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Chapter 3


3.1 Cell Division.

Chromosomes. are the nucleus of a cell contains many small thread-like structures. made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein. contain hereditary material called genes. the nucleus of each organisms cell contain chromosomes which always exist in pairs (except in gametes). example : a human has 23 pairs of chromosomes. in each pair of chromosomes, one chromosome inherited from the father and one from the mother. all somatic cells of the same type of organisms have the same number of chromosomes. by determining the number of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell, the type of organism can be known. Genes. are hereditary material or heritable characteristics located on chromosomes. is a DNA unit which functions to code the heritable characteristics. example : passes on hereditary information from one generation to another. exist in pairs. one gene is inherited from the father and one from the mother. genes determine characteristics like body height, hair colour, fingerprint, and appearance.

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Relationship between gene, chromosome, and DNA. Human built of Cells containing Chromosomes containing of

Characteristics in human determining

Genes forming

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Type of Cell Division. the processes of reproduction and growth of any organism involve cell division there are two types, which is : mitosis meiosis Mitosis

is a cell division process which takes place only in somatic cells. for plants, it occurs at the tip of the root and shoot. through mitosis, each daughter cell contains the same number of chromosomes, and thus the same genes, as the parent cell. the importance of mitosis : a) forms new cells for growth b) forms new cells to replace cells or tissues which are damaged or have died. c) enables hereditary material in parent cell to be passed on to daughter cells. d) enables asexual reproduction in some organisms.

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the process of cell division to produce gametes with half of the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. occurs only in the reproductive organs. occurs in the testis of a male and the ovary of female who have attained sexual maturity. meiosis also occurs in the anther and ovary of plants. meiosis causes variation among species of the same organism. this is because the chromatids overlaps with one another and the exchange of genetic material (chromosomes and genes) takes place. this occurrence is called crossing over. exchange of genetic material among chromatids during crossing over produces a combination of new genes in gametes. this process causes genetic variation. this also explains why children that are born to the same parents show different characteristics. the importance of meiosis : a) ensures that the number of chromosomes is diploid in the zygote when the nucleus of sperm fuses with the nucleus of an ovum during fertilisation. b) combination of different chromosomes and crossing over which occur causing variation to take place in the next generation.

Comparison between meiosis and mitosis Similarities chromosome replication takes place call division occurs new cells are produced Meiosis During the formation of gametes Differences When this process happens Mitosis During the formation of somatic cells

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Testes and ovaries Anther and ovary Twice Occurs during the first cell division only Four

Where this process happens in animals Where this process happens in plants Number of cell division Replication Process Number of daughter cells produced Number of chromosomes in daughter cells compared to those in parent cell Genetic make-up in daughter cells compared to those of parent cell Crossing Over

Somatic cells Tip of the root and shoot Once Occurs




Different Happens

Same Doesnt happen

3.2 Principles and Mechanism of Inheritance. Dominant genes and recessive genes. gametes involved in fertilisation contain chromosomes, chromosomes are made up of DNA molecules, certain segments in the DNA are made up of genes, these genes are responsible for traits. examples of traits passed on from parents are skin color, hair color, blood group and height. genes that exist in pairs in chromosomes control the characteristics inherited from the parents. there are two types of genes : Dominant genes are genes which show the characteristics that they control when paired with a dominant gene or a recessive gene. Recessive genes are genes which only show the characteristics that they control when these genes are paired Page with 4 another recessive gene.

the characteristics determined by this genes are called dominant traits. dominant traits are shown if one or both dominant genes which control the particular characteristics are present. human traits controlled by this genes tall, curly hair, free ear lobe, black hair, able to roll the tongue, dimples, long eye lashes, righthanded, pigments in skin, black or brown iris, normal eyesight

the characteristics determined by this genes are called recessive traits. recessive traits are only shown if the recessive genes are not paired with dominant genes.

human traits controlled by this genes short, straight hair, attached ear lobe, blond hair, unable to roll the tongue, no dimples, short eye lashes, lefthanded, albino, blue iris, colourblindness

dominant genes are represented by the letter T. recessive genes are represented by the letter t.

Mechanism of trait inheritance. the studies of Gregor Mendel on the pea plant can explain trait inheritance in organisms. Mendel cross-bred tall pea plats which were pure breed with short pea plants which were also pure breed.
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he found that all pea plants in the first generation were tall. the tall pea plants in the first generation were then cross-bred among themselves. Mendel found that three quarters of the pea plants in the second generation were tall and one quarter of them short. in this experiment, only one trait inheritance is studied, hence, that inheritance is called monohybrid inheritance. genotype refers to the genetic make-up of an organism. phenotype refers to the physical appearance which can be seen in an organism. example, if a tall person has a TT gene, he is said to have TT genotype and shows tall phenotype. organisms in the first filial generation, F1, are called hybrids. a hybrid contains a dominant gene and recessive gene. ex : impure breed (Tt) combination of gametes at the first filial generation, F 1, can be shown in the Punnett Square. Gen TtttT t Punnet square tall plant (pure breed) dwarf plant (pure breed) x tt all plants in the first filial generation, F1, are tall (100%) this situation shows that tall trait is controlled by the dominant gene while short trait is controlled by the recessive gene. ratio of plants that are tall to dwarf plants are 3 : 1. probability of obtaining tall plants in the second generation is 75% while the short plants is 25%. T TT t Tt

Parents Meiosis Gametes Fertilisation First filial generation First filial generation Meiosis Gametes Fertilisation Tt T T


Tt tall plant Tt (hybrid) tall tall Tt x

Tt tall

tall plant Tt (hybrid) tall Tt


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Second filial generation





3.3 Sex Determination and The Occurrence of Twins in Human Beings. Sex Chromosomes a human somatic cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes). from the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are autosomes and one pair is sex chromosomes. sex chromosome determine the sex of a person. male sex chromosomes are XY. male somatic cell contains 22 pairs of autosomes with one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. 44 + XY in meiosis, a male produces two types of gamete which : o carries 22 autosomes and one X chromosome. 22+X o carries 22 autosomes and one Y chromosome. 22+Y female sex chromosome is XX female somatic cell contains 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes. 44 + XX in meiosis, a female gamete only carries 22 autosomes and one X chromosome. 22+X Sex Determination. the sex of child is determined by the father according to the type of sperm that fertilises the ovum. if a sperm that carries o the x chromosomes fertilises an ovum, a baby girl is born. o the y chromosomes fertilises an ovum, a baby boy is born. the probability of having a male child or female child is the same> 50 : 50 Parents
44 + XY

44 + XX

Meiosis Gametes Fertilisation Offspring

44 + XX 44 + XX 44 + XY 44 + XY 22+ X 22 + Y 22 + X 22 + X

female 50

female :
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male 50


Occurrence of twins. in humans, normally one ovum fertilised by one sperm to form one zygote which will develop to form an embryo. sometimes more than one embryo is produced in a pregnancy. twins - two babies born to a mother in a pregnancy and generally at the same time. - there are two types of twins identical twins non-identical twins Comparison between identical and non-identical twins. Similarities two babies born in a pregnancy Differences Differences Formation Identical Twins Formed when an ovum fertilised by a sperm divides into two to form two similar embryos. The two embryos formed will grow in one shared placenta in the mothers uterus. Same genetic make-up. Therefore, identical twins have the same appearance and the same sex. The sex of identical twins are the same. Non-identical twins Formed when two ova are released by the ovary at the same time and fertilised separately by two sperms to form two different embryos. The two embryos formed when grow in separate placentas in the mothers uterus Different genetic make-up since they originate from two different ova and sperms. Therefore, non-identical twins have different appearances. The sex of non-identical twins may be the same or different.


Genetic make-up


sometimes the division of the embryo is not complete, therefore Siamese twins are formed. Siamese twins may share certain organs like brain, stomach, or heart and maybe joined to one another at the head, abdomen, breast, or buttocks.

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they can be separated by surgery if they do not share important organs like brain, heart, kidneys, or lungs.

3.4 Mutation is the spontaneous change to the structure of genes or chromosomes of an organism. causes change of characteristics in a child. occurs in somatic cells or in gametes. the effect of mutation will be inherited by one generation to another. there are two types of mutation gene mutations chromosome mutations Gene Mutations involve changes in the structure of gene. gene mutations change or produce the new genes to replace normal genes. genes that have undergone mutation are called mutants. Heredity disease caused by gene mutation Albinism Brief explanation Sickle cell anaemia Colour-blindness Haemophilia albinisms is caused by the change in the gene that controls skin colour. the newly produced genes are unable to produce skin pigment. the skin and hair of albinos are white and their eyes are pink. sickle cell anaemia is a type of disease caused by the change in the genes that produce haemoglobin. haemoglobin that has undergone mutation is not efficient in transporting oxygen. is a sex-linked disease determined by a recessive gene on the X chromosome. a colour-blind person cannot see or differentiate the colours red and green. caused by the deficiency if a type of protein in the blood required for blood clotting. haemophilia is caused by the deficiency of a type of protein in the blood required for blood clotting. haemophilia is a sex-linked disease determined by a recessive gene on the X chromosome.
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a patient who has wound will experience continuous bleeding or will take a long time for the blood to clot thus this condition way lead to death.

Chromosome Mutations involve changes in the number of chromosomes or arrangement of genes in chromosomes. sometimes, a portion of a chromosome may break away and go missing, or become attached itself to other chromosomes. this causes the arrangement of a chromosome to change and differ from normal. the number of chromosomes can be increased or decreased chromosome mutations can cause hereditary diseases like Downs syndrome, Klinefelters syndrome, and Turners syndrome. Downs syndrome o this heredity disease is caused by the presence of one extra chromosome at chromosomes 21 in the somatic cells. o incomplete separation of chromosomes during meiosis causes the zygote to have an extra chromosome : 47 in total. o characteristics of a downs syndrome patient : i. slanting eyes ii. metal retardation iii. short fingers iv. wide distance between eyes v. small mouth but big tongue vi. protruding tongue causing the mouth to remain partially open Klinefelters syndrome o a person who suffers from this hereditary diseases has one extra X chromosome : XXY Turners syndrome o a person who suffers from this hereditary lacks one X chromosome. o people with Turner;s syndrome have only one sex chromosome which is XO. Factors that cause mutation. i. mutation can occur naturally, caused by substances found in food or environment. ii. agents causes mutations are called mutagens.

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iii. chemical substances like pesticides, nicotine in cigarettes, drugs, nitrous acid and some preservatives, colouring and artificial sweetener can cause mutation. iv. radiation radioactive radiation can cause mutation gamma ray can affect growth and cell division ultraviolet rays and X-ray rays can cause skin cells to mutate and this may cause cancer v. temperatures which are too high or too low can also cause mutation. Advantages and disadvantages of mutation. not all occurrences of mutation bring adverse effects to organisms. advantages of mutation mutation causes variations in organisms which allow them to adapt to the environment. species that are more resistant to disease, weather, and polluted environment can be produced. disadvantages of mutation some mutations cause diseases like colour-blindness and haemophilia cannot be cured. sometimes, disease like haemophilia and sickle cell anaemia can cause death. Klinefelters syndrome causes infertility. mutation causes physical, mental, or foestus retardation. 3.5 Effects of Genetic Research on Human Life. 1. Research in genetics has contributed greatly to medicine and agriculture. 2. In medicine, genetic research has helped to identify various hereditary diseases and ways to prevent those diseases. 3. In agriculture, genetic research aims at : improving the quality of breeds through selective breeding bringing in new species with higher resistance to diseases or pests obtaining the production of large quantities of crops and livestock in the shortest time. Medicine. most of the hereditary diseases like colour-blindness, haemophilia and albinism are caused by recessive genes. genetic research can tell us how albinism caused by recessive genes an autosomes is inherited.

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several types of recessive genes that cause hereditary diseases are only found in the X chromosome. (such genes are called sex-linked genes) such genes are normally passed down by females who are the carrier to their children. colour-blindness and haemophilia are example of hereditary diseases caused by sex-linked genes in humans. a female can only suffer from colour-blindness if she has both recessive genes of this characteristics. a male will suffer from this diseases if he has one recessive gene. these are genes which are present in the X chromosomes but not in the Y chromosomes. Aa x Aa

Parents Meiosis Gametes Fertilisation Genotype of Offspring AA A

Aa normal but is a carrier

Aa normal but is a carrier

aa albino

Characteristics of normal Offspring

inheritance of albinism in humans Parents Meiosis Gametes Fertilisation Genotype of Offspring XX XXb normal girl but is a carrier XY XbY X Y X Xb XY x XXb

normal Characteristics of girl Offspring

normal boy colour but is a carrier -blind boy

inheritance of colour-blindness in humans

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hereditary diseases like Downs syndrome can be identified on the foetus in the mothers womb. foetal cells in the mothers amniotic fluid are examined under a microscope. if 47 chromosomes are observed in the foetal nucleus, the foetus is proved having Downs syndrome. today, genetic engineering enables the transfer of DNA or genes from one organism to another.

Agriculture. selective breeding is done on crops and livestock. plants or livestock are cross-bred from different varieties to produce new varieties which have the desired characteristics. Type of crop Paddy Oil palm Maize Papaya Parent plant PETA from Indonesia and DGWG from China Pisifera with dura Sweetcorn from Taiwan and Mexico Hybrid IR-8 Tenera Masmadu Characteristics of hybrid Bear more fruits, ripen faster and are more resistant to dry season Bear more fruits and have thinner shell with more content Fruits are sweeter, bigger, and more resistant to disease and dry season Fruits are sweeter and have more content

Subang 6 and Exotica Sunrise Solo from Hawaii examples of selective breeding in crops Parents Fresian and local

Type of livestock Cow Cow Goat Sheep


Characteristics of new breed New breed produces more milk and are more adaptable to the change in the environment Female cow and male wild New breed (selembu) that ox grows faster and produces better quality Jumnapari goat from India New breed that can produce and local goat more meat and milk Sheep from Australia and New breed (Malin-X) is bigger local Malin in size, matures faster, supplies better quality meat and wool Imported and local New breed that grows and

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kampung chicken matures faster examples of breeding in livestock techniques of artificial insemination and embryo transfer are used in crossbreeding artificial insemination good quality semen from the male animal is placed into the body of the female animal for fertilisation embryo transfer an embryo of a good breed is placed into the uterus of a female animal

Genetic engineering.

Genetic Modification

Advantages Body health food containing certain nutrients required by the body can be produced. Better quality crops and livestock better quality of crops and livestock can be produced. quantity can be increased. crops and livestock that grow faster can be produced.

Disadvantages Nutritional value of food generically modified food may not have the same nutritional value. Effect of new genes new genes in food may be transferred to the human body. such genes may affect the functions of human cells.

Long-term effect new species of crops and livestock which Conservation of environment adapt better to the change in the the use of pesticide can be reduced with environment might cause authentic the production of crops which have high 3.6 Variation Among Living Things. species to become extinct. resistance to diseases or pests. variation is the differences in the characteristics which exists among individuals of the same species there are two types of variation : continuous variation discontinuous variation Continuous Variation. refers to characteristics which do not show obvious variation in a trait among individuals of the same species. has continuous intermediate range between two extremes. examples of continuous variation are :

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i. height ii. body weight iii. intelligence iv. skin colour v. width of shoulder vi. length of sole continuous variation can be shown by a histogram

number of students

body weight Discontinuous Variation. discontinuous variation refers to characteristics which shows obvious and definite variation in a trait among individuals if the same species examples of discontinuous variations are : i. blood group ii. fingerprint iii. ability to roll the tongues iv. ear lobe v. left-handedness vi. presence of dimples discontinuous variation can be shown by a bar chart number of students

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blood groups

Factors that cause variation. there are 2 factors which cause variation : genetic factor environmental factor Importance of variation. 1. Variations which exist among the same species are important for the formation of new species. Besides this, variations enable us to distinguish individuals in the same species. 2. Variations enable newly produced species to adapt themselves better to any changes in the environment. 3. In plants, features of variation like resistance to pathogens, enable the plants to grow rapidly and reproduce quickly.

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