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TASK 1: Agriculture: Agriculture, crops, natural resources and forestry


Agriculture remains central to the economy of rural areas and therefore plays a major role in all aspects of rural development. Multifunctional agricultural systems, producing food, other goods and services, are important elements in the strategy of environmental integration and sustainable development and should be fully integrated in rural development policies.

Interdisciplinary research on farming systems,


It is expected that implementation of the agro ecology concept will provide significant opportunities for smallholders and labor intensive multifunctional farming in developing countries. Many aspects of the Environment Technologies Action Plan (ETAP), the Water Initiative, the EU Biodiversity Action Plan and the Renewed Sustainable Development Strategy are supported under this sub-area. In addition the TEEB study on the "Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity" suggests that the value of preserving biodiversity from terrestrial systems will be in the order of 7% of estimated GDP in 2050. The European Council of 20 June 2008 pointed to the "need to pursue innovation, research and development of agricultural production, notably to enhance its energy efficiency, productivity growth and ability to adapt to climate change." Similar conclusions have been drawn by farm organizations and the Chambers of Agriculture.

Management and use of natural resources


Life on earth depends mainly on the good health of a superficial layer of soil and food security will be in jeopardy if the current trend in top soil erosion and fertility loss is not addressed with adequate research efforts. Erosion, loss of organic matter, compaction, Stalinization, landslides, contamination and sealing are increasingly threatening agricultural soils and a global

sustainable approach is needed to reverse this negative trend. A constant and increasing effort at EU level to support research addressing agricultural soil protection and conservation is needed. This includes research in support to the recently launched Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. Fresh water shortage is a related global problem which will be a worldwide concern over the next decades and one of the principal sources of social and political instability and conflicts in some regions. Since agriculture is one of the more water dependant sectors, research is needed to improve the efficiency of its use in agricultural production systems with the aim of decreasing consumption and pressure on fresh water reserves. These measures need to go hand in hand with efforts to maintain the water storage and conservation capacity of forests. These activities are in line with the goals of the Water Framework Directive and also the Forestry Action Plan.

Sustainable and competitive plant production including low-input


Agricultural production is undergoing major changes, having to cope increasingly with the effects of climate change and environmental degradation while at the same time having to meet the demands of an increasing world population, changing consumption patterns and new markets for bio fuels and biomaterials. The long-term viability of agriculture as a source for food, feed fiber and fuels will depend on our ability to reconcile agricultural production and environmental integrity. Research on sustainable production systems is crucial to developing the knowledge base to implement required agriculture innovations. Organic and low input farming are intrinsic to this approach as indicated in the Organic Farming Action Plan.

Increased plant resource efficiency;


Yield stability and productivity of European crops will depend upon the ability of farmers and foresters to apply effective management practices and to introduce varieties that are better adapted to biotic and a biotic stress conditions, making efficient use of available resources as indicated in the Forestry Action Plan.

Plant health & Plant protection


The work of National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) relies on scientific expertise, but the services providing this expertise increasingly lack staff, funds and training. On the one hand, the whole scientific basis of the phytosanitary field is quickly eroding. Taxonomy, classical plant pathology and other scientific fields which are vital for sustaining sound public policy are threatened with extinction, because they are no longer in the forefront of science priorities. On the other hand, the need for phytosanitary expertise, training and research is substantially and continuously increasing. New developments and new technology have to be mastered, going

far beyond existing expertise. As explained in the EPPO declaration unless urgent action is taken, indispensable expertise and scientific disciplines will irreversibly disappear, and NPPOs will be unable to carry out their duties. It is also necessary to minimize exposure to pesticides and their residues for the benefit of the environment, health and to control resistance mechanisms of pests and pathogens. In this context the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides has been developed. Sustainable ways of producing safe and quality agricultural and forest products can also be encouraged by research on durable pest control strategies. Research on alternative and innovative pest control methods and plant tolerance and resistance needs to be maintained and developed. Helping to shape the research needs in this area are a number of important EU initiatives within DG SANCO, the ERA-NET EUPHRESCO and the ENDURE Network of Excellence.

Forestry systems, production and services


Beside their production capacity within various market sectors, forests also have the potential to protect the environment and to provide a wealth of amenities such as carbon stocking, biodiversity and safeguarding habitats, soil protection, flood prevention and other environmental services, as well as social and recreational functions. Forests can deploy their full potential if they are managed sustainably and supported by a steady research effort. In this respect research and technological development, diversification and innovation are needed to ensure that the European forest sector remains dynamic and competitive. In addition promoting renewable energy sources is a key element in the European Union's energy strategy which aims at substituting 12% of Europe's total energy consumption with energy from renewable sources by 2010. The forests sector is expected to provide a significant contribution to meeting this goal. Many of these forest production and service goals are explained within networks and platforms such as the Forestry Technology Platform, the IUFRO Global network for Forest Science Cooperation, and the Forestry Action Plan.

Engineering:
With fuel prices edging skyward managers and drivers are walking an increasingly fine line to balance output with revenue. Every detail counts. Recent advances in the modern composites industry show hope of providing promising benefits to the transport industry. Manufacturers are using state-of-the-art composite panel technology to engineer a lightweight, high-strength alternative to traditional materials that go into truck building such as aluminum and steel. This translates primarily into higher payload and the potential for reduction in fuel consumption.

The technology isnt a new one though. For years composites or sandwich panels have bee n used in the manufacture of both civilian and military aircraft and more recently used in racing vehicles, ship building and even specialized architecture. A typical Boeing civil airliner may be comprised of up to 5-15% composite panel, although recently Boeing announced that the new 7E7 would be composed of up to 50% composite, making it ultra light weight while maintaining optimum durability. The success of composite technology in the aviation field has made it attractive to other industries seeking to apply the benefits. One of the more significant for the trucking profession is that core composite materials measure in much lighter than steel and aluminum with an average weight savings of up to 40% over steel and 20% over aluminum. At present, composite technology can be applied to body panels and accessories, front-end panels, floor, engine block, cargo liners, vehicle chassis, bumper beams, fuel tank supports, heat-resistant parts such as inlet manifold, cooling modules, and oil pan Heavy wood or met al decking on trailers may be replaced with sandwich panel to further shed pounds and leverage added payload and longer trailer deck life. Diversity in the materials used and in the manufacturing process enables composite panels to be fashioned into flat or curved forms that possess one of the highest strength to weight ratios of any structural material available on the market. Replacing just a class 8 sleeper box with custom manufactured composite panel technology can reduce overall vehicle weight by up to 850 pounds, effectively decreasing gross weight and fluid resistance while increasing payload. In addition to lightweight composition, the sound dampening and insulation properties create a quiet environment inside the sleeper; corrosion resistance, and overall durability are also high on the ratings scale. The panels are formed when two materials are combined to create a stronger substance than either of the two base materials on their own. The panels themselves are heated and thermo fused to the matrix or core; the matrix binds together the fibers of the stronger material, called the reinforcement. The reinforcement can be engineered from glass fiber, aramid and carbon whereas the matrix can comprise polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, or epoxy resins, as well as many light fiber materials. The separation of the skins by this low-density core increases the moment of inertia of the beam or panel with very little increase in weight, producing a highly efficient structure. Throughout the extensive use of high strength adhesives, composite panels are precisely joined together providing superior enhancements in relationship to conventional riveting or welding processes. Staying ahead from conventional practices allows the industry to perceive tangible savings linked to lower direct labor cost, tooling, equipment but mainly eliminating expensive rust and corrosion issues or claims.

Essentially the strength of the composite panel depends on its overall size, the surface material used, and the density of the cells inside it, the thicker the core, the higher the stiffness and strength of the panel. By careful selection of reinforcement, matrix and production process, manufacturers are able to produce industry specific composite panels. Composites designed for heavy commercial applications such as aircraft manufacturing, aerospace industry, oil exploration and military markets utilize high-strength, continuous fibers such as polyurethane foam or other dynamic materials to ensure a rigid panel that can withstand wear and tear due to loading stresses or mechanical strain. For low strength and stiffness or low stress applications such as automotive, marine, and industrial parts, a matrix composed of noncontinuous fibers like paper or card can be used ensuring optimum strength-to-weight ratio for the particular application. By varying composition and thickness, compressive and tensile strength and resistance to deflection keep damage from rocks and debris as well as stress in loading and unloading to a minimum. If damage does occur, panel replacement is relatively easy and affordable and can be repaired at most auto body repair facilities.

Call Centre:
Getting the just right number of people in place at the right times to handle the contacts its every call center managers dream. However, figuring out the right staffing mix to maximize service to customers, while minimizing cost, can sometimes be a nightmare. This session outlines the step-by-step approach to call center staffing. Attendees will learn about setting service goals and how to use Erlangen techniques to determine the right number of bodies in chairs. The session will also discuss the most critical staffing tradeoffs, such as cost versus service concerns, the effect on service of plus/minus one person, the impact of large groups and economies of scale, and effects of staff occupancy. All attendees will receive free QuikStaff planning software. Students will learn to: - Identify factors in setting service level goals and what factors contribute to speed of answer expectations. - Use Erlangen calculations to pinpoint staffing needs.- Identify service and cost tradeoffs and ways to improve service without adding staff. Describe the most common mistake call centers make in determining staff numbers identify ways to incorporate multi-media contacts into the staff planning process.This web seminar will be recorded and retained by The Call Center

School, LLC. Your attendance constitutes permission for the recording of your voice and comments and The Call Center Schools right to use, distribute, and copy the recording, in whole or in part, in any form or media.

TASK 2: Physical resource management


The QPS Strategic Capital Planning Committee considers the needs of internal and external clients regarding major capital works. It sets the medium and long term priorities for QPS capital works and informs the Board of Management in relation to these priorities. See page 20 for more information on the committees activities.

Logistics
Administration Division directs the management and development of administrative and logistic support. During 2009-10, procurement and logistical support was provided for the following projects:

Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) system Telecommunications interception system Public Safety Network Legacy Migration program Police link Intelligent Traffic Policing Program Smartcard Purchase of various marine vessels Purchase of an aircraft Negotiation of support and maintenance for the Electronic Document Management System.

Fleet management
Fleet Management Branch selects the most operationally suitable vehicles and develops the optimum fit-out of those vehicles for Service use. the QPS fleet currently numbers 2 316 vehicles including 97 motorcycles.

Green technology continues to be introduced with two noteworthy developments the Toyota Camry Hybrid being used as a general duties patrol vehicle and the Hyundai iLoad diesel patrol van with prisoner containment module for safe transportation. In particular, Fleet Management Branch developed eight new hybrid vehicles specifically for accompanying wide load escorts. The Australian made vehicles will incorporate a forward facing message bar for the first time to allow motorists to easily view instructions for increased safety. As part of the Governments policy, the QPS is also required to reduce its production of carbon dioxide by 10% by 2010, 25% by 2012, and 50% by 2017. Fleet Management Branch is actively pursuing this through smarter vehicle purchases and the Service has already achieved the 2010 target.

Vessel management
The Queensland Water Police are responsible for policing the states coastline and waterways, and coordinating the states search and rescue response. The Water Police fleet statewide is made up of 69 vessels, ranging from 22m Class 1 patrol and command catamarans to jet skis. These vessels are located at 21 police stations around the state. Eleven of these stations are specialist water police facilities. During 2009-10, the following activities were undertaken:

18 major projects were delivered including the replacement of 12 small vessels between 4.75 and 9m and the replacement of a number of outboards across the fleet the design was finalized for the replacement vessel for the Class 1 vessel George R Young attached to Whitsunday Water Police Station the delivery of the new Ivan Brodie 9m Tactical Response vessel for the Far Northern Region which is also capable of transporting an eight officer SERT team and two Water Police officers at 48 knots if required The major refit of the 10m police vessel D.A Shean commenced with the majority of works being managed in-house at the Marine Technical Section. Refitting this vessel inhouse provides considerable cost savings to the Service. This refit is due for completion in September 2010 and will extend the useable life of this vessel and provide more efficient and effective policing capabilities for the South Eastern Region, in particular the busy waterways of the Gold Coast.

These new vessels and outboards represent the latest in technology and will significantly improve the marine operational capability of police in areas of search and rescue, vessel interception, counter-terrorism and crime.

Aircraft
The Service currently operates six aircraft, collectively referred to as the Police Air Wing: a Cessna Citation jet and Cessna Caravan based in Brisbane, a Beechcraft B1900 and Cessna Grand Caravan based in Cairns, a Cessna Caravan based in Mt Isa and a recently purchased Britten-Norman aircraft based on Horn Island. The Air Wing provides the QPS with the capacity to rapidly deploy officers and specialist equipment to emergency situations throughout the state. It also facilitates the movement of prisoners and police officers across most of Queensland and into remote areas. QPS aircraft have assisted with search and rescue operations within the state and offshore, as well as flood relief duties in outback Queensland. The Citation Jet provides rapid and secure transport for interstate extraditions and supports the Government Air Wing on donor organ retrieval flights. During 2009-10, the Air Wing operated over 2 208 flight hours and travelled 817 086 kilometers. In addition to 24 528 kilograms of freight, the Air Wing also transported 11 908 passengers including 2 839 prisoners.

Capital Works Program


During 2009-10, capital works funding of $57 million provided for the completion and further development of a number of significant infrastructure projects to address population growth and support service delivery. Projects delivered during this time provided modern, state of the art facilities to assist frontline staff in serving the community. The projects completed include:

new or replacement police stations at Carseldine, Crestmead, Holland Park, Mareeba, Robina, Sippy Downs and Springfield, and a replacement police station and watchhouse at Ipswich new district headquarters at Coomera new Horn Island aircraft hangar new residences at Aurukun, Lockhart River and Pormpuraaw fit out of the accommodation for the North Coast Region Joint Communications Centre The refurbishment of Upper Mt Gravatt Station and the Fortitude Valley heritage listed station.

The Service has developed a program to incrementally upgrade CCTV facilities throughout the state. The upgrades of the Normanton and Cunnamulla watchhouses were completed in the 2009-10 financial year. Documentation was also completed for the upgrade of CCTV at Mackay, Mt Isa, Cairns and Maryborough watchhouses.

Major capital works projects for 2010-11 include:


completion of the replacement police station and watchhouse at Murgon completion of an upgrade of the Townsville Police Academy a replacement police station at Carina a replacement police station at Calliope refurbishment of the Richlands Watchhouse upgrade of the Burleigh Heads Police Complex refurbishment of Beenleigh Police Station; completion of the Thursday Island Water Police Office and Boat Shed fitout of the Pine Rivers District Office and upgrade to police stations at Goodna and Mackay replacement police station at Lockhart River the replacement Water Police facility for Sunshine Coast District a forensic facility for Oxley District replacement district police facility at Townsville

Westgate Academy Project


The Westgate Project is continuing work on delivering a new Police Academy on its Wacol site in 2014. The project is currently finalizing design for the Academy precinct and whole-of-site infrastructure. Renovation of the heritage listed cricket pavilion and the demolition of surplus buildings have been completed. Construction work is due to commence on the site infrastructure, including the upgrade of internal and external roads and services. Work is also scheduled to commence on the refurbishment of the remaining 12 heritage listed buildings. The Driver Training facility, including track and associated classrooms, is due for completion in September 2010. The project is on target to be completed in the 2014-15 financial year and will replace the existing campuses at Oxley, and training facilities at Mt Cotton and Chelmer.

Environmental sustainability and infrastructure


The Queensland Governments Toward Q2: Tomorrows Queensland strategy has set goals addressing current and future challenges for Queensland, including a one third reduction in Queenslands carbon footprint with reduced car and electricity use. The QPS is committed to

the reduction of emissions created by government buildings and vehicles as well as managing water consumption and waste production. The QPS has established an Environmental Governance Committee (EGC) to provide an appropriate framework to ensure the Service is aligned to the State and Federal Governments' environmental policies and targets. The QPS EGC makes recommendations to the Senior Executive and has, as its consultative body, the Environmental Management Working Group consisting of representatives from all regions, commands and divisions within the Service. The Queensland Police Service Environmental Policy provides a framework from which the Committee can develop environmental management systems and plans and forms the cornerstone of the Services response to environmental management.

Energy
The Queensland Police Service Strategic Energy Management Plan (SEMP) has been developed to guide the way we manage the departments future energy consumption so that we can meet the objectives of the State Governments Strategic Energy Efficiency Policy for Queensland Government Buildings. This policy requires the Service to achieve a 5% energy reduction by 2010 and a 20% saving by 2015. With the completion of the initiatives outlined in the table below, the Service will have achieved an 8.2% reduction in energy consumption (based on the 2005-06 baseline). The SEMP outlines the use of the Built Environment Material Information Register to record and report on energy consumption and to identify poorly performing facilities. This strategy will enable the Queensland Police Service to meet the 2015 energy savings target.

Water
The QPS is committed to the Government Buildings Water Conservation Program (Water Smart Buildings) which aims to reduce water consumption by at least 25%, primarily in new and existing government commercial buildings. Our commitment is demonstrated by the adoption of and compliance with the Water Efficiency Management Plans (WEMP) in South East Queensland. This plan provides long-term efficiencies and savings for identified police stations and facilities. Water saving strategies include:

recycling water in air conditioning cooling towers in Police Headquarters educating staff to raise the awareness of water conservation

reviewing the way water is used and recycled quarterly reporting on water consumption against WEMP targets Regular maintenance and inspections of water supply equipment and associated devices.

Waste
The Queensland Police Service Waste Management Strategic Plan (WMSP) focuses on the Governments waste management hierarchy of waste avoidance, reuse, recycling, en ergy recovery from waste and disposal. This focus highlights the strong and growing commitment the Service has to reducing the amount of waste created, ensuring efficient use of resources and encouraging recycling of resources. Waste management strategies being implemented by the Service include:

Battery recycling within Police Headquarters in partnership with an external provider. This process is currently being examined for adoption within regional areas. Recycling RBT mouthpieces the current breath testing mouthpieces are manufactured from 100% polyethylene and can be recycled in the same manner as other domestic plastic materials such as milk and soft drink bottles.

Greenhouse gas emissions


The QPS is committed to supporting the Queensland Governments Toward Q2: Tomorrow's Queensland target to cut Queenslands greenhouse gas emissions by one third by 2020. This commitment includes implementation of the Government's climate change and other environmental strategies such as the ClimateQ: toward a greener Queensland strategy. Six gases have been identified under the Kyoto Protocol as the main greenhouse gas emissions that need to be reduced. The gases are carbon dioxide, hydro fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxides, per fluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. As part of standard emission measurement practices these gases are mainly reported as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-e). The Queensland Government has established minimum greenhouse gas emissions reporting requirements for departments covering their main greenhouse gas emitting business activities, namely those linked to (i) vehicle use, (ii) electricity consumption and (iii) air travel. These activities are sources of both direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions.

TASK 3:
Humans are an organization's greatest assets; without them, everyday business functions such as managing cash flow, making business transactions, communicating through all forms of media, and dealing with customers could not be completed. Humans and the potential they possess drive an organization. Today's organizations are continuously changing. Organizational change impacts not only the business but also its employees. In order to maximize organizational effectiveness, human potential individuals' capabilities, time, and talent must be managed. Human resource management works to ensure that employees are able to meet the organization's goals. "Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations. It is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise" (Cherrington, 1995, p. 5). There are seven management functions of a human resources (HR) department that will be specifically addressed: staffing, performance appraisals, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee and labor relations, safety and health, and human resource research. Generally, in small organizations hose with fewer than a hundred employees here may not be an HR department, and so a line manager will be responsible for the functions of HRM. In large organizations hose with a hundred employees or more human resource manager will coordinate the HRM duties and report directly to the chief executive officer (CEO). HRM staff in larger organizations may include human resource generalists and human resource specialists. As the name implies, an HR generalist is routinely involved with all seven HRM functions, while the HR specialist focuses attention on only one of the seven responsibilities. Prior to discussing the seven functions, it is necessary to understand the job analysis. An essential component of any HR unit, no matter the size, is the job analysis, which is completed to determine activities, skills, and knowledge required of an employee for a specific job. Job analyses are "performed on three occasions: (1) when the organization is first started, (2) when a new job is created, and (3) when a job is changed as a result of new methods, new procedures, or new technology" (Cherrington, 1995). Jobs can be analyzed through the use of questionnaires, observations, interviews, employee recordings, or a combination of any of these methods. Two important tools used in defining the job are (1) a job description, which identifies the job, provides a listing of responsibilities and duties unique to the job, gives performance standards, and specifies necessary machines.

STAFFING
Both the job description and the job specification are useful tools for the staffing process, the first of the seven HR functions to be discussed. Someone (e.g., a department manager) or some event (e.g., an employee's leaving) within the organization usually determines a need to hire a new employee. In large organizations, an employee requisition must be submitted to the HR department that specifies the job title, the department, and the date the employee is needed. From there, the job description can be referenced for specific job related qualifications to provide more detail when advertising the positionither internally, externally, or both (Mondy and Noe, 1996). Not only must the HR department attract qualified applicants through job postings or other forms of advertising, but it also assists in screening candidates' resumes and bringing those with the proper qualifications in for an interview. The final say in selecting the candidate will probably be the line manager's, assuming all Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) requirements are met. Other ongoing staffing responsibilities involve planning for new or changing positions and reviewing current job analyses and job descriptions to make sure they accurately reflect the current position.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS
Once a talented individual is brought into an organization, another function of HRM comes into play eating an environment that will motivate and reward exemplary performance. One way to assess performance is through a formal review on a periodic basis, generally annually, known as a performance appraisal or performance evaluation. Because line managers are in daily contact with the employees and can best measure performance, they are usually the ones who conduct the appraisals. Other evaluators of the employee's performance can include subordinates, peers, group, and self, or a combination of one or more (Mondy and Noe, 1996). Just as there can be different performance evaluators, depending on the job, several appraisal systems can be used. Some of the popular appraisal methods include (1) ranking of all employees in a group; (2) using rating scales to define above-average, average, and belowaverage performance; (3) recording favorable and unfavorable performance, known as critical incidents; and (4) managing by objectives, or MBO (Mondy and Noe, 1996). Cherrington (1995) illustrates how performance appraisals serve several purposes, including:(1) guiding human resource actions such as hiring, firing, and promoting; (2) rewarding employees through bonuses, promotions, and so on;(3) providing feedback and noting areas of improvement; (4) identifying training and development needs in order to improve the individual's performance on the job; and (5) providing job related data useful in human resource planning.

COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS


Compensation (payment in the form of hourly wages or annual salaries) and benefits (insurance, pensions, vacation, modified workweek, sick days, stock options, etc.) can be a catch-22 because an employee's performance can be influenced by compensation and benefits, and vice versa. In the ideal situation, employees feel they are paid what they are worth, are rewarded with sufficient benefits, and receive some intrinsic satisfaction (good work environment, interesting work, etc.). Compensation should be legal and ethical, adequate, motivating, fair and equitable, cost-effective, and able to provide employment security (Cherrington, 1995).

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Performance appraisals not only assist in determining compensation and benefits, but they are also instrumental in identifying ways to help individuals improve their current positions and prepare for future opportunities. As the structure of organizations continues to changehrough downsizing or expansionhe need for training and development programs continues to grow. Improving or obtaining new skills is part of another area of HRM, known as training and development. "Training focuses on learning the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required to initially perform a job or task or to improve upon the performance of a current job or task, while development activities are not job related, but concentrate on broadening the employee's horizons" (Nadler and Wiggs, 1986, p. 5). Education, which focuses on learning new skills, knowledge, and attitudes to be used in future work, also deserves mention (Nadler and Wiggs, 1986). Because the focus is on the current job, only training and development will be discussed. Training can be used in a variety of ways, including (1) orienting and informing employees, (2) developing desired skills, (3) preventing accidents through safety training, (4) supplying professional and technical education, and (5) providing supervisory training and executive education (Cherrington, 1995). Each of the training methods mentioned has benefits to the individual as well as to the organization. Some of the benefits are reducing the learning time for new hires, teaching employees how to use new or updated technology, decreasing the number and cost of accidents because employees know how to operate a machine properly, providing better customer service, improving quality and quantity of productivity, and obtaining management involvement in the training process (Cherrington, 1995). When managers go through the training, they are showing others that they are taking the goals of training seriously and are committed to the importance of human resource development.

The type of training depends on the material to be learned, the length of time learners have, and the financial resources available. One type is instructor-led training, which generally allows participants to see a demonstration and to work with the product first-hand. On-the-job training and apprenticeships let participants acquire new skills as they continue to perform various aspects of the job. Computer-based training (CBT) provides learners at various geographic locations access to material to be learned at convenient times and locations. Simulation exercises give participants a chance to learn outcomes of choices in a nonthreatening environment before applying the concept to real situations. Training focuses on the current job, while development concentrates on providing activities to help employees expand their current knowledge and to allow for growth. Types of development opportunities include mentoring, career counseling, management and supervisory development, and job training (Cherrington, 1995).

EMPLOYEE AND LABOR RELATIONS


Just as human resource developers make sure employees have proper training, there are groups of employees organized as unions to address and resolve employment-related issues. Unions have been around since the time of the American Revolution (Mondy and Noe, 1996). Those who join unions usually do so for one or both of two reasonsto increase wages and/or to eliminate unfair conditions. Some of the outcomes of union involvement include better medical plans, extended vacation time, and increased wages (Cherrington, 1995). Today, unions remain a controversial topic. Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, the closed-shop arrangement states employees (outside the construction industry) are not required to join a union when they are hired. Union-shop arrangements permit employers to hire nonunion workers contingent upon their joining the union once they are hired. The Taft-Hartley Act gives employers the right to file unfair labor practice complaints against the union and to express their views concerning unions (Cherrington, 1995). Not only do HR managers deal with union organizations, but they are also responsible for resolving collective bargaining issuesamely, the contract. The contract defines employment related issues such as compensation and benefits, working conditions, job security, discipline procedures, individuals' rights, management's rights, and contract length. Collective bargaining involves management and the union trying to resolve any issues peacefullyefore the union finds it necessary to strike or picket and/or management decides to institute a lockout (Cherrington, 1995).

SAFETY AND HEALTH


Not only must an organization see to it that employees' rights are not violated, but it must also provide a safe and healthy working environment. Mondy and Noe (1996) define safety as "protecting employees from injuries caused by work-related accidents" and health as keeping "employees free from physical or emotional illness" (p. 432). In order to prevent injury or illness, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was created in 1970. Through workplace inspections, citations and penalties, and on-site consultations, OSHA seeks to enhance safety and health and to decrease accidents, which lead to decreased productivity and increased operating costs (Cherrington, 1995). Health problems recognized in the workplace can include the effects of smoking, alcohol and drug/substance abuse, AIDS, stress, and burnout. Through employee assistance programs (EAPs), employees with emotional difficulties are given "the same consideration and assistance" as those employees with physical illnesses (Mondy and Noe, 1996, p. 455).

HUMAN RESOURCE RESEARCH


In addition to recognizing workplace hazards, organizations are responsible for tracking safetyand health-related issues and reporting those statistics to the appropriate sources. The human resources department seems to be the storehouse for maintaining the history of the organizationeverything from studying a department's high turnover or knowing the number of people presently employed, to generating statistics on the percentages of women, minorities, and other demographic characteristics. Data for the research can be gathered from a number of sources, including surveys/questionnaires, observations, interviews, and case studies (Cherrington, 1995). This research better enables organizations to predict cyclical trends and to properly recruit and select employees.

CONCLUSION
Research is part of all the other six functions of human resource management. With the number of organizations participating in some form of international business, the need for HRM research will only continue to grow. Therefore, it is important for human resource professionals to be up to date on the latest trends in staffing, performance appraisals, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee and labor relations, and safety and health issuesboth in the United States and in the global market.

TASK 4: MANAGING PHYSICAL RESOURCES


Workers who compose his crew(s), their personalities, and their capabilities. Knowing the skill levels of the various craft workers, and knowing which workers are most proficient and most productive at which tasks, factor into the supervisors decisions regarding work assignments. In addition, matters of workers personalities and disposition, and who gets along well with whom, as well as which crew members make up the best teams, in accord the information provided in Chapter 5, are also important elements of the supervisors consideration. Manpower management also means that the supervisor is responsible for upholding all company policies among all of the members of the workforce. Matters such as punctuality, and behavioral considerations, as well as discipline and reprimand as may be necessary, are matters among many others that the supervisor is responsible for. The supervisor must be well acquainted with the provisions of his companys policies and procedures, and must be willing to consistently apply those policies among all of the workers in the craft labor force. The supervisor is also charged with keeping job site records relative to the members of the workforce. Throughout this book the importance of proper documentation has been repeatedly emphasizedit is a fundamental and absolutely vital supervisory responsibility. Time cards will be completed daily by the supervisor for each craft worker who performs work on the project on that day. In addition to recording the actual number of hours worked by each craft worker, the supervisor will enter the appropriate labor cost codes for each element of each workers labor on that day. Further consideration of this topic is provided in Chapter 13. Additionally, the supervisor will maintain a job log, where he will make entries on a consistent daily basis, which relate to all of the workers on the project. The name of everyone who was present on the job site on each day is recorded in the job log. These entries are accompanied by notes regarding matters such as training conducted, injuries that a worker may have suffered, the occurrence of near misses, warnings, disciplinary actions taken, and a myriad of others. Any and all occurrences on the job site that affect any member of the craft labor workforce are recorded by the supervisor on a daily basis in the job log. While the supervisors responsibilities relative to the job log are di scussed more fully in Chapter 18, as well as in other portions of this book, the summary guidance that is provided here is: any matter which the supervisor thinks may be important relative to anyone who worked on the job site on a particular day should be recorded in the job log. Some supervisors have been heard to say, How do I know whether a certain matter is important enough that I should write it

down? The best guidance is: if the supervisor asks that question with regard to any matter, then likely the matter is of sufficient importance to merit being recorded, accurately and completely, in the job log. The job log is considered to be the primary record of everything that takes place on a construction project.

MANAGING MANPOWER
The talented and skilled people who build construction projects are the most valuable, and the most variable, and the most complex resource that the supervisor manages. These people compose the labor force on a construction project, and the wages they earn constitute the labor costs for the project. As has been noted previously, labor costs are a significant fraction of the total cost of performing every construction project. On building construction projects, labor costs typically are 50 percent or more of the total cost of the project.

TECHNICAL SKILLS
The effectiveness with which a supervisor manages the craft labor workers who perform the skilled work to construct the projects will have an enormous impact upon the success of those projects and, therefore, will in large measure define the effectiveness and the success of the supervisor. Managing people in the workforce entails the application of conceptual or human relations skills. These skills are decidedly different from the skills that most supervisors learned when they worked as craftsmen. Supervisors do well to understand that the longer they remain in a supervisory capacity, and the further they advance in management, the less they will rely upon their technical or craft skills and the more important their human relations and conceptual skills will become.

MANAGING MATERIALS
It is a fundamental and unchanging principle for the supervisor: having the proper materials the right materials, in the right condition, in the right quantity, in the right place, at the right timein order for the craft workers to be able to conduct their assigned work, is a basic responsibility of the supervisor. While others in management may provide assistance and input to the process, the supervisor should never lose sight of the fact that this is fundamentally his responsibility.

It is the expectation of the craft workers that when they are assigned a task by the supervisor, the correct materials will be on hand for the completion of that activity. If not, time is wasted, and, in addition, the workers become frustrated and demotivated. Their morale declines, and productivity suffers, and the supervisors stature diminishes.

In addition to all of these unpleasant and costly results, if the proper materials are not available for the performance of an assigned task, it follows by definition that craft workers will need to be reassigned to other work. This occurrence is itself costly, and additional time and energy are wasted and productivity suffers further.

Employee Performance UNDERSTAND


Your ability to perform effectively in your job requires that you have and understand a complete and up-to-date job description for your position, and that you understand the job performance requirements and standards that you are expected to meet. Your supervisor should review your job description and performance requirements with you. Performance Review Process Performance reviews typically take place annually, but can be scheduled more frequently. Performance review processes vary depending on whether your appointment is as classified or professional staff. For classified staff covered by a labor contract, the contract establishes the performance review process requirements. The following table provides links to information about the performance review process and a summary of some information about the process. You and your supervisor use the annual performance evaluation to: Summarize an overall assessment of how work has gone over the previous 12 months; Identify goals that have been met and those where additional effort may be required; Determine whether your job description and competencies accurately reflect the reality of the position, and make updates as necessary; Identify performance, achievement and/or development goals for the upcoming year; and Gather input before the review is finalized.

Performance That Does Not Meet Requirements


Sometimes an employees performance will not be consistent with the requirements of the position. If this happens, and normal coaching, counseling and/or training do not bring performance to an acceptable level, a supervisor may use the corrective action process to help constructively bring an employees performance to an acceptable level. The Universitys corrective action process implements progressively more formal counseling, feedback, and goal setting.

ACT
Make sure you understand: The job duties you are expected to perform; Your supervisors expectations for your job performance; and The performance review process that will be used for your position.

Talk to your supervisor if you are unsure of the work that you are expected to perform or the standards you are expected to meet in order to gain a better understanding of his or her expectations. If there are things you think you need help with to be successful, discuss them with your supervisor. These could be instructions, training, support/cooperation from coworkers, etc. Throughout the year, you and your supervisor should discuss your work and address any issues that may be affecting your job performance. If you are experiencing challenges in your work that you cannot resolve on your own, seek your supervisors feedback and assistance. Depending on your career goals, discuss opportunities to enhance or expand skills. Prepare for your performance review by: Documenting your accomplishments and how you did in relation to any goals that were established for your position; Noting any classes you have taken, or personal study in which you engaged, to build your skills; Reviewing how you did in relation to deadlines that may have been established for your work.

Use the conversation with your supervisor to set goals that are as specific, measurable, and realistic as possible. Also consider how you might want to progress in your job and the skills you would like to develop. Your performance review is a good time to discuss skills development and possible job progression opportunities. The review should be completed, reviewed, and signed by the employee and supervisor. If you have a question or concern about your performance evaluation, ask your supervisor during the evaluation process.

EXPLORE
UW Human Resources offers information to help you improve your job performance. Use Professional & Organizational Development programs and services to enhance your skills through quarterly courses, certificates, career counseling, and more. Explore UW Care Link, the UW employee assistance program, if you have personal or family concerns that may be affecting your job performance.

Effective use of human and physical resources:


This activity is carried out through a process of cross-function or cross-departmental working. Staff from different sections of a business come together to identify and address issues related to the company's logistics, employee relations, stakeholder engagement and organizational development. Staff are recruited to meet demands of the organization and often a team leader is selected to co-ordinate objectives, e.g. to set and meet achievable goals. Team performance is monitored in bite sizes to keep abreast of developments. Team members will liaise with other departments to avoid the silo effect form of productivity, i.e. to keep in the loop of events in the business environment. Some organizations make a series of strategic senior hires to effect particular objectives, e.g. a company may employ a senior manager to handle IT strategy formulation and implementation. This action is intended to encourage competition and increase productivity. All the data created or generated will be stored up as intellectual property and perhaps legal steps will be taken to protect material, e.g. designs and text. The information will have come from a range of individuals who have come together as a group to provide accumulated experience and skills. For instance members of a Board may have worked within the organization over a series of years in different roles.

Other areas of physical resource include maintenance of a company's building and facilities, e.g. an organization may need to employ a policy and/or compliance officer to write and maintain a register of clear concise and easy to use documents as required by service operations of the business and government standards.

Recommendations to improve performance & efficiency


In a previous post we covered What do performance appraisals accomplish?. That post discussed the perceptions that managers and subordinates have on the performance appraisal regarding what functions are fulfilled. It highlighted the contrast between intention and actual usage. Below are more in-depth recommendations to improve the effectiveness of performance appraisals. Recommendations: Make sure mgrs and subordinates understand the appraisal system: The appraisal system should be explicitly described specific to the purpose of the appraisal. Organizations that clearly state the purpose for the appraisal reduce the confusion and ambiguity of the process. The goal should be that everyone knows why you are conducting appraisals. Think of it as purpose and procedure training. Assess the effectiveness of your current system: What are the intended functions of the current system? Recall that in What do performance appraisals accomplish?, managers and subordinates agreed that the system uphold some functions while falling short in other functions. Additionally, managers and subordinates have different needs. Identify them, and construct a questionnaire to assess the degree to which org members perceive the process to be effective. Only then is the organization in position to develop a strategy to address shortcomings. Appraisal skills training for your managers are a must: It can reasonably be concluded that the ability of the supervisor to skillfully appraise his/her subordinate is critical to an effective appraisal. Training must focus on helping managers develop specific appraisal skills and confidence in their ability to effectively evaluate others. Skills should include (each of these could be a book on their own): Goal setting Communicating performance standards Observing subordinate performance Coaching and providing feedback

Completing the rating form Conducting the appraisal review

Increase managers willingness to conduct effective appraisals Primary causes of appraisal ineffectiveness fall squarely on the managers shoulder. Its the harsh truth, but organizations should take more steps to facilitate. Offer refresher trainings, or training on the skills mentioned in the previous bullet. In short, arm or prepare managers to best carry out effective appraisals. Start with effective performance planning Planning is required to set the stage for effective appraisals. The majority of subordinates cited unclear performance standards as a cause of ineffective appraisals. Meaningful and accurate evaluation and feedback requires clear goals be established beforehand. Therefore a large part of the process should be devoted to determining what actions need to be taken in the future. It is harder to correct the results of poor planning than it is to plan correctly at the beginning. Make informal appraisals ongoing activity Annual appraisals are only as effective as what happens during the rest of the work year. Managers can increase the effectiveness by scheduling periodic, informal appraisals with subordinates on a regular basis. Mini-appraisals encourage honest communication, give the manager an opportunity to monitor employee progress, provide employee with an ongoing source of feedback, and address minor problems before they build or snowball. This can be difficult to maintain throughout the year as workloads pile up. However, when systems and structures are put in place, they can help ensure commitment to ongoing activity. Heres how Point to Performance can help. Provide resources necessary to link pay to performance Linking rewards to performance appraisal results has been found to be one of the most unclear and controversial issues. However, this value proposition or selling point is frequently made for the appraisal. Few managers and subordinates believe the system effectively linked pay to performance. When the following happens, the system will be viewed as a sham.

Changes in pay drive ratings instead ratings driving pay Does not allow for differentiation among various levels of contribution to the organization

When this happens, appraisal process loses its ability to have a positive effect on employee motivation instead creates a lack of trust in the appraisal process, which can undermine the potential for the system to effectively fulfill other functions. In short, define performance and contribution and reward them. Use Anniversary dates to stagger appraisals Conducting appraisals can be burdensome. Not only do managers have project or client work to do but also the administrative and internal work. To provide managers time to conduct more effective appraisals, encourage the staggering of appraisals throughout the year. This reduces the difficulty of managers having to conduct numerous appraisals in condensed period, which is a serious threat to the effectiveness of the process. What have we learned from this performance appraisal review? Using a feedback structure, heres what we can take away: STOP: assuming they are motivational or lead to performance or better relationship between the manager and subordinate, dwelling on negatives. START: involving employees more into the process, evaluating the actual process/system, giving feedback more often. CONTINUE: clarifying performance and goals, getting input from employees about their job, discussing employee development.