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Chapter 11 - Civil War

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1.

"Border States"

Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware remained in the United States during the war; continued to have slavery Union commander at Fredericksburg. Order his troops across the field to Marye's Heights where the Confederate troops were well-fortified. Removed from command after the battle Take the Confederate capital of Richmond, blockade Southern trade, and seize control of the Mississippi River Place where the war finally ends. Lee surrenders to Grant. His men are starving and are outnumbered, 5-1. While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865. Confederate troops head north to PA. Stopped near Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, MD. Bloodiest single day in American History. Actually three battles...one in a corn field, the sunken road, and the bridge over Antietam Creek. North "victory" because they stopped the Southern advance. Both sides suffer huge casualties. Union leader Joe Hooker divides his army, hoping to surprise Lee from the rear. Lee expects it. Stops the Union advance. Then, orders his troops to the rear of the UNION forces. Surprises them. Outnumbered 2-1, Confederates route Union. Lee's greatest victory of the war. Major Union defeat in 1862. Ambrose Burnside (Union) lost 12,000 men as he charged up hill towards Robert E. Lee's forces. 3-day battle that would turn the war; South would never again invade the North; huge casualties on both sides;severely weakened Lee's army; South would no longer have a legitimate chance to "win." Lincoln gave it after Antietam; all slaves in states that were in rebellion against the United States were now free; more symbolic first major battle of the Civil War. Made both sides realize the war was not going to be as short and decisive as they first believed.

12.

Fort Sumter

Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War; 4 more states secede appointed by Lincoln to head the Union army towards the start of the Civil War; was replaced and reinstated numerous times; criticized for moving very slowly Union commander that was a good planner, but a horrible battlefield commander. Was fired twice by President Lincoln. The last time was after Antietam. Ran for President against Lincoln in 1864 Battle of iron ships. Monitor (Union) made completely of iron. Marrimack (Confederate) was a wood ship with iron plates on it. Battle was essentially a draw. elected Confederate President new bullet created before the Civil War, led to a high number of casualties during the war used as a major advantage by the Union during the Civil War to move troops and supplies Leading General of the Confederacy. Led the South to many unexpected victories even though they were outmanned and under-supplied. to formally leave a group; as in Confederate States leaving the United States William T. Sherman's plan to demoralize the Confederates;September 1864 ~ took Atlanta; tore up rail lines, destroyed crops, burned and looted towns for 300 miles from Atlanta to Atlantic coast; wanted to show southerners how horrible war was General Lee's "right-hand man". Led Confederates to victories at First and Second Bull Run and Chancellorsville. Was shot by a Confederate guard after Chancellorsville. Died of pneumonia. At the beginning of the conflict, the one distinctive advantage the South had was that they had superior leaders like Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson a device or system that uses electric signals to transmit messages by a code over wires; used by Lincoln to control Union war efforts Most successful Union commander. Won big victories in the Western theater of the war from 1861-63. After the fall of Vicksburg, Lincoln brings him east to defeat Lee. Accepts Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse.

2.

Ambrose Burnside

13.

General George McClellan George McClellan

14.

3.

Anaconda Plan

4.

Appomattox Courthouse Assassination of Lincoln

15.

Ironclads

5.

16.

Jefferson Davis Minie Ball railroads Robert E. Lee secession Sherman's Total War

6.

Battle of Antietam

17.

18.

19.

20.

7.

Battle of Chancellorsville

21.

8.

Battle of Fredericksburg

22.

Stonewall Jackson

9.

Battle of Gettysburg

23.

Superior Military Leadership telegraph

10.

Emancipation Proclamation

24.

25. 11.

First Bull Run (Manasses)

Ulysses S. Grant