ans ignore the weak students. They must also be fair when it comes to giving prizes and judgement. Teachers will also know how important it is to give complement to children in order to built up their self-esteem. The teacher should know it is important to be careful of what they are saying becuse students are very sensitive and emotional and a bad comment can ruin their self-esteem. Furthermore, educators can also create a lot of various activities and strategies in order to overcome cognitive and language development differences in class. If an educators have a basic knowledge of child development, they can think outof the box to create and design games and activities which are approriate to use during T&L. For example, the educators will use various strategies like story telling, simulation and so on to teach instant of using chalk and talk method. When educators uses different strategies in class, the class will be more alive and interesting.

Lastly, educators will also know how to teach and fulfill students needs without stressing themselves. All the students have different needs and ability to learn. Educators who have the basic knowledge of Child Development will know how to teach students who have different cognitive and language skills. They will not panic, foam in their mouth or beat the students if they are weak or get the wrong answers. Moreover, teachers will also know how to approach students who needs special attention especially handicaps and slow learners. They will know what methods to use during T&L and the methods will help them to teach these students effectively.


McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Child Development. Pearson International Edition (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Conservation (psychology) (2011).Wikipedia. Retrieved 11 April 2011, from

Grobman, K. H. (2008). Piagetian Thinking or Information Processing Task Analysis? Development Psychology. Org. Retrieved 11 April 2011, from

Keenan, T., & Evans, S. (2010). An Introduction to Child Development. Sage Foundations of Psychology, United Kingdom. Lev Vygotsky (2008). Retrieved 7 April 2011, from Ruffin, N. J. (2010). Human Growth and Development - A Matter of Principles. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Retrieved 10 April 2011, from Schtz, R. (2004). Vygotsky & Language Acquisition. The S&K menthod. Retrieved10 April 2011, from 10 April 2011, from

Withers, James (2010). Vygotsky and Language Development. Retrieved development.html

Language Development Task

Language Development Task

Language Development Task

Piagets conservation task- Level 1 and 2