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Introduction

Dr. Roy Beadle taught English in Northern Canada and South Korea. He is a licensed teacher and
used an old typewriter to make the original book. It is designed to provide a foundation for
those who need remedial foundational help in English. It is NOT an ESL book. Volume 1 is
designed to start with the basics and build toward more complex phrases. Each part of the
sentence is dealt with individually. Building from the smallest part to the more complex allows
for the student to make their sentences longer for better communication. Volume II is about
usage and is more complicated.
Dr. Paul R. Friesen is a pastor, teacher, and counsellor, by education. He has taught ESL in South
Korea for over ten years. He published his own ESL book, Making Conversation Work You. This
can be bought through any online bookstore, or from the publisher directly. A teachers copy is
available, as well as a student workbook. Support files can be found online at
makingconversationworkforyou.com and makingconversationworkforyou-teacher.com.
Dr. Friesen redesigned this book to reflect a 3D style of learning. 3D means three dimensions of
processing of what is learned. The first dimension is technical. Technical means the real
basics of English. Though most students already know this, it is a good review as you build to
more complex ideas. It also involves identifying the basics. The second dimension is practical.
Practical is the development of writing skills as they rewrite their sentences in each lesson. The
third dimension is functional. Functional in this system is deductive thinking. This is found
when the students write their reasoning behind why they think a part of speech is what it is.
Students should take turns reading their reasoning aloud in class.
Therefore, the 3D system will improve, the students identification of each part of speech, but
the reasoning behind them. Strengthening the students deductive thinking will play a vital part
in test scores, writing better essays in higher grades, and communicate better all around.

How to use this book


First, as a teacher you should work through the simple grammar notes in the beginning of each
section. There are explanations for graphing and other teaching tools which need to be
understood.
Second, have each student start the worksheet sentences, in class. Starting in class is important
so that you can see if each student understands what to do.
Third, after the students finish the work assigned, have them stand and read their reasoning.
The second volume is about usage. It builds on what the student learned in this book. For those
students who need to write better, this system is of great help. Work at a comfortable speed.
Working too fast makes the learning cumbersome and hard. In tests done with elementary
students, the confidence gains were demonstrated after a very short time.

Expanding grammar to writing


As this idea developed, the challenge was to move it forward into more than grammar. In order
to do this, I tested the idea with a Korean teacher, in a private language school. The students
were elementary students. Though they tested higher in I.Q. their English level was not at an
equal level. At any level most grammar classes are tedious.
The system designed by Dr. Friesen is project oriented. This is defined when students will
prepare a project that demonstrates their ability to function and move to a next level or a
different direction. In designing the program choices are the carrot. The choices will allow the
student to develop their strengths in writing, presentation, or debate. All these areas require
writing. Writing requires a good foundation of grammar.
Ms. Hyun Ju Sung and I developed the following strategy. As you work through this book,
section by section. She took sentences from the sections and expanded them to include
different tenses. This was followed by asking the students to list all the sentences with the
same tense. Following this exercise the student were then told to put them in a sequence of
events. They do not always fit but that is where the creativity is needed, creativity being the
backbone of the process to success. Filling in the gaps to make a paragraph.
With the understanding that paragraphs should be focused on one (1) topic and one (1) tense,
this exercise will strengthen this understanding. Develop a set of about 4~5 tenses per section.
Ms. Sung used the sentences in the sections she taught. Creativity and flexibility of storytelling,
combined with grammar and story development can create exciting essays. Firming up this idea
will help students develop a self-check method in later writing challenges.

An Example

(From Ms. Sungs Playbook)

These sentences are found in the first sections of this book. They are just listed
to reflect the same ideas. There are too many for one paragraph, with the same
tense. When using a list like this, with a lot of present tense sentences, have the
students put the ideas into an action sequence, followed by two (2) or three (3)
paragraphs. The goal is to create first an understanding of story movement.
Second, it is to affirm the understanding that each paragraph should have one
tense. Third, to allow the student to be creative, while at the same time
affirming the students grammar learning.
Step 1 Make a list
I go to the game every day.
I went to the game.
John goes to the game every day.
John went to the game last night.
They went to the game two days ago.
She waits for us.
She is waiting for us.
She was waiting for us.
She waited for us.
She has waited for us.
Each boy has a pencil.
Each boy had pencils.
Every boy has a pencil.
All boys have a pencil.
All boys had a pencil.
I want a hat.
She wants a hat.
I wanted a hat.

Step 2

He wanted a hat.
All the boys wanted a hat.
I enjoy the pancakes.
Jim enjoys the pancakes.
Mary enjoys the pancakes.
We enjoyed the pancakes.
All of them enjoyed the pancakes.
That girl is my friend.
The boy is my cousin.
Those girls are his friends.
This lady is my sister in law.
This gentleman is my father in law.
Your coat is on a hanger.
Your hat is near the door.
The car was on the street.
My friend is next to Paul.
My shoes are under the table.

The Present Tense

I go to the game every day. She waits for us. Each boy has a pencil. All boys have a pencil.
I want a hat. She wants a hat. I enjoy the pancakes. Jim enjoys the pancakes. Mary enjoys the pancakes.
That girl is my friend. Those girls are his friends. Your coat is on a hanger. Your coat is on a hanger.
Your hat is near the door. My friend is next to Paul. My shoes are under the table. Your hat is near the
door. This lady is my sister in law. This gentleman is my father in law. The boy is my cousin. My friend is
next to Paul. My shoes are under the table.

Step 3 Sequence selection


The time to do this can be extensive. It would be a wise decision to have the
students do this as a homework assignment. It can be very intense. The object of
this exercise is to have students begin to see ideas as more than just sentences,
but a part of larger idea, just out of order. To make a story or paragraph, students
need to develop a more global view of what they read and speak. As an ESL class,
this is vital to their acceleration in acquiring the target language.
The previous list of sentences has now been separated into same ideas. The first
is about a game, or clothes. I have highlighted the pronouns. Putting these
together will help the student develop a good idea of the action sequence. In a
later step the student will combine sentences, and this will be of great help, as
they can see the repetition, and then fix the repetition.
. I go to the game every day. I want a hat. My shoes are under the table. She wants a
hat. She waits for us. Your coat is on a hanger. Your hat is near the door.
. I enjoy the pancakes. Jim enjoys the pancakes. Mary enjoys the pancakes.
. Each boy has a pencil. All boys have a pencil.
. This gentleman is my father-in-law. This lady is my sister-in-law. Those girls are his

friends. That girl is my friend. My friend is next to Paul. The boy is my cousin.

Step 4 Creating the story


This gentleman is my father-in-law. This lady is my sister-in-law. Those girls are his friends. That
girl is my friend. The boy is my cousin. My friend is next to Paul. I enjoy the pancakes. Jim enjoys
the pancakes. Mary enjoys the pancakes. I go to the game every day. I want a hat. My shoes are
under the table. She wants a hat. She waits for us. Your hat is near the door. Your coat is on a
hanger. Each boy has a pencil. All boys have a pencil.

Step 5 Filling the gaps


In this section the student has put the sentences together in a time sequence. The
gaps between ideas needs to be filled in. Keep the present tense. There are four
(4) major ideas. Therefore, you have three (3) gaps to fill. I have highlighted them.
The gap sentences provide a reason for the following collection of sentences:
. breakfast and pancakes
. Saturday and game
. keep score and pencil.
This gentleman is my father-in-law. This lady is my sister-in-law. Those girls are his friends. That
girl is my friend. The boy is my cousin. My friend is next to Paul. I like breakfast. I enjoy the
pancakes. Jim enjoys the pancakes. Mary enjoys the pancakes. Saturday is always special. I go
to the game every day. I want a hat. My shoes are under the table. She wants a hat. She waits
for us. Your hat is near the door. Your coat is on a hanger. I need to keep score. Each boy has a
pencil. All boys have a pencil.

Step 6

Combining the ideas

When you combine, you take out the repetition and add small words and
punctuation. You will find that adding connector ideas will help students link
their story together. Dr. Roys Grammar Volume II has punctuation in it for
reference. Using the basic ideas of punctuation is easy. Using conjunctions is a
bit more difficult, especially for Koreans, because they are not easily used in
their first language. This step will help develop this inherent weakness, and
develop a better self-correction skill in the student.
Going to the game
This gentleman is my father-in-law, and this lady is my sister-in-law. Those girls are his friends
and that girl is my friend. My friend is next to Paul. The boy is my cousin. I like breakfast before
I go to the game. Jim, and Mary, and I enjoy the pancakes. Saturday is special, because I always
go to the baseball game. I need to keep score. Each boy has to have a pencil. Do all the boys
have a pencil? She and I want a hat. Your hat is near the door and your coat is on a hanger. My
shoes are under the table. Hurry! She waits for us. We do not want to be late!

Step 7 From One to Five


Going from one (1) short paragraph story to a short essay is not hard. You still
have sentences left to use. Follow steps 1~6 for each set of sentences, revise the
story as you go. You already have the core sequence. As you develop the story use
the theme, of your core sequence, to build a longer essay. In each section of the
grammar book you will focus on the different parts. Your story will use these
ideas. The grammar structure will fit, and the development of creative thinking
will happen. Students can develop their contextual thinking, allow for faster
reading, stronger critical thinking, and the result can be better
presentation/debate skills.
This is just the beginning. Utilizing a 3D model in your lesson will move the
student, from the technical structure of grammar, to a creative functional
understanding to be used in other areas of the life and continuing personal
development.
I have tried this idea with a mixed group of low level students and common
grammar books used in South Korea. New ideas are stressful, but they caught on
quickly. We made eight paragraphs which made a nice basic story. With more
time to follow the idea, developing an introduction and conclusion could easily be
added.

Table of Contents
Introduction
How to use the book
Expanding grammar to story-making
An Example

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7

(From Ms. Sungs Playbook)


Make a list
The Present Tense
Sequence selection
Creating the story
Filling the gaps
Combining the ideas
From One to Five

Part 1
Nouns
The Basic Sentence
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6

Basic Sentences
Identifying Determiners
Identifying Nouns
The plural endings of Nouns
The possessive ending of Nouns
Noun suffixes

Summary of Noun Signals

Unit 8
Unit 9
Unit 10
Unit 11

Identifying subject pronouns


Identifying object pronouns
Determiner or indefinite pronoun
Determiners or Demonstrative Pronoun

Part II
Verbs
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5

Identifying
Identifying
Identifying
Identifying
Identifying

Verbs (1)
Verbs (2)
Verbs (3)
Verbs (4)
Verbs (5)

Part III
Prepositions
Unit 1
Unit 2

Identifying Prepositions
More about Prepositions

SUMMARY

Part IV
Adjectives and Sentence Patterns
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3

Identifying the Adjective


The Predicate Noun pattern
The Direct Object pattern

10

Unit 4
Unit 5

The Indirect Object pattern


The Adverb pattern

Summary of sentence patterns


Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9

When Linking Verbs Dont Link


Adverbs modifying verbs
Adverbs modifying adjectives
Adverbial Nouns (PATTERN)

Part V
Adjectives and Sentence Patterns
Section 2
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9

Adjective position
Noun adjunct or appositive
Degree with Adverbs and Adjectives
Adjective or Adverb
Functions of Nouns
Summaries of form class clues
Contrasting forms
Contrasting forms (2)
Contrasting forms (3)

Summary of Adjectives

11

Part VI
Transformations
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9
Unit 10
Unit 11
Unit 12
Unit 13
Unit 14
Unit 15
Unit 16

Forming the question sentence


Forming the negative sentence
Forming the "THERE" sentence
Forming the interrogative pronoun sentence
Forming the passive sentence
Forming the deletion sentence
Forming the possessive sentence
Summary of Transformation Sentences
Forming compound subjects
Forming compound verbs
Forming compound direct objects
Forming compound indirect objects
Forming compound objects of a preposition
Forming compound sentences
Forming conjunctive adverbs
Forming compound sentences without conjunctions

Part VII
Phrases and Clauses
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5

Phrase or Clause
Complex sentences
Complex sentences 2
Sentence Signals Quiz
Adjective or Adverb clause

12

Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9
Unit 10

Adjective modifiers
Simple, Compound, or Complex
Summary
Forming noun clauses
More noun clauses

Part VIII
Identifying and Expanding
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9
Unit 10
Unit 11
Unit 12

Identifying infinitives
Infinitive phrases
Identifying participles
Participial phrases
Identifying gerunds
Gerund phrases
Identifying verbals
Expanding the simple subject (1)
Expanding the simple subject (2)
Expanding the Predicate
Summary
LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGY

Answers
The Complete Set

13

14

Part 1
Nouns

15

16

To the student,
This book begins with fairly easy lessons, and each succeeding one will add
information or become a little more difficult. You and your classmates should try to
complete as many units as you can in a class period. When there are instructions to
learn a list of words, you must be sure that you master them perfectly because they
will help you understand a language problem. Remember that the words are only
examples and that usually there are more like them.

17

18

The
Basic Sentence

19

20

Unit 1

Basic Sentences

Note:
A basic sentence is a statement that has two parts, a subject and a predicate.
Here are some examples. You will note that in these basic sentences the subject will

always come first.

Note:
Basic sentences are not questions, commands, or exclamations.
Subject

Predicate (verb)

Girls
The girls
That boy
Each bird

play.
play quietly.
hit the ball.
ate some seeds.

Subject
Our
He
She
We

Predicate
house

was painted.
likes
waited for us.
ate the

candy.
apples.

A subject = the focus of the sentence


= always a noun ~ person, place or thing.
The predicate = the action words that the subject or object does
that affects the subject or object.

21

Directions:
Identify the subjects in the sentences below by drawing a vertical line
between them and writing sub for subject over the subjects.
Identify the predicates by writing pred for predicate

over the predicates.


The first sentence is marked for you along with a recommended recitation. This
procedure will be followed in most of this book.
sub.

I pred.

The boys tried hard.

Example- ~
The boys = the subject and tried hard = the predicate.

Try Some More

sub. I pred.

sub
pred.
2. My father cut the grass.
___father / cut the grass
Speaking = My father = the subject and cut the grass = the predicate.
3. He waved to me.

__________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
4. A pencil lay on the desk.

__________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
5. John went to the game.

__________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
6. The fire scorched the earth. __________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________
22

7. Each boy had a pencil.

___________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________

8. I wanted a hat.

___________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
9. Our camp was in the woods. __________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________
10. They lit the lamp quickly. ___________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________
11. His house is up the street. __________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________
12. Jim enjoyed the pancakes. ___________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________
13. Many friends met at the concert. _______________
Speaking =____________________________________________________
14. Dogs bark.

__________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
15. This house is very dark.

__________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
16. Jerry has given me his pencil. _________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________

23

17. That boy is my friend.

__________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
18. Some days seem very long. _________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________
19. She cried easily.

__________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
20. A lamp stood on the desk. __________________
Speaking =____________________________________________________

Tell the class about each sentence.

How did you do?

24

Unit 2 Identifying Determiners


In this book, we shall use basic sentences to help us identify different classes of
words.

Determiners

belong to the first group we shall study.

us that the word following = a noun. This is true

Determiners

tell

only in basic sentences.

Example ~
D noun
The man gave me a pencil.

D noun

The man gave me a pencil.

A determiner is a word like ~ the ~ or ~ a ~ in this sentence.

Memorize
Learn the determiners below and be prepared to write them when your teacher
tells you.

They are in alphabetical order.

any

few

many

one

the

those

all

each

her

my

our

their

your

an

either

his

neither

some

these

its

no

that

this

another every

25

Directions:
In the sentences below, write a CAPITAL D for determiner
are from the list above.

over

the words that

Write a CAPITAL N for noun over the word that follows the determiner. The
first sentence is done for you along with the recommended way to tell the others how
this works.

Example ~
D N
D N
A door opened to the hall.

1. A door opened to the hall.


Speaking: A

= a

and

determiner

and

door a noun. The = a determiner

hall a noun.

You Try Some More


2. Each girl seemed happy.

_________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

3. An apple stood on the table.

________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. Your hat is near the door.

________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. Their ideas are good.

________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

26

6. These flowers smell good.

________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
________________________

7. Our school is new.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8. My brother told the story.

________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. Your coat is on a hanger.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

10. My car went into the ditch.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

11. That girl gave me an apple.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. Either road will do.

________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. An orchard produced the fruit. _______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. Its tail was a stub.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

27

15. Those deer are on the road.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

16. Our plans were very detailed.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
_______________________

17. Any idea will help.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
18. Those girls helped my mother.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

19. Each camper took his tent.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

20. The men wanted every board. _______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

21. All men are created equal.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

22. Another boy took her book.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

23. Their book had many pictures. _______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

28

24. Neither boy wanted any help.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

25. Her hat was on a hook.

_______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Homework
Directions
In the spaces below, write some short sentences and identify the determiners
and nouns,

_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
29

Unit 3 Identifying nouns


Look at the sentences below.
D N
The boy was happy.
In the last unit we learned that the in this position = a determiner.
The word boy = a noun because of its position after the determiner
the.
Again, this occurs only in basic sentences.

Example ~
N
Milk tastes good.
In this sentence,

milk = a noun because of its position as the subject

of the

sentence.

The point to remember is that all nouns do not have determiners before them.
There are many words that can be substituted for milk as the subject of this sentence.
How about candy, bread, sugar, corn, cereal, apples, etc.? These words are called
nouns.

Directions
In the sentences on the next page, write a capital

D over the determiners and a capital

N over the nouns. If a word occupies the position of the subject of the sentence and has no
determiner before it, label it as a noun.

30

Example ~
D
1.

Their pencils were on the floor.

Speaking:

Their pencils were on the floor.

Their = a determiner and pencils a noun. The = a determiner and


floor a noun.
N

John hid behind the tree.


Speaking:

John hid behind the tree.

John = a noun because of its position as the subject of the sentence.

The = a determiner and tree = a noun.

You Try Some More


3. My father came to our picnic.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. Trees give us some shade.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
5. Many parks are quite clean.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. The game was a pleasure.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
7. Jim ran down the street.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8. The men did their work.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

31

9. Susan hid behind a tree.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

10. A rock rolled down the hill.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

11. Each day gives us some fun.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. Cars sped down the road.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. A weasel crossed the creek.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. His cat chased the dog.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

15. My ball hit a window.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

16. Tom lay inside our hammock. ______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

17. Their cabin was among the trees. ____________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

18. Your dog ran after the rabbit. ______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

32

19. People stood quietly.

______________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

20. Every lamp stood on the floor. _____________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Directions
In the spaces below, see how many words you can substitute for trees in this
basic sentence. These words will be nouns.
Trees

grow a little

each day.

grow a

little

each

day.

grow a

little

each

day.

grow a

little

each

day.

grow a

little

each

day.

grow a

little

each

day.

grow a

little

each

day.

grow a

little

each

day.

33

34

UNIT 4 The Plural Endings of Nouns


There are other markers, or signals for nouns.
Note: Plural = more than one and Singular = one.

Example ~
D

The boys were happy.


The s on boys is a signal for the plural ending of not only boys but most nouns.

Examples: does, houses, farms, cars, books, etc.


D

Their losses were many.


The es on losses is also a signal of many nouns. Nouns ending in h, x, z, also a
signal for the plural end, and ~ form their plural by adding es to the singular.

Examples: wish ~ wishes, church ~ churches, tax ~ taxes, waltz ~ waltzes.


D N
The oxen pulled hard.

The en on oxen also indicates the plural ending of a noun.


D N
D N
The deer grazed on the hill.

Nouns like deer are said to have zero endings because they do not change their form
from the singular.

Note: There are a few nouns that form their plural by internal change within the word.

Example: foot ~ feet; mouse ~ mice; man ~ men.

35

Directions
In the sentences below, underline the plural endings like s, es, or en to help you
identify nouns. Write D for determiner and N for noun.

Example ~
N
D N
Benches were stacked in the hall.

1. Benches were stacked in the hall.


Speaking: Benches = a

plural noun because of its es ending.

Hall = a singular noun

because of the determiner before it.

You Try Some More


2. Dogs and cats are our pets.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

3. The boxes lay on the floor.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. Lilies bloomed in the valleys.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. Cows ate with the calves.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. The nights were long.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

7. The boys served the food.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

36

8. The women enjoyed the waltzes.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. Some flies were on the tables.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

10. The axes stood in the corner.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

11. My teeth were clean.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. Mary gave it to the children.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. Classes passed in the hall.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. The sheep are in the pasture.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

15. Churches are built yearly.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

16. The men are the bosses.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

17. His wishes came true.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

18. Some ladies are waiting.

__________________________________________

37

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

19. John surrendered to his enemies.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

20. The citizens paid the taxes.

__________________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Directions
In the spaces below, write sentences illustrating the s, es or en plural endings. Label the
determiners and nouns.

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
38

UNIT 5 The Possessive ending of Nouns


An apostrophe () or an apostrophe- s ('s) is a signal of the possessive ending of nouns. The
words are then called possessive nouns.
Possessive means ownership.

ExamplE ~
The dog's paw was injured.
Singular

dog's is a possessive noun.

Plural Singular Possessive Plural Possessive A possessive noun

boy

boys

boy's hat

man
child

men
man's coat
children child's doll

boys' hats
men's coats
children's dolls

signals another
noun.

In the sentence, The dog's paw was in the noun paw.

The possessive noun dog's signals injured.

Directions
Identify the determiners and nouns in the sentences below.
Write Poss. N over the possessive nouns.

Example ~
D N Poss.N

1. The boys tore Bill's shirt.


The boys tore Bill's shirt.
Speaking: Boys = a noun because of the determiner the. Bill's = a possessive
noun because of the apostrophe - s, and shirt = a noun signaled by the
possessive noun Bill's.

39

You Try Some More


2. John's sister came with us.

___________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

3. The men's hats were brown.

____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. Explorers' maps are available.

____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. Joe pulled the pony's mane.

____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. The class read Dickens' prose.

____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

7. The mothers' tea lasted long.

____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8. Tim's pencil is on the desk.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. Each class read the author's book.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

10. Some men pushed Jim's car.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

40

11. Our home is near Jack's house.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. Any boy would like Tom's bike.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. That animal is Joan's cat.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. Sally's picture is on the wall.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

15. The man's wife is here.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

16. Some girls rode in Jerry's boat.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

17. My father borrowed Tom's ladders.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

18. Harry's brother came with the men.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

19. The children's wagons were on the street. _______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

20. Our plans are based on Jack's ideas.

______________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

41

Your Turn
In the spaces below, write sentences which include possessive nouns. Label all determiners and nouns.

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

Read your sentences!

42

UNIT 6

Noun Suffixes

Suffixes endings like dom, ness, and ism are added to words and are also
signals of nouns.

Example ~
kind-kindness ~ king-kingdom ~ commune communism
Learn the suffixes below as noun signals.
Americanism

age

shortage

ist
er

artist
teacher

ful
ment

spoonful
judgment

ness

likeness

dom

kingdom

ance
ster

remembrance
)
youngster

hood
ence

manhood
difference

ism

Directions
In the sentences below,
- - look for the suffixes above and underline them.

label the determiners and nouns.

D N
Poss.N
N
The man prepared Jim's state ment.

1. The man prepared Jim's statement.

Speaking: Man = a noun because of the determiner the. Jim's is

a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s, and statement


is a noun because of the ment suffix,

43

You Try Some More


2. The singer pleased nearly everyone.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

3. The author was a humorist.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. The Russians practice Communism.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. His weakness is evident.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. The preacher was very unhappy.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

7. Some differences are obvious.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8. His criticism seems unjust.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. The soldiers were terrorists.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

10. The argument appeared useless.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

44

11. Some people appreciate your kindness. _____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. Those officers caught the gangster.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. My assistant will help you.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. The man is a pantomimic.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

15. Some annoyances bother the boys.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

16. His neatness was appreciated.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

17. Her sister ate a spoonful.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

18. Your judgment will help the plan.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

19. The girls studied our government.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

20. One difference seemed clear.

_____________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

How are you doing?

45

You Try
In the spaces below, write some basic sentences in which you try to use some of the suffixes

above. Label all determiners and nouns.

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
_______________________________________

How are you doing?

46

Summary
Noun Signals

47

What did we learn?


?
1. In basic sentences only, determiners tell us that the word following = a noun.
D N
D
N
Each boy worked the problem.
2. A noun will often occupy the subject position in a basic sentence.
N
Cars raced around the building.
3. Plural endings like s, es, and en often signal nouns,
N
N
N
The toys of the children were often placed in the churches.
4. An apostrophe () or apostrophe - s (s) = a signal for a possessive noun.
Poss. N N
Poss. N N
The children's work often helped the ladies' projects,
5. Noun suffixes often signal nouns.
His differences were with the government.
6. Although we have had no unit on this, remember that capitalized words also indicate nouns.
N
N
N
N
N
It happened in June at Comstock Park near Jackson, Montana.

It is important to understand that there may be more than one clue to discover that a
word is a noun. We call these structural clues.

Example ~

We know that the word differences in sentence #5 above is a noun for several reasons.

48

Noun Clues
(1) It occupies the position of the subject in a basic sentence.
(2) The word the = a determiner telling us that a noun follows.
(3) The s ending is a plural ending for most nouns.
(4) The ence suffix helps us identify the word as a noun.
All these clues operate within the structure of the sentence to help us identify nouns.
Now write the six clues under What

did we learn?
for identifying nouns again.

1. __________________________________________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________________________________________
4. __________________________________________________________________________________
5. __________________________________________________________________________________

Silly Sentence Practice


Sometimes one can write Silly sentences and find the nouns by looking for
structural clues.
D

Some kirbes took each gobment to the splingness.


We know that kirbes = a noun because of (1) its position, (2) the es ending, and
(3) the determiner some. Gobment = a noun because of (1) the determiner
each, and (2) the ment ending. Splingness = a noun because of (1) the
determiner the, and the (2) ness ending.


49

Your Turn to Try


Can you identify the nouns in the following nonsense sentences?
1. His fomps are by the tampster.

____________________________________________

2. My libes walked over the turler.

____________________________________________

3. Some Moden gave me some roxes.

____________________________________________

4. Neither mabes are for either dirgdom. ___________________________________________

5. Our dasks seem near the enden.

____________________________________________

6. Many moshences are by his stooner.

____________________________________________

7. The blibism kept their orgful.

____________________________________________

8. Her keepness is a frug.

____________________________________________

9. That morko walked by Dirneys.

____________________________________________

10. Several koobes told about a drup.

____________________________________________

11. A minnikin fell by your scrops.

____________________________________________

12. All baktion are in your cares.

____________________________________________

50

Homework Fun
Write a few of your own silly
sentences and identify the nouns
and determiners
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
___
Did you have Fun?

51

UNIT 8

Identifying Subject Pronouns

Look at the sentences below.


D N
The boy was happy.
We may substitute the word he for The boy in the position of the subject in this
sentence.

Example ~
He was happy. He = called a pronoun.
N
Jane was happy.
We may substitute the word she for Jane.

Example ~
She was happy. She = called a pronoun.
N
Milk tastes good.
We may substitute the word it for milk.

Example ~
It tastes good. It = a pronoun.
We have seen that he, she, and it can be substituted in the position of nouns used as the
subject in the sentences above. Words that regularly occupy noun positions, or that can be
substituted for nouns are called pronouns. For this reason, pronouns are often called
substitute words. The subject forms of pronouns that you should now learn are I, you, she, he,
it, and they.

52

Directions
In the sentences below, identify the determiners and nouns in the first sentence
of the pair, and then write pron. for pronoun over the words which substitute for
the nouns.

Draw a vertical line between the subject

predicate (verb).

Example ~
D N
D N
1. The man went to his car.

Pron.
2. He

D N
went to his car.

Speaking: Man = a noun because of the determiner the, and car = a noun
because of the determiner pronoun his. He is a pronoun because
it is a substitute for The man. Car is a noun because of the
determiner pronoun his.
3. A girl sat on the swing.

She sat on the swing.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. The dog was lazy.

It was lazy.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. The boys left early.

They left early.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. Sharon is my name.

I am a girl.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

7. A woman sat on the chair.

She sat on the chair.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

53

8. My father helped the man.

He helped the man.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. The money is hidden.

It is hidden.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

10. The items lay on the desk.

They lay on the desk.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

11. My teacher came into the room.

She came into the room.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. The water dripped for an hour.

It dripped for an hour.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. Joyce is my name.

I am a girl.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. Your name is John.

You are John.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

15. Some cars ran off the road.

They ran off the road.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

54

Write a few to try for Yourself


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________

55

UNIT 9

Identifying Object Pronouns

The object pronouns are I, me, you, him, her, it, they, and them.
One more time
The object pronouns are I, you, him, her, it, they, and them.
These are VERY IMPORTANT for EVERYTHING in ENGLISH.
Object pronouns occur in the verb/action part of basic sentences.

Example ~
D N
Pron.
The car bumped them. Them = an object pronoun of the verb bumped them.
Pron.
D N
Pron.
She gave the book to him. She = a subject pronoun and him an object pronoun.

Directions
Identify the determiners, nouns, and ALL pronouns in the sentences below.
Draw a vertical line between the subject verb first.

Example ~
Pron.
D N
Pron.
1. She gave the ball to me.
She gave the ball to me.
Speaking: She = a subject pronoun, ball = a noun because of the determiner
the, and me = an object pronoun

56

Do Some More For Fun


2. The ball hit him.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

We met them at the park.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. The crowds applauded us.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. Ellen saw me at the movie.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. His acts displeased me.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

7. Tom took him to the movie.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8. I saw them at the game.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. John sold us a ticket.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

57

10. She gave me some paper.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

11. It flew under him.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. They laughed at her.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
13. You showed me your book.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. The grocer sold me a steak.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

15. He sat by me.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

16. She pushed us.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

17. It is for him.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

58

18. We ran after them.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

19. I told him about it.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

20. The picture looks like her.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Directions

In the spaces below, write basic sentences with subject and object pronouns.
Identify determiners, nouns, and pronouns.

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
Hope you had fun!

UNIT 10

Determiner OR Indefinite Pronoun

59

The words all, any, another, each, either, every, few, many, neither, only
and some that we learned as determiners ~ determiners when they are
used before a noun.
We call them function words because they help us identify nouns.
The same words, all, any, another , each, either, every, few, many, neither,
one, and only are called indefinite pronouns when they are used alone.

Example ~
D N
Each boy helped us.
Here each = a determiner; it determines that boy = a noun.
IP = indefinite pronoun
IP
Each helped us. The symbol IP identifies each as an indefinite pronoun.

Directions
In the sentences below, identify determiners, nouns, and indefinite pronouns.
Use the symbol IP for indefinite pronouns.

Example ~
D
N
D N
1. Each man had a boat.
Speaking: Man = a noun because of the determiner each; boat = a noun
because of the determiner a.

IP
D N
2. Each had a boat.

Each had a boat.

60

Speaking: Each = an indefinite pronoun; boat = a noun because of the determiner a.

Do Some More For Fun


Write your explanation on the Speaking lines. Then take turns in class reading
your explanation out loud to your classmates.
3. Many children like a circus.

Many like a circus.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. Any day is satisfactory.

Any will do.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. One person lay on the floor.

One lay on the floor.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. Some boys helped us.

Some helped us.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

7. Few people attended the game.

Few attended the game.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8. Both bats were broken.

Both were broken.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. Some houses were painted.

Some were painted.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

10. Two balls floated on the water.

Two floated on the water.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

11. Each child walked in line.

Each walked in line.

61

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

12. Many fans were at the game.

Many were at the game.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. Some birds were on the lawn.

Some were on the lawn.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

14. Any reading appears satisfactory.

Any appears satisfactory.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

15. Neither boy tried hard.

Neither tried hard.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

16. Another plane crashed.

Another crashed.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

17. All cats are animals.

All are animals.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

62

New Idea
Write your own sentences using the IP.
Tell them to the student beside you (the first sentence) and ask
them to repeat it back to you with the IP (the second sentence).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wow!!! That was Fun. I love GRAMMAR!

63

64

UNIT 11 Determiner or Demonstrative Pronoun


The words this, that, these, and those are determiners when they stand
before a noun.
Their function or task is to tell us that the next word = a noun.
They are called demonstrative pronouns when they are used alone. The
word demonstrative means to point out.

Example ~
D N
This hat is too large.
Here this is a determiner (this) identifying hat as a noun.
DP
This is too large.
In this sentence, this is a demonstrative pronoun because this and that are
singular; these and those are plural. This is used alone.

Directions
In the sentences below, label the determiners and nouns. When this, that, these, or
those is used alone in the subject position, label it DP for demonstrative pronoun.

D N
D N
1. That boy is my friend.
Speaking: boy= a noun because of the determiner that, friend = a noun
because of the determiner my.
DP
D N
2. That is my cap.
That is my cap.
Speaking: That = a demonstrative pronoun; cap = a noun because of the
determiner my.

65

Do Some More For Fun


3. These pencils are sharp.

These are sharp.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. That road has many bumps.

That is very true.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

5. This coat is mine.

This is mine.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. Those apples appear spoiled.

Those appear spoiled.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

7. This lake has many fish.

This is my ball.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8. Those buildings are tall.

Those are really tall.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

9. That picture is unusual.

That is unusual.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

10. These books are dusty.

These are dusty.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

11. Those dresses are too large.

Those are too large.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

66

12. That movie was good.

That is my house.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

13. This page is torn.

This is torn.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________


Directions
In the spaces below, write sentences using this, that, these, and those as
determiners and demonstrative pronouns.

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
Wow!!! That was Fun. I love GRAMMAR!

67

Summary
In this book you find several pages like this one which will
summarize the previous pages to help you bring together
thoughts covered.
You should study this section carefully and review the other
pages from 1-12 and prepare for Test 1.
The procedure will be followed throughout the book. There will be
a number of pages of explanation followed by a test.
VOCABULARY and SYMBOL Review
SYMBOL

1, sub.

WORD

PRONUNCIATION

subject

sub'ject

2. pred.
3. D
4. N

predicate
determiner
noun

pred'i-cate
de-ter1min-er
noun

5. S

singular

sing'u-lar

plural

plu'ral

Poss. N

possessive

suf'fix
struct'ur-e.l

Pron.

suffix
structural
pronoun
function
indefinite pronoun
demonstrative pronoun

de-mon'stra-tive

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11,
12.

IP

13. DP

noun

pos-ses'sive

protnoun

func'tion
in-def'in-ite

SUMMARY

Be sure you know how to pronounce these words and how they are spelled.

68

What did we learn?


?
1. A basic sentence = a statement that has two parts, a subject and a predicate.

Basic sentences are not questions, commands, or exclamations.


2. A determiner helps signal a noun.
Go back to the Lesson on this topic for the chart.
3. Nouns = words like man, tree, ground, etc.
They may or may not have determiners before them.
One can usually identify a noun by its position as the
subject of a basic sentence.
4. Singular = one.
plural, = more than one,
5. Most nouns form their plural by adding s.
Nouns ending in s, x, z, sh, and ch form their plurals
by adding (+) es to the singular.
Nouns spelled the same in the singular and plural have NO ADDED endings.
Some nouns have internal changes like man, men.
6. An apostrophe (') and an apostrophe - s ('s)
=
signals for the possessive noun.
7. Suffixes like ness, dom, and ance often signal a noun.
8. I, you, he, she, it, we, and they = subject pronouns.
Me, you, him, her, it, us, and them = object pronouns.
9. Some determiners are either indefinite pronouns or demonstrative pronouns
when they stand alone. Go back to this section for REVIEW.


69

Part II
Verbs

70

Unit 1

Identifying Verbs (1)

A verb is a word like drive, sing, jump, or throw.


These words show present time and are said to be in the present tense. Tense,
therefore, means time.
One character of a verb = its ability to show past time. The verbs above, if you
write or speak them are; drove, sang, jumped, or threw show past time and we
say they are, in the past tense.
Also, many verbs can be identified because they show action.
D N
V
D N
A man drives a car.
A word can be identified as a verb by its position after the subject of a basic
sentence. Other words which could fit into the blank _____ = polishes, repairs,
sells, pushes, etc.
These words = all verbs because they can replace the word drives in the basic
sentence we used above.
A man = the complete subject.

drives a car = the complete verb.

Note: The s ending on drives is a signal for what is known as the


third person singular form.

The person speaking = First person - I, we [I drive]


Person spoken to

= Second person - you [You drive]

Person spoken of

= Third person- he, she, it, they [He drives]

71

Directions
In the sentences below, identify the nouns, pronouns, determiners, and present tense verbs. Use a
capital V for verb.

Example ~
N V

Pron D

1. Joe goes with him each day.

Joe goes with him each day.


Speaking: Joe = a noun, goes a verb because of its position; him = a
pronoun, and day a noun because of the determiner each.

2. I go with him on Monday.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

3. The boy throws well.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

4. Jane buys candy at the store.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

5. I do my work carefully.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

6. Jerry does his work well.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

7. You give me that book.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

72

8. Tom grows apples on his farm.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

9. The sun rises each morning.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

10. We write to them on Tuesday.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

11. I see your ball on the field.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

12 A deer walks near the fence.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

13. Each boy sings well.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

14. Her brother walks by the church.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

15. My dog barks loudly.

_______________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

16. She tells that story.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

17. That man plays hard.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

73

18. I like pop.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

19. We enjoy each meal.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

20. Most children eat slowly.

________________________________

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Practice Reading Your Explanations



Directions
See if you can find six verbs to fill the position of the blank in this sentence.
I __________ candy.
I __________ candy.
I __________ candy.
I __________ candy.
I __________ candy.
I __________ candy.

Did you have Fun?

74

UNIT 2

Identifying Verbs (2)

Verb forms like sang or jumped are called past tense (V-ed) because they indicate
an action before the moment of speaking.

Example ~
D

V-ed D D

The girls sang the song.


The verb sang in this position = a verb in the past tense and is indicated by the
symbol V-ed.

Directions
Identify determiners, nouns, pronouns, and verbs in the sentences below.
Write V-ed to symbolize the past tense verb.

Example ~
D N
V-ed
D N
1. Some boys jumped into the lake.
Speaking: Some = a determiner , boys = a noun, jumped a past tense verb,
the a determiner, and lake a noun, cap = a noun because of
the determiner my.

Do Some More For Fun


2. He broke the window.

Speaking: He =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

3. A bee stung the man.

Speaking:

____

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

75

4. Father bought a tire.

Speaking: ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

5. The fielder caught the ball.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

6. Each child drew a picture.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

7. I ate the cake.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

8. Jerry fell into the puddle.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

9. Some players fought hard.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

10. Most people gave a lot.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

11. A ship went by the pier.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

12. Many flowers grew slowly.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

13. We hopped up the steps.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

14. I knew the poem well.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

15. John lay there an hour.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

76

16. She rose from the bed.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

17. Several students knew about it.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

18. They showed us the pictures.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

19. The boys swam to the dock.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

20. They bought the house.

Speaking ____ =

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Can you now tell the difference between a past tense verb and the

present tense

Mark the present tense V and the past tense V-ed.

Example ~
V
D
N
= present
A. Our team wins each game.
D

V-ed
D N
B. Our team won each game.
D

1. I got up early.

V-ed

= past

= past

I got up early.
2. Grace wore a hat.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

77

3. Grace wears a hat.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

4. I get up early.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

5. I got up early.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

6. She springs to the saddle.

___________________________ = ______
____________________________________________

7. She sprang to the saddle.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

8. Most parents pay taxes.

___________________________ = ______

_____________________________________________
9. Most parents paid taxes.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

10. Each boy wants the bicycle.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________
___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

11. Each boy wanted the bicycle.

12. A thief stole the money.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

13. He tries hard.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

78

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

14. Judy took the bus this morning.

15. We dive with glee.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

16. We dove with glee.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________
___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

17. Tom took the car that night.

18. Tom takes it each day.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

19. Tom took it each day.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

20. A thief steals the money.

___________________________ = ______
_____________________________________________

Are you having fun yet?

79

80

UNIT 3

Identifying Verbs (3)

Verbs may have auxiliaries, or helpers.

Let me show you.


D N Aux. V
Each boy may

D
N
take his bat.

In this sentence, may is an auxiliary verb and along with take, constitute a verb
phrase, may take.
Auxiliaries are like determiners in that the following word often is a verb.
However, we will learn that auxiliaries are sometimes used alone.
Auxiliaries are also called function words because their job = to help identify
the verb. It would be well to remember that there is only one verb or verb
phrase in our basic sentences.
Learn the following auxiliaries.
does ~ has
do ~ did

can ~ could
may ~ might must ~ shall
should ~ will have ~ had
would

Directions
Identify determiners, nouns, pronouns, and verbs in the sentences below.
Write Aux. for auxiliary over the helping verbs.

Example ~
D

Aux. V V

1.
The dog may bite the postman.
Speaking: Dog = a noun because of the determiner the, may bite= a verb
phrase, and postman = a noun because of the determiner the.

81

Do Some More For Fun


2. She can sing very well.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

3. Mother has bought the hat.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

4. The boy might catch us.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

5. Each boy does try hard.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

6. The boys should draw the pictures.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

7. He will eat the salad.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

8. The men will hear us.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

82

9. Sandy may know about the plans.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

10. I can prove that story.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

11. Most children must rise early.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

12. We shall tear the paper.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

13. Joe might write the letter.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

14. Chris did write the letter.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

15. We shall eat our lunch.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

16. Tom will sing for us.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

83

17. They have played all morning.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

18. The skies could clear soon.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

19. Our parents would want it.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

20. We shall avoid the problem.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Directions

In the spaces below, write sentences using the auxiliaries with the present form of
the verb. Label the other words as you have been doing.

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
84

UNIT 4

Identifying Verbs (4)

Have, has, and had may be verb forms by themselves.

Example ~
D N V D N
The boys have a football.
Have, has, and had may signal a verb form called the past participle.
D

Each boy

Have + en
has bought

D N

a football.

In this sentence has signals the past participle form of the verb.

We will use the symbol HB (e+en) for the past participle.


Do, does, and did may be verb forms by themselves.

Example ~
N V D N
D N
Jim does his work every day.

Do, does, and did may signal a verb form called the emphatic form.

D N
The boy

N-Aux. V
did
try hard.

85

Directions
Identify determiners, nouns, pronouns, and verbs in the sentences below.
Identify the verb forms as indicated above.

Example ~
D N
V
D
NPron.
1. The men have their cars with them.
Speaking: Men = a noun indicated by the determiner the, have = a
present tense verb. Cars is a noun indicated by their, and them = a
pronoun.
Your Turn --2. The men have taken their cars.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

3. He has the pencil.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

4. He has taken the pencil.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

5. Jim has the letter.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

6. Jim has written the letter.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

86

7. Some boys have the prize.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

8. Some boys have taken the prize.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

9. Each child has a book.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

10. Each child has read a book.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

11. A man has the key.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

12. A man has taken the key.

Speaking =____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

A Little Change --- Dont get confused

Example ~
N
V D N
D
N
1. Joy does the dishes each morning.
Speaking: Joy = a noun because of its position as the subject. Does = a present
tense verb. Dishes = a noun indicated by the + Morning = a noun
indicated by the determiner each.

87

Your Turn ~
2. Joy does try hard.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. The men do the chores well.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

4. The men do leave early.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. I did the lesson easily.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. I did learn the lesson.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. June does the laundry.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

88

8. June does rinse the clothes.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

9. Several boys do the work.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. Several boys do loaf in the hall.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. Many birds did fly over the house.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. We do go in the afternoon.

Speaking =_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

89

UNIT 5

Identifying Verbs (5)

The verb - to BE - has eight forms: be, was, were, is, am, are, been, and being.

Learn and Practice these eight forms now before you go on.
D N Be D N
The boys are my friends.
In this sentence, are = form of to BE and we label it Be.
D

The boys

Be+V+ing
are going

D N
to the lake.

In this sentence, are going = a verb phrase. Are signals a verb form as the present
participle.
The ing = an ending signaling the present participle form.

Directions
Identify determiners, nouns, pronouns, and verb forms in the
sentences below.
Mark the verbs like the sentence above.

Example ~
Pron. Be D N
1. I
am a boy.
Speaking: I = a pronoun. Am = a form of to be + Boy = a noun indicated by
the determiner a.

90

Pron. Be+V+ing

D N

am going for a walk.


Speaking: I = a pronoun. Am going = a present participle verb phrase +
walk = a noun indicated by the determiner a.
2. I

Your Turn --3. The boy is Tom.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. The boy is walking by the house

Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. You are in my seat.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. You are sitting in my seat.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. He was cold.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

91

8. He was buying a hat.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. The men were in the garage.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. The men were going into the house.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. I am a teacher.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. I am teaching you English.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. He is my friend.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. He is helping me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

92

15. We are in the house.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

A Little Note --- Dont get confused


Sometimes we use other helpers with be.
1. I have been helping my mother.

Pron. Have+Be+V+ing
D N
I
have been helping my mother.

2. The men have been going each day.

________________________________

3. Jim has been sleeping late.

________________________________

4. Some boys had been trying for an hour. ________________________________


5. They could have been trying too hard. ________________________________
6. John has been giving me some help.

________________________________

7. The divers will be leaving now.

________________________________

8. Some pupils have been talking.

_______________________________

9. Several girls had been drawing all period. _______________________________


10. She has been telling us about it.

________________________________

11. You might have been going by now. ________________________________


12. They had been singing the song.

________________________________

13. Our dogs had been taking the meat.

________________________________

93

14. I could have been telling you a lie.

________________________________

15. He has been laying the bricks.

________________________________

16. Jim has been stopping near the door. ________________________________

You Made it.


Now take a deep breath!
What did you learn about VERBS?

_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
________________________

94

Lets summarize what we have learned in this lesson.


#1
The present tense of a verb = determined mainly by its position after the subject
in a basic sentence.
It = indicated by the symbol~ V.
The boy sings well.
The s ending on sings = also a signal for a present tense.

#2
The past tense of a verb also occupies a position after the subject in a basic
sentence.
Its symbol = V-ed.

#3
Auxiliaries like can ~ could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would
signal a verb phrase.
A verb phrase = made up of two or more words. The auxiliaries (helpers) are used
with the present form.
The symbol for the auxiliary = Aux.

#4
Have, had, and has may be verb forms by themselves or signal a construction
called the past-participle.
The symbol for this form is Have+en.

95

#5
Do, does, and did may be verb forms by themselves or signal the emphatic
form.
The symbol is Aux.+V.

#6
The eight forms of the verb to BE ~ be, was, were, is, am, are, been, and being may
be verb forms by themselves or signal the present participle form.
The symbol for this construction = Be+V+ing.
Other helpers may be added to this form.

Directions
Try to identify the verb forms in the sentences below. Draw a line to the correct form to match
the symbol.
.

1. Jim sings well.

V-ed

2. Jim sang well

Aux.V

3. Jim can sing well.

Have+en

4. Jim has sung well

5. Jim does sing well.

Be+V+ing

6. Jim is singing well.

Have+Be+V+ing

7. Jim has been singing well.

Aux.V

96

Your Turn --- Come on! Try it! Dont be scared!

Directions
Use the symbols you have learned before. Also label determiners, nouns, and
pronouns
8. The boys played for an hour.

__________________________________________________________________
9. He bowls frequently.

__________________________________________________________________
10. We shall walk rapidly.

__________________________________________________________________
11. Jean is trying the problem.

__________________________________________________________________
12. He did want the present.

__________________________________________________________________
13. Harry has drowned the ants.

__________________________________________________________________
14. You may go now.

__________________________________________________________________
15. Our parents gave it to us.

__________________________________________________________________
16. I write every day.

__________________________________________________________________
17. She smiles often.

__________________________________________________________________
18. I am writing the paper now.

__________________________________________________________________
19. Jerry has been going too.

__________________________________________________________________

97

20. You do talk quite loud.

__________________________________________________________________
21. He was my friend.

__________________________________________________________________
22. We have the supplies.

__________________________________________________________________
23. They have ridden the horse.

__________________________________________________________________
24. Our helpers are stopping now.

98

Part III
Prepositions

99

100

Unit 1

Identifying Prepositions

Prepositions are words like in, over, by, and from. They begin prepositional phrases which
are constructions like in the house, over the bridge, by me, and from him.
Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun.
Prepositions are also called function words.
D N V-ed
P D N
The boy went (to the lake).
P phrase
In this sentence, to = a preposition and begins the prepositional phrase to the
lake. Use a capital P to identify prepositions and (parentheses) to indicate a
prepositional phrase.

MEMORIZE the following prepositions.


The list is long, but it is important that you master them perfectly. Your teacher
will test you on them. They are in alphabetical order.
about

among

between

during

near

until

above

around

beyond

except

of

up

across

at

but

for

off

with

after

before

by

from

on

within

against

below

concerning

in

over

without

along

beside

despite

into

to

amid

besides

down

like

under

101

The 6 Step Method


Steps 1 - 2 - 3
You will now begin using the first three steps of a six step method.

THIS METHOD IS OF EXTREME IMPORTANCE. It will help you understand the


relationships of words in sentences.

BE SURE YOU FOLLOW IT WHENEVER YOU ARE ASKED TO DO SO.

Step 1
Identify the subject. (Sub.)

Step 2
Identify the verb. (V)

Step 3
Place (parentheses) around prepositional phrases.

Directions
Apply this method to the sentences below.
Note: It is assumed that you now know determiners, nouns, etc.

Example ~
sub. V
1. The man sat (in the boat).
Speaking: Man = the simple subject, sat = the verb + in the boat = a prepositional phrase.
Note: A prepositional phrase may occur anywhere in a sentence.

102

Try These
2. He jumped over the log.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. The book dropped on the floor.

Speaking =

____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. He sang for me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Harry drove into the garage.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. Judy sat near us.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. We dove off the board.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. They fought for their liberty.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. She smiled at him.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

103

10. The men walked for hours.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. The boy with the candy was happy..

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The house near us is old.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. The facts of the matter were obvious.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. A deer stood amid the trees.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. That road beyond us is long.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. Several boys were missing from school.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. The robin in the nest flew away.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

18. The cover of the book was attractive.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

104

Unit 2

More about PREPOSITIONS

In a prepositional phrase such as to the hill,


to = the preposition

hill = the object of the preposition.

The object of a preposition may be compound (more than one).

Example ~
sub. V-ed
P OP + OP
We did it (for Jim and Bill).
We will label the object of a preposition = OP.
There are also phrasal prepositions. Some of the more common ones are listed
below. You need not learn them, but try to remember what they look like.

phrasal prepositions ~~
ahead of

according to

in opposition to

because of

contrary to

by means of

in spite of

instead of

Example ~
sub. V-ed P
OP
The boys ran (ahead of us).
~~ The two words ahead of are just like a single word preposition.

105

Directions
Apply the three steps of the method to the sentences below.

Example ~
1.

sub V-ed P OP
He went (with Tom).
Speaking: He is the subject, went the verb, and with Tom a
prepositional phrase.

2. They talked to him.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. The boys left with Gary.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. Some men laughed at her.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Each pole stood near a house.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. Scott played with Tom.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. She walked through the house.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

106

8. Ted ran through the store.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

A Little Change --- Dont get confused


There may be more than one prepositional phrase in a sentence.

Let ME show yoU --sub V-ed


1. He ran

P
OP
P
OP
(into the house) and (to his bedroom)

Your Turn --2. They walked over the hill to the mill.

3. She sat by me near the door.

4. Jim talked to us from the front of the room.

5. I left for the game at dawn.

~~~
Now look for

compound objects of the preposition.


sub.

1. It was (from Nancy and Betty).

Be

OP

OP

It was (from Nancy and Betty).

2. Jack went with him and me.

__________________________________________

107

3. Mother looked for shoes and a dress.

__________________________________________
4. He read about cowboys and cattle.

__________________________________________
5. It depends upon him and me.

__________________________________________
6. It looked like rain or snow.

__________________________________________
7. We played against Tom and Bill.

__________________________________________
8. I sat behind Sue and Jane.

__________________________________________

In these sentences, watch for phrasal prepositions.


1. It went according to our plans.
2. I did it in spite of her.

sub. V-ed
P
OP
It went (according to our plans).

_______________________________________

3. It happened because of him. _________________________________________


4. He went by means of a car. _________________________________________
5. They sat ahead of us.

_________________________________________

6. We left in spite of the weather. _______________________________________

What did you learn about


Prepositions?
108

VOCABULARY REVIEW
SYMBOL

SPELLING

l. V

present tense

pres'ent tense

2. V-ed

past tense

past tense

3. Aux.

auxiliary

4. Have+en

past participle

past par'ti-ci-ple

5.

emphatic tense

em-phat'ic tense

6. Be+V+ing

present participle

pres'ent par'ti-ci-ple

7. P

preposition

prep-o-si' tion

8. (__)

prepositional phrase

prep-o-si' tion-al phrase

9. OP

object of the preposition

ob'ject of prep-o-si'tion

10. CMPD
11.

PRONUNCIATION

aux-il'ia-ry

compound

com-pound'

phrasal prepositions

phras'al prep-o-si'tions

Be sure you review the above symbols and know their spelling and pronunciation.
You will be TESTED on them later.

109

SUMMARY
#1
Present tense verbs are words like drive, jump, sing.
We identify them by the symbol V.
#2
The first person = the person speaking (I,we),
the second person is the person spoken to (you),
and the third person is the person spoken of (he, they).
#3
Past tense verbs are words like drove, jumped, sang. They indicate an action
before the moment of speaking.
Their symbol = V-ed.
#4
Some auxiliaries are can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would.
They are function words and their job = to help identify the verb.
#5
Have, has, and had may be verbs by themselves, or may serve as helpers to
indicate the past participle.
#6
Do, does, and did may be verbs by themselves or signal the emphatic form.
#7
The verb to BE has eight forms: be, am, are, is, was, were, been, being.

110

#8
The verb to BE may be a verb by itself, or may signal a verb form known as the
present participle.
#9
Prepositions are words like in, over, and by.
# 10
Prepositions begin prepositional phrases, which are constructions like in the
house and over the bridge.
# 11
Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun.
The noun or pronoun is then known as the object of the preposition.
# 12
Phrasal prepositions are constructions like: contrary to, ahead of, in spite of.

BE SURE YOU KNOW THE FIRST


THREE STEPS
OF OUR METHOD!

1. Identify the subject.


2. Identify the verb.
3. Place (parentheses) around prepositional phrases.

111

112

Part IV
Adjectives
and
Sentence Patterns

113

Unit 1

Identifying the Adjective

Beginning with this unit, we will classify our basic sentences into five sentence
patterns which = the great majority of sentences which we use.
With these five patterns, you can make thousands of sentences that are

written or spoken in English.


We will use our method to help us understand these patterns.
So far we have learned three steps.
1. Identify the subject.
2. Identify the verb.
3. Place parentheses around prepositional phrases.

Step 4
~~ check the verb to see if it is a linking verb followed by a
predicate adjective, predicate noun, or predicate pronoun.
The following are the most common linking verbs.
Learn them perfectly now!!!
1. The verbs of being
am, is, are, was, were, will be, shall be, has been, have been,
had been, would be, should be, and could be.
2. The verbs of the senses
taste, smell, feel(felt), sound.
3. The verb of appearance
appear, look, seem.
4. The verbs of change or its opposite
turn, grow, become, remain, continue.

114

Pattern One:
D N
LV Adj.
The boy seems happy.

Happy = a predicate adjective because it is in the predicate part of the


sentence and tells us about boy in the subject.
Seems links happy
to boy.
You can substitute or insert many words for happy in Pattern One.
sad, glad, lonesome, old, sullen, cold, etc.
A word which will fit into this position in this sentence pattern
is called an adjective.

Directions
Apply the four steps of the method to the sentences below. Use the symbols LV
for linking verb
and Adj. for adjective.

Example ~
The cake (on the table) tastes good.

sub.

LV

Adj.

The cake (on the table) tastes good.

Speaking: Cake = the subject, tastes = the verb, on the table =


a prepositional phrase. Tastes is in our list followed
by good which = a predicate adjective which helps us
understand the subject cake.
Are you confused? Do you have a headache? Dont give up. Take a deep
breath.

Try a few of these to see if you understand.

115

2. The clouds in the sky are pretty.

Speaking =

_________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. She has been quiet for a minute.

Speaking =

____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. It does smell good to me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. The dress looks lovely on you.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. That horn sounds awful to us.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. He will be good for an hour.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

116

8. The children are noisy.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Note: Every sentence does not have a prepositional phrase


method to the sentences below.
9. The food on the table was delicious.

Speaking =

__________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. Tom is handsome.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. The picture on the wall is pretty.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The problems seem hard.

Speaking =

_________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. Tommy has been ill for a week.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

117

14. She remained quiet during the class. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. I feel good in the morning. ________________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. Some men look old at thirty.

Speaking =

________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. The problems could be hard for us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

18. Joe had been noisy in the room.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

19. Some girls appear selfish.

Speaking =

____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

118

20. The boys continued confident. _____________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

119

120

Unit 2

The Predicate Noun Pattern

Our second sentence pattern is called the predicate noun pattern.

Predicate nouns may follow a linking verb.


D N
LV
D PN
The boy became a scout.

In this sentence, scout = a noun indicated by the determiner a.


It (scout) = a predicate noun because it is in the predicate part of the sentence;
and refers to, or means the same as, the subject boy. Became links scout
boy.

Directions
Apply your method to the sentences below. Use the symbol PN to indicate a
predicate noun.

Let ME show yoU

sub.
LV
PN
That lamp appeared a loss(to me).

That lamp appeared a loss(to me).

Speaking: Lamp = the subject, appeared = the verb, and to me is a


prepositional phrase. Appeared is in our list of linking verbs and is
followed by loss, a predicate noun that tell us about or refers to the
subject, lamp.

121

Try these !
2. The boy on the raft is Jerry.

Speaking =

____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. It was Judy with me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. Helen is the mother in the play.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. That is Shirley at the door.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. He will be the hero of the hour.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. I am a player on the team.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

122

8. Those men are friends of mine.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. The boy continued my helper.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. Harold seemed a stranger to us.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. I remained his friend for years. _____________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The car looked a wreck to him. _____________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. That was Jane in the hall.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

123

14. Joe will be a friend of mine.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. Jim appeared a liar to the man.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. That man became a beggar.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. She became the hostess for the day. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

18. The cat on the fence was Tammy. ____________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

19. Joe seemed a stranger to them.

Speaking =

_____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

124

____________________________________

20. The building appeared a success.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

21. The dog became my pal for the day.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

22. The boy has been a neighbor to me.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________


Because pronouns = substitute words for nouns, pronouns may be
substituted in the predicate noun position.
Even though this substitution may be made, the sentence is still
called the predicate noun pattern.

It was he (near the door).

sub. LV Pron.
It was he (near the door).

2. That was they by the house.

3. The man was he by the car.

4. The man by the car was he.

125

5. That is he with my father.

6. It is they near the school.

7. It was she on the stage.

8. This is I.

9. It was they beyond the hill.

10. This is he.

11. That was she in the kitchen.

12. It is they behind us.

Tell me what you learned in a paragraph and see if you can get rid of that headache.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

126

Unit 3 The Direct Object pattern


Our third sentence pattern = the direct object pattern.
We need to LEARN Step five to understand this pattern.
Step 1. Identify the subject.
Step 2. Identify the verb.
Step 3. Place parentheses around prepositional phrases.
Step 4. Check the verb to see if it is linking followed by a predicate
word. (Adjective, noun, or pronoun).
Step 5. If the verb is not linking, look for a something or
someone after the verb, the direct object.
If there is a direct object, the verb is transitive.

Example ~
D N V-t D DO
The boy hit the ball.

The boy hit the ball.


Boy = the subject. hit = the verb,

There are no prepositional phrases, the verb is not in our list of linking
verbs.
There = a something, ball, after the verb. Ball = therefore the direct object +
hit = a transitive verb.

Did you Understand all that?

127

Directions
Apply your method to the sentences below. Use the symbols DO for direct object
and V-t for the transitive verb.

Example ~

sub. V-t
DO
The referee blew the whistle.
The referee blew the whistle.
Speaking: Referee = the subject. Blew = the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases so the verb is not linking + It is transitive followed by the
direct object, whistle.

You Try a few ~~


2. An accident caused the trouble for us. _________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. Jack threw a curve at me.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. He hit the ball across the field.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. The fielder caught the fly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

128

6. Jim recited his piece at home.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. She studied her lesson at noon.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. Father burned the papers.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. Tom sold his bicycle to him.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10.The boys built a dam across the pond. ________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. Some girls picked the daisies.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

129

12. The men grabbed their axes.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. He shot a deer in the woods.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. The child found his mother.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. Fred drove the nails.

Speaking =

_________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. The maid served tea at night.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. She lost a dime at the store.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

130

18. Tom tore his paper into shreds.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________

19. Sue baked a cake for me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

20. He threw the eraser to me.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Because pronouns can substitute for nouns, pronouns can substitute for
nouns in the direct object position.

Example ~

sub. V-t DO
The men saw them (near the house).

The men saw them (near the house).


2. A bee stung me on my arm.

3. He pushed us into the water.

4. Sue told them about it.

5. Joe grabbed him by the collar.

131

6. Mother told her about it.

7. I saw it in the woods.

How are you doing?

132

Unit 4

The Indirect Object pattern

Our fourth sentence pattern = the indirect object pattern.


If there is a direct object in a sentence, there may be an indirect object in a
position between the transitive verb and the direct object.

The man gave John an apple.

D N V-g I0 D DO
The man gave John an apple.

The indirect object = a noun or pronoun in the position of John in this basic
sentence.

Rules for Indirect Objects


You need a direct object in order to have an indirect object.
As a test, one may substitute to or for before the indirect object, but
these words are never written before the indirect object.
In a sentence with an indirect object, the verb will be transitive.
We label the indirect object verb V-g to denote its separate class.

Directions
Apply this method to the sentences below. Use the symbols I0 for indirect object
and V-g for the give type of verb.
sub V-g
I0
DO
1. He told the class a story (about war).
He told the class a story (about war).
Speaking: He = the subject, told = the verb, about war = a prepositional
phrase. The verb is not linking but it is transitive with story the
direct object and class the indirect object.

133

Note: Pronouns may be indirect objects, because pronouns substitute for


nouns.
2. She gave me an apple at noon.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. The man at the dock showed us a boat. ________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. Father carved John a whistle.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. He told them the lesson for the day. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. Mary wrote Jane a letter about home. _________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. The usher found us a seat in front.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

134

8. The girl near us gave me the book.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. Father bought Tom a suit.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. June gave her sister a dime for pop. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. We sent Sue a note about the meeting. _______________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The boy near us gave me a ball.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. Harry gave Jim a push into the water. _________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

135

14. Hazel typed me a letter of thanks. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. I told her the story at night.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. My father found me the job.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. I have given him a picture of me.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

18. He owes me the money for it.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

19. He gave me the painting.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

136

20. The baker sold us a cake.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Homework
In the spaces below, try to make some sentences with indirect objects. Label
them as you have been doing.

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

How are you doing?

137

Unit 5 The Adverb pattern


The fifth and last sentence pattern is the adverb pattern. To understand
this pattern, we need to know Step six of our method.
Step 1. Identify the subject.
Step 2. Identify the verb.
Step 3. Place parentheses around prepositional phrases.
Step 4. Check the verb to see if it is linking followed by a
predicate word.
Step 5. Check the verb to see if it is transitive followed
by a direct object.

Step 6. Look for adverbs which are words that answer the
questions of how, when, where, or to what extent.
They often end in ly. Learn the partial list of adverbs below. These words are
called adverbs or intensifiers.

How?
slowly

quietly

quickly

fast

sweetly

merrily

When?
now then soon never

always often

Where?
here there out in

To what extent?
not

quite too

very

138

almost

partly

Pattern Five:
The boy ran (out).

D N VI Adv.
The boy ran (out).

In this pattern the adverb is in (parentheses) to indicate that it may or


may not be included.

The verb is called an intransitive complete verb which means that it does
not carry action from the subject to an object. In other words, it is
complete in itself.

Directions
Apply your method to the following sentences. Use the symbols VI for intransitive
verb and Adv. for adverbs.

Example ~

Sub. VI
Adv.
The boy stayed there.

The boy stayed (there).

Speaking: Boy = the subject, stayed = the verb. There are no

prepositional phrases. The verb is neither linking

nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed by the adverb


there.
2. The chipmunk chattered loudly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

139

3. Harry walked in.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. We traveled slowly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Tom ran quickly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________

6. Tom ran fast.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. The students danced merrily.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. They will leave soon.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

140

9. She laughed quietly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. The boy stumbled onward.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. Many boys waited patiently.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The sun rises slowly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

141

Note:

Remember that the word lists in this book are only examples and
that usually there are many more words like them.

Now see how many adverbs you can write to fit in the blank below.
The boy ran ____________

The boy ran

____________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

142

SUMMARY OF SENTENCE PATTERNS


We have now completed our study of the five most important sentence patterns.
As we said earlier, thousands of sentences can be written based upon them. In
the next sections, you will see how these basic sentences can change into an
unlimited variety of ways to express our thoughts.
Pattern ONE: Predicate adjective pattern.
D
N
LV
Adj.
Example: The boy seems happy.

Pattern TWO:
Example:

D
N
LV
D
N
The boy became a scout.

Pattern THREE:
Example:

Indirect object pattern.

D
N
V-g
I0
D
DO
The man gave John an apple.

PATTERN FIVE:
Example:

Direct object pattern.

D
N V-t D DO
The boy hit the ball.

Pattern FOUR:
Example:

Predicate noun pattern.

Adverb pattern.

D N
VI
Adv
The boy ran (out).

143

Directions
Using your six-step method, analyze the sentences below and determine the basic
sentence patterns.
This is the predicate adjective pattern.
sub. LV P.Adj.
The sky seemed blue (to me).
The sky seemed blue (to me).
Speaking: Sky = the subject, seemed =the verb, to me = a prepositional phrase.
Seemed is in our list of linking verbs followed by blue a predicate
adjective.
2. My father was the president (of the club). ______________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. The ship at the dock bumped our boat. _______________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. A man told Tom the story of the event. ________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. The pencil lay there.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

144

6. His dog trotted quietly down the street. ________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________

7. He gave us a lecture about safety.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. Jean appeared happy about our plans. _________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. Each boy took his book to the library.

Speaking =

_______________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. Jim was the leader of the group.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. She walked gracefully to him.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The bread tastes good to the boys. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

145

13. We wanted the paper by noon.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. The girl near me is Susan.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. We left early for the fair.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. Grace drove the car to church.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. Mother told Harold about it.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

18. You look unhappy.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

146

19. He became the leader of the boys. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

20. June talked happily.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________

21. Birds fly. .

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

22. Sue gave me the information.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

23. He remained my friend for years.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

24. I pushed him into the lake.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

147

25. Some trees seem tall.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

26. Some trees fell down.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

27. The trees hit the ground.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

28. The bread smells good to us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

29. Each boy took his pen with him.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

148

Unit 6

When Linking VERBS Dont Link

Understanding the Problem


The verbs in the list of linking verbs are not always linking.
Example: The boy was (in the room).
Was is in the list, but there is no word after it which describes or
refers to the subject. Therefore, Was is not a linking verb in this
sentence.
Remember that two conditions must be true before the verb is called a
linking verb.
(1) The verb should be from our list.
(2) There must be a word after it which describes or refers to the subject.
If either of these conditions does not exist, the verb is not linking.
Below is a list of sentences which contain verbs from the list of linking verbs.

Directions
See if you can tell when they are or are not linking.
D N
LV P.Adj
Example: ~ The bread was tasty.
The bread was tasty.
Speaking: Bread = the subject, was = the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Was is in the list of linking verbs followed by tasty
which describes the subject. Was is therefore a linking verb in this
sentence.
D N VI
Example: ~
The man was (in the house).
Speaking: Man = the subject, was =the verb. In the house = a prepositional
phrase. Was = in the list of linking verbs but there is no predicate
word after it which describes or refers to the subject. Was
therefore is not
linking in this sentence.

149

Apply your method


__________________________________

3. She is lovely.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. She is in the pool.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. The candy tastes good.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. The boys tasted the candy.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. Jim has been our chairman.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. Jim has been with me.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

150

9. They are young.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. They are in the kitchen.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. The clock on the wall was large.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The clock was on the wall.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. The boys feel happy.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. The salesman felt the cloth.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

151

15. It sounds good to me.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. John sounded the horn.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. The perfume smells good.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

18. He smelled the perfume.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

19. His father grew old.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

20. His father grew some tomatoes.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

152

21. The weather continued cold.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

22. The students continued the lesson. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

23. She turned the switch on the stove. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

24. The weather turned cold.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

25. It could be the man.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

26. Jerry could be outside.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

153

27. He could be in the house.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

28. It was he near us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

29. The men were near us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

30. The dog appeared hungry.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Remember that the VERB needs to help us


understand what the SUBJECT is doing to
be
linked.

154

REVIEW OF ESSENTIAL MEMORIZATIONS


One of the most important methods of helping students understand our language
is the insistence in this book that
certain categories of words be memorized.
Most of them are called function words (auxiliaries, determiners, prepositions,
etc.) because they signal structural meaning.
Others are learned because we use them very often and are important to an
understanding of the Syntax, or the arrangement of words to show their mutual
relationships.

Review the lists below and write them if your teacher tells you.
Remember that the words are only examples and usually there are
more like them.
DETERMINERS
a all an another any each either every few her his its many
my neither no one our some that the their these this those your
LINKING VERBS
am is are was were will be shall be has been have
been had been would be should be could be
SUBJECT PRONOUNS
I you she he it we you they taste feel smell sound appear
look seem turn grow become remain continue
OBJECT PRONOUNS
me you her him it us you them
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
all any another each either every few

155

many neither one some

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
can could do did does has have had may might must shall
should will would
PREPOSITIONS
ADVERBS +

about above across after against along amid among


around at before below beside besides between
beyond but by concerning despite down during
except for from in into like near of off on
over to under until up with within without

HOW?
slowly quietly quickly fast sweetly merrily
WHEN?
now then soon never always often
WHERE?
here there out in
INTENSIFIERS
not too almost very partly quite
AUXILIARIES OR HELPING WORDS
Can could do did does has have had may might must shall
should will would

156

Unit 7

Adverbs modifying Verbs

We have learned in the patterns that we can use Pattern Five to identify the
adverb. However, the adverb may be found moving freely in any of our patterns.
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE:
The boy usually seems happy.

usually = the adverb.

PREDICATE NOUN:
The boy then became a scout.

then = the adverb.

DIRECT OBJECT:
The boy hit the ball hard.

hard = the adverb.

INDIRECT OBJECT:
Frequently the man gave John an apple.

Frequently = the adverb.

ADVERB:
The boy ran swiftly.

Swiftly = the adverb.

The word modify means to limit or restrict the meaning of another word.
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. In this unit we will
find that adverbs modify verbs most of the time.

Apply your method

Identify the adverb in the sentence and tell what it modifies.


sub VI Adv.
Example: ~ He talked loudly (to us).
He talked loudly (to us). (modifies talked)
Speaking: He = the subject, talked =the verb, + to us = a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Loudly is a how
adverb modifying the verb talked.
157

You Try a few ~~


3. The boys left the house early.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. John fell down by the steps.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Quickly he ran up the hill.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. Mary worked rapidly for her mother. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. They talked to each girl quietly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. Slowly the dog scratched his ear.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

158

9. Our baby cried loudly for an hour.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. She is playing ball now.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. He laughed merrily at the kitten.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. Then she gave them the ball.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. I shall walk down the hall slowly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. Quietly Jean gave them the candy. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

159

15. Gracefully the deer loped up the hill. _________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. Joe now seems hungry.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. The rabbits ran fast by me.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

18. Sharon went leisurely on her way.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

19. Soon he will be a man.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

20. The bird fell there by the tree.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

160

21. Quickly he gave him the pencil.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

22. The plane flew over us swiftly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

23. I jumped down on the ground.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

24. Immediately she left us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

25. Mary was often the chairman.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

26. The boxer hit his opponent hard.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

27. He walked past the house rapidly. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________

161

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

28. Suddenly the dog became friendly. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

29. Laboriously he copied the letter.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

30. Bill gracefully rode the horse.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

31. Now he seems quiet.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

162

Unit 8
Adverbs modifying
Adjectives
Adverbs may also modify adjectives and other adverbs.
When called intensifiers. Intensifiers usually occupy a position before an
adverb or adjective.

Example: ~
Pattern One:

D N LV Int. PA
The cake tastes very good.

Very = an intensifier which to what extent the cake was good.


Very modifies good, an adjective.

Pattern Five:

D N VI Int. Adv.
The boys ran very fast.

Very again = an intensifier. How fast they ran.


Very modifies fast, another adverb.

Use the symbol int. for intensifier.

Apply your method


Sub. LV Int. PA
The pie smells very good.
The pie smells very good.
Speaking: Pie = the subject, smells = the verb. There are no
prepositional phrases. Smells is in our list of
linking verbs
followed by good, a (PA) predicate adjective. Very = an intensifier
modifying good, an adjective.

163

You Try a few ~


__________________________________

2. It was too thin.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. Bob is quite handsome.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. We shall be very happy with it.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. She is too proud for us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. The cake was very delicious.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. Sue felt very good about it.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

164

8. Tom was quite healthy for a boy.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. Darlene is very pretty.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. We were unusually glad about it.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. He is not cheerful around us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The water looked quite clear to me. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. It is too cold in the room.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

165

14. Jane has been unusually sad about it. ________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. His clothes looked quite dirty.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. He seems extremely angry with us. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. The boy became really happy. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Change your idea a little bit ~~~


Example: ~~
Sub. VI. Int. Adv.
He talks too fast (for us).
Speaking: He is the subject, talks the verb, and for us the prepositional
phrase. The verb = neither linking nor transitive. Fast = a
how adverb modifying- the verb talks. Too = an
intensifier modifying the adverb fast.

166

Apply your method


2. Jim works quite fast.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. She skates unusually well.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. He sang very well in the play.

Speaking =

_________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Pat jumped almost perfectly over it. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. The boy in front reads too slowly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. Some girls dance quite well.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

167

8. Tim talked almost constantly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. A car sped very quickly by us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. He listened to me very eagerly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. Jim has eaten too quickly.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. A squirrel dashed very fast by us.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. The tenor sang unusually well.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

168

14. She read too slowly for the part.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. He proved the problem very easily. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. We went to town very unwillingly. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Wipe the sweat off your head and


take a break.

169

170

Unit 9 Adverbial Nouns (Pattern)


The adverb pattern will help us understand adverbial nouns.
Adverb or intransitive complete pattern
Example: ~~
D N VI Adv
The boy ran (out).
D N VI Adv. N.
The boy ran this morning.
In this sentence, this morning = an adverbial noun.
It is called an adverbial noun because it fits the position of an adverb and
answers the question of when but looks like a noun with its determiner this.
Other constructions used as adverbial nouns = next month, tomorrow morning,
two miles, and ten cents.
The predicate adjective pattern is also used frequently with adverbial nouns.
Example: ~~
Sub. LV Adv. PA N.
His pencil was worth ten cents.
Adverbial nouns express ideas of time, distance, or value.

Do you understand this idea?

171

Apply your method


Use the symbol Adv. N. for adverbial noun.
sub VI Adv. N.
Example: ~~ John ran fifty yards.
John ran fifty yards.
Speaking: John = the subject, ran= the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. fifty yards = an
adverbial noun.

You Try a few ~


2. He jumped ten feet over the brook. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. Our dog was worth fifty dollars.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. I saw him last week.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. He met me last night at the park.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

172

6. She walked ten miles to town.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. He was there in the house that day. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. We drove over the roads all morning. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. Three times the car ran around the track. _______________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. John waited two hours in the depot. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. We shall go this afternoon to him. __________________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

173

12. He sat quietly five minutes.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. We backed up one inch.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. Four days it rained.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. The book was worth five dollars.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. The butter was worth sixty cents.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. We offered it to him five times.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

174

18. His hat was worth ten dollars.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

19. She went to town this morning.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

20. I shall pay you next month.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

21. It dropped six inches.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

22. You must walk two miles during the day.______________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

23. He will come to me tomorrow morning. _______________________________

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

175

24. Jim came last night.

Speaking =

__________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

25. The car was worth ninety dollars. __________________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Homework
In the spaces below, write some sentences with adverbial nouns and label them.

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

176

Part V
Adjectives and
Sentence Patterns
Section 2

177

178

Unit 1

Adjective position

The predicate adjective position.


The adjective has been identified in Pattern One.
D N LV
Adj.
Example: The boy seems happy.
The boy seems very happy. A further test is to place very before it.

The pre-noun position


Example: Use this type of sentence to prove that a word is an adjective.
Another common position for the adjective is just before the noun it modifies
regardless of where the noun is in the sentence.
D Adj N VI
Example: The small boy ran.
Small = an adjective modifying boy-- a noun.
Example: We walked (to the sandy beach).
sandy = an adjective modifying beach, a noun within a
prepositional phrase.

The post-noun position


A third position which is somewhat infrequent for the adjective
is immediately after the noun it modifies.
D N Adj
VI
Example: A fish, silver-gray, swam (up the stream ).
Silver-gray = an adjective modifying fish, a noun.
The test is: The fish seemed silver-gray.

179

Apply your method


The blue sky was unusual that day.
D Ad.j N LV P.Adj. Adv. N
The blue sky was unusual that day.
Speaking: Sky = the subject, was = the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb =
linking followed by unusual, a predicate adjective.
That day = an adverbial noun. Blue modifies sky, a noun.
Identify the adjectives using the symbol Adj.

You Try a few ~

2. A red sun disappeared below the distant horizon.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. A white cake sat on the round table.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. An ordinary man can do it.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Some poles were on the green grass.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

180

6. Many little ants crawled away.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. We talked to the athletic boy.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. Each easy problem baffled him.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. A vivid color appeared on the screen.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. We called the anxious parents.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. The puppy wobbled on the clean floor.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. He fell on the slippery ice.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

181

13. The white snow fell slowly.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. A large house stood there.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. He looked in the open door.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. The man had a full stomach.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Change your idea a little bit ~~~


Below are some adjectives in the post noun position.
1. The boy, afraid, retreated.
Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

2. A beast, unsightly, frightened us.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

182

3. His accent, foreign, was strange.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. The idea, brilliant, amazed us.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Her gift, expensive, seemed too much.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. The climb, dangerous, challenged me.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. The children, unhappy, refused the candy.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. The hikers, weary, rested after the trip.


Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Did you Understand all that?

183

184

Unit 2 Noun Adjunct or Appositive

Note:

In previous units, we have found that the adjective occupies three


basic positions:
(1) the predicate adjective position.
(2) the pre-noun position
(3) the post-noun position.

Often, a noun adjunct is confused with the pre-noun position of the


adjective.

Pre-noun adjective:
The small boy ran.
Small = a true adjective because it makes sense when it is placed in the
predicate adjective position.

Example:

The boy seemed very small.

Noun Adjunct:
NA
The gas station was on the corner.
If we test gas in the predicate adjective position, we get
The station seemed very gas.
This tells us gas = not a true adjective.
However, it will make sense in a noun position, such as,
The gas exploded or We bought some gas.
We call the word gas a noun adjunct.

185

Post-noun:
A noun in this position = called an appositive.
It is placed after a noun or pronoun to explain it, and it is usually set off by
commas.

Example:

App. N
The man, a salesman, talked to us.

Salesman is a word in the post-noun position which adds something to


our knowledge of man and = an appositive.

Apply your method


Identify the nouns in the sentences below and then decide whether the words in
the pre-noun or post-noun positions are noun adjuncts or appositives.
Use the symbols NA for noun adjunct and App.N for an appositive noun.
D NA N
VI
Adv
Example: The lamp light glowed brightly.
The lamp light glowed brightly.
Speaking: Light = a noun because of the determiner the and its position as
the subject of the sentence. Lamp = a noun adjunct because it will
fit into a noun position. Example: the Lamp went out
N D App.N VI
Example: John, my friend, came (with us).
Speaking: John = a noun because of its subject position. Friend = an appositive
noun signaled by the determiner my and meaning the same thing
as John or adding to our knowledge of John.

186

You Try a few ~~


3. The picture frame was painted.
______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. The football coach talked to us.


______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. I knew Tim, the boy with the hat.


______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. Rollo the clown ran toward us.


______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. A wall chart revealed the information. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. We went to summer school.


______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

187

9. We talked with the man, our teacher. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. The freight train rumbled by.


______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

11. His chair, a wreck, was thrown away. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Change your idea a little bit ~~~


Can you now tell the difference between an adjective and a noun adjunct?
Apply the predicate adjective test for the adjective and the subject
position for the noun adjunct.
What is the predicate adjective test for the adjective and the subject position
for the noun adjunct?
_______________________________________________________________

Just a few more~~


1. The handsome boy turned toward me. ______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

188

2. The mountain top seemed quite high. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. He borrowed my red pencil.


______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

4. Sue looked at my stamp collection. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. A sweet taste was in his mouth.


______________________________
Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. The delivery boy came to the door. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. Your foolish actions are not wanted. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. We bought a gun rack at the store. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

189

9. It was a desolate country. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. The principle reason seemed sound. ______________________________


Speaking = _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

190

Unit 3 Degree with Adverbs and Adjectives

Note:

There are three degrees in comparing adjectives and adverbs:


positive, comparative and superlative.

Example:
Positive=old;
Comparative= older
Superlative =oldest.
The er and est endings = signals for degree with both adjectives and adverbs.
With words of more than one syllable, add more or less for the comparative,
and most or least for the superlative.
Examples:
Positive ~~ necessary;
Comparative ~~ more or less necessary
Superlative ~~ most or least necessary.
Some two - syllable adjectives are compared like glossy;
glossy, glossier, glossiest.

191

Directions: Write the comparative and superlative degrees of


the adjectives below.
POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

Bright

brighter

brightest

Difficult
Majestic
Brown
Tasty
Blissful
Fruitful
Wide
Costly
Shrill
Directions:
Write the comparative and superlative degrees for these adverbs.

Soon
Bravely
Merrily
Quickly
Slowly
Freely
Loyally
Fast
Sadly
Honestly
Truthfully
Wisely
Devoutly
Broadly

sooner

soonest

192

Unit 4 Adjective or Adverb

Pattern One ~~

a test sentence for an adjective.

D N
LV
PA
The boy seems happy.
A word which can be substituted in the position of happy = an adjective.

Pattern Five ~~

a test sentence for an adverb.

D N VI Adv.
The boy ran out.
A word which can be substituted for out = an adverb.

Note:

If you are in doubt about a word being an the adjective or adverb, try
substituting it in the adjective or adverb positions in our basic sentences.

Apply your method


sub.

Adv.

1. The men spoke quietly about it.


Speaking: Men = the subject; spoke = the verb; and about it = the
prepositional phrase. Spoke is not linking nor transitive. Quietly
= a how adverb modifying spoke, the verb.

You Try a few ~~

2. Jane seemed sad that day.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. The boys drove later to the farm.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

193

3. His house appeared old to us.

Speaking =

____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

5. Jean sewed neatly.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. The boy jumped high over the fence.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

7. Grace seemed happy about it.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. It tasted delicious to me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

9. Our room continued cold for an hour.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

10. The dog ran quickly into the house.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

194

11. She sang well for us.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12. The student appeared confident.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

13. He is glad about the outcome.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

14. His car veered sharply to the left.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

15. My boots seemed new to him.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

16. Your father walked quickly past me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

17. Your father seems businesslike.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

195

18. We swam bravely up the river.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

19. A deer walked slowly to the fence.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

20. It seemed inquisitive.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

2I. The graceful deer walked away.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

22. I saw a graceful deer.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

23. A cold wind blew hard.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

24. The white snow drifted lazily.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

196

25. A brilliant sun shone that day.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

26. The swift sleds zipped along.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

27. I ran fast.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

28. I was moody.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

29. That noise sounded harsh.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

30. Some harsh noises are offensive.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3I. The blue rug looked dirty.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

197

32. We walked silently over it.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

33. The dim lights flickered.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

34. He ran swiftly to school.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

35. His book lay on the clean floor.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

36. The lion suddenly sprang.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

37. Your pie smells delicious to me.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

38. Peter seemed unhappy.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

198

39. We slid easily that day.

Speaking =

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Wipe the sweat off your head and


take a break.

199

Unit 5 Functions of Nouns


We need to be sure that we know the difference between the identification
of a noun and its function, or use. It is like knowing not only what a car is
but also what its purposes are.
Nouns are identified by certain formal characteristics.
Do you remember them?
1. A determiner helps signal a noun.
D N
Each day came slowly.
2. A noun can be identified by its position as the subject in a basic sentence.
D sub
Some boys walked with us
.
3. Nouns can be identified by their plural endings at times.
Boy - boys; church churches; tax - taxes; business - businesses.
4. Nouns can be identified by the s.
The boy's hat was on the floor.
5. Suffixes sometimes give us a hint that a word is a noun.
Likeness, kingdom, remembrance, youngster.
Nouns function or are used as subjects, indirect objects, direct objects,
predicate nouns, and objects of the preposition.

200

There are other uses which we will learn later. We have seen nouns with these
functions in our basic patterns.
sub.
Pattern One:
The boy seemed happy.

Pattern Two:

sub. LV
PN
The boy became a scout.

Pattern Three:

sub V-t
DO
The boy hit the ball.

Pattern Four:

sub V-g IO
DO
The man gave John an apple.

Apply your method


~~

Above each sentence identify each word.

~~ Below the sentence write the symbol that identifies the use or function of the
noun.
SAMPLE~~
~~ D N V-g
N D N
N
The boy wrote Tom a letter (on Tuesday)
~~ sub
IO
DO
OP
~~
2. Jean makes Joe some cookies each week.
~~
~~
3. The artist painted the picture.
~~

201

~~
4. The boy found a puppy by the lake.
~~
~~
5. Bill washed the coat with soap.
~~
~~
6. The man was a leader of men.
~~
~~
7. Father took the dog into the woods.
~~
~~
8. Linda wrote Sue a note of thanks.
~~
~~
9. My mother baked a cake that week.
~~
~~
10. Some kites sailed high in the air.
~~
~~
11. The usher found Mary a seat.
~~
~~
12. The bird built a nest in the tree.
~~

202

~~
13. John became president of the class.
~~
~~
14. Joe is the chairman of the group.
~~
~~
15. Jan hit the ball over the fence.
~~
~~
16. Susan became an actress.
~~
~~
17. Each boy took his book.
~~
~~
18. The monkey learned the trick.
~~
~~
19. The boy near me is Tom.
~~
~~
20. Our teacher read Jim the story.
~~
~~
21. Tom was a friend.
~~

203

~~
22. The coach injured his leg.
~~
~~
23. The boy on the grass is Tim.
~~
~~
24. Many games entertained the men.
~~
~~
25. All people want peace.
~~
~~
26. He told the man about a path.
~~
~~
27. The fish had a scar on its side.
~~

Wipe the sweat off your head and


take a break.

204

205

Unit 6 Summary of Form Class clues


In traditional grammar, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs were called
parts of speech.
In modern grammar, these are said to belong to form classes.
Therefore in the sentence
The boy seemed very hungry, boy is in the noun form class,
seemed in the verb form class, very in the adverb form class
(also identified as an intensifier), and hungry is in the adjective form class.
Below is a summary of the form class clues which will help you identify words.
Learn them !!!
NOUN FORM CLASS CLUES
1. Determiners.
2. Position as the
subject,
direct object,
indirect object,
predicate noun,
and object of a preposition.
3. Plural endings.
4. Possessive form.
5. Noun suffixes.
6. Capitalization.
7. Internal change (man-men).

206

VERB FORM CLASS CLUES


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Position after the subject in a basic sentence.


s ending in the present tense.
ed ending in the past tense.
ing ending for the present participle.
Auxiliaries.
Often are action words.
Internal change (rise, rose, risen).

ADJECTIVE FORM CLASS CLUES


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Position after a linking verb.


Pre-noun position.
Post-noun position.
Endings like er, est.
Signal words like more, less, most, and least.

ADVERB FORM CLASS CLUES


1. Position after an intransitive complete verb.
2. ly ending.
3. Answer the questions of
how,
when,
where,
why,
and to what extent.
4. Intensifiers.
5. Prepositions used alone are usually adverbs.
6. Endings like er and est.
7. Signal words like more, less, most, and least.

Learn them !!!

207

Unit 7

Contrasting Forms

In the next three units we will try to determine the part of speech a word is
by its position or other structural clue in the sentence.
You are to choose the correct form, write it in the blank, and over it
identify its part of speech. Use what you have learned to help you.
NOUN OR VERB?
N
v-t
1. The teacher told me about it. She will teach me about it. ---- teacher-teach
Review -Teacher = a noun because of its position as the subject of the sentence and
because of the determiner the.
Teach = a verb because of its position and because will acts as a signal for a verb.
writes - writer
2. She _________ to me often.

I want to be a ___________.

maker - make
3. The _________ of the toys is Tom.
He will_________ me a toy.
abuse - abuse
4. I've had enough of his __________.
The bully will _________ you.
collide - collision
5. A _________ occurred there.
The cars will _________ there.
walk - walking
6. I was _________down the hall.
The _________was satisfying.
paint - paint
7. Jim mixed the _________.
Jim did _________the wall.
amuse - amusement
8. This should _________ you.
We paid for the _________.

208

NOUN OR ADJECTIVE?
N
sheep sheepish
Adj
1. The sheep were in the meadow.
He had a sheepish smile.
Review -Sheep = a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner the.
Sheepish = an adjective because the smile seemed sheepish, the predicate
adjective pattern.
child - childish
2. The _________ boy stayed after school.
He acted like a ___________.
joy - joyous
3. Our family knew no bounds to _________
It was a _________ affair.
messy - mess
4. It was a real _________
The _________ table was cleaned.
happy - happiness
5. The _________children walked home.
Their _________seemed evident.
snow - snow
6. Much _________fell that day.
We climbed a _________hill.
mannish - man
7. Jerry was a tall _________
A _________ boy came into the room.
fame - famous
8. His _________spread far.
A _________ person lives there.

209

Unit 8

Contrasting Forms (2)

What to do:
over
Choose the correct form, write it in the blank, and
it.
Identify its part of speech. Use structural clues to help you.

VERB OR ADJECTIVE?

Practice:
Adj
1. A ripe peach was on the table.

ripe ripen

V
The peach will ripen.

Review -Ripe = an adjective because it fits the predicate adjective pattern.


Ripen = a verb because of its position and because of will as a signal for a verb.
weaken - weak
2. The boy was _________
The strain will _________the rope.
soft - soften
3. We should _________the bread.
Our car was on a _________shoulder.
deepens - deep
4. That color __________.
He fell into the_________ water.
brighten - bright
5. Jerry is a _________student.
The sun will _________ the room.
hard - harden
6. The _________ substance was rock.
It will soon___________.
thick - thicken
7. Mother will
_________the gravy.
It was _________ gravy.
enlarge - large
8. A _________ house was on the lot.
He will _________ the picture.
shorten - short
9. That is a _________rope.
Jim will _________the rope.

210

ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB?
Adj.
1. The open door invited us

Adv.
He cheated openly.
Review --

Open = an adjective because it fits the predicate adjective pattern.


Openly = an adverb because it fits the adverb pattern.
glad - gladly
2. We were __________about the incident.
sad - sadly
3. They ________ talked about it.
politely - polite
4. The ________ lady appeared.
bright - brightly
5. A ________
sun shone on the roof.

He will________ do it.
It was a ________story.
They talked _________ .
The sun shone ________.

normally - normal
6. We led ________lives.

They talked _________.

idly - idle
7. ________hands get one into trouble.
The boys sat ________ in their chairs.
cheerful - cheerfully
8. A ________ smile is an asset.
She smiled________ at us.
immediate - immediately
9. He did it ________.
He gave UB an ________answer.

Only one More


Left!
211

Unit 9

Contrasting Forms (3)

What to do: Choose the correct form, write it in the blank, and

over it

identify its part of speech. Use the position of the word and
our other clues.

ADVERB OR NOUN?

Practice:
N
1. The hour was long.

hourly -

hour

Adv
We worked hourly during the week.

Review -Hour = a noun because of its position as the subject and because of the
determiner the.
Hourly is an adverb because it fits the position of an adverb in our adverb pattern.
seaward - sea
2. The ship went to _________.

The ship went ________.


afoot - foot

3. Tom's ________ is hurt.

It left him _________.

ground - aground
4. We sat on the hard ________.
The ship ran _________.
daily - day
5. We worked each _________.
We worked ________.
weekly - week
6. Every________ was a bore.
We tried _______.
part - apart
7. My________ was long.
They drifted _________.
across - cross
8. Each boy bore a ________.
They took the boat _________.
nights - nightly
9. Some ________ are dark.
Sharon came ________.

212

ADVERB OR PREPOSITION?

Practice:
P
1. He jumped out the window.

out -

out

Adv
They threw the soup out.

Review -Out = a preposition because it begins a prepositional phrase.


Out = an adverb because it fits the adverb position in the adverb pattern.
about - about
2. The boys moved ________.
The boys moved ________the room.
up - up
3. The boys looked ________.
They ran ________the street.
before - before
4. He notified us ________.
We left ________noon.
in - in
5. The girls slowly walked ________.
They passed ________ the hall.
down - down
6. He threw the ball ________the alley.
He threw the ball ________.
along - along
7. The children tagged ________.
They walked ________the shore.
up - up
8. A plane flew ________.
A plane bounced ________the runway.
down - down
9. The sun went ________in the evening.
We traveled ________the road.

So Easy ~~ I Love Grammar!

213

Summary of Adjectives

VOCABULARY REVIEW
SYMBOL
1- Adj.
2. LV
3. PN
4. DO
5. V-t
6. IO
7. V-g
8. Adv
9. VI
10. int
11. Adv. N
12.
13.
14.
15. NA
16. App.N

SPELLING

PRONUNCIATION

adjective
linking verb
predicate noun
direct object
transitive verb
indirect object
transitive verb
(give type)
adverb
intransitive verb
intensifier
adverbial noun
positive
comparative
superlative
noun adjunct
appositive noun

ad'jec-tive
link'ing verb
pred'i-cate noun
di-rect' ob'ject
tran'si-tive verb
in-di-rect' ob'ject
transi-tive verb
ad'verb
in-trantsi-tive verb
in-ten i si-fi-er
ad-ver'bi-al noun
pos i-tive
com-par a-t i ve
su-per'la-tive
noun ad' junct
ap-pos'i-tive noun
Review --

1. The adjective is identified by the predicate adjective pattern.


D N LV
PA
The boy seems happy.
2. Predicate nouns or pronouns may follow a linking verb.
They are identified by the predicate noun pattern.
D N
LV D N (PN)
The boy became a scout.
3. Direct objects follow transitive verbs.
They are identified by the direct object pattern.

214

D N V-t D N (DO)
The boy hit the ball.
4. An indirect object may be in the position between the verb and direct object.
D N V-g IO D DO
The man gave John an apple.
5. Adverbs may be identified by the adverb pattern.
They also answer the questions of how, when, where, or to what extent
(sometimes why) and modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
D N VI Adv
The boy ran (out).
6. Adverbial nouns express ideas of time, distance, or value and may be identified
by the adverb pattern. They also are found with other patterns.
7. Adjectives and adverbs may be compared in
degree; positive, comparative, and superlative.
Noun adjuncts may occupy the pre-noun position; appositives, post-noun.
8. BE SURE YOU KNOW THE 6 METHODS.
Step 1. Identify the subject.
Step 2. Identify the verb.
Step 3.Put parentheses around prepositional phrases.
Step 4. Check for a linking verb followed by a predicate word.
Step 5. Check for a transitive verb followed by a direct
object and possibly an indirect object.
Step 6. Look for adverbs.

215

216

Part VI
Transformations

217

218

Unit 1 Forming the Question sentence


Our basic sentences have been statements embodied in five different
patterns. There are many other kinds of sentences that we can make from
basic sentences.

Note:

In the next four units you will write simple sentences that are called
transformations of basic sentences.

The word generate means to produce or yield.


FORMING THE QUESTION SENTENCE
Directions: Using the basic sentences in the left column, rewrite them into
questions by reversing the position of the subject and auxiliary verb as indicated
in the first sentence. Don't forget the question mark. (?)

Easy idea ~~
BASIC SENTENCE
1. He will try now.

QUESTION
(transforms into)

1. Will he try now?

2. The man will hit the ball.

___________________________________

3. The man has taken the car.

___________________________________

4. The boy did seem tall.


help
(seemed)
5. Joe has given David the ball.

___________________________________

6. Jane should leave the house.

__________________________________

7. He is walking slowly.

___________________________________

8. The boys have enjoyed the trip.

__________________________________

___________________________________

219

9. The children have seemed happy.

_________________________________

10. The class will give him a present.

__________________________________

Note:

If the verb has no helper (auxiliary), to make a question, add (+) do,
does, or did before the subject.

Don't forget the question mark-?.

You Try a few ~~


1. The boys know her.

(transforms into)

1. Do the boys know her?

2. John tried hard.


help
(did try)

___________________________________

3. Dick ate his soup.


help
(did eat)

___________________________________

4. The man seemed strange.


help
(did seem)

___________________________________

Do you understand how to do it?


5. He gave Helen the ball.

___________________________________

6. My friend became president.

___________________________________

7. Jean seems happy.

___________________________________

8. The men work hard.

___________________________________

9. He performed his work well.

___________________________________

220

Unit 2 Forming the negative sentence

Note:

To form a negative statement from a basic sentence, put the negative


after the helper (auxiliary).

Example:
BASIC SENTENCE

FORM THE NEGATIVE

1. The boys could go now. (transforms into)

l. The boys could not go now.

2. The pitcher would hit the ball.

___________________________________

3. He will become president.

___________________________________

4. Father will tell us a story.

___________________________________

5. They will avoid him.

___________________________________

6. June does seem happy.


help
(seems)
7. The farmer has ploughed all day.

___________________________________

8. Peter has driven the car.

___________________________________

9. Jane should leave soon.

___________________________________

10. He would give me the book.

___________________________________

___________________________________

221

Unit 3

Forming the There sentence

Note:

To make a "there" sentence from a basic sentence, begin the sentence


with There and reverse the position of subject and verb.

Remember that There is not the subject of the sentence. Another good
way to find the subject is to ask who or what is doing the verb or action.
BASIC SENTENCE

MAKING THE THERE SENTENCE

1. The boys were by the tree. (transforms into)

1. There were boys by the tree.

2. The pencil was on the floor.

There_______________________________

3. A lady is at the door.

_____________________________________

4. The dishes were on the table.

_____________________________________

5. My friend is in the boat.

_____________________________________

6. The baby is on the floor.

_____________________________________

7. A fire has been here.

______________________________________

8. Your coat is on the table.

______________________________________

9. A girl is in the hall.

______________________________________

10. Some boys are in the gym.

______________________________________

Note:

The basic sentence here has -- is, are, was -- which makes A = B. A =
the subject most of the time. B = the object and you can find it very
easily because it shows the place of the subject with the words -- on
or in -- or just place like here.

222

Unit 4 Forming the Interrogative Pronoun sentence

Note:

An interrogative = a word used in asking a question. Who, Whom,


What, How, Where, When, Which, and Why are interrogatives.

How to do it!
To make the interrogative pronoun sentence from a basic sentence, change
the order so that the interrogative comes first. Remember the question
mark. (?)
BASIC SENTENCE

(transforms into)

1. He did buy a car. (Which)


help
(bought)
2. Jim has told the truth. (Why)

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE
Which car did he buy?

Why _____________________________?

3. The ball did hit the ground. (When)

_________________________________?

4. Father went to town. (Who)

_________________________________?

5. He did work there. (Where)


help
(worked)
6. He has done it. (How)

__________________________________?

7. John has taken the car. (Which)

___________________________________?

__________________________________?

8. The man did call someone. (Whom) ___________________________________?


help
(called)
9. He did sing at the concert. (What) ___________________________________?
help
(sang)
10. You were there. (When)
___________________________________?

223

Unit 5 Forming the Passive sentence

Note:
The word passive means not active, but acted upon.
If the subject does the acting = the direct object receives the action,
and the verb is called transitive active.
If the subject is acted upon, the verb is called transitive passive.
To make a passive sentence, rewrite the basic sentence so that the direct
object becomes the subject.

Do you understand how to do it?


BASIC SENTENCE
1. John found the pencil.

(transforms into)

PASSIVE SENTENCE
The pencil was found by John.

2. Jim did the work.

The work was______________________.

3. The boys worked the problem.

____________________________________

4. I have taken the book.

____________________________________

5. My brother cut the grass.

____________________________________

6. The keeper has closed the cage.

____________________________________

7. Mary has sewn the dress.

____________________________________

8. Her mother baked the cake.

____________________________________

9. His dog chewed the bone.

____________________________________

224

Unit 6 Forming the Deletion sentence

Note:

The word delete means to erase, or in this case, leave out. Deletion sentences
are formed from basic sentences by omitting words.

We sometimes call these words that we cut out as understood. Therefore we often talk
about understood subjects and objects of a sentence.
In conversation it is most common NOT to use EXTRA WORDS when the topic is the
same. It becomes very boring. The same idea is in writing. If you use the same word too
many times the essay or story also becomes very boring.
Rule of Thumb ~~
If the topic does NOT change, delete the extra words which are the same.
BASIC SENTENCE
1. That is Harry's book.

(becomes)

DELETION SENTENCES
That is Harry's.

2. These apples taste good.

______________________________________

3. Those bats are mine.

______________________________________

4. His drawings are best.

______________________________________

5. Those pencils are red.

______________________________________

6. We wanted Jim's bicycle.

______________________________________

7. They tried Tom's pencils.

______________________________________

8. This apple is sour.

______________________________________

9. That is Joe's coat.

______________________________________

10. These roads are rough.

______________________________________

225

Unit 7 Forming the Possessive sentence

Note: To make the possessive sentence, one needs a basic sentence + an


included sentence. The word include here means to become a part
of the basic sentence.
How to do it!
You will write the transformed sentence below the basic sentences.
BASIC SENTENCE +

BASIC SENTENCE = TRANSFORMED POSSESSIVE

1. Jim did the work. + The boy has work.

= TRANSFORMED POSSESSIVE
Jim did the boy's work.

Do you understand how to do it?


2. The student has a problem.

The boy worked the problem.

= ______________________________________________________
3. The girl has a book.

I have the book.

= ______________________________________________________
4. The men have a car.

The cars are outside.

= ______________________________________________________
5. He took the apple.

The child has an apple.

= ______________________________________________________
6. The purses were on the table.

The ladies have a purse.

= ______________________________________________________

226

Unit 8

Summary of Transformation Sentences

NAME

BASIC SENTENCE

WE MADE A ?

1. Question Sentence

He will try now.

Will he try now?

2. Do" Question

The boys know her.

Do the boys know her?

3. Negative Sentence

The boys could go now.

The boys could not go now.

4. There Sentence

The boys were by the tree.

5. Interrogative Pronoun

He did buy a car.


help
(bought)

IP

There were boys by the tree.


Which car did he buy?
IP +

6. Passive Sentence

John found the pencil.

The pencil was found by John.

7. Deletion Sentences

That is Harry's book.

That is Harry's. (book)

8. Possessive Sentence

Jim did the work. + The boy has work. = Jim did the boy's work.

How to do it!

In the spaces below make one sentence for each of the Kinds of Sentences we have learned.
1. ______________________________ change to ____________________________?
2. ______________________________ change to ____________________________?
3. ______________________________ change to _____________________________.
4. ______________________________ change to _____________________________.
5. ______________________________ change to _____________________________.

227

Unit 9

Forming Compound sentences

THE COMPOUND SUBJECT


Conjunctions = connecting words like and, or, and but.

Special Note:

Connection means that you need at least two ideas so


you can think
1 idea + 1 idea = 1 Compound Sentence

BASIC SENTENCE + BASIC SENTENCE = COMPOUND SUBJECT


1. Joe ran out.

Jim ran out.

Joe and Jim ran out.

2. She went to the show. + I went to the show.

= _________________________________.

3. Mary left yesterday.

+ She left yesterday.

= _________________________________.

4. Jeff went.

+ He went.

= _________________________________.

5. Chicago is a city.

+ Detroit is a city.

= _________________________________.

6. Dad started for town.

+ Terry started for town. = _________________________________.

7. We had books.

+ They had books.

= ________________________________.

8. John fished all day.

+ Fred fished all day.

=_________________________________.

9. Trees lined the road.

+ Bushes lined the road. =_________________________________.

10. She went to the room. + He went to the room. = ________________________________.


Dont get confused with the Pronouns he, she, they, or them?

228

Unit 10 Forming Compound Verbs


THE COMPOUND VERBS
To make the compound predicate or VERB, connect the verbs with a conjunction.

Lets try it!!!


BASIC SENTENCE

BASIC SENTENCE

He talked to me.

= He stopped and talked to me.

1. He stopped.

I found it later.

COMPOUND VERB

2. I lost my hat.

= _________________________________.

3. He raked the leaves.

+ He burned the leaves. = _________________________________.

4. Jean yelled with glee. + Jean shouted.

= _________________________________.

5. The rain came.

+ It flooded the creek.

= ________________________________.

6. He read a book.

+ He outlined the lesson.

= _______________________________.

7. Dave sang all day.

+ Dave whistled all day.

= _______________________________.

8. I looked at him.

+ I smiled at him.

= _______________________________.

9. He worked hard.

= ________________________________.

10. My hat fell there.

+ My hat lay there.

11. We swam in the pool. +

He played hard.

= _______________________________.

We played in the poo1. = _______________________________.

How did you do?


This is so easy I

English Grammar!


229

Unit 11 Forming compound Direct Objects

Note:

To make the compound direct object, combine the direct objects of two basic
sentences with a conjunction.
(connector)

Lets try it ~~
BASIC SENTENCE
1. Joe hid the ball.

+ BASIC SENTENCE

= COMPOUND DIRECT OBJECT

+ Joe hid the bat.

= Joe hid the ball and bat.

Special Note: When you have two articles like the it is good to drop
one and not use two.
Example ----- the ball and bat

NOT

the ball and the bat

~~ Your Turn ~~
2. We had books.

+ We had pencils. = ______________________________________.

3. They took the boy. +

They took the girl. = _____________________________________.

4. We wanted a cow +

We wanted a horse. = _____________________________________.

5 Grace likes bread. + Grace likes cream.

= ______________________________________.

230

Unit 12

Note:

Forming Compound Indirect Objects


To make the compound INdirect object, combine the INdirect objects of two basic
sentences with a conjunction.

Lets try it ~~
BASIC SENTENCE

= INdirect OBJECTS

BASIC SENTENCE

1. He gave me a book.

He gave her a book.

2. I told him the story.

I told her the story.

3. Joe sold Tom the pen.

Joe sold Jim the pen. = ____________________________.

4. She made her a dress.

She made me a dress. = ____________________________.

5. We bought them a ring.

We bought her a ring. = _____________________________.

He gave her and me a book.

= ___________________________.

Note: The INdirect objects here are personal pronouns. They are common on a test.

231

Unit 13

Forming Compound Objects of a Preposition

Note:

To make a compound object of a preposition, combine two objects of a


preposition in two basic sentences.

BASIC SENTENCE

= OBJECTS OF PREPOSITION

BASIC SENTENCE

He gave it to me. = He gave it to him and me.

1. He gave it to him.

2. They played for him.

They played for us.

=______________________________.

3. We did it for John.

We did it for him.

= ______________________________.

4. The boys went with him. + The boys went with me. = ______________________________.
5. She went into the room. + She went into the hall.

= _____________________________.

6. I sat behind Sue.

+ I sat behind Jane.

= ______________________________.

7. They ran after him.

+ They ran after her.

= ______________________________.

8. I left without paper.

+ I left without a pen.

= ______________________________.

Special Note: When you have two of the same preposition it is good to
drop one and not use two.

Example -- I .to him + to me. = to him and to me


How did you do?

This is so easy I

English Grammar!


232

Unit 14

Forming Compound sentences

Note:

Compound sentences are made from any two of our basic patterns
connected by a conjunction.

Learn and, but, and or as coordinating conjunctions coordinate because they


connect sentences of the same value.
BASIC SENTENCE

BASIC SENTENCE

= COMPOUND SENTENCE:

1. We looked for our ball. + We could not find it.


= We looked for our ball, but we could not find it.
2. He did his work.

It was done very well.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
3. The boys waited patiently.

He did not come.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
4. You must study these lessons.

You will not pass.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
5. Joe looked for his pencil.

Harry had hidden it.

= ________________________________________________________________________.

How are you doing?


Special Note: When you have two of the same value sentence you do not
need to change them. Just use the conjunction to join them.

233

6. The men pushed the stalled car.

They were on their way.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
7. We called you on Tuesday morning.

You were not at home.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
8. You may go with us to the store.

You may stay at home.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
9. He must run very fast to school.

He will surely be late.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
10. The teacher gave us an assignment.

The students tried quite hard.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
11. Tim was here.

He left.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
12. You may go to the dance.

You must be home early.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
13. The men looked everywhere.

He was not anywhere near.

= ________________________________________________________________________.

14. Jim and Bill have gone to New York.

We heard from them yesterday.

= ________________________________________________________________________.

234

15. We wrote the sentences.

The students erased them.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
16. Tom wants his baseball.

He will leave the game.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
17. The weather has been bad.

It should improve.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
18. She dialled the number.

The line seemed busy.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
19. We stopped to see you last night.

You were gone.

= ________________________________________________________________________.


How did you do?
This is so easy I

English Grammar!

Take a BREAK before you get a headache!


Unit 15

Forming CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

Note:

Two basic sentences may be made into a compound sentence by using the
235

conjunctive adverbs.
Learn the list below and write them on the lines under the words.
however
_________

still

therefore

__________

moreover

yet

__________________ ________________

hence

________________

accordingly

consequently

_________

_________

nevertheless

____________________

____________

How to do it!
When however or moreover connects the basic sentences, it is preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma.

Example:

He was my friend; moreover, he often helped me.

When the rest of the conjunctive adverbs begin the second clause of the compound
sentence, they are preceded by a semi-colon and not followed by a comma.

Example: It was my turn; consequently I began immediately.


BASIC SENTENCE

(NO COMMA)
BASIC SENTENCE =

COMPOUND SENTENCE:

1. The flag was torn.


+
It was flown from the flagpole.
= The flag was torn; still it was flown from the flagpole.

Lets try it ~~
2. Frank received the correct change.

He counted it.

= ________________________________________________________________________.

236

3. We knew the truth.

We would tell it at the right time.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
4. The knife quivered in the tree.

The hunter would not pull it out.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
5. His car was old.

It still ran quite well.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
6. The work may be hard.

You shall be rewarded for it.

= ________________________________________________________________________.

7. The flower is not my favourite.

I do not want it.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
8. We have been waiting for two hours.

We haven't seen him.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
9. I received a low mark in history.

I must now study hard.

= ________________________________________________________________________.

10. The tree fell on the car.

We were not injured.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
11. You must study now.

You must go to your room.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
237

12. It was not his fault.

I saw the accident.

= ________________________________________________________________________.
13. You know your lesson well.

You should review it.

= ________________________________________________________________________.

238

Unit 16

Forming compound sentences WITHOUT Conjunctions

Note:

A compound sentence sometimes does not have any conjunction between the
two basic sentences. This type of sentence is punctuated with only a semi-colon.

BASIC SENTENCE
My brother is old.

BASIC SENTENCE

I am young.

COMPOUND SENTENCE
My brother is old; I am young.

2. We left early.
+
They arrived later.
= __________________________________________________________
3. Some were jumping rope.
+
Others were playing ball.
= __________________________________________________________
4. Today is cool.
+
Yesterday was warm.
= __________________________________________________________
5. A few went with us.
+
The rest stayed home.
= __________________________________________________________
6. The girls liked the beach.
+
The boys liked the raft.
= __________________________________________________________
7. Father gave me a ball.
+
Tom gave me his glove.
= __________________________________________________________
8. We stopped at the gas station.
+
They drove by us.
= __________________________________________________________
9. Jerry played with the children.
+
I watched from the sidelines.
= __________________________________________________________
10. Our house was painted blue.
+
Theirs was white.
= __________________________________________________________

239

11. The desk was covered with paper.


+
The floor was untidy too.
= __________________________________________________________
12. The robin seemed ready for flight.
+
The sparrow still jumped around.
= __________________________________________________________
13. He seemed very tired.
+
She seemed quite fresh.
= __________________________________________________________
14. His ruler was lost.
+
His pencil was stolen.
= __________________________________________________________
15. Sarah laughed quietly.
+
Jim smiled sadly.
= __________________________________________________________
16. The grass was green.
+
The sky was blue.
= __________________________________________________________

240

Part VII
Phrases and
Clauses

241

242

Unit 1

Phrase or Clause

Definitions:
A phrase = a group of words like a prepositional phrase.

Example:

~ in the room.

A clause is a group of words that has a subject and verb.

Example:

~ when we left.

Clauses may be independent which means that they can stand alone; that
is, just like a basic sentence.

Example:

~ The boy ran to the house.

Clauses may be dependent which means that they cannot stand alone. The
clause needs more words to make a sentence complete.
Independent clauses can be short sentences which do not need anything extra.

Example:

~ because I was alone,

How to do it!

~ Write phrase, dependent clause, or independent clause after the sentence


pieces below.
The first three are done for you.
l. over the hill.
=
2. if you bought this. =
3. She talks loudly. =

phrase
dependent clause
independent clause

243

4. to me.

= _________________________

5. when she talks.

= __________________________

6. during the day.

= __________________________

7. after the ball game.

= __________________________

8. after the ball game was over.

= __________________________

9. We went to the game.

= __________________________

10. within the room.

= __________________________

11. while she was dancing.

= __________________________

12. before the noon hour.

= __________________________

13. since the game began.

= __________________________

14. The game began.

= __________________________

15. in the kitchen.

= __________________________

16. I went into the kitchen.

= __________________________

17. after we went into the kitchen.

= __________________________

18. when he saw us.

= __________________________

19. which you know.

= _________________________

20. by him.

= __________________________

21. I know him.

= __________________________

244

Unit 2

Complex Sentences

Definition:

A complex sentence is made up of an independent or


principal clause + one or more dependent, or subordinate
clauses.

Another way of saying this is that a complex sentence is made up of


a basic sentence + an included sentence.
If the included sentence begins with who, whom, which, that, or whose, and
stands after a noun or pronoun, the dependent or subordinate clause is called an
adjective or relative clause.
Learn who, whom, which, that, and whose as signals for a relative clause.

What to do!
Substitute who, whom, which, or that for the subject of the included
sentence and rewrite both clauses as a complex sentence.
The first one is completed for you. Identify the adjective or relative clause
and what it modifies.
BASIC SENTENCE
=
1. Tom was the boy.

+
COMPLEX SENTENCE
+

INCLUDED SENTENCE

The boy ran out.

= Tom was the boy who ran out.


Who ran out = an adjective or relative clause modifying boy.
2. I know the person.

He painted that picture.

= ___________________________________
________________________________________________

245

3. This is the picture.

It was the best.

= ___________________________________
________________________________________________
4. The judges will choose a man.

The man is strong and healthy.

= ___________________________________
________________________________________________________
5. That is the person.

You know him.

= _______________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. This book is good.

This book is for sale.

= This book which is for sale is good.


Which is for sale = an adjective or relative clause modifying book.

Note:

This sentence shows that adjective or relative clauses may be included


at different places. However, adjective or relative clauses should be
placed immediately after the word they modify.

7. Mary likes the book.

The book is about animals.

= _______________________________________
___________________________________________________
8. Jane gave it to Tim.
+
Tim really appreciated it.
= _______________________________________
___________________________________________________
246

9. He is a pilot.

+
We can trust him.
= _______________________________________

___________________________________________________
10. Here is the book.
+
= _______________________________________

I read it.

___________________________________________________
11. The man told us a story.
+
The man talked to us.
= _______________________________________
___________________________________________________
12. The horse appeared tired.
+
The horse won the race.
= _______________________________________
___________________________________________________

247

Unit 3 Complex Sentences 2

Definitions:

A complex sentence may also consist of a principal clause + one or


more adverb subordinate clauses.

The words below often begin adverb clauses and can be identified as signals for an
adverb clause
after as as if

as though although

because

since

than that

unless

so that

though

before
until

even though if lest

when

where

while

To make a complex sentence with an adverb clause just add one of the
subordinating conjunctions from the list above to the included sentence.

Remember the Patterns?


Pattern Five: The boy ran out.
+ Pattern Five: The men worked.
=
The boy ran out where the men worked.
Where the men worked = an adverb clause modifying the verb ran in the main clause.
Adverb clauses may also begin a sentence on time.
Because she left early she arrived on time. modifies (tells us about the time she
arrived).
Because she left early, she arrived, the verb in the main clause.

248

What to do!
Step 1 ~ Look at the two sentences (Basic + Included)
Step 2 ~ Choose the right signal word and write it in the (parenthesis)
Step 3 ~ Write the new sentence structure with the signal word you
chose.

BASIC SENTENCE
=

+
COMPLEX SENTENCE

1. The boy was happy.


=

INCLUDED SENTENCE

The boy was a leader.

(because)

Because the boy was a leader, he was happy.

2. We told nobody about it.

We knew it.

(although)

= Although _________________________
3. It was a long ride.
+
We got home.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

4. We rode along.
+
Nothing happened.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

5. The children have gone.


+
The air is cooler.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

6. He knew about it.


+
He told the teacher.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

7. You buy me some oranges.


+
You go to the store.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

249

8. You tell me about it.


+
You go.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

9. We stopped at Jim's house.


+
We left the game.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

10. Jim put it back.


+
He found it.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

11. You will be happy.


+
You will hear about him.
= _______________________________________________

(__________)

250

Unit 4

Sentence Signals Quiz

DO YOU KNOW YOUR SENTENCE SIGNALS?


In learning to recognize compound and complex sentences and kinds of clauses, one must be
sure he knows the signals of these constructions.
Re-learn the words below, their names, and what they signal.
After you have done this, cover the left column with a sheet of paper and test yourself by
writing the names and what they signal in the right columns. Abbreviate as much as possible.
COORDINATING
(Connect clauses of compound sentence.)

CONJUNCTION

and

but

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

or
(Connect clauses of compound sentence.)

however moreover still hence therefore


consequently accordingly nevertheless yet
(Signal relative or adjective clauses.)

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

who whom which

that

whose
(Signal subordinate clauses.)

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

after although as as if as though because before even


though if lest since so that than that though
unless until when where while

251

Test yourself by writing the names and what they signal in the right columns.
NAME

WORD SIGNALS?

NAME

WORD SIGNALS?

1. who

_____________

17. or

_____________

2. after

_____________

18. before

_____________

3. however _____________

19. than

_____________

4. and

_____________

20. therefore

_____________

5. as

_____________

21. nevertheless _____________

6. still

_____________

22. because

_____________

7. accordingly _____________

23. until

8. while

_____________

24. consequently _____________

9. but

_____________

25. since

_____________

10. whom

_____________

26. though

_____________

27. moreover

_____________

11. hence

_____________

_____________

12. as though _____________

28. unless

_____________

13. if

29. although

_____________

30. that

_____________

(Two uses )

_____________

14. yet

_____________
_____________

15. so that _____________


16. which _____________
252

Unit 5

Adjective or Adverb Clause

Note:

To identify the adjective clause, look for the adjective clause


signal who, whom, which, or that + the noun or pronoun before the clause.

Make complex sentences below with both adjective and adverb clauses.
To identify the adverb clause, look for one of the adverb clause signals you learned
(after, while, since, etc.).
One other clue that may help you is this: of the two kinds of clauses, only adverb
clauses begin complex sentences.
When they do, they will tell you about the verb in the main clause. Identify the
clauses below and the word they modify.
BASIC SENTENCE
= _________
1. He has a bike.

+
complex sentence

INCLUDED SENTENCE
______________________

+
It has two wobbly wheels. (which)
= He has a bike which has two wobbly wheels.

2. You will be sorry.


+
You stop now. (if)
= _____________________________________________
3. The man carried the supplies.
+
They were necessary. (which) (that)
= _____________________________________________
4. He worked on the plans.
+
He left the room. (after)
= _____________________________________________
5. I took the book.

+
It was the largest. (which)
= _____________________________________________

6. He stooped.

+
His back ached. (because)
= _____________________________________________

253

7. They walked slowly.


+
They arrived at the park. (when)
= _____________________________________________
8. John is a person.
+
John likes apples. (who)
= _____________________________________________
9. This is the lesson.
+
It caused us trouble. (that)
= _____________________________________________
10. I shall tell you my name.
+
You don 't know me. (because)
= _____________________________________________
11. It was the place.
+
It scared us. (that)
= _____________________________________________
12. He ran so fast.

+
He became tired. (that)
= _____________________________________________

13. You must return it.


+
You have my hat. (although)
= _____________________________________________
14. He went into the house.
+
He could eat his lunch. (so that)
= _____________________________________________
15. He met a boy.

+
He was lame. (who)
= _____________________________________________

254

Unit 6

Adjective modifiers

Definitions:
I.

The word modify = to qualify or describe. Adjectives and adverbs


modify or describe.

There are adjective word modifiers. Large = an adjective word modifier

Example: A large crowd attended the rally. The word large describes the crowd which
is a noun.

II. There are adjective phrase modifiers.


Example: The boy (with the hat) is Jim. With the hat = an adjective phrase modifier.
The phrase describes boy, which is a noun.
Adjective phrases can be found most often just after the noun they modify.
Here again we find the importance of position in English sentences.

III. There are adjective clause modifiers.


Example: The boy [who fell] was Joe.
Who fell = an adjective clause modifier. The clause describes the noun, boy.
Adjective clauses can be found just after the noun they describe.
From this point we will use brackets ~ [ ___ ] ~ to show the clauses.
We will learn a few other parts of speech where we will use the brackets ~ [ ___ ] ~ later.

255

What to do!
Identify subjects ~ sub,
verbs V
+ prepositional phrases (___) .
Put brackets ~ [ around clauses].
Write on the line whether there is a; word, phrase, or clause modifier.

Example:
sub V-t adj
1. The boy has a new hat.
sub
LV
2. The boy (with the hat) is Jerry.

New = an adjective word modifier.

with the hat = an adjective phrase modifier.

sub
LV
3. The boy [who is my friend ] is Jerry. Who is my friend = an adjective clause modifier.

You Try a few ~~


4. A large boat arrived.
__________________________________________________________.
5. A boat with passengers arrived.
__________________________________________________________.
6. A boat which had passengers arrived.
__________________________________________________________.
7. My little sister likes candy.
__________________________________________________________.
8. My sister with the glasses likes candy.
__________________________________________________________.

256

9. My sister who likes candy is here.


__________________________________________________________.
10. We saw a small bird.
__________________________________________________________.
11. We saw a bird with few feathers.
__________________________________________________________.
12. We saw a bird which had a worm.
__________________________________________________________.
13. The football players practiced hard.
__________________________________________________________.
14. The players on the field practiced hard.
__________________________________________________________.
15. The players who practiced hard came in.
__________________________________________________________.
16. The lonesome boy walked slowly.
__________________________________________________________.
17. The boy with the frown walked slowly.
__________________________________________________________.
18. The boy who frowned walked slowly.
__________________________________________________________.

How did you do?

This is so easy I

English Grammar!

257

258

Unit 7 Simple, Compound, or Complex


Remember the Patterns?
Our five basic patterns are called simple sentences.

Definition:

A compound sentence is made up of two of our basic sentences


connected by the coordinating conjunctions, the conjunctive adverbs,
or a semi-colon.

Definition:

A complex sentence is made up of two of our basic sentences


with one of them being a subordinate or dependent clause. Complex
sentences may have more than one subordinate clause.

What to do!
Identify subjects ~ sub, verbs V
+ subordinate clauses.
Write on the line whether the sentence is simple, compound, or complex.

Example:
sub. V
1. The boy gave Tom an apple.

Simple sentence.

sub V-g
sub aux V-t
2. The boy gave Tom an apple, but he did not eat it.

Compound sentence.

sub V-g
3. [After he gave Tom the apple,] he left.

Complex sentence.

You Try a few ~~


4. I know about his work because he told me.

_______________________

5. Mary knew the story, but she wouldn't tell it.


6. When Bob went to the movies, he came home late.

_______________________
_______________________

259

7. I have several pencils.

_______________________

8. When she was told, she wiped the silverware.

_______________________

9. Jim expects the boys at noon.

_______________________

10. Bob and Ed ate and laughed.

_______________________

Note: Don't confuse compound constructions for compound sentences.


11. Do you like history, or would you prefer to shop?

_______________________

12. Bill thought about it for several hours.

_______________________

13. If I don't take the test now, she will fail me.

_______________________

14. We looked everywhere; however, we could not find her.

_______________________

15. My sister is crabby; my brother usually smiles.

_______________________

16. I gave him a bat, although I had another nearby.

_______________________

17. The ruler was on the floor, and the pencil was next to it.

________________________

18. She opened the book and tore the pages.

_______________________

19. When she arrived at home, she started the lunch.

________________________

20. He must trip the lever, or he must wait for another ten minutes. ______________________
21. The janitor cleaned the room while I was in the hall.

260

________________________

Unit 8

Summary Section

SPELLING
l. transformation
2. negative
3. passive
4. conjunctions
5. semi-colon
6. independent
7. complex
8. subordinate
9. generate
10. interrogative
ll. delete
12. conjunctive adverb
13. clause
14. dependent
15. principal
16. relative

PRONUNCIATION
trans-form-a-tion
neg'a-tive
pas-sive
con-junc'tions
sem'i-co-lon
in-de-pend'ent
com-plex'
sub-ord'in-ate
generate
in-ter-rog-a-tive
de-lete'
con-junc-tive ad-verb
clause'
de-pend' ent
prin-ci-pal
rel'-a-tive

SUMMARY
I. Transformations = variations of our basic sentence patterns.
!I. Numbers two (2) - sixteen

2. Question Sentence
3. "DO" Question
4. Negative Sentence
5. "There" Sentence
6. Interrogative Pronoun Sentence
7. Passive Sentence
8. Deletion Sentence
9. Possessive Sentence
10. Compound subject
11. Compound Predicate
12. Compound Direct Object
13. Compound Indirect Object
14. Compound Objects of a Preposition
15. Compound Sentence

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(16) below are transformations.


Will he try now?
Do the boys know her?
The boys could not go then.
There were boys by the tree.
Which car did he buy?
The pencil was found by John.
That is Harry's.
Jim did the boy's work.
Joe and Jim ran out.
He stopped and talked to me.
Joe hid the ball and bat.
He gave her and me a book.
He gave it to him and her.
We looked for our ball, but we could not find it.

261

16. Complex Sentences


(1) relative clause. The boy was Tom who ran out.
+
(2) adverb clause: After the game was over, we went home.
17. Adjective clauses are signaled by who, whom, which, that, and whose,
+ are positioned just after the noun or pronoun they modify.
18. Adverb clauses are signaled by words like since or because, when, etc.
+ are positioned at the beginning or end of sentences.
19. There are adjective and adverb word modifiers.
Adj.
Adv.
A large boat sank slowly.
20. There are adjective and adverb phrase modifiers.
A boy (in blue) walked (down the down the street)
in blue = an adjective phrase modifier and
down the down the street is an adverb phrase modifier.

262

Unit 9

Forming Noun Clauses

Definitions:

Example::

Noun clauses are like nouns in that they may be used as subjects,
direct objects, objects of a preposition, and predicate nouns, or
subjects.

Noun as the subject:


(sub)
John is my friend.

(sub)

Example::

Noun clause as the subject:


(sub)
[That he is my friend] is obvious.

Example::

Noun as a direct object (DO):


V-t DO

I knew John.
Example::

Noun clause as a direct object


V-t

DO

I knew [that he was my friend].


Example::

Noun as the object of a preposition: (OP)


V-t

OP

We knew (about Tom).


Example::

Noun clause as an object of a preposition:


V-t

OP

We knew of [what he said].


Example::

Noun as a predicate noun:


LV PN

His hobby was a success.


Example::

Noun clause as a predicate noun:


LV

PN

His hobby was [that he could make boats].


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Note: Noun clauses are usually introduced by that, how, why, and where and are made by
combining a basic sentence pattern + an included sentence pattern.

What to do!

Combine the basic and included sentences below as indicated.


+

BASIC SENTENCE

INCLUDED SENTENCE

1. It is true.
+
He is my friend. (As subject)
= NOUN CLAUSE SENTENCE: [That he is my friend] is true.
2. He knew ___________
+
Tim was there. (As direct object) (DO)
= NOUN CLAUSE SENTENCE: He knew [ that Tim was there ]
3. We knew ___________
+
You spoke of whom. (As obj. of prep.) (OP)
= NOUN CLAUSE: We knew of [whom you spoke ].
4. The problem has been ______ +
You will not work. (As pred. noun)
= NOUN CLAUSE: The problem has been that you will not work.
5. It is beyond me.

He does his work.

(As subject ~ use how)

= __________________________how______________________________
6. Father wondered
+
It happened to us.
(As DO ~ use what)
= _______________________________what________________________________________
7. It is a mystery.

You stare like that.

(As sub. ~ use why)

=__________________________________why______________________________________
8. This is not good.

You choose for whomever.

(As OP use )

=____________________________________________________________________________

9. The reason is

I cannot see.

264

(As PN ~ use that)

=___________________________________that____________________________________
10. It is obvious.

He knows his lesson.

(As sub. ~ use that)

=_________________________________that______________________________________

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266

Unit 10

More Noun Clauses

What to do!
In this unit, follow this procedure. (1) Place brackets around noun clauses.
(2) Identify the words in the noun clause by using your
method.
(3) Identify the words in the rest of the sentence.
(4) Tell how the noun clause is used.
Note: Noun clauses are different from adjective and adverb clauses in that they are
essential to the meaning of the sentence.
Note: Adjective and adverb clauses may be omitted, and there still will be a basic sentence
left.
Noun clause: [Why he did it] is important.
Can you leave out [Why he did it]?
Adjective clause: He is the person [who knows].
[Who knows] can be omitted.
Adverb clause: He ran slowly [because he was tired].
[Because he was tired] can be omitted.

Example:
sub VI
sub VI
1. I shall reply to [what you asked].
Noun clause as the object of a preposition.

267

You Try a few ~~


2. That he is my friend is true.

_____________________________________________.

3. The trouble is that she is afraid.

_____________________________________________.

4. We know of whom you speak.

_____________________________________________.

5. He knew that Tim was there.

_____________________________________________.

6. We knew which it was.

_____________________________________________.

7. How he does his work is a mystery. ____________________________________________.


8. The present will be given to whomever you want.
_____________________________________________.
9. We saw that he was old.

_____________________________________________.

10. The difficulty has been that he will not try.


_____________________________________________.
11. Father wondered what happened to us.
_____________________________________________.
12. This is not good for whomever you choose.
_____________________________________________.
13. Why he does not do his work is a problem.
_____________________________________________.
14. The reason is that I cannot see.

_____________________________________________.

15. That he knows his lesson is a fact. _____________________________________________.


16. I shall reply to what you requested. ____________________________________________.
17. How he does it is easy.

_____________________________________________.

18. The mystery was that she went at all. ___________________________________________.


268

Part VIII
Identifying and Expanding

269

270

Unit 1

Identifying Initiatives

Definitions:
Infinitives are verbals. This means that they look like verbs but are used
as another part of speech.
Infinitives look like this: to fly, to be flying, to have flown. They nearly
always begin with to + a verb form.

Be careful Dont get Confused!


Do not confuse a prepositional phrase beginning with to and ending with a noun
or pronoun as an infinitive.

Example: to go = an infinitive
to the house and to me = prepositional phrases.
Infinitives can occupy the position of subject: [To go] was my plan.
Infinitives can occupy the position of the direct object: I wanted [to go].
Infinitives can occupy the position of a predicate noun: His desire was[to go].
Infinitives can occupy the position of the adjective prepositional phrase:
~~ The boy (with the coat) is Jerry.
Infinitive as an adjective: The desire[to go] was strong.
Infinitives can occupy the position of the adverb prepositional phrase.
~~ The boy ran(to the house).
Infinitive as an adverb: He hurried [to go].

271

What to do!
Place [brackets] around the simple infinitive. Write how the infinitive is used.
The first one is done for you.
sub LV
PN
1. [To watch] was a problem.
[To watch] = an infinitive used as the subject.
2. I wanted to watch.
_______________________________________________________________
3. His plan was to watch.
_______________________________________________________________
4. His desire to watch was evident.
_______________________________________________________________
5. He hurried to watch.
_______________________________________________________________
6. To sing is fun.
_______________________________________________________________
7. I wanted to sing.
_______________________________________________________________
8. His plan is to sing.
_______________________________________________________________
9. The idea to sing was good.
_______________________________________________________________
10. We waited to sing.
_______________________________________________________________

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11. He tried to dance.


_______________________________________________________________
12. Sharon's plan was to dive.
_______________________________________________________________
13. Sharon's plan to dive appeared a failure.
_______________________________________________________________
14. To dive is a real thrill.
_______________________________________________________________
15. Jim went to dive.
_______________________________________________________________

273

274

Unit 2

Infinitive Phrases

Note: Infinitives are not always so obvious as in the previous unit. They are
usually a part of an infinitive phrase which will look like one of our basic
sentence patterns.

Example: [To be happy] is often difficult.


Adj.
[To be happy] is an infinitive phrase and is used as the subject like
Pattern One, our predicate adjective pattern.

Example: [To be a friend] is often difficult.


PN
[To be a friend] is an infinitive phrase used as the subject and is like
our predicate noun pattern.

Example: [To help Tom] is my plan.


DO
[To help Tom] is an infinitive used as the subject and like our
direct object pattern.

Example: [To give Tom the book] is my plan.


I0
DO
[To give Tom the book] = an infinitive phrase used as the subject and
like our indirect object pattern.

Example: [To go slowly] is wise.


[To go slowly] = an infinitive phrase used as the subject and like our
adverb pattern sentence.

275

Special Note: The above infinitive phrase patterns may be used in any of
the positions of the simple infinitive; that is, the subject, the
direct object, the predicate noun, the adjective, and the
adverb.

What to do!
Place [brackets] around infinitive phrases. Apply your
method to the infinitive phrase and the rest of the sentence.
Write how the infinitive phrase is used. The first one is
done for you.
sub
LV
PN
1. [To work hard] is my plan.
[To work hard] is used as the subject and like the adverb pattern.
2. She is trying [to do it].
________________________________________________________.
3. The desk to be sandpapered is here.
________________________________________________________.
4. Terry is leaving to go to town.
________________________________________________________.
5. Jim's object was to give it to me.
________________________________________________________.
6. To jump high was out of the question.
_______________________________________________________.
7. We worked to obtain the provisions for the trip.
_______________________________________________________.
8. To sing loudly was not allowed.
_______________________________________________________.

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9. We wanted to go to the show in the evening.


_______________________________________________________.
10. My hope is to show Mary a good time.
_______________________________________________________.
11. The leaders to be chosen that night were in the room.
_______________________________________________________.
12. To explain several problems to the class would take much time.
_______________________________________________________.
13. The boys planned to take a trip into the mountains.
_______________________________________________________.
14. Karen told us to eat the apples quickly.
_______________________________________________________.

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278

Unit 3

Identifying Articles

Definitions:
A participle = a verbal used as an adjective. This means that it looks like a verb but is
used as an adjective.
A participle usually ends in ed, ing, or en.
Participles look like this. ~~ seeing, having walked, being taken.
We have learned that adjectives occupy three basic positions in a sentence:
~~ in the predicate adjective position, before a noun, after a noun.
Participles may also occupy these positions and will modify nouns in the same manner
as adjectives.

Example:
Example:
Example:
Example:
Example:
Example:

Adj.
Adjective in the predicate adjective position: The bread was tasty.
Part.
Participle in the predicate adjective position: We felt satisfied.
Adj.
Adjective in the pre-noun position: The small boy cried.
Part.
Participle in the pre-noun position: The laughing boy ran home.
Adj.
Adjective in the post-noun position: The man, lonely, sat on the bench.
Part.
Participle in the post-noun position: The man, crippled, hobbled away.

279

What to do!
Place [brackets] around the simple participle. Apply your method to the rest of
the sentence. Write what the simple participle modifies.

Example:
Part. sub LV PA
1. The [dancing] bear seemed funny.
Dancing is a participle modifying bear.

You Try a few ~~


2. He caught the bouncing ball.
_____________________________________________________________________________.

3. The frog, jumping, evaded us.


_____________________________________________________________________________.

4. I saw the picture of the sinking ship.


_____________________________________________________________________________.
5. The sleeping child stirred.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
6. They carried water to the burning building.
_____________________________________________________________________________.

7. The boy, running, fell on the sidewalk.


_____________________________________________________________________________.

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8. The wrecked car was towed away.


_____________________________________________________________________________.
9. He set up the folding chairs.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
10. The teacher gave us our graded papers.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
11. Diving frogmen recovered the money.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
12. He closed the sliding door.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
13. We found the stolen necklace.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
14. The wall looked painted.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
15. They always wanted a sailing ship.
_____________________________________________________________________________.
16. The players, tired, lay down to rest.
_____________________________________________________________________________.


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282

Unit 4 Participial phrases


Special Note: Very often, participles are not single words, but are participial
phrases that look like our basic sentence patterns.

Example:

The boys, being fair, gave us the money.


being fair = a transformation of the predicate adjective pattern.

Example:

The boys, being leaders, stepped forward.


being leaders = a transformation of the predicate noun pattern.

Example:

The boys, pushing the car, helped us.


pushing the car = a transformation of the direct object pattern.

Example:

The boys, giving Tom the ball, helped us.


giving Tom the ball = a transformation of the indirect object pattern.

Example:

The boys, walking slowly, got behind.


walking slowly is a transformation of the adverb pattern.

What to do!
Place [brackets] around the participial phrases . Write what the participial phrase
modifies and its sentence pattern.

Example:

IO
DO sub adv V-t DO
1. [Giving Jim some help,] Tom then helped others.
[Giving Jim some help] modifies the noun Tom. This is the indirect
object pattern.

283

You Try a few ~~


2. Having done his lesson, Jerry left.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

3. Hearing the story, we went home.


______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
4. The man, being seen for the first time, impressed us.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
5. Giving the book to his sister, John ran out.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
6. The child, playing by the brook, fell in.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
7. Walking to school, she felt quite happy.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
8. Seeing the beautiful lake, we jumped in for a swim.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

284

9. Fred, stopping by the house, waited patiently.


______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
10. Smiling broadly, she stepped into the room.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
11. Taking the hot potato in his hands, he quickly dropped it.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
12. Tom, hearing the noise on the patio, went outside immediately.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
13. Hurrying to the station, father forgot his suitcase.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
14. The dog, watching us quietly, lay by the door.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
15. Reading the book, Judy relaxed in her chair.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

285

16. The soldier, carrying the flag high, marched proudly by.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
17. The boys, drilled to perfection, performed very well.
______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

286

Unit 5

Identifying Gerunds

Definitions:

Gerunds, pronounced jer'unds, verbals used as nouns are used.


They mostly are verb forms ending in ing like singing, playing,
dancing, etc.

Example:
Example:
Example:
Example:
Example:

N
Noun as the subject: The game was fun.
Ger.
Gerund as the subject: Playing is fun.
N
Noun as direct object: I liked the game.
Ger.
Gerund as the direct object: I liked swimming.
N
Noun as object of a preposition: I knew (about Tom).

Ger.
Example: Gerund as the object of a preposition: I knew of his [singing].
N
Example: Noun as a predicate noun: The game was a thrill.
Ger.
Example: Gerund as a predicate noun: His hobby was [swimming].


What to do!
Place [brackets] around the simple gerund . Write how the gerund is used.

Example:
sub LV PN
1. [Playing] is fun.
Playing = a gerund used as the subject.

287

2. I like camping.
___________________________________________________.
3. She told of his singing.
___________________________________________________.
4. My hobby is fishing.
___________________________________________________.
5. His pleasure is eating.
___________________________________________________.
6. Flying seems difficult.
___________________________________________________.
7. Joe tried rowing.
___________________________________________________.
8. Stealing is unlawful.
___________________________________________________.
9. The artist lived by painting.
___________________________________________________.
10. June tried studying.
___________________________________________________.
11. Her difficulty is spelling.
___________________________________________________.
12. Working requires effort.
___________________________________________________.
13. They liked working.
___________________________________________________.

288

14. Fishing takes patience.


___________________________________________________.
15. Joe's problem is writing.
___________________________________________________.
16. The teacher complained of his running.
___________________________________________________.
17. Soaking is good for some clothes.
___________________________________________________.
18. Their pastime was golfing.
___________________________________________________.

289

290

Unit 6

Gerund Phrases

Definitions:

Gerunds may be part of a gerund phrase. Gerund phrases may


illustrate our five basic sentence patterns.

[Being fair] is easy.


The subject being fair
= a transformation of the predicate adjective pattern.
[Being a man] is often a problem.
The subject being a man
= a transformation of our predicate noun pattern.
[Hitting the ball] seemed easy.
The subject hitting the ball
= a transformation of our direct object pattern.
[Giving the boy the ball] was Tom's job.
The subject giving the boy the ball
= a transformation of our indirect object pattern.
[Going slowly] seemed advisable.
The subject going slowly
= a transformation of our adverb pattern.

Special Note:
The above gerund phrase patterns may be used in any of the positions of the gerund;
the subject,
the direct object,
the object of a preposition,
the predicate noun.

291

What to do!
Place [brackets] around gerund phrases. Write how the gerund phrase is used, +
identify the basic pattern in the gerund phrase.

Example:
sub LV
Adj.
DO
1. Their hobby is [taking different specimens (of trout)].
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the DO pattern.
2. By cleaning my room every day, I received an allowance.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
3. We are not good at doing problems.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
4. Singing loudly is a lot of fun.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
5. Terry wanted golfing as an activity.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
6. I enjoy playing ball with the boys.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
7. We did not know of his coming yesterday.
________________________________________
___________________________________________

292

8. After giving me the ball, Jane walked away.


________________________________________
___________________________________________
9. Having a new car was a novelty.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
10. Talking about people is not wise.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
11. Flying a kite is easy on some days.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
12. In taking our share, we felt satisfied.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
13. He tried diving quickly from the board.
________________________________________
___________________________________________
14. Being a leader has its problems.
________________________________________
___________________________________________

293

294

Unit 7

Identifying Verbals

Note: The three verbals we have learned are infinitives, participles, and gerunds. We have
found that they may be single constructions or part of a phrase. In identifying the
infinitive, look for the to. They may be used as subjects, direct objects, predicate
nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.
In identifying the participle, remember that basically it is used as an adjective.
In identifying the gerund, remember that basically it is used as nouns are used, that is,
as subjects,
direct objects,
predicate nouns,
and objects of a preposition.


What to do!
Place [brackets] around the simple verbal or verbal phrase. Write how the verbal is

used.

sub
LV Adj PN
1.[Writing] is hard work.
Writing is a gerund used as the subject.
2. To write is not easy.
___________________________________________.
3. Writing plays seems hard.
___________________________________________.
4. Kicking the ball to left field, Jim then dropped back.
___________________________________________.
5. He wanted to get away from the blockers.
___________________________________________.

295

6. Tackling players helped on each play.


___________________________________________.
7. The coach tried winning plays.
___________________________________________.
8. His object is to win the game.
___________________________________________.
9. The fumbling fullback was tackled.
___________________________________________.
10. Joe liked being an end.
___________________________________________.
11. He was on the winning side.
___________________________________________.
12. Playing football is my delight.
___________________________________________.
13. We tried to play football every evening.
___________________________________________.
14. Running, the player dodged his opponents.
___________________________________________.
15. The guard, lunging forward, tackled the fullback.
___________________________________________.
16. They played a passing game in the first half.
___________________________________________.
17. To get to the goal line, Joe ran hard.
___________________________________________.

296

18. Diving across the line, he scored a touchdown.


___________________________________________.
19. Our side was the winning team.
___________________________________________.
20. Passing and tackling won the game for us.
___________________________________________.

297

298

Unit 8

Expanding the Simple Subject (1)

Note: In this unit, we will see how a noun used as the simple subject can be expanded into
a noun cluster by adding words before it.
It is possible to repeat this process before nouns used in other positions in a sentence,
like predicate nouns, direct objects, and objects of a preposition.
Some of these expansions (adding words) are not always used very much in English
conversation or writing.
But they will be correct in grammar form. Learning them will help you understand and
identify them when you find them.

Special Note: A noun cluster is simply a noun head-word with words that tell us
about it (modifiers). Head-word means that which is modified. Or, the
focus of the words that tell you about it.

We will use Pattern Five, the adverb pattern, as our basic model.

299

PATTERN FIVE
The boys ran out.
A determiner the, comes before the noun head-word, boys.
The school boys ran out.
Pattern Five also confirms school as a noun adjunct, or a noun telling
The school left out.
The growing school boys ran out.
Growing = a participle, an adjective form telling about a noun.
The honest growing school boys ran out.
Honest = a true adjective as confirmed by our predicate adjective
pattern. The boys seemed honest.
The very honest growing school boys ran out. very = an intensifier
and can tell us about the adjective honest. The boys seemed very
honest.
The man's very honest growing school boys ran out.
man's = a possessive noun identified by the apostrophe ().
In summary the order of the sentences found above may be described as:
(1) determiner
(2) possessive noun
(3) intensifier
(4) adjective
(5) participle
(6) noun adjunct
--all are pre-modifiers or EXPANDERS of the noun head-word boys.
This group of words makes up a noun cluster. It also indicates that we have to be
careful when we call all the words before a noun an adjective.
Remember that noun clusters can be found in any position that nouns occur.

Example:

PATTERN TWO.

Noun cluster as a predicate noun

300

sub LV
The boy became [the scoutmaster's very honest growing boy scout].

Example:

PATTERN THREE.
Noun cluster as a direct object
sub V-t
The boy helped [the scoutmaster's very honest growing boy scout],

Example:

PATTERN FOUR:
Noun cluster as an indirect object
sub V-g
The boy gave [the scoutmaster's very honest growing boy scout] an apple.

Assignment. Following the procedure above, try to expand a noun


head-word into a noun cluster.
Explain what your pre-modifiers are.
Write this on the lines below
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________

301

302

Unit 9 Expanding the Simple Subject (2)


Note: A simple subject, or noun head-word, can be further expanded by adding words,
phrases, or clauses after it.
Again, we will use Pattern Five as our model.
Pattern Five
simple subject 1. The boys ran out.
+ 2. The boys, happy but tired, ran out.
Happy = a true adjective as confirmed by our predicate adjective pattern.
tired = a participle, an adjective that can tell us about a noun.
+ 3. The boys with jackets ran out.
with jackets = an adjective prepositional phrase telling us about boys, a
noun.
+ 4. The boys who took the ball ran out.
who took the ball is an adjective or relative clause telling us about the
noun boys. It is a transformation of Pattern Four. The boys took the ball.
+ 5. The boys reporting ran out.
reporting = a participle. It is a transformation of ~~ The boys were
reporting.
+6. The boys, giving Tom the ball, ran out.
giving Tom the ball = a participial phrase. It is a transformation of Pattern
Four. The boys gave Tom the ball.
+7. The boys, my friends, ran out.
my friends = an appositive, a word which adds to the meaning of boys.
friends = a noun as confirmed by the subject position in. My friends are
true.
To be sure that everything is clear and understood, list the expansions before
+ some of the expansions after the head-word, boys.
303

Before ~~ [The man's very honest growing school boys] ran out.
After ~~ The boys [with jackets, happy but tired, my friends, who took the ball], ran out.
If we play with grammar a little, we can combine the two sentences.
It would look like this ~~

[The man's very honest growing school] boys [ with jackets, happy but tired, my
friends, who took the ball] ran out.

Special Note: While we would probably never say the above sentence, the point is
that it is grammatical and a rather interesting exercise.
The opposite or reverse of this fact is also true. One may take a relatively long noun
cluster and analyze it by using sentence patterns to determine its grammaticality.

Assignment: Following the procedure above, try to e x p a n d a simple subject with


post-modifiers as indicated above.
Write this on the lines below
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________

304

Unit 10

Expanding the Predicate

Note: In this unit, we will see how the simple predicate, or verb, can be
into a complete predicate, or verb cluster.
Pattern Five
The boy ran (out)
The boy ran _____ (out).
Adverbs like out, away, and fast may be added.
The boy ____ (may) run out.
The auxiliaries like can, could, may, and might may be added.
The boy is running out.
This is the Be+V+ing addition.
The boy has run out.
This is the Have + en addition.
The boy has been running out.
This is the Have+Be+V+ing addition.
The boy may have been running out.
This is the aux.+Have+Be+V+ing addition.
The boy ran to the store.
A prepositional phrase may be substituted for an adverb and becomes an adverb
prepositional phrase.
The boy ran that day.
The adverbial noun may be substituted for the adverb.
The boy ran when he saw me.
The adverbial clause may be added as a substitute for an adverb.

305

The boy ran when he saw me because he was afraid.


Two or more adverbial clauses may be added after the verb.
The boy wanted to go out.
The infinitive phrase with its modifiers
may be added to the verb.
The boy liked lending me money.
The gerund phrase may be added after the verb.
The boy often ran out.
One may place an adverb before the verb.
Special Note: Remember that adverbs move rather freely in sentences. They are placed
into different positions for emphasis. Some of the constructions above may
be combined to get the effect of a verb cluster.
The boy [that day often may have been running out into the street when he saw me
because he was afraid].
The constructions within the brackets constitute the verb cluster in this sentence.
Combining the noun cluster + the verb cluster gives us good grammar but rarely used
sentence.
Combine them =
(noun cluster)
[The man's very honest growing school boys with jackets, happy but tired, my friends, who
took the ball] + [that day often may have been running out into the street when they saw me
because they were afraid]. (verb cluster)
Special Note: Two points ought to be clear from this demonstration.
(1) Our basic patterns may be expanded in many ways to meet our communication
needs.
(2) Proof of the validity of modifiers may be obtained from basic sentence patterns.

306

Assignment Using ideas from the constructions above, try to see how many different
additions you can make to a basic verb pattern.
Write this on the lines below
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________

307

308

Unit 11

Summary
VOCABULARY SUMMARY

SPELLING
1. noun clause
2. verbals
3. infinitives
4. infinitive phrase
5. participle
6. participial phrase
7. gerund
8. gerund phrase
9. noun head-word
10. noun cluster
11. pre-modifiers
12. post-modifiers

PRONUNCIATION
noun clause
verb'als
in fin' i tives
in fin' i tive phrase
part' i ci pIe
part i cip'ial phrase
jer' und
jer' und phrase
noun head-word
noun cluster
pre-mod'i fi ers
post-mod'i fi ers


SUMMARY
1. Noun clauses may be used as subjects:
[That he is my friend] is obvious.
2. Noun clauses may be used as direct objects:
I know [that he is my friend].
3. Noun clauses may be used as objects of a preposition:
We knew of [what he said].
4. Noun clauses may be used as predicate nouns:
His desire was [that he should go].
5. Noun clauses are essential to the meaning of the sentence and may not be omitted.
6. Infinitives, participles, and gerunds = verbals.
7. Infinitives may be used as the subject:

[To go] was my plan.

8. Infinitives may be used as the direct object:

I wanted [to go].

309

9. Infinitives may be used as a predicate nouns.


10. Infinitives may be used as adjectives:

His plan was [to go].


His plan [to go] was good.

11. Infinitives may be used as adverbs:

He hurried [to go].

12. Infinitive phrases may include our basic patterns.


13. Participles are verbals used as adjectives.
14. Participial phrases may include our basic patterns.
15. Gerunds are verbals used as nouns.
16. Gerunds may be used as the subject:

[Running] is exhausting.

17. Gerunds may be used as direct objects:

I like [running].

18. Gerunds may be used as objects of a preposition:

We knew of his [singing].

19. Gerunds may be used as predicate nouns:

His pleasure was [eating].

20. Gerund phrases may include our basic patterns.


21. The noun headword may be expanded by pre-and post-modifiers into a noun cluster.
22. The verb may be expanded by pre- and post-modifiers into a verb cluster.

310

Unit 12

Language Terminology

TERM
1. subject
2. predicate
3. determiner
4. noun
5. singular
6. plural
7. possessive noun
8. suffix
9. noun adjunct
10. pronoun
11. appositive
12. indefinite pronoun
13. demonstrative pronoun
14. present tense
15. past tense
16. auxiliary
adverb
17. past participle
18. present participle
19. emphatic form
20. preposition
21. prepositional phrase
22. object of a preposition
23. compound
24. phrasal preposition
25. adjective
26. linking verb
27. direct object
28. predicate noun
29. transitive verb
30. indirect object
31. adverb
32. intensifier
33. adverbial noun

SYMBOL

TERM

sub.
pred.
D
N
S
PL
Poss. N.
NA
Pron.
App
IP
DP
V
V-ed
Aux.
Have+en
Be+V+ing
P
()
OP
CMPD
Adj.
LV
DO
PN
V-t
I0
Adv.
Int.
Adv. N
311

34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.

positive
comparative
superlative
degree
transformation
negative
passive
conjunction
semi-colon
independent
complex
subordinate
generate
interrogative
delete
conjunctive

50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.

dependent
principal
relative
noun clause
clause
verbals
infinitive
infinitive phrase
participle
participial phrase
gerund phrase
noun head-word
noun cluster
verb cluster
pre-modifiers
post-modifiers
Grammatical

312

Introduction to the answers


As a student, grammar can be boring. The answers the students
write should contain all the elements that are given in these
answers. The sequence is not as important as their understanding
of the reason each part of the sentence functions.
Following directions is also important.
You will find that =(is), a missing is, and just is.
An = (is) the determiner and apple the noun. (is missing between apple and the)

This is ok in English. If you repeat a word too often it becomes


redundant. Leaving it out is often normal, as it is understood, and not
needed. I hope these answers will help you.

Dr. Paul R. Friesen

313

Part I Nouns
Unit

The Basic Sentence

Sub.

Pred.

3. He / waved to me.
Speaking = He (=) equals the subject and waved to me (=) equals the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

4. A pencil / lay on the desk.


Speaking = A pencil (=) equals subject and lay on the desk (=) equals the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

5. John / went to the game.


Speaking = John (=) equals the subject and went to the game (=) equals the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

6. The fire / scorched the earth.


Speaking = The fire (=) equals the subject and scorched the earth (=) equals the
predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

7. Each boy / had a pencil.


Speaking = Each boy (=) equals the subject and (=) equals the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

8. I / wanted a hat.
Speaking = I (=) equals the subject and wanted a hat (=) equals the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

Sub.

Pred.

9. Our camp / was in the woods.


Speaking = Our camp (=) equals the subject and (=) equals the predicate.
10. They / lit the lamp quickly.
Speaking = They (=) equals the subject and lit the lamp quickly (=) equals the
predicate.

314

Sub.

Pred.

11. His house / is up the street.


Speaking = His house (=) equals the subject and is up the street (=) equals the
predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

12. Jim / enjoyed the pancakes.


Speaking = Jim (=) equals the subject and enjoyed the pancakes (=) equals the
predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

13. Many friends / met at the concert.


Speaking = Many friends (=) equals the subject and met at the concert (=) equals
the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

14. Dogs / bark.


Speaking = Dogs (=) equals the subject and barked (=) equals the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

15. This house / is very dark.


Speaking = This house (=) equals the subject and is very dark (=) equals the
predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

16. Jerry / has given me his pencil.


Speaking = Jerry (=) equals the subject and has given me his pencil (=) equals
the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

17. That boy / is my friend.


Speaking = That boy (=) equals the subject and is my friend (=) equals the
predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

18. Some days / seem very long. (to be)


Speaking = Some days (=) equals the subject and (to be) very long (=) equals the
predicate.

315

Sub.

Pred.

19. She / cried easily.


Speaking = She (=) equals the subject and cries easily (=) equals the predicate.
Sub.

Pred.

20. A lamp / stood on the desk.


Speaking = A lamp (=) equals the subject and stood on the desk (=) equals the
predicate.

Unit 2

Determiners

D
N
2. Each girl seemed happy.
Speaking = Each = (is) the determiner and girl the noun.
D
N
D
N
3. An apple stood on the table.
Speaking = An = (is) the determiner and apple the noun. The = (is) the determiner
and table the noun.
D
N
D
N
4. Your hat is near the door.
Speaking = Your = (is) determiner and hat the noun. The = (is) determiner and
door the noun.
D
N
5. Their ideas are good.
Speaking = Their = (is) the determiner and ideas the noun.
D

6. These flowers smell good.


Speaking = These = (is) the determiner and flowers the noun.
D N
7. Our school is new.
Speaking = Our = (is) the determiner and school the noun.

316

D
N
D
N
8. My brother told the story.
Speaking = My = (is) the determiner and brother the noun. The = (is) the determiner
and story and story the noun.
D
N
D
N
9. Your coat is on a hanger.
Speaking = Your = (is) the determiner and coat the noun. A = (is) the determiner and
hanger the noun.
D

10. My car went into the ditch.


Speaking = My = (is) the determiner and car the noun. The = (is) the determiner and
ditch the noun.
D
N
D N
11. That girl gave me an apple.
Speaking = That = (is) the determiner and girl the noun. An = (is) the determiner
and apple the noun.
D

12. Either road will do.


Speaking = Either is the determiner and road is the noun.
D
N
D N
13. An orchard produced the fruit.
Speaking = An is the determiner and orchard the noun. The is the determiner
fruit the noun.

and

D N
D N
14. Its tail was a stub.
Speaking = Its = (is) the determiner and tail the noun. A = (is) the determiner and
stub the noun.
D
N
D N
15. Those deer are on the road.
Speaking = Those = (is) the determiner and deer the noun. The = (is) the
determiner and road the noun.

317

D
N
16. Our plans were very detailed.
Speaking = Our = (is) the determiner and plans is the noun.
D
N
17. Any idea will help.
Speaking = Any is the determiner and idea is the noun.
D
N
D N
18. Those girls helped my mother.
Speaking = Those = (is) the determiner and girls the noun. My = (is) the determiner
and mother the noun.
D

19. Each camper took his tent.


Speaking = Each is the determiner and camper the noun. His is the determiner
and tent the noun.
D
N
D
N
20. The men wanted every board.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and men the noun. Every = (is) the determiner
and board the noun.
D N
21. All men are created equal.
Speaking = All = (is) the determiner and men the noun.
D
N
D N
22. Another boy took her book.
Speaking = Another = (is) the determiner and boy the noun. Her = (is) the
determiner and book the noun.
D
N
D
N
23. Their book had many pictures.
Speaking = Their = (is) the determiner and book the noun. Many = (is) the
determiner and pictures the noun.

318

D
N
D N
24. Neither boy wanted any help.
Speaking = Neither = (is) the determiner and boy is the noun. Any = (is) the
determiner and help is the noun.
D
N
D N
25. Her hat was on a hook.
Speaking = Her = (is) the determiner and hat is the noun. A = (is) the determiner
and hook the noun.

Unit 3

Identifying Nouns

D
N
D
N
3. My father came to our picnic.
Speaking = My = (is) the determiner and father is the noun. Our = (is) is the
determiner and picnic is the noun.
N
D
N
4. Trees give us some shade.
Speaking = Trees = (is) the noun because of its position as the subject. Some = (is)
the determiner and shade the noun.
D
N
5. Many parks are quite clean.
Speaking = Many = (is) the determiner and parks the noun.
D
N
D
N
6. The game was a pleasure.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and game the noun. A = (is) the determiner
and pleasure the noun.
N
D
N
7. Jim ran down the street.
Speaking = Jim = (is) the noun because if its position as the subject. The = (is) the
determiner and street is the noun.

319

D
N
D
N
8. The men did their work.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and men is the noun. There = (is) the
determiner and work the noun.
N
D N
9. Susan hid behind a tree.
Speaking = Susan is a noun because of its position as the subject. A is the
determiner and tree is the noun.
D N

10. A rock rolled down the hill.


Speaking = A = (is) the determiner and rock the noun. The = (is) the determiner
and hill the noun.
D
N
D
N
11. Each day gives us some fun.
Speaking = Each = (is) the determiner and day the noun. Some = (is) the determiner
and fun the noun.
N
D N
12. Cars sped down the road.
Speaking = Cars = (is) a noun because of its position as the subject. The = (is) the
determiner and road is the noun.
D
N
D
N
13. A weasel crossed the creek.
Speaking = A = (is) the determiner and weasel the noun. The = (is) the determiner
and creek the noun.
D
N
D N
14. His cat chased the dog.
Speaking = His = (is) the determiner and cat the noun.
D N
D N
15. My ball hit a window.
Speaking = My = (is) the determiner and ball the noun. A is the determiner and
window the noun.

320

N
D
N
16. Tom lay inside our hammock.
Speaking = Tom = (is) a noun because of its position as the subject. Our is the
determiner and hammock the noun.
D
N
D N
17. Their cabin was among the trees.
Speaking = There = (is) the determiner and cabin the noun. The = (is) the
determiner and trees the noun.
D

18. Your dog ran after the rabbit.


Speaking = Your = (is) the determiner and dog the noun. The = (is) the determiner
and rabbit the noun.
N
19. People stood quietly.
Speaking = People = (is) a noun because of its position as the subject.
D
N
D N
20. Every lamp stood on the floor.
Speaking = Every = (is) the determiner and lamp the noun. The = (is) the determiner
and floor the noun.

Unit 4
N

The Plural Endings of Nouns


N

2. Dogs and cats are our pets.


Speaking = Dogs and Cats are plural nouns because of the s ending. Pets = (is) a
plural noun because of the s ending, and the determiner.
D
N
D
N
3. The boxes lay on the floor.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner, and boxes is a plural noun because of the s
ending. The = (is) the determiner and floor is a singular noun because of the
missing s ending.

321

N
D
N
4. Lilies bloomed in the valleys.
Speaking = Lilies = (is) a plural noun because of the s ending. The = (is) the
determiner and valleys a plural noun because of the s ending.
N
D
N
5. Cows ate with the calves.
Speaking = Cows = (is) a plural noun because of the s ending. The = (is) the
determiner and calves a plural noun because of the s ending.
D

6. The nights were long.


Speaking = The = (is) a the determiner and nights is a plural noun because of the
s ending.
D N
D
N
7. The boys served the food.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and boys is a plural noun because of the s
ending. The = (is) is the determiner and food is a singular noun because of the
missing s ending.
D
N
D
N
8. The women enjoyed the waltzes.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner, and women is a plural noun because of the
plural spelling ( woman/women). The = (is) the determiner and waltzes is a plural
noun because of the es ending.
D
N
D
N
9. Some flies were on the tables.
Speaking = Some = (is) the determiner and lies is a plural noun because of the
plural determiner and the ies ending. The = (is) a determiner and tables a
plural noun because of the s ending.
D
N
D
N
10. The axes stood in the corner.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and axes a plural noun because of the es
ending. The = (is) the determiner and corner a singular noun because of the
missing s ending.

322

D N
11. My teeth were clean.
Speaking = My = (is) the determiner and teeth is a plural noun because of its
form. (teeth/tooth)
N
D
N
12. Mary gave it to the children.
Speaking = Mary = (is) a singular noun because of its position as the subject. The
(is) the determiner. Children = (is) a plural noun because of the ren ending.
N

13. Classes passed in the hall.


Speaking = Classes = (is) a plural noun because of its position as subject and the
es: ending. The = (is) the determiner and hall a singular noun because of the
missing s ending.
D
N
D
N
14. The sheep are in the pasture.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and sheep = (is) a plural noun because of the
plural verb usage (are). The = (is) the determiner and pasture a singular noun
because of the missing s ending.
N
15. Churches are built yearly.
Speaking = Churches = (is) a plural noun because of its position as the subject
the es ending.

and

D
N
D
N
16. The men are the bosses.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and men a plural noun because of its form
(man/men). The is the determiner and bosses a plural noun because of its es
ending.
D
N
17. His wishes came true.
Speaking = His = (is) the determiner and wishes a plural noun because of its position
as subject and the es ending.

323

D
N
18. Some ladies are waiting.
Speaking = Some = (is) the determiner and ladies a plural noun because of its
position and the ies ending.
N
D
N
19. John surrendered to his enemies.
Speaking = John is a noun because of its position as subject. His is the determiner
and enemies a plural noun because of the ies ending.
D

20. The citizens paid the taxes.


Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and citizens is a plural noun because of the s
ending. The = (is) the determiner and taxes a plural noun because of the s.

Unit 5

ending.

The Possessive Endings of Nouns

Poss.N N
2. John's sister came with us.
Speaking = Johns = (is) a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s and sister =
(is) a noun signaled by the possessive noun Johns.
D Poss.N N
3. The men's hats were brown.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner. Mens = (is) a plural possessive noun because
of the apostrophe - s and the ending s. Hats = (is) a plural noun signaled by the
possessive noun mens and the s ending.
Poss.N N
4. Explorers' maps are available.
Speaking = Explorers = (is) a possessive plural noun because of the apostrophe and
the ending s. Maps = (is) a plural noun signaled by the possessive Explorers
and the s ending.

324

N
D Poss.N N
5. Joe pulled the pony's mane.
Speaking = Joe = (is) a noun because of its position as subject. The is the determiner
and ponys a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s. Mane is a noun
signaled by the possessive ponys.
D N
Poss.N
N
6. The class read Dickens' prose.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and class the noun. Dickens = (is) a possessive
noun because of the apostrophe s. Prose = (is) a noun signaled by the
possessive Dickens.
D Poss.N N
7. The mothers' tea lasted long.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and mothers a plural possessive noun because of
the apostrophe and the s ending.
Poss.N N
D
N
8. Tim's pencil is on the desk.
Speaking = Tims = (is) a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s. Pencil is a noun
signaled by the possessive noun Tims. The = (is) a determiner and desk a
singular noun.
D
N
Poss. N
N
9. Each class read the author's book.
Speaking = Each= (is) the determiner and class is the noun. Authors = (is) a possessive
noun because of the apostrophe s, and book = (is) a noun signaled by the
possessive authors.
D
N
Poss.N N
10. Some men pushed Jim's car.
Speaking = Some = (is) the determiner and men the plural noun because of the plural
form. Jims = (is) a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s. Car = (is) a
noun signaled by the possessive Jims.

325

D
N
Poss.N N
11. Our home is near Jack's house.
Speaking = Our = (is) the determiner and home the noun. Jacks = (is) a possessive noun
because of the apostrophe s. House = (is) a noun signaled by the possessive
Jacks.
D
N
Poss.N N
12. Any boy would like Tom's bike.
Speaking = Any = (is) the determiner and boy the noun. Tomes = (is) a possessive noun
because of the apostrophe. Bike = (is) a noun signaled by the possessive Toms.
D
N
Poss.N N
13. That animal is Joan's cat.
Speaking = That = (is) the determiner and animal the noun. Joans = (is) a possessive
because of the apostrophe s. Cat = (is) a noun signaled by the possessive
Joans.
Poss.N N
D
N
14. Sally's picture is on the wall.
Speaking = Sallys = (is) a possessive non because of the apostrophe s. Picture = (is) a
noun signaled by the possessive Sallys. The = (is) the determiner and wall a
noun signaled by the determiner.
D Poss.N N
15. The man's wife is here.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner. Mans is a possessive noun because of the
apostrophe s. Wife = (is) the noun signaled by the possessive mans.
D
N
Poss.N N
16. Some girls rode in Jerry's boat.
Speaking = Some = (is) the determiner and girls a plural noun because of the s ending.
Jerrys = (is) a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s. Boat = (is) a noun
because of the possessive Jerrys.

326

D N
Poss.N
N
17. My father borrowed Tom's ladders.
Speaking = My = (is) the determiner and father the noun. Toms = (is) a possessive noun
and ladders a plural noun because of the s ending and signaled by the
possessive Toms.
Poss.N N
D
N
18. Harry's brother came with the men.
Speaking = Harrys = (is) a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s. Brother = (is)
a noun signaled by the possessive Harrys. The = (is) the determiner and men is
a plural noun because of its form. (man/men)
D Poss.N
N
D
N
19. The children's wagons were on the street.
Speaking = The = (is) the determiner and childrens a possessive noun because of the
apostrophe s. Wagons = (is) a plural noun because of the s ending, and
signaled by the possessive childrens. The = (is) the determiner and street is
the noun.
D
N
Poss.N N
20. Our plans are based on Jack's ideas.
Speaking = Our = (is) the determiner and plans a plural noun because of the s ending.
Jacks = (is) a possessive noun because of the apostrophe s. Ideas = (is) a plural
noun because of the s ending, and signaled by the possessive Jacks.

Unit 6

Noun Suffixes

D
N
2. The singer pleased nearly everyone.
Speaking = Singer is a noun because of the determiner the and the suffix er
D
N
D
N
3. The author was a humorist.
Speaking = Author is a noun because of the determiner The. Humor is a noun
because of the determiner a and the suffix ist.

327

D
N
N
4. The Russians practice Communism.
Speaking = Russians is a noun because of the determiner The. Communism is a noun
because of the suffix ism.
D
N
5. His weakness is evident.
Speaking = Weakness is a noun because of the suffix ness and its position as the
object.
D
N
6. The preacher was very unhappy.
Speaking = Preacher is a noun because of the determiner The and the suffix er.
D
N
7. Some differences are obvious.
Speaking = Differences is a noun because of its position as the subject and the suffix
ence. It is signaled by the determiner Some.
D
N
8. His criticism seems unjust.
Speaking = Criticism is a noun because of its position as the subject, the suffix ism,
and signaled by the determiner His.
D N
N
9. The soldiers were terrorists.
Speaking = Soldiers is a noun because of its position as subject and the determiner
The. Terrorists is a noun because of the suffix ist.
D
N
10. The argument appeared useless.
Speaking = Argument is a noun because of its position as subject, the suffix ment, and
the determiner The.
D
N
D
N
11. Some people appreciate your kindness.
Speaking = People is a noun because of its position as the subject. Kindness is a noun
because of the suffix ness.

328

D
N
D
N
12. Those officers caught the gangster.
Speaking = Officers is a noun because of its position as subject and the determiner
Those. Gangster is a noun signaled by the determiner the and the suffix
ster.
D
N
13. My assistant will help you.
Speaking = Assistant is a noun because of its position as subject, the determiner
My, and the suffix ant.
D N
D
N
14. The man is a pantomimic.
Speaking = Man is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
The. Pantomimic is a noun because of the determiner a and the suffix ic.
D
N
D N
15. Some annoyances bother the boys.
Speaking = Annoyances is a plural noun because of its position as the subject, he
plural determiner Some, the s ending, and the suffix ance. Boys a plural
noun signaled by the determiner the and the s ending.
D
N
16. His neatness was appreciated.
Speaking = Neatness is a noun because of its position as the subject, the determiner
His, and the suffix ness.
D N
D N
17. Her sister ate a spoonful.
Speaking = Sister is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner Her. Spoonful is a noun because of the determiner a and the
suffix ful.
D
N
D
N
18. Your judgment will help the plan.
Speaking = Judgment is a noun because of its position as the subject, the determiner
Your, and the suffix ment. Plan is a noun signaled by the determiner the.

329

D
N
N
19. The girls studied our government.
Speaking = Girls is a plural noun because of the s ending, its position as the subject,
and signaled by the determiner The. Government is a noun because of the
suffix ment.
D
N
20. One difference seemed clear.
Speaking = Difference is a noun because of the suffix ence, its position as the subject,
and signaled by the determiner One.

330

Summary
Noun Signals
1. In basic sentences only, determiners tell us that the word following = a noun.
2. A noun will often occupy the subject position in a basic sentence.
3. Plural endings like s, es, and en often signal nouns,
4. An apostrophe () or apostrophe - s (s) = a signal for a possessive noun.
5. Noun suffixes often signal nouns.
6. Although we have had no unit on this, remember that capitalized words also indicate nouns.
Can you identify the nouns in the following nonsense sentences?
1. His fomps are by the tampster.

Fomps / tampster

2. My libes walked over the turler.

libes / turler

3. Some Moden gave me some roxes.

Moden / roxes

4. Neither mabes are for either dirgdom.

mabes / dirgdom

5. Our dasks seem near the enden.

dasks / enden

6. Many moshences are by his stooner.

Moshences / stooner

7. The blibism kept their orgful.

blibism / orgful

8. Her keepness is a frug.

keepness / frug

9. That morko walked by Dirneys.

morko / Dirneys

10. Several koobes told about a drup.


11. A minnikin fell by your scrops.
12. All baktion are in your cares.

koobes / drup
minnikin / scrops
baktion / cares

331

Unit 8

Identifying Subject Pronouns

IDENTIFYING SUBJECT
D N
N
PRONOUNS
GDSUBJECT
2. A girl sat on the swing.
PRONOUNS

Pron.

She sat on the swing.


Speaking = Girl is a noun signaled but the determiner A and its position as the subject.
Swing is a noun signaled by the determiner the. She is a pronoun replacing
girl.

D N
Pron.
3. The dog was lazy.
It was lazy.
Speaking = Dog is a noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner The.
It is a pronoun replacing dog.
D N
Pron.
4. The boys left early.
They left early.
Speaking = Boys is a plural noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner
The and the sending s. They is the pronoun replacing boys.
N
D N
Pron.
DN
5. Sharon is my name.
I am a girl.
Speaking = Sharon is a noun because of its position as the subject. Name is a noun
signaled by the determiner my. I is a pronoun which replaces the noun Sharon.
Girl is a singular noun signaled by the determiner a.
D N
D N
Pron.
D N
6. A woman sat on the chair.
She sat on the chair.
Speaking = Woman is a singular noun signaled by the determiner A and its position as
the subject. Chair is a noun signaled by the determiner the. She is a pronoun
replacing the noun woman.
D N
DN
Pron.
D N
7. My father helped the man.
He helped the man.
Speaking = Father is a noun signaled by the determiner My and its position as the
subject. Man is a noun signaled by the determiner the. He is a pronoun
replacing the noun father.

332

D N
Pron.
8. The money
is hidden.
It is hidden.
Speaking = Money is a noun signaled by the determiner The and its position as the
subject. IT is a pronoun replacing the noun money.
D N
D N
Pron.
D N
9. The items
lay on the desk.
They
lay on the desk.
Speaking = Items is a plural noun signaled by the determiner The and its position as
the subject and the s ending. They is a plural pronoun replacing the plural
noun items.
D
N
D
N
Pron.
D N
10. My teacher
came into the room.
She
came into the room.
Speaking = Teacher is a noun signaled by the determiner My and its position as the
subject . She is a pronoun replacing the noun teacher.
D
N
D N
Pron.
D N
11. The water
dripped for an hour.
It
dripped for an hour.
Speaking = Water is a noun signaled by the determiner The and its position as the
subject . It is a pronoun replacing the noun water.
N
D N
Pron.
DN
12. Joyce is my name.
I am a girl.
Speaking = Joyce is a noun because of its position as the subject. Name is a noun
signaled but the determiner my. I is a pronoun replacing the noun Joyce. Girl
is a noun signaled by the determiner a.
N
D
N
Pron.
N
13. Your name
is John.
You are John.
Speaking = Name is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner Your. John is a noun because it is a name. You is a pronoun
replacing name.
D N
D N
Pron.
D
N
14. Some cars
ran off the road.
They ran off the road.
Speaking = Cars is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner Some. They is a noun replacing cars.

333

Unit 9

Identifying Object Pronouns

D N
Pron.
2. The ball hit him.
Speaking = Ball is a noun signaled by the determiner The and its position as the
subject. Him is an object pronoun.
Pron.
Pron. D N
3. We
met them at the park.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position. Them is an object
pronoun because of its position. Park is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
D
N
Pron.
4. The crowds
applauded us.
Speaking = Crowds is a plural subject pronoun because of its position as the subject, the
s ending, and signaled by the determiner The. Us is an object pronoun
because of its position.
N
Pron. D
N
5. Ellen saw me at the movie.
Speaking = Ellen is a noun because of its position as the subject. Me is an object
pronoun because of its position. Movie is a noun signaled by the determiner
the.
Pron.
Pron.
6. His acts displeased me.
Speaking = His is the subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Me is
an object pronoun because of its position.
N
Pron. D
N
7. Tom took him to the movie.
Speaking = Tom is a noun because of its position as the subject. Him is an object
pronoun because of its position. Movie is a noun signaled by the determiner
the.
Pron.
Pron.
D
N
8. I
saw them at the game.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Them is an
object pronoun because its position. Game is a noun signaled by the determiner
the.

334

N
Pron. D N
9. John sold us a ticket.
Speaking = John is a noun because of its position as the subject. Us is an object pronoun
because of its position as the object. Ticket is a noun signaled by the determiner
a.
Pron.
Pron. D
N
10. She gave me some paper.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Me is an
object pronoun because of its position as the object. Paper is a noun signaled by
the determiner some.
Pron.
Pron.
11. It flew under him.
Speaking = It is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Him is an object
pronoun because of its position as the object.
Pron.
Pron.
12. They
laughed at her.
Speaking = They is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Her is an
object pronoun because of its position as the object.
Pron.
Pron. D N
13. You
showed me your book.
Speaking = You is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Me is an
object pronoun because of its position as the object. Book is a noun signaled by
the determiner your.
N
Pron. D N
14. The grocer sold me a steak.
Speaking = Grocer is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner The . Me is an object pronoun because of its position as the object.
Steak is a noun signaled by the determiner a.
Pron.
Pron.
15. He sat by me.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Me is an
object pronoun because of its position as the object.

335

Pron.
Pron.
16. She
pushed us.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Us is an o
object pronoun because of its position as the object.
Pron.
Pron.
17. It
is for him.
Speaking = It is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Him is an object
pronoun because of its position as the object.
Pron.
Pron.
18. We ran after them.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Them is an
object pronoun because of its position as the object.
Pron.
Pron.
19. I
told him about it.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. It is an object
pronoun because of its position as the object.
D N
Pron.
20. The picture
looks like her.
Speaking = Picture is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner The . Her is an object pronoun because of its position as the object.

Unit 10

Determiner OR Indefinite Pronoun

D
N
D
N
IP
D N
3. Many children like a circus.
Many like a circus.
Speaking = Children is a plural noun because of its position and form (child/children),
and signaled by the determiner Many. Circus is a noun signaled by the
determiner a. Many is an indefinite subject pronoun because it is used alone
and its position as the subject.

336

D
N
IP
4. Any day is satisfactory.
Any will do.
Speaking = Day is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
any. Any is an indefinite subject pronoun because of its position as the subject
and it is used alone.
D N
D
N
IP
D N
5. One person lay on the floor.
One lay on the floor.
Speaking = Person is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
One. One is an indefinite subject pronoun because of its position as the
subject and it is used alone.
D N
Pron.
IP
Pron.
6. Some boys helped us.
Some helped us.
Speaking = Boys is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Some. Us is an object pronoun because of its position as the object. Some is
an indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject and it is used alone.
D
N
N
IP
D
N
7. Few people attended the game.
Few attended the game.
Speaking = People is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner Few. Game is a noun signaled by the determiner the. Few is an
indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject and it is used alone.
D N
IP
8. Both bats were broken.
Both were broken.
Speaking = Bats is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Both. Both is an indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject and
it is used alone.
D
N
IP
9. Some houses were painted.
Some were painted.
Speaking = Houses is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Some. Some is an indefinite subject pronoun because of its position as the
subject and it is used alone.

337

D
N
D
N
IP
D N
10. Two balls floated on the water.
Two floated on the water.
Speaking = Balls is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Two. Two is an indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject and it
is used alone.
D N
IP
11. Each child walked in line.
Each walked in line.
Speaking = Child is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Each. Each is an indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject and
it is used alone.
D
N
D N
IP
D
N
12. Many fans were at the game.
Many were at the game.
Speaking = Fans is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Many. Game is a noun signaled by the determiner the. Many is an indefinite
pronoun because of its position as the subject and it is used alone.
D
N
D
N
IP
D N
13. Some birds were on the lawn.
Some were on the lawn.
Speaking = Birds is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Some. Some is an indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject
and it is used alone.
D N
IP
14. Any reading appears satisfactory.
Any appears satisfactory.
Speaking = Reading is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Any. Any is an indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject and it
is used alone.
D N
IP
15. Neither boy tried hard.
Neither tried hard.
Speaking = Boy is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Neither. Neither is an indefinite pronoun because of its position as the subject
and it is used alone.

338

D
N
IP
16. Another plane crashed.
Another crashed.
Speaking = Plane is a noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
Another. Another is an indefinite subject pronoun because of its position as
the subject and it is used alone.
D N
N
IP
N
17. All cats are animals.
All are animals.
Speaking = Cats is a plural noun because of its position as the subject and the determiner
All, and the s ending. Animals is a plural noun because of its position as the
object and the s ending. All is an indefinite pronoun because of its position as
the subject and it is used alone.

Unit 11

Determiner or Demonstrative Pronoun

D
N
DP
3. These pencils are sharp.
These are sharp.
Speaking = Pencils is a plural noun signaled by the plural determiner These and the s
ending. These is a demonstrative pronoun because of its position and it is used
alone.
D N
D
N
DP
4. That road has many bumps.
That is very true.
Speaking = Road is a noun signaled by the determiner That. Bumps is a plural noun,
because of the plural determiner many and the s ending. That is a
demonstrative pronoun because of its position and it is used alone.
D N Pron.
DP
Pron.
5. This coat is mine.
This is mine.
Speaking = Coat is a noun signaled by the determiner This and the. Mine is an object
pronoun because of its position as the object. This is a demonstrative pronoun
because of its position and it is used alone.
D
N
DP
6. Those apples appear spoiled.
Those appear spoiled.
Speaking = Apples is a plural noun signaled by the plural determiner Those and the s
ending. Those is a demonstrative pronoun because of its position and it is used
alone.

339

D N
D N
DP D
N
7. This lake has many fish.
This is my ball.
Speaking = Lake is a noun signaled by the determiner This. Fish is a plural noun
signaled by the determiner many. This is a demonstrative pronoun because of
its position and it is used alone. Ball is a noun signaled by the determiner my.
D
N
DP
8. Those buildings are tall.
Those are really tall.
Speaking = Buildings is a plural noun signaled by the plural determiner Those and the
s ending. Those is a demonstrative pronoun because of its position and it is
used alone.
D N
DP
9. That picture is unusual.
That is unusual.
Speaking = Picture is a noun signaled by the determiner That. That is a demonstrative
pronoun because of its position and it is used alone.
D
N
DP
10. These books are dusty.
These are dusty.
Speaking = Books is a plural noun signaled by the plural determiner These and the s
ending. These is a demonstrative pronoun because of its position and it is used
alone.
D
N
DP
11. Those dresses are too large.
Those are too large.
Speaking = Dresses is a plural noun signaled by the plural determiner Those and the s
ending. Those is a demonstrative pronoun because of its position and it is used
alone.
D
N
DP D N
12. That movie was good.
That is my house.
Speaking = Move is a noun signaled by the determiner That. That is a demonstrative
pronoun because of its position and it is used alone. House is a noun because of
the determiner my.
D
N
DP
13. This page is torn.
This is torn.
Speaking = Page is a noun signaled by the determiner This ending. This is a
demonstrative pronoun because of its position and it is used alone.

340

Part II Verbs
Unit 1
Pron.V

Identifying Verbs (1)


Pron.

2. I go with him on Monday.


Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position. Go is the verb. Him is an
objective pronoun. Monday is a noun because of its position is the object.
D N
V
3. The boy throws well.
Speaking = Boy is a noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner The.
Throws is the verb.
N
V N
D N
4. Jane buys candy at the store.
Speaking = Jane is a noun because of its position. Buys is the verb. Candy is a noun
because of its position as object. Store is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
Pron.V Pron. N
5. I do my work carefully.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun. Do is the verb. My is an object pronoun signaling
work which is the noun.
N V Pron.
6. Jerry does his work well.
Speaking = Jerry is a noun because of its position as the subject. Does is the verb. His is
an object pronoun signaling the noun work.
Pron. V Pron. D N
7. You give me that book.
Speaking = You is a subject pronoun. Give is the verb. Me is an object pronoun. Book is a
noun signaled by the determiner that.

341

N
V
N
Pron. N
8. Tom grows apples on his farm.
Speaking = Tom is a noun because of its position as the subject. Grows is the verb.
Apples is a noun because of its position as the object. His is an object pronoun
signaling farm the noun.
D N V
D
N
9. The sun rises each morning.
Speaking = Sun is a noun because of its position as the subject signaled by the
determiner The. Rises is the verb. Morning is a noun because of its position as
the object signaled by the determiner each.
Pron. V
Pron.
N
10. We write to them on Tuesday.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position. Write is the verb. Them is
an object pronoun because of its position as the object. Tuesday is noun because
of its position as object.
Pron.V Pron.N D
N
11. I see your ball on the field.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. See is the verb.
Ball is an object signaled by the determiner your. Field is a noun signaled by
the determiner the.
DN V
D N
12 A deer walks near the fence.
Speaking = Deer is a noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner A.
Walks is the verb. Fence is a noun because of its position as the object and
signaled by the determiner the.
D
N V
13. Each boy sings well.
Speaking = Boy is a noun position as the subject signaled by the determiner Each.
Sings is the verb.

342

Pron.
N
V
D N
14. Her brother walks by the church.
Speaking = Brother is a noun because of its position as the subject signaled by the
pronoun Her. Walks is the verb. Church is a noun because of its position as the
object signaled by the determiner the.
Pron. N V
15. My dog barks loudly.
Speaking = Dog is a noun because of its position as the subject signaled by the pronoun
My. Barks is the verb.
Pron. V D
N
16. She tells that story.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Tells is the
verb. Story is a noun because of its position as the object signaled by the
determiner that.
D
N V
17. That man plays hard.
Speaking = Man is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by
the determiner That. Plays is the verb.
Pron.V N
18. I like pop.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Like is the verb.
Pop is a noun because of its position as the object.
Pron. V
D N
19. We enjoy each meal.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. Enjoy is the
verb. Meal is a noun signaled by the determiner each and its position as the
object.
D
N
V
20. Most children eat slowly.
Speaking = Children is a noun signaled by the determiner Most, and because of
its position as the subject. Eat is the verb.

343

Directions
See if you can find six verbs to fill the position of the blank in this sentence.
I __eat________ candy.
I __make________ candy.
I __buy________ candy.
I __love________ candy.
I __form________ candy.
I __throw________ candy.

Unit 2

Identifying Verbs (2)

Pron.V-ed D N
2. He broke the window.
Speaking = He = a subject pronoun, broke a past tense verb, window a noun signaled
by the determiner the.
D N V-ed D N
3. A bee stung the man.
Speaking = A = a determiner, bee a noun, stung a past tense verb, man a noun signaled
by the determiner the.
N V-ed D N
4. Father bought a tire.
Speaking = Father = a noun because of its position as the subject, bought a past tense
verb, and tire is a noun signaled by the determiner a.
D N V-ed D N
5. The fielder caught the ball.
Speaking = The = a determiner, fielder a noun, caught is a past tense verb, ball a
noun because of the determiner the.

344

D N V-edD N
6. Each child drew a picture.
Speaking = Each = a determiner, child a noun, drew is a past tense verb, picture is a
noun because of the determiner a.
Pron.V-edDN
7. I ate the cake.
Speaking = I = a subject pronoun, ate a past tense verb, cake is a noun signaled
by the determiner the.
N V-ed
D N
8. Jerry fell into the puddle.
Speaking = Jerry = a noun because of its position, fell is a past tense verb, and puddle is
a noun signaled by the determiner the.
D
N V-ed
9. Some players fought hard.
Speaking = Some = a determiner, players a plural noun because of its position and the
ending s, fought is a past tense verb.
D N V-edDN
10. Most people gave a lot.
Speaking = Most = a determiner, people a noun, gave a past tense verb, lot is a noun
signaled by the determiner a.
D N V-ed D N
11. A ship went by the pier.
Speaking = A = a determiner, ship a noun, went a past tense verb, pier a noun signaled
by the determiner the.
D
N
V-ed
12. Many flowers grew slowly.
Speaking = Many = is a determiner, flowers a noun, grew is a past tense verb.
Pron. V-ed
D N
13. We hopped up the steps.
Speaking = We = is a subject pronoun, hopped a past tense verb, step sis a noun
signaled by the determiner the.

345

Pron.V-edD N
14. I knew the poem well.
Speaking = I = a subject pronoun, knew a past tense verb, poem a noun signaled by
the determiner the.
N V-ed
D N
15. John lay there an hour.
Speaking = John = ship a noun because of its position as subject, lay a past tense verb, hour
a noun signaled by the determiner an.
Pron. V-ed
D N
16. She rose from the bed.
Speaking = She = a subject pronoun, rose a past tense verb, bed a noun signaled by the
determiner the.
D
N
V-ed D N
17. Several students knew about it.
Speaking = Several = a determiner, students a noun, knew a past tense verb, it a noun
signaled by the determiner about.
Pron. V-ed Pron.D N
18. They showed us the pictures.
Speaking = They = a subject pronoun, showed a past tense verb, us an object pronoun,
pictures a noun signaled by the determiner the.
D N V-ed
D N
19. The boys swam to the dock.
Speaking = The= a determiner, boys a noun, swam a past tense verb, dock a noun
signaled by the determiner the.
Pron. V-ed D N
20. They bought the house.
Speaking = They = a subject pronoun, bought a past tense verb, house a noun signaled
by the determiner the.

346

Can you now tell the difference between a past tense verb and the

present tense
V-ed
2. Grace wore a hat.

?
= past

V
3. Grace wears a hat.

= present

V
4. I get up early.

= present

V-ed
5. I got up early.

= past

V
6. She springs to the saddle.

= present

V-ed
7. She sprang to the saddle.

= past

V
8. Most parents pay taxes.

= present

V-ed
9. Most parents paid taxes

= past

V
10. Each boy wants the bicycle.

= present

V-ed
11. Each boy wanted the bicycle.

= past

V-ed
12. A thief stole the money.

= past

V
13. He tries hard.

= past

347

V-ed
14. Judy took the bus this morning.

= past

V
15. We dive with glee.

= present

V-ed
16. We dived with glee.

= past

V-ed
17. Tom took the car that night.

= past

V
18. Tom takes it each day.

= present

V-ed
19. Tom took it each day.

= past

V
20. A thief steals the money.

= past

Unit 3

Identifying Verbs (3)

Pron. Aux.V V
2. She can sing very well.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, and can sing is a verb phrase.
N
Aux.V V-ed D N
3. Mother has bought the hat.
Speaking = Mother is a noun because of its position as the subject. has bought is a
verb phrase, and hat a noun signaled by the determiner the.

348

D N Aux.V V Pron.
4. The boy might catch us.
Speaking = Boy is a noun because of its position as the subject signaled by the
determiner The. might catch is a verb phrase, and us an object pronoun.
D N Aux.V V
5. Each boy does try hard.
Speaking = Boy is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner Each. does try is a verb phrase.
D N Aux.V
V D
N
6. The boys should draw the pictures.
Speaking = Boys is a plural noun because of its position as the subject, signaled by the
determiner The, and the s ending. should draw is a verb phrase, and
pictures a plural noun signaled by the determiner the and the s ending.
Pron.Aux.VVD N
7. He will eat the salad.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. will eat is a
verb phrase, and salad a noun signaled by the determiner the.
D N Aux.V VPron.
8. The men will hear us.
Speaking = Men is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner the. will heart is a verb phrase, and us an object pronoun
because if its position.
N. Aux. V V
D N
9. Sandy may know about the plans.
Speaking = Sandy is a noun because of its position as the subject. may know is a verb
phrase, and plans a plural noun signaled by the s ending and determiner the.
Pron. Aux. V V D N
10. I can prove that story.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. can prove
is a verb phrase, and story a noun signaled by the determiner that.

349

D
N. Aux.V V
11. Most children must rise early.
Speaking = Children is a plural noun because of its position as the subject and its form
(child/children).must rise is a verb phrase.
Pron. Aux.VV D N
12. We shall tear the paper.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. shall tear is
a verb phrase. Paper is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
N Aux. V V D N
13. Joe might write the letter.
Speaking = Joe is a noun because of its position as the subject. might write is a verb
phrase, and letter a noun signaled by the determiner the.
N Aux.VV D
N
14. Chris did write the letter.
Speaking = Chris is a noun because of its position as the subject. did write is a verb
phrase, and letter a noun signaled by the determiner the.
Pron. Aux.VV D N
15. We shall eat our lunch.
Speaking = We is a noun because of its position as the subject. shall eat is a verb
phrase, and lunch a noun signaled by the determiner our.
N Aux.VV D N
16. Tom will sing for us.
Speaking = Tom is a noun because of its position as the subject. will sing is a
verb phrase, and us an object pronoun.
Pron. Aux.VV-ed D
N
17. They have played all morning.
Speaking = They is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. have
played is a past tense verb phrase signaled by the ed ending. Morning is a
noun because of its position as the object.

350

D N Aux. VV
18. The skies could clear soon.
Speaking = Skies is a noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the
determiner The. could clear is a verb phrase.
D
N Aux.V V Pron.
19. Our parents would want it.
Speaking = Parents is a plural noun because of its position as the subject, the s ending,
and signaled by the determiner Our. would want is a verb phrase, and it an
object pronoun.
Pron. Aux.V V D N
20. We shall avoid the problem.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position as the subject. shall avoid
is a verb phrase, and problem a noun signaled by the determiner the.

Unit 4

Identifying Verbs (4)

D N
V-en D N
2. The men have taken their cars.
Speaking = Men is a noun indicated by the determiner The, its form (man/men) and
its position as subject, have taken is a past participle. Cars is a plural noun
indicated by the determiner their and the s ending.
Pron. V D
N
3. He has the pencil.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun indicated by its position, has is a present tense
verb. Pencil is a noun indicated by the determiner the.
Pron. V-en D N
4. He has taken the pencil.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun indicated by its position, has taken is a past
participle. Pencil is a noun indicated by the determiner the.

351

N V
D N
5. Jim has the letter.
Speaking = Jim is a noun indicated by its position, has is a present tense verb.
Letter is a noun indicated by the determiner the.
N V-en
D N
6. Jim has written the letter.
Speaking = Jim is a noun indicated by its position, has written is a past participle.
Letter is a noun indicated by the determiner the.
D
N V D N
7. Some boys have the prize.
Speaking = Boys is noun indicated by its position signaled by the determiner Some.
Has is a present tense verb. Prize is a noun indicated by the determiner the.
D N
V-en
D N
8. Some boys have taken the prize.
Speaking = Boys is noun indicated by its position signaled by the determiner Some.
Has taken is a past participle. Prize is a noun indicated by the determiner
the.
D
N V D N
9. Each child has a book.
Speaking = Child is a noun indicated by its position and signaled by the determiner
Each, has is a present tense verb. Book is a noun indicated by the
determiner a.
D N V-en D N
10. Each child has read a book.
Speaking = Child is a noun indicated by its position and signaled by the determiner
Each, has read is a past participle. Book is a noun indicated by the
determiner a.
DN V D N
11. A man has the key.
Speaking = Man is a noun indicated by its position and signaled by the determiner
A, has is a present tense verb. Key is a noun indicated by the determiner
the.

352

D N V-en D N
12. A man has taken the key.
Speaking = Man is a noun indicated by its position and signaled by the determiner
A, has is a past participle. Key is a noun indicated by the determiner the.

A Little Change --- Dont get confused


N
V
2. Joy does try hard.
Speaking = Joy is a noun because of its position as the subject. Does is a present tense
verb.
D N
V D
N
3. The men do the chores well.
Speaking = Men is a plural noun because of the s ending, its position, and the
determiner The. Do is a present tense verb. Chores is a noun signaled by the
determiner the.
D N N-Aux V
4. The men do leave early.
Speaking = Men is a plural noun because of the s ending, its position, and the
determiner The. Do is a noun-auxiliary. Leave is the present tense verb.
Pron.V-ed D N
5. I did the lesson easily.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position. Did is a past tense verb. Lesson
is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
Pron. V-ed D N
6. I did learn the lesson.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position. Did is a past tense verb. Lesson
is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
N
V D N
7. June does the laundry.
Speaking = June is a noun because of its position. Does is a present tense verb. Laundry
is a noun signaled by the determiner the.

353

N N-Aux V D N
8. June does rinse the clothes.
Speaking = June is a noun because of its position. Does is a noun auxiliary and rinse a
present tense verb. Clothes is a plural noun signaled by the determiner the and
the s ending.
D
N V D N
9. Several boys do the work.
Speaking = Boys is a plural noun because of its position and the s ending. Do is a
present tense verb. Work is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
D
N N-AuxV
D N
10. Several boys do loaf in the hall.
Speaking = Boys is a plural noun because of its position, signaled by the determiner
Several, and the s ending. Do is a noun auxiliary, and loaf a present tense
verb. Hall is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
D
N N-AuxV
D N
11. Many birds did fly over the house.
Speaking = Birds is a plural noun because of its position, signaled by the determiner
Many, and the s ending. Did is a noun auxiliary in the past tense, and fly a
present tense verb. House is a noun signaled by the determiner the.
Pron. N-Aux V D N
12. We do go in the afternoon.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position. Do is a noun auxiliary, and
go a present tense verb. Afternoon is a noun signaled by the determiner the.

Unit 5

Identifying Verbs (5)

D N Be N
3. The boy is Tom.
Speaking = Boy is a noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner
The. Tom is a noun because of its position as the subject.

354

D N Be+V+ing D
N
4. The boy is walking by the house
Speaking = Boy is a noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner The.
is walking is a present participle verb phrase. Tom is a noun because of its
position as the subject.
Pron. Be
D N
5. You are in my seat.
Speaking = You is a subject pronoun. Are is a present tense of the verb to be. Seat is a
noun because of its position as the subject signaled by the determiner my.
Pron. Be+V+ing D N
6. You are sitting in my seat.
Speaking = You is a subject pronoun. are sitting is a present tense verb phrase. Seat is a
noun because of its position as the object signaled by the determiner my.
Pron. Be
7. He was cold.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun. Was is the past tense of the verb to be.
Pron.Be+V+ingD N
8. He was buying a hat.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun. was buying is a past tense verb phrase. Hat is a
noun because of its position as the subject and signaled by the determiner a.
D N Be
D
N
9. The men were in the garage.
Speaking = Men is a noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner The.
Were is the past tense of the verb to be. Garage is a noun signaled by the
determiner the.
D N Be+V+ing
D
N
10. The men were going into the house.
Speaking = Men is a noun because of its position and signaled by the determiner The.
were going is a past tense verb phrase. House is a noun signaled by the
determiner the.

355

Pron. Be D N
11. I am a teacher.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun. Am is the present tense of the verb to be. Teacher is
a noun signaled by the determiner a.
Pron.Be+V+ing Pron.
12. I am teaching you English.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun. am teaching is the present tense verb phrase.
English is an object pronoun.
Pron.Be D N
13. He is my friend.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun because of its position. is a present verb tense, of
the verb to be. Friend is a noun signaled by the determiner my and its
position as the object.
Pron.Be+V+ing Pron.
14. He is helping me.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun because of its position. is helping a present tense
verb phrase, of the verb to be. Me is an object pronoun because of its position
as the object.
Pron. Be
D
N
15. We are in the house.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position. Are is a present tense verb.
House is a noun because of its position signaled by the determiner the.

Sometimes we use other helpers with be.


D N Have+Be+V+ing D N
2. The men have been going each day.
N Have+Be+V+ing
3. Jim has been sleeping late.
D
N Have-ed+Be+V+ing D N
4. Some boys had been trying for an hour.

356

Pron. N.aux Have+Be+V+ing


5. They could have been trying too hard.
N Have+Be+V+ing Pron.D N
6. John has been giving me some help.
D N Have+Be+V+ing
7. The divers will be leaving now.
D
N Have+Be+V+ing
8. Some pupils have been talking.
D N Have-ed+Be+V+ing D N
9. Several girls had been drawing all period.
Pron. Have+Be+V+ingPron. D N
10. She has been telling us about it.
Pron. N-aux Have+Be+V+ing
11. You might have been going by now.
Pron. Have-ed+Be+V+ing D N
12. They had been singing the song.
D N Have-ed+Be+V+ing D N
13. Our dogs had been taking the meat.
Pron. N-aux Have+Be+V+ing Pron. D N
14. I could have been telling you a lie.
Pron. Have+Be+V+ing D N
15. He has been laying the bricks.
N Have+Be+V+ing
D
N
16. Jim has been stopping near the door.

357

Try to identify the verb forms in the sentences below. Draw a line to the correct form to match the
symbol.
.

1. Jim sings well.

V-ed

2. Jim sang well

Aux.V

3. Jim can sing well.

Have+en

4. Jim has sung well

5. Jim does sing well.

Be+V+ing

6. Jim is singing well.

Have+Be+V+ing

7. Jim has been singing well.

Aux.V

DN
V-ed
D N
8. The boys played for an hour.
Pron. V
9. He bowls frequently.
Pron. V-aux V
10. We shall walk rapidly.
N Be+V+ing D N
11. Jean is trying the problem.
Pron. V-auxV D N
12. He did want the present.
N V-aux+V-ed D N
13. Harry has drowned the ants.
Pron. V-aux +V
14. You may go now.

358

D
N V-ed N Pron.
15. Our parents gave it to us.
Pron. V D
N
16. I write every day
Pron. V
17. She smiles often.
Pron.Be+V+ing D N
18. I am writing the paper now.
N Have+Be+V+ing
19. Jerry has been going too.
Pron. V-aux.
20. You do talk quite loud.
Pron. V D N
21. He was my friend.
Pron. V D
N
22. We have the supplies.
Pron. Have+V-en D N
23. They have ridden the horse.
D
N Be+V+ing
24. Our helpers are stopping now.

359

Part III
Unit 1

Prepositions

Identifying Prepositions

sub. V-ed
2. He jumped over the log.
Speaking = He is a simple subject pronoun, jumped is a past tense verb, and over the
log is a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
3. The book dropped on the floor.
Speaking = Book is the simple subject signaled by The, dropped is a past tense verb,
and on the floor a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
4. He sang for me.
Speaking = He is a simple subject pronoun, sang is a past tense verb, and for me is a
prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
5. Harry drove into the garage.
Speaking = Harry is a simple subject, drove is a past tense verb, and into the garage is
a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
6. Judy sat near us.
Speaking = Judy is a simple subject, sat is a past tense verb, and near us is a
prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
7. We dove off the board.
Speaking = We is a simple subject pronoun, jumped is a past tense verb, and off the
board a prepositional phrase.

360

sub. V-ed
8. They fought for their liberty.
Speaking = He is a simple subject pronoun, jumped is a past tense verb, and for their
liberty a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
9. She smiled at him.
Speaking = She is a simple subject pronoun, smiled is a past tense verb, and at him is a
prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
10. The men walked for hours.
Speaking = Men is a simple subject, walked is a past tense verb, and for hours a
prepositional phrase.
sub.
V-ed
11. The boy with the candy was happy.
Speaking = Boy is a simple subject, was is a past tense verb, and with the candy is a
prepositional phrase.
sub.
V
12. The house near us is old.
Speaking = House is a simple subject, is a present tense verb, and near us a
prepositional phrase.
sub.
V-ed
13. The facts of the matter were obvious.
Speaking = Facts is a simple subject, were is a past tense verb, and of the matter
prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
14. A deer stood amid the trees.
Speaking = Deer is a simple subject signaled by A, stood is a past tense verb, and
amid the trees a prepositional phrase.

361

sub.
V
15. That road beyond us is long.
Speaking = Road is a simple subject signaled by That, beyond us a prepositional
phrase, is a present tense verb.
sub. Be +V-ed+ ing
16. Several boys were missing from school.
Speaking = Boys is a simple plural subject signaled by Several, were missing is a to be
past tense verb plus ing, and from school is a prepositional phrase.
sub.
V-ed
17. The robin in the nest flew away.
Speaking = Robin is a simple subject signaled by The, in the nest a prepositional
phrase, and flew is a past tense verb.
.
sub.
V-ed
18. The cover of the book was attractive.
Speaking = Cover is a simple subject, of the book a prepositional phrase, and was a
past tense verb.
.

Unit 2

More about Prepositions

sub. V-ed P OP
2. They talked (to him).
Speaking = They is the simple subject pronoun, talked the past tense verb, and to
him a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed P OP
3. The boys left with Gary.
Speaking = Boys is the simple plural subject, left the past tense verb, and with Gary a
prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed
P OP
4. Some men laughed (at her).
Speaking = Men is the simple plural subject, laughed the past tense verb, and at her a
prepositional phrase.

362

sub. V-ed P
OP
5. Each pole stood (near a house).
Speaking = Pole is the simple subject pronoun, stood the past tense verb, and near a
house a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed P OP
6. Scott played (with Tom).
Speaking = Scott is the simple subject pronoun, played the past tense verb, and with
Tom him a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed

OP

7. She walked (through the house).


Speaking = She is the simple subject pronoun, walked the past tense verb, and through
the house a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-ed P
OP
8. Ted ran through the store.
Speaking = They is the simple subject pronoun, talked the past tense verb, and to him
a prepositional phrase.

There may be more than one prepositional phrase in a sentence.


sub. V-ed P
OP P
OP
2. They walked (over the hill) (to the mill).
sub.V-ed P OP P
OP
3. She sat (by me) (near the door).
sub. V-ed P OP P
OP
P
OP
4. Jim talked (to us) (from the front) (of the room).
sub.V-edP
OP P OP
5. I left (for the game) (at dawn).

Now look for compound objects of the preposition.

363

sub. V
P OP
OP
2. Jack went (with him and me).
sub. V
P OP
OP
3. Mother looked (for shoes and a dress).
sub. V
P
OP
OP
4. He read (about cowboys and cattle).
sub. V
P OP
OP
5. It depends (upon him and me).
sub. V
P OP
OP
6. It looked (like rain or snow).
sub.
V
P
OP
OP
7. We played against Tom and Bill.
sub. V P OP
OP
8. I sat behind Sue and Jane.
In these sentences, watch for phrasal prepositions.
sub.V-ed P
OP
2. I did it in spite of her.
sub. V-ed
P
OP
3. It happened because of him.
sub. V-ed P
OP
4. He went by means of a car.
sub. V-ed P OP
5. They sat ahead of us.
sub. V-ed P
OP
6. We left in spite of the weather.

364

Part IV Adjectives and Sentence


Patterns
Unit 1

Identifying the Adjective

D
N
LV Adj.
2. The clouds (in the sky) are pretty.
Speaking = Clouds is the plural subject signaled by The, are is the verb, in the
sky a prepositional phrase. Are is in our list followed by pretty, which is a
predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject clouds.
Pron. LV Be+en Adj.
3. She has been quiet (for a minute).
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, has been is the verb, and for a minute a
prepositional phrase. has been is in our list followed by quiet, which is a
predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject She.
Pron. V
LV Adj.
4. It does smell good (to me).
Speaking = It is the subject pronoun, does smell is the verb phrase, and to me a
prepositional phrase. Does smell is in our list followed by good, which is a
predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject It.
D
N LV Adj.
5. The dress looks lovely (on you).
Speaking = Dress is the subject signaled by the, looks is the verb, and on you a
prepositional phrase. Looks is in our list followed by pretty, which is a predicate
adjective, which helps us understand the subject dress.

365

D
N
LV
Adj.
6. That horn sounds awful (to us).
Speaking = Horn is the subject signaled by That, sounds is the verb, and to
us a prepositional phrase. Sounds is in our list followed by awful, which is a
predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject That.
Pron. Be
Adj.
7. He will be good (for an hour).
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, will be is the verb, and for an hour a
prepositional phrase. will be is in our list followed by good, which is a predicate
adjective, which helps us understand the subject clouds.
D
N LV Adj.
8. The children are noisy.
Speaking = Children is the plural subject signaled by The, are is the verb. Are is in
our list followed by pretty, which is a predicate adjective, which helps us
understand the subject children. There is no prepositional phrase.
Note: Every sentence does not have a prepositional phrase
method to the sentences below.
D
N
V-ed Adj.
9. The food (on the table) was delicious.
Speaking = Food is the subject signaled by The, was is the past tense verb, and on
the table a prepositional phrase. Was is in our list followed by delicious, which is
a predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject food.
N LV Adj.
10. Tom is handsome.
Speaking = Tom is the subject, is the verb, Is is in our list followed by handsome,
which is a predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject Tom. There
is no prepositional phrase.
D
N
LV Adj.
11. The picture (on the wall) is pretty.
Speaking = Picture is the subject signaled by The, is the verb, and on the wall a
prepositional phrase. is is in our list followed by pretty, which is a predicate
adjective, which helps us understand the subject picture.

366

D
N
LV Adj.
12. The problems seem hard.
Speaking = Problems is the plural subject signaled by The, seem is the verb. Seem
is in our list followed by hard, which is a predicate adjective, which helps us
understand the subject problems. There is no prepositional phrase.
N Be + en Adj.
13. Tommy has been ill (for a week).
Speaking = Tommy is the subject, has been is the verb, and for a week a
prepositional phrase. has been is in our list followed by ill, which is a predicate
adjective, which helps us understand the subject Tommy.
Pron. LV-ed Adj.
14. She remained quiet (during the class).
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun, remained is the past tense verb, during the
class a prepositional phrase. Remained is in our list followed by quiet, which is a
predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject She.
Pron. LV Adj.
15. I feel good (in the morning).
Speaking = I is the subject pronoun, feel is the verb, and in the morning a
prepositional phrase. Feel is in our list followed by good, which is a predicate
adjective, which helps us understand the subject I.
D
N LV Adj.
16. Some men look old (at thirty).
Speaking = Men is the plural subject signaled by Some, look is the verb, and at
thirty a prepositional phrase. Look is in our list followed by old, which is a
predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject men.
D
N
LV Adj.
17. The problems could be hard (for us).
Speaking = Problems is the plural subject signaled by The, be is the verb, for us a
prepositional phrase. Be is in our list followed by hard, which is a predicate
adjective, which helps us understand the subject problems.

367

N Be-ed+en Adj.
18. Joe had been noisy (in the room).
Speaking = Joe is the subject, had been is the past tense verb, in the room a
prepositional phrase. Had been is in our list followed by noisy, which is a
predicate adjective, which helps us understand the subject Joe.
D
N LV Adj.
19. Some girls appear selfish.
Speaking = Girls is the plural subject signaled by Some, appear is the verb. Appear is
in our list followed by selfish, which is a predicate adjective which, helps us
understand the subject girls. There is no prepositional phrase.
D N
LV-ed
Adj.
20. The boys continued confident.
Speaking = Boys is the plural subject signaled by The, continued is the past
tense verb. Continued is in our list followed by confident, which is a predicate
adjective, which helps us understand the subject boys.

Unit 2

The Predicate Noun Pattern

sub.
LV PN
2. The boy (on the raft) is Jerry.
Speaking = Boy is the subject, is the verb, and on the raft a prepositional
phrase. Is is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by Jerry, a
predicate noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject boy.
sub. LV-ed PN
3. It was Judy (with me).
Speaking = It is the subject pronoun, was the verb, and with me a prepositional
phrase. was is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by Judy, a predicate
noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject boy.
sub. LV
PN
4. Helen is the mother (in the play).
Speaking = Helen is the subject, is the verb, and in the play a prepositional phrase. Is
is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by mother, a predicate noun, that
tells us about or refers to the subject Helen.

368

sub. LV PN
5. That is Shirley (at the door).
Speaking = That is the subject, is the verb, and at the door a prepositional phrase.
Is is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by Shirley, a predicate noun, that
tells us about or refers to the subject That.
sub. LV+be PN
6. He will be the hero (of the hour).
Speaking = He is the subject, will be the verb, and of the hour a prepositional
phrase. Is is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by hero, a predicate
noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject He.
sub. LV PN
7. I am a player (on the team).
Speaking = I is the subject pronoun, am the verb, and on the team a prepositional
phrase. Is is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by player, a predicate
noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject I.
sub. LV
PN
8. Those men are friends (of mine).
Speaking = Men is the plural subject, are the verb, and of mine a prepositional
phrase. Are is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by friends, a predicate
noun that tells us about or refers to the subject men.
sub. LV
PN
9. The boy continued (to be) my helper. (to be is understood)
Speaking = Boy is the subject, continued the verb. Continued is in the list of linking
verbs and is followed by helper, a predicate noun that tells us about or refers to
the subject boy.
sub.
LV
PN
10. Harold seemed a stranger (to us).
Speaking = Harold is the subject, seemed the verb, and to us a prepositional phrase.
Is is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by stranger, a predicate noun,
that tells us about or refers to the subject Harold.

369

sub. LV-ed
PN
11. I remained his friend (for years).
Speaking = I is the subject pronoun, remained the past tense verb, and for years a
prepositional phrase. Remained is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by
friend, a predicate noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject I.
sub. LV-ed PN
12. The car looked a wreck (to him).
Speaking = Car is the subject, looked the verb, and to him a prepositional phrase.
Looked is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by wreck, a predicate noun,
that tells us about or refers to the subject car.
sub. LV-ed PN
13. That was Jane (in the hall).
Speaking = That is the subject, was a past tense verb, and in the hall a prepositional
phrase. was is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by Jane, a predicate
noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject That.
sub. LV+Be PN
14. Joe will be a friend (of mine).
Speaking = Joe is the subject, will be the verb, and of mine a prepositional phrase.
will be is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by friend, a predicate noun,
that tells us about or refers to the subject Joe.
sub. LV-ed PN
15. Jim appeared a liar (to the man).
Speaking = Jim is the subject, appeared a past tense verb, and to the man a
prepositional phrase. Appeared is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by
liar, a predicate noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject Jim.
sub. LV
PN
16. That man became a beggar.
Speaking = Man is the subject, became the verb. Became is in the list of linking
verbs and is followed by Jerry, a predicate noun, that tells us about or refers to
the subject man. There is no prepositional phrase.

370

sub. LV PN
17. She became the hostess (for the day).
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun, became the verb, and for the day a
prepositional phrase. Became is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by
hostess, a predicate noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject She.
sub.
LV-ed PN
18. The cat (on the fence) was Tammy.
Speaking = Cat is the subject, was a past tense verb, and on the fence a
prepositional phrase. Was is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by
Tammy, a predicate noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject cat.
sub. LV-ed
PN
19. Joe seemed a stranger (to them).
Speaking = Joe is the subject, seemed a past tense verb, and to them a prepositional
phrase. Seemed is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by stranger, a
predicate noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject Joe.
sub.
LV-ed
PN
20. The building appeared a success.
Speaking = Building is the subject, appeared a past tense verb. Appeared is in the
list of linking verbs and is followed by success, a predicate noun, that tells us
about or refers to the subject building. There is no prepositional phrase.
sub.
LV PN
21. The dog became my pal (for the day).
Speaking = Dog is the subject, became the verb, and for the day a prepositional
phrase. Became is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by pal, a predicate
noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject dog.
sub. LV+en
PN
22. The boy has been a neighbor (to me).
Speaking = Boy is the subject, has been the verb, and to me a prepositional phrase.
Has been is in the list of linking verbs and is followed by neighbor, a predicate
noun, that tells us about or refers to the subject boy.

371

Section 2
sub. LV Pron.
2. That was they (by the house).
sub. LV Pron.
3. The man was he by the car.
sub.
LV Pron.
4. The man by the car was he.
sub. LV Pron.
5. That is he with my father.
sub.LV Pron.
6. It is they near the school.
sub. LV-ed Pron.
7. It was she on the stage.
sub. V Pron.
8. This is I.
sub. LV Pron.
9. It was they beyond the hill.
sub. V Pron.
10. This is he.
sub. LV Pron.
11. That was she in the kitchen.
sub. LV Pron.
12. It is they behind us.

372

Unit 3

The Direct Object Pattern

sub. V-t
DO
2. An accident caused the trouble for us.
Speaking = Accident is the subject, caused is verb, and for us is a prepositional
phrase. Caused is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is
transitive, followed by the direct object trouble.
sub. V-t DO
3. Jack threw a curve at me.
Speaking = Jack is the subject, threw is the verb, and at me is a prepositional phrase.
Threw is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is transitive,
followed by the direct object curve.
sub.V-t DO
4. He hit the ball across the field.
Speaking = He is the subject pronoun, hit is the verb, and across the field is a
prepositional phrase. Hit is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase.
It is transitive, followed by the direct object ball.
sub.
V-t
DO
5. The fielder caught the fly.
Speaking = Fielder is the subject, caught is the verb. Caught is not a linking verb
because there is not a prepositional phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct
object fly.
sub. V-t
DO
6. Jim recited his piece at home.
Speaking = Jim is the subject, recited is the verb, and at home is a prepositional
phrase. Recited is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is
transitive, followed by the direct object piece.
sub. V-t
DO
7. She studied her lesson at noon.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, studied is the verb, and at noon is a
prepositional phrase. Studied is a linking verb because there is a prepositional
phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct object lesson.

373

sub. V-t
DO
8. Father burned the papers.
Speaking = Father is the subject, burned is the verb. Burned is not a linking verb
because there is not a prepositional phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct
object papers.
sub. V-t
DO
9. Tom sold his bicycle to him.
Speaking = Tom is the subject, sold is the verb, and to him is a prepositional phrase.
Sold is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is transitive,
followed by the direct object bicycle.
sub. V-t DO
10. The boys built a dam across the pond.
Speaking = Boys is the subject, built is the verb, and across the pond is a
prepositional phrase. Built is a linking verb because there is a prepositional
phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct object dam.
sub. V-t
DO
11. Some girls picked the daisies.
Speaking = Girls is the subject, picked is the verb. Picked is not a linking verb because
there is not a prepositional phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct object
daisies.
sub. V-t
DO
12. The men grabbed their axes.
Speaking = Men is the plural subject, grabbed is the verb. Grabbed is not a
linking verb because there is not a prepositional phrase. It is transitive,
followed by the direct object axes.
sub. V-t DO
13. He shot a deer in the woods.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, shot is the verb, and in the woods is a
prepositional phrase. Shot is a linking verb because there is a prepositional
phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct object deer.

374

sub. V-t
DO
14. The child found his mother.
Speaking = Child is the subject, found is the verb. Found is not a linking verb
because there is a prepositional phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct
object mother.
sub. V-t
DO
15. Fred drove the nails.
Speaking = Fred is the subject, drove is the verb. Drove is not a linking verb because
there is not a prepositional phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct object
nails.
sub. V-t DO
16. The maid served tea at night.
Speaking = Maid is the subject, served is the verb, and at night is a prepositional
phrase. Served is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is
transitive, followed by the direct object tea.
sub. V-t DO
17. She lost a dime at the store.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, lost is the verb, and at the store is a
prepositional phrase. Lost is a linking verb because there is a prepositional
phrase. It is transitive, followed by the direct object dime.
sub. V-t DO
18. Tom tore his paper into shreds.
Speaking = Tom is the subject, tore is the verb, and into shreds is a prepositional
phrase. Tore is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is
transitive, followed by the direct object paper.
sub. V-t DO
19. Sue baked a cake for me.
Speaking = Sue is the subject, baked is the verb, and for me is a prepositional phrase.
Baked is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is transitive,
followed by the direct object cake.

375

sub. V-t
DO
20. He threw the eraser to me.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, threw is the verb, and to me is a prepositional
phrase. Threw is a linking verb because there is a prepositional phrase. It is
transitive, followed by the direct object eraser.

Because pronouns can substitute for nouns, pronouns can substitute for nouns in the
direct object position.

sub. V-t DO
2. A bee stung me (on my arm).
sub. V-t DO
3. He pushed us (into the water).
sub. V-t
DO
4. Sue told them (about it).
sub. V-t
DO
5. Joe grabbed him (by the collar).
sub. V-t DO
6. Mother told her (about it).
sub.V-tDO
7. I saw it (in the woods).

Notice that the verbs are most often past tense, when using the Direct Object.
Unit 4

The Indirect Object Pattern

sub. V-g I0
DO
2. She gave me an apple (at noon).
Speaking = She is the subject, gave the verb, at noon is a prepositional phrase. The verb
is not linking, but it is transitive with apple the direct object and me the
indirect object.

376

sub.
V-g I0 DO
3. The man (at the dock) showed us a boat.
Speaking = Man is the subject, showed the verb, at the dock is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is not linking, but it is transitive with boat the direct object and us the
indirect object.
sub. V-g I0
DO
4. Father carved John a whistle.
Speaking = Father is the subject, carved the verb. The verb is not linking, but it is
transitive with whistle the direct object, and John the indirect object. There is
no prepositional phrase.
Sub. V-g
I0
DO
5. He told them the lesson (for the day).
Speaking = He is the subject, told the verb, for the day is a prepositional phrase. The
verb is not linking, but it is transitive with lesson the direct object and them
the indirect object.
sub. V-g I0
DO
6. Mary wrote Jane a letter (about home).
Speaking = Mary is the subject, wrote the verb, about home is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is not linking, but it is transitive with letter the direct object and Jane
the indirect object.
sub. V-g I0 DO
7. The usher found us a seat (in front).
Speaking = Usher is the subject, found the verb, in front is a prepositional phrase. The
verb is not linking, but it is transitive with apple the direct object and us the
indirect object.
sub.
V-g I0
DO
8. The girl (near us) gave me the book.
Speaking = Girl is the subject, gave the verb, near us is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is not linking, but it is transitive with book the direct object
and me the indirect object.

377

sub. V-g I0 DO
9. Father bought Tom a suit.
Speaking = Father is the subject, bought the verb. The verb is not linking, but it is
transitive with apple the direct object and Tom the indirect object.
sub. V-g
I0
DO
10. June gave her sister a dime (for pop).
Speaking = June is the subject, gave the verb, for pop is a prepositional phrase. The verb
is not linking, but it is transitive with dime the direct object and sister the
indirect object.
sub. V-g I0 DO
11. We sent Sue a note (about the meeting).
Speaking = We is the subject, sent the verb, about the meeting is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is not linking, but it is transitive with note the direct object and Sue
the indirect object.
sub.
V-g I0 DO
12. The boy (near us) gave me a ball.
Speaking = Boy is the subject, gave the verb, near us is a prepositional phrase. The verb
is not linking, but it is transitive with ball the direct object and me the indirect
object.
sub. V-g I0 DO
13. Harry gave Jim a push (into the water).
Speaking = Harry is the subject, gave the verb, into the water is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is not linking, but it is transitive with push the direct object and me
the indirect object.
sub. V-g I0 DO
4. Hazel typed me a letter (of thanks).
Speaking = Hazel is the subject, typed the verb, of thanks is a prepositional phrase. The
verb is not linking, but it is transitive with letter the direct object and me the
indirect object.

378

sub. V-g I0
DO
15. I told her the story (at night).
Speaking = I is the subject, told the verb, at night is a prepositional phrase. The verb is
not linking, but it is transitive with story the direct object and her the indirect
object.
sub. V-g I0
DO
16. My father found me the job.
Speaking = Father is the subject, found the verb. The verb is not linking, but it is
transitive with job the direct object and me the indirect object. There is no
prepositional phrase.
sub. V-g
I0
DO
17. I have given him a picture (of me).
Speaking = I is the subject, have given the verb, of me is a prepositional phrase. The
verb is not linking, but it is transitive with picture the direct object and him the
indirect object.
sub. V-g I0
DO
18. He owes me the money (for it).
Speaking = He is the subject, owes the verb, for it is a prepositional phrase. The verb is
not linking, but it is transitive with money the direct object and me the indirect
object.
sub. V-g I0
DO
19. He gave me the painting.
Speaking = He is the subject, gave the verb. The
verb is not linking, but it is transitive
with painting the direct object and me the indirect object.
sub. V-g I0 DO
20. The baker sold us a cake.
Speaking = Baker is the subject, sold the verb. The verb is not linking, but it is transitive
with cake the direct object and us the indirect object.

379

Unit 5

The Adverb Pattern

sub.
VI
Adv.
2. The chipmunk chattered (loudly).
Speaking = Chipmunk is the subject, chattered is the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed
by the adverb loudly.
sub. VI Adv.
3. Harry walked (in).
Speaking = Harry is the subject, walked is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed by the
adverb in.
sub. VI
Adv.
4. We traveled (slowly).
Speaking = We is the subject, traveled is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed by the
adverb slowly.
sub. VI Adv.
5. Tom ran (quickly).
Speaking = Tom is the subject, ran is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed by the adverb
quickly.
sub. VI Adv.
6. Tom ran (fast).
Speaking = Tom is the subject, ran is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed by the adverb
fast.
sub.
VI
Adv.
7. The students danced (merrily).
Speaking = Students is the subject, stayed is the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive,
followed by the adverb merrily.

380

sub.
VI Adv.
8. They will leave (soon).
Speaking = They is the subject pronoun, will leave is the verb phrase. There are no
prepositional phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is
intransitive, followed by the adverb soon.
sub. VI
Adv.
9. She laughed (quietly).
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun, laughed is the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed
by the adverb quietly.
sub. VI
Adv.
10. The boy stumbled (onward).
Speaking = Boy is the subject, stumbled is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed by the
adverb onward.
sub. VI
Adv.
11. Many boys waited (patiently).
Speaking = Boys is the plural subject, waited is the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed
by the adverb patiently.
sub. VI Adv.
12. The sun rises (slowly).
Speaking = Sun is the subject, rises is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive, but it is intransitive, followed by the adverb
slowly.

Note: Remember that the word lists in this book are only examples and
that usually there are many more words like them.

381

Now see how many adverbs you can write to fit in the blank below.
The boy ran slowly
quickly
sweetly
now
soon
always
here
out
not
too
almost

The boy ran quietly


fast
merrily
then
never
often
there
in
quite
very
partly

Summary Pattern #6
D
sub. LV D
N
P
OP
2. My father was the president (of the club).
(predicate noun pattern)
Speaking = Father is the subject signaled by My, was is the verb, of the club is a
prepositional phrase. was is in our list of linking verbs followed by president, a
noun signaled by the.
D sub. P
OP V-t
D DO
3. The ship (at the dock) bumped our boat.
(direct object pattern)
Speaking = Ship is the subject, bumped is a past tense verb, at the dock is a
prepositional phrase. bumped is a transitive verb followed by boat, and
signaled by the determiner our.
D sub. LV IO D DO P
OP
4. A man told Tom the story (of the event).
(indirect object pattern)
Speaking = Man is the subject, told is the verb, of the event is a prepositional phrase.
Told is in our list of linking verbs followed by story, a predicate adjective.

382

D sub. VI Adv.
5. The pencil lay there.
(adverb pattern)
Speaking = Pencil is the subject signaled by The, lay is a linking verb, followed by
there, an adverb.
D sub. VI
Adv. P
D OP
6. His dog trotted quietly (down the street).
(adverb pattern)
Speaking = Dog is the subject signaled by the determiner His, trotted is a linking
verb, followed by quietly an adverb. Down the road is a prepositional phrase.
sub. V-g IO D DO P
OP
7. He gave us a lecture (about safety).
(indirect object pattern)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, gave is the verb, about safety is a prepositional
phrase. gave is a non- transitive verbs followed by us the indirect object.
Lecture is the direct object.
sub.
LV
Adj. P
D
OP
8. Jean appeared happy (about our plans).
(predicate adjective pattern)
Speaking = Jean is the subject, appeared is the verb, about our plans is a
prepositional phrase. appeared is in our list of linking verbs followed by happy,
an predicate adjective.
D sub. V-t D DO
9. Each boy took his book (to the library).
(direct object pattern)
Speaking = Boy is the subject signaled by the determiner Each, took is a transitive
verb, to the library is a prepositional phrase. Book is a direct object adjective.
sub. LV D N
10. Jim was the leader (of the group).
(predicate noun pattern)
Speaking = Jim is the subject, was is the verb, of the group is a prepositional phrase.
Was is in our list of linking verbs followed by leader, a noun.
Pron. VI
Adv.
P OP
11. She walked gracefully (to him).
(adverb pattern)
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun, walked is a linking verb, to him is a
prepositional phrase. Gracefully is an adverb.

383

D sub. LV PAdj.P D OP
12. The bread tastes good (to the boys).
(predicate noun pattern)
Speaking = Bread is the subject, tastes is the verb, to the boys is a prepositional
phrase. tastes is in our list of linking verbs followed by good, a predicate
adjective.
Pron. V-t D DO P OP
13. We wanted the paper (by noon).
(direct object pattern)
Speaking = We is the subject, wanted is a past tense transitive verb, by noon is
a prepositional phrase. Paper is a direct object.
sub. P OP LV P.Adj.
14. The girl (near me) is Susan.
(predicate adjective pattern)
Speaking = Girl is the subject, is a present tense verb, near me is a prepositional
phrase. is is in our list of linking verbs followed by Susan an adjective.
Pron. VI Adv. P D OP
15. We left early (for the fair).
(adverb pattern)
Speaking = We is the subject, left is a linking verb, for the fair is a prepositional phrase.
Early is an adverb.
sub. V-t D DO P OP
16. Grace drove the car (to church).
(direct object pattern)
Speaking = Grace is the subject. Drove is an intransitive verb, to the church is a
prepositional phrase. Car is a direct object.
sub. V-t DO P OP
17. Mother told Harold (about it).
(direct object pattern)
Speaking = Mother is the subject, told a transitive verb, about it is a prepositional
phrase. Harold is a direct object.
Pron. LV P.Adj.
18. You look unhappy.
(predicate adjective pattern)
Speaking = You is the subject, look is the verb. look is in our list of linking verbs
followed by unhappy, a predicate adjective. There is no prepositional phrase.

384

Pron. LV
D N
P D OP
19. He became the leader (of the boys).
(predicate noun pattern)
Speaking = He is the subject pronoun, became a linking verb, of the boys is a
prepositional phrase. became is in our list of linking verbs followed by leader, a
noun signaled by the, a determiner.
sub. VI
Adv.
20. June talked happily.
(adverb pattern)
Speaking = June is the subject, talked a linking verb. Happily is an adverb. There is no
prepositional phrase.
sub. V
21. Birds fly.
(This can end up as any of the listed)
Speaking = Birds is a plural subject, fly is a verb. The object is assumed, but not stated or
written.
sub. V-g IO D
DO
22. Sue gave me the information.
(indirect object pattern)
Speaking = Sue is the subject, gave is the verb. Me is an indirect object. Information is
the direct object. There is no prepositional phrase.
Pron. LV
D N
P OP
23. He remained my friend (for years).
(predicate noun pattern)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, remained is a linking verb followed by friend. For
years is a prepositional phrase.
Pron. V-t DO P D OP
24. I pushed him (into the lake).
(direct object pattern)
Speaking = I is the subject pronoun, pushed is a transitive verb, into the lake is a
prepositional phrase. Him is a direct object pronoun.
D sub. LV P.Adj.
25. Some trees seem tall.
(predicate adjective pattern)
Speaking = Tress is a plural subject signaled by Some, seem is the verb. Seem is in
our list of linking verbs followed by tall, a predicate adjective. There is no
prepositional phrase.

385

D sub. VI Adv.
26. Some trees fell down.
(adverb pattern)
Speaking = Trees is the plural subject signaled by Some. Fell is a linking verb, and
down an adverb. There is no prepositional phrase.
D sub. V-t D DO
27. The trees hit the ground.
(direct object pattern)
Speaking = Trees is the subject signaled by The. Hit is the verb. Ground is a direct
object. There is no prepositional phrase.
D sub.
LV Adj.
28. The bread smells good (to us).
(predicate adjective pattern)
Speaking = Bread is the subject signaled by The. Smells is a linking verb, to us is a
prepositional phrase. Smells is in our list of linking verbs followed by good, an
adjective.
D sub. LV D N P OP
29. Each boy took his pen (with him).
(predicate noun pattern)
Speaking = Boy is the subject signaled by Each, took is a linking verb followed by a
noun pen, with him is a prepositional phrase.

Unit 6

When LINKing Verbs Dont Link

Pron.LV P.Adj
3. She is lovely.
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun, is the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Is is in the list of linking verbs followed by lovely, which describes
the subject. Is is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
Pron. VI
4. She is (in the pool).
Speaking = Man is the subject, is the verb. in the pool is a prepositional phrase. Is is
in the list of linking verbs but there is no predicate word after it, which describes
or refers to the subject. Is therefore is not linking in this sentence.

386

D N
LV P.Adj
5. The candy tastes good.
Speaking = Candy is the subject, tastes the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Tastes is in the list of linking verbs followed by good, which
describes the subject. Tastes is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
D N VI
D N
6. The boys tasted the candy.
Speaking = Boys is the subject, tasted the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
Tasted is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after it,
which describes or refers to the subject. Is therefore is not linking in this
sentence.
N
LV
D P.Adj.
7. Jim has been our chairman.
Speaking = Jim is the subject, has been the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Has been is in the list of linking verbs followed by chairman, which
describes the subject. Has been is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
N
VI
8. Jim has been (with me).
Speaking = Jim is the subject, has been the verb, and with me a prepositional phrase.
Has been is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after it
which describes or refers to the subject. Has been therefore is not linking in
this sentence.
Pron. VI
9. They are young.
Speaking = They is the subject pronoun, are the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Are is in the list of linking verbs followed by young, which describes
the subject. Is is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
Pron. LV
10. They are (in the kitchen).
Speaking = They is the subject pronoun, are the verb, and in the kitchen is a
prepositional phrase. Are is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate
word after it which describes or refers to the subject. Are therefore is not
linking in this sentence.

387

D
N
LV P.Adj.
11. The clock (on the wall) was large.
Speaking = Clock is the subject, was the verb, and on the wall is a prepositional
phrase. Was is in the list of linking verbs followed by large, which describes
the subject. Has been is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
D
N VI
12. The clock was (on the wall).
Speaking = Clock is the subject, was the verb, and on the wall is a prepositional
phrase. Was is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after it
which describes or refers to the subject. Was therefore is not linking in this
sentence.
D N LV P.Adj
13. The boys feel happy.
Speaking = Boys is the subject, feel the verb, and there are no prepositional phrases.
Feel is in the list of linking verbs followed by happy, which describes the
subject. Feel is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
D
N
VI D N
14. The salesman felt the cloth.
Speaking = Salesman is the subject, felt the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Felt is in the list of linking verbs but there is no predicate word after it
which describes or refers to the subject. Felt therefore is not linking in this
sentence.
Pron. VI
15. It sounds good (to me).
Speaking = Man is the subject, sounds the verb, and to me a prepositional phrase.
Sounds is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after it
which describes or refers to the subject. Sounds therefore is not linking in this
sentence.

388

N
VI
D N
16. John sounded the horn.
Speaking = John is the subject, sounded the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Sounded is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word
after it which describes or refers to the subject. Sounded therefore is not
linking in this sentence.
D
N
LV P.Adj.
17. The perfume smells good.
Speaking = Perfume is the subject, smells the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Smells is in the list of linking verbs, followed by good, which
describes the subject. Smells is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
Pron. VI
D
N
18. He smelled the perfume.
Speaking = He is the subject pronoun, smelled the verb, and there are no
prepositional phrases. Smelled is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no
predicate word after it which describes or refers to the subject. Smelled is
therefore is not linking in this sentence.
D N LV P.Adj
19. His father grew old.
Speaking = Father is the subject, grew the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Grew is in the list of linking verbs followed by old, which describes
the subject. Grew is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
D N
VI D
N
20. His father grew some tomatoes.
Speaking = Father is the subject, grew the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Grew is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after
it which describes or refers to the subject. Grew is therefore is not linking in
this sentence.
D
N
LV P.Adj
21. The weather continued cold.
Speaking = Weather is the subject, continued the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Continued is in the list of linking verbs followed by cold, which
describes the subject. Continued is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.

389

D N
VI
D
N
22. The students continued the lesson.
Speaking = Students is the subject, continued the verb, and there are no
prepositional phrases. continued is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no
predicate word after it which describes or refers to the subject. Continued is
therefore is not linking in this sentence.
Pron. VI
D
N
23. She turned the switch (on the stove).
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun, turned the verb, and on the stove is a
prepositional phrase. Turned is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no
predicate word after it which describes or refers to the subject. Are therefore
is not linking in this sentence.
D
N
LV P.Adj
24. The weather turned cold.
Speaking = Weather is the subject, turned the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Turned is in the list of linking verbs followed by cold, which
describes the subject. Turned is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
Pron.
LV D P.Adj.
25. It could be the man.
Speaking = It is the subject pronoun, be the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Be is in the list of linking verbs, followed by man, which describes
the subject. Be is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
N
VI
26. Jerry could be outside.
Speaking = Jerry is the subject, be the verb, and there are no prepositional phrases.
Be is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after it which
describes or refers to the subject. Be therefore is not linking in this sentence.
Pron.
VI
27. He could be (in the house).
Speaking = He is the subject pronoun, be the verb, and in the house a prepositional
phrases. Be is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after it
which describes or refers to the subject. Be therefore is not linking in this
sentence.

390

Pron.VI P.Adj.
28. It was he (near us).
Speaking = It is the subject pronoun, was the verb, and near us is a prepositional
phrase. Was is in the list of linking verbs, followed by he, which describes the
subject. Was is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.
D N VI
29. The men were (near us).
Speaking = Men is the subject, were the verb, and near us is a prepositional phrase.
Were is in the list of linking verbs, but there is no predicate word after it which
describes or refers to the subject. Be therefore is not linking in this sentence.
D N LV
P.Adj.
30. The dog appeared hungry.
Speaking = Dog is the subject, appeared the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. Appeared is in the list of linking verbs followed by hungry, which
describes the subject. Is is therefore a linking verb in this sentence.

Unit 7

Adverbs Modifying Verbs

D sub. VI D N Adv.
3. The boys left the house early. (modifies left)
Speaking = Boys is the subject, left the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Early modifies the verb left.
sub. VI Adv.
4. John fell down (by the steps). (modifies fell)
Speaking = John is the subject, fell the verb, by the steps a prepositional phrase. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Down modifies the verb fell.
Adv. sub. VI
5. Quickly he ran (up the hill). (modifies ran)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, fell the verb, and up the hill a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Quickly modifies the verb ran.

391

sub. VI
Adv.
6. Mary worked rapidly (for her mother). (modifies rapidly)
Speaking = Mary is a subject, worked the verb, and for her mother a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Rapidly modifies the verb
worked.
sub. VI
Adv.
7. They talked (to each girl) quietly. (modifies talked)
Speaking = They is a subject pronoun, talked the verb, and to each girl a
prepositional phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Quietly modifies
the verb talked.
Adv. D sub. VI
DN
8. Slowly the dog scratched his ear. (modifies scratched)
Speaking = Dog is a subject, scratched the verb. There is no a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Slowly modifies the
verb scratched.
D sub. VI Adv.
9. Our baby cried loudly (for an hour). (modifies cried)
Speaking = Baby is the subject, left the verb, and for an hour a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Loudly modifies the verb cried.
sub. Be+ing N Adv.
10. She is playing ball now. (modifies is playing)
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, is playing a verb phrase. There are no
prepositional phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Now modifies
the verb phrase is playing.
sub. VI
Adv.
11. He laughed merrily (at the kitten). (modifies laughed)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, laughed the verb. and at the kitten a
prepositional phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Merrily modifies
the verb laughed.

392

Adv. sub. V-g Pron.D N


12. Then she gave them the ball. (modifies gave)
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, gave the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Then modifies the verb gave.
sub.
VI
Adv.
13. I shall walk (down the hall) slowly. (modifies walk)
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun, walk the verb. and down the hall a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Slowly modifies the verb walk.
Adv. sub. V-g Pron. D P.Adj.
14. Quietly Jean gave them the candy. (modifies gave)
Speaking = Jean is the subject, gave the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. Them
is an object pronoun and candy a predicate adjective. The verb is neither linking
nor transitive. Quietly modifies the verb gave.
Adv. D sub. VI
15. Gracefully the deer loped (up the hill). (modifies loped)
Speaking = Deer is the subject, loped the verb, and up the hill a prepositional phrase.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Slowly modifies the verb walk.
sub. Adv. VI
16. Joe now seems hungry. (modifies seems)
Speaking = Joe is the subject, seems the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Now modifies the verb seems.
D
sub. VI Adv.
17. The rabbits ran fast (by me). (modifies ran)
Speaking = Rabbits is the subject, ran the verb, and by me a prepositional phrase. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Fast modifies the verb ran.
sub. VI
Adv.
18. Sharon went leisurely (on her way).
(modifies went)
Speaking = Sharon is the subject, went the verb, and on her way a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Leisurely modifies the verb
went.

393

D sub.Adv.VID N
19. Soon he will be a man.
(modifies be)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, be the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Will modifies the verb be.
D sub. VI Adv.
20. The bird fell there (by the tree).
(modifies fell)
Speaking = Bird is the subject, fell the verb, and on her way a prepositional phrase.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. There modifies the verb fell.
Adv. sub. VI Pron. D P.Adj.
21. Quickly he gave him the pencil. (modifies gave)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, gave the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Quickly modifies the
verb gave.
D sub. VI
Adv.
22. The plane flew (over us) swiftly.
(modifies flew)
Speaking = Plane is the subject, flew the verb, and over us a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Swiftly modifies the
verb flew.
sub. VI Adv.
23. I jumped down (on the ground).
(modifies jumped)
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun, jumped the verb, and on the ground a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Down modifies the verb jumped.
Adv.
sub.VI Pron.
24. Immediately she left us.
(modifies left)
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, left the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Immediately modifies the verb left.
sub. VI Adv. D
N
25. Mary was often the chairman. (modifies was)
Speaking = Mary is a subject, was the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The verb
is neither linking nor transitive. Often modifies the verb was.

394

D sub. VI D
N
Adv.
26. The boxer hit his opponent hard. (modifies hit)
Speaking = Boxer is the subject, hit the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking or transitive. Hard modifies the verb hit.
sub. VI
D
N Adv.
27. He walked past the house rapidly.
(modifies walked)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, walked the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Rapidly modifies the verb
walked.
Adv. D sub. VI
Adv.
28. Suddenly the dog became friendly.
(modifies became)
Speaking = Dog is the subject, became the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Suddenly and friendly both modify the verb
left.
Adv. sub. VI
D
N
29. Laboriously he copied the letter. (modifies copied)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, copied the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Laboriously modifies the verb copied.
sub. Adv. VI D
N
30. Bill gracefully rode the horse.
(modifies rode)
Speaking = Bill is the subject, rode the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking or transitive. Gracefully modifies the verb rode.
Adv. sub. VI
31. Now he seems quiet.
(modifies seems)
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, seems the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Now modifies the verb seems.

395

Unit 8
sub.

Adverbs Modifying Adjectives

LV Int. PA.

2. It was too thin.


Speaking = It is the subject pronoun, was the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
Was in our list of linking verbs followed by thin, a predicate adjective. Too is an
intensifier modifying thin, an adjective.
sub. LV Int. PA
3. Bob is quite handsome.
Speaking = Bob is the subject, is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. Is is
In our list of linking verbs followed by handsome, a predicate adjective. Quite
is an intensifier modifying handsome, an adjective.
sub. LV Int. PA
4. We shall be very happy (with it).
Speaking = We is the subject pronoun, shall be a verb phrase. With it is a
prepositional phrase. Shall be is in our list of linking verbs followed by happy, a
predicate adjective. Very is an intensifier modifying happy, an adjective.
sub. LV Int. PA
5. She is too proud (for us).
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun, is a verb. For us is a prepositional phrase. Is
is in our list of linking verbs followed by proud, a predicate adjective. Too is an
intensifier modifying proud, an adjective.
sub. LV Int. PA
6. The cake was very delicious.
Speaking = Cake is the subject, was the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. Was is
in our list of linking verbs followed by delicious, a predicate adjective. Very is
an intensifier modifying delicious, an adjective.
sub. VI Int. Adv.
7. Sue felt very good (about it).
Speaking = Sue is the subject, felt the verb. About it is a prepositional phrase. Felt is in
our list of linking verbs followed by good, an adverb. Very is an intensifier
modifying felt, an adverb.

396

sub. LV Int. PA
8. Tom was quite healthy (for a boy).
Speaking = Tom is the subject, was a verb. For a boy is a prepositional phrase. Was
is in our list of linking verbs followed by healthy, a predicate adjective. Quite is
an intensifier modifying healthy, an adjective.
sub. LV Int. PA
9. Darlene is very pretty.
Speaking = Darlene is the subject, is the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. Is
is in our list of linking verbs followed by pretty, a predicate adjective. Very is an
intensifier modifying pretty, an adjective.
sub. LV Int.
PA
10. We were unusually glad (about it).
Speaking = We is the subject pronoun, were a verb. About it is a prepositional
phrase. Were is in our list of linking verbs followed by glad, a predicate
adjective. Unusually is an intensifier modifying glad, an adjective.
Sub. LV Int. PA
11. He is not cheerful (around us).
Speaking = He is the subject pronoun, is a verb. around us is a prepositional phrase.
Is is in our list of linking verbs followed by cheerful, a predicate adjective. Not
is an intensifier modifying cheerful, an adjective.
sub. LV
Int. PA
12. The water looked quite clear (to me).
Speaking = Water is the subject, looked a verb. To me is a prepositional phrase.
Looked is in our list of linking verbs followed by clear, a predicate adjective.
Quite is an intensifier modifying clear, an adjective.
sub. LV Int. PA
13. It is too cold (in the room).
Speaking = It is the subject pronoun, is the verb. In the room is a prepositional
phrase. Was s in our list of linking verbs followed by cold, a predicate adjective.
Too is an intensifier modifying thin, an adjective.

397

sub. LV
Int. PA
14. Jane has been unusually sad (about it).
Speaking = Jane is the subject, has been a verb phrase. About it is a prepositional
phrase. Has been is in our list of linking verbs followed by sad, a predicate
adjective. Unusually is an intensifier modifying sad, an adjective.
sub.
LV Int. PA
15. His clothes looked quite dirty.
Speaking = Clothes is the subject, looked the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
Looked is in our list of linking verbs followed by dirty, a predicate adjective.
Quite is an intensifier modifying dirty, an adjective.
sub. LV
Int.
PA
16. He seems extremely angry (with us).
Speaking = He is the subject pronoun, seems the verb. With us is a prepositional
phrase. Seems is in our list of linking verbs followed by angry, a predicate
adjective. Extremely is an intensifier modifying angry, an adjective.
sub. LV Int. PA
17. The boy became really happy.
Speaking = Boy is the subject, became the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
Became is in our list of linking verbs followed by happy, a predicate adjective.
Really is an intensifier modifying happy, an adjective.

Unit 8

Adverbs Modifying Adjectives

sub. VI Int. Adv.


2. Jim works quite fast.
Speaking = Jim is the subject, works the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Fast is a how adverb modifying the verb
works. Quite is an intensifier modifying the adverb fast.
sub. VI
Int.
Adv.
3. She skates unusually well.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, skates the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Well is a how adverb modifying the
verb skates. Unusually is an intensifier modifying the adverb well.

398

sub. VI Int. Adv.


4. He sang very well (in the play).
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, sang the verb. In the play is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Well is a how adverb modifying the
verb sang. Very is an intensifier modifying the adverb well.
sub. VI
Int. Adv.
5. Pat jumped almost perfectly (over it).
Speaking = Pat is the subject, jumped the verb. Over it is a prepositional phrase. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. perfectly is a how adverb modifying the
verb jumped. Almost is an intensifier modifying the adverb perfectly.
sub.
VI Int. Adv.
6. The boy (in front) reads too slowly.
Speaking = Boy is the subject, reads the verb. In front is a prepositional phrase. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Slowly is a how adverb modifying the
verb read. Too is an intensifier modifying the adverb slowly.
sub. VI Int. Adv.
7. Some girls dance quite well.
Speaking = Girls is the subject, dance the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Well is a how adverb modifying the verb
dance. Quite is an intensifier modifying the adverb well.
sub. VI
Int. Adv.
8. Tim talked almost constantly.
Speaking = Tim is the subject, talked the verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Constantly is a how adverb modifying the
verb talked. Almost is an intensifier modifying the adverb constantly.
sub. VI Int. Adv.
9. A car sped very quickly (by us).
Speaking = Car is the subject, sped the verb. By us is a prepositional phrase. The verb
is neither linking nor transitive. Quickly is a how adverb modifying the verb
sped. Very is an intensifier modifying the adverb quickly.

399

sub. VI
Int. Adv.
10. He listened (to me) very eagerly.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, listened the verb. To me is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Eagerly is a how adverb modifying the
verb listened. Very is an intensifier modifying the adverb eagerly.
sub.
VI
Int. Adv.
11. Jim has eaten too quickly.
Speaking = Jim is the subject, has eaten a verb phrase. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Quickly is a how adverb
modifying the verb has eaten. Too is an intensifier modifying the adverb
quickly.
sub. VI Int. Adv.
12. A squirrel dashed very fast (by us).
Speaking = Squirrel is the subject, dashed the verb. By us is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Fast is a how adverb modifying the
verb dashed. Very is an intensifier modifying the adverb fast.
sub. VI
Int. Adv.
13. The tenor sang unusually well.
Speaking = Tenor is the subject, sang the verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Well is a how adverb modifying the
verb sang. Unusually is an intensifier modifying the adverb well.
sub. VI Int. Adv.
14. She read too slowly (for the part).
Speaking = She is the subject, read the verb. For the part us is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Slowly is a how adverb modifying the
verb read. Too is an intensifier modifying the adverb slowly.
sub. VI
Int. Adv.
15. He proved the problem very easily.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, proved the verb. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Easily is a how adverb
modifying the verb proved. Very is an intensifier modifying the adverb easily.

400

sub. VI
Int. Adv.
16. We went (to town) very unwillingly.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun, went the verb. To town is a prepositional phrase.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Unwillingly is a how adverb modifying
the verb went. Very is an intensifier modifying the adverb unwillingly.

Unit 9

Adverbs Modifying Adjectives

sub. VI Adv. N.
2. He jumped ten feet (over the brook).
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, jumped the verb, and over the brook is a
prepositional phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Ten feet is an
adverbial noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
3. Our dog was worth fifty dollars.
Speaking = Dog is the subject, was worth a verb phrase. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Fifty dollars is an adverbial
noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
4. I saw him last week.
Speaking = I is the subject pronoun, saw a verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Last week is an adverbial noun.
Sub. VI Adv. N.
5. He met me last night (at the park).
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, met the verb, and at the park is a
prepositional phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Last
night is an adverbial noun.
sub. VI Adv. N.
6. She walked ten miles (to town).
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, walked the verb, and to town is a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Ten miles is an adverbial noun.

401

sub. VI
Adv. N.
7. He was there (in the house) that day.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, was the verb, and in the house is a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. That day is an adverbial noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
8. We drove (over the roads) all morning.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, walked the verb, and over the roads is a
prepositional phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. All morning is
an adverbial noun.
Adv. N.
sub.VI
9. Three times the car ran (around the track).
Speaking = Car is the subject, ran the verb, and around the track is a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Three times is an adverbial
noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
10. John waited two hours (in the depot).
Speaking = John is the subject, waited the verb, and in the depot is a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Two hours is an adverbial
noun.
sub.
VI Adv. N.
11. We shall go this afternoon (to him).
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun, shall go a verb phrase, and to him is a
prepositional phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. This afternoon
is an adverbial noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
12. He sat quietly five minutes.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, sat the verb, and there are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Five minutes is an adverbial noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
13. We backed up one inch.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun, backed the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. One inch is an adverbial
noun.

402

Adv. N. sub. VI
14. Four days it rained.
Speaking = It is a subject pronoun, rained the verb, and there are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Four days is an adverbial
noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
15. The book was worth five dollars.
Speaking = Book is the subject, was worth a verb phrase, and there are no
prepositional phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Five dollars is
an adverbial noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
16. The butter was worth sixty cents.
Speaking = Butter is the subject, was worth a verb phrase, and there are no
prepositional phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Sixty cents is
an adverbial noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
17. We offered it (to him) five times.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun, offered a verb, and to him a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Five times is an adverbial
noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
18. His hat was worth ten dollars.
Speaking = Hat is the subject, was worth a verb phrase, and to him a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Ten dollars is an adverbial
noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
19. She went (to town) this morning.
Speaking = She is a subject pronoun, went a verb, and to town a prepositional
phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. This morning is an adverbial
noun.

403

sub. VI
Adv. N.
20. I shall pay you next month.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun, shall pay a verb phrase. There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Next month is an adverbial noun.
sub. VI Adv. N.
21. It dropped six inches.
Speaking = It is a subject pronoun, dropped a verb. There are no prepositional phrases.
The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Six inches is an adverbial noun.
sub.
VI
Adv. N.
22. You must walk two miles (during the day).
Speaking = You is a subject pronoun, must walk a verb phrase, and during the day a
prepositional phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Two miles is an
adverbial noun.
sub.
VI
Adv.
N.
23. He will come (to me) tomorrow morning.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, will come a verb phrase, and to me a
prepositional phrase. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Tomorrow
morning is an adverbial noun.
sub. VI Adv. N.
24. Jim came last night.
Speaking = Jim is the subject, came a verb. There are no prepositional phrases. The
verb is neither linking nor transitive. Last night is an adverbial noun.
sub. VI
Adv. N.
25. The car was worth ninety dollars.
Speaking = Car is the subject, was worth a verb phrase, There are no prepositional
phrases. The verb is neither linking nor transitive. Ninety dollars is an
adverbial noun.

404

Part V
Adjectives and Sentence Patterns
Section 2
Unit 1

Adjective Position

D Adj. N V
D Adj. OP
2. A red sun disappeared below the distant horizon.
Speaking = Sun is the subject signaled by A, red is an adjective modifying sun,
disappeared the verb. Below the distant horizon is a prepositional phrase.
Distant is an adjective modifying the noun horizon.
D Adj. N V
D Adj. OP
3. A white cake sat on the round table.
Speaking = Cake is the subject signaled by the article A, sat the verb. White is an
adjective modifying cake. On the round table is a prepositional phrase.
Round is an adjective modifying table, a noun signaled by the.
D Adj. N Aux.VVPron.
4. An ordinary man can do it.
Speaking = Man is the subject signaled by the article An. Ordinary is an adjective
modifying man. Can is an auxiliary verb, do the verb. It is an object pronoun.
D N
LV
D Adj. OP
5. Some poles were on the green grass.
Speaking = Poles is the plural subject, signaled by the plural article Some. Were
is a linking verb, and on the green grass a prepositional phrase. Green is an
adjective modifying the object grass.
D Adj. N V-ed
6. Many little ants crawled away.
Speaking = Ants is the plural subject signaled by the plural article Many. Little is an
adjective modifying ants. Crawled is the past tense verb.

405

Pron. V-ed D Adj. OP


7. We talked to the athletic boy.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun. Talked is a past tense verb. To the athletic boy is
a prepositional phrase. Athletic is an adjective modifying boy, the object.
D Adj. N
V-ed Pron.
8. Each easy problem baffled him.
Speaking = Problem is the subject signaled by the article Each. Easy is an adjective
modifying problem. Baffled is a past tense verb and him an object pronoun.
D Adj. N
V-ed
D OP
9. A vivid color appeared on the screen.
Speaking = Color is the subject signaled by the article A. Vivid is an adjective about
color. Appeared is a past tense verb. On the screen is a prepositional phrase.
Pron. V-ed D Adj.
N
10. We called the anxious parents.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun. Called is a past tense verb. Parents is the object
signaled by the article the. Anxious modifies the object parents.
D
N
V-ed
D Adj. OP
11. The puppy wobbled on the clean floor.
Speaking = Puppy is the subject signaled by the article The. Wobbled is a past tense
verb. On the clean floor is a prepositional phrase. Clean is an adjective
modifying the object of the preposition floor.
Pron. V-ed D Adj. OP
12. He fell on the slippery ice.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun. Fell is a past tense verb. On the slippery ice is a
prepositional phrase. Slippery is an adjective modifying the object of the
preposition floor.
D Adj. N V-ed Adv.
13. The white snow fell slowly.
Speaking = Snow is the subject signaled by the article The. White is an adjective
modifying snow. Fell is the past tense verb, modified by the adverb slowly.

406

D Adj. N V-ed NPred.


14. A large house stood there.
Speaking = House is the subject, signaled by the article A, and modified by the
adjective large. Stood is a past tense verb. There is a predicate noun.
Pron. V-ed D Adj. OP
15. He looked in the open door.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun. Looked is a past tense verb. In the open door is
a prepositional phrase. Open is an adjective modifying the object of the
preposition door.
D N V-ed D Adj. N
16. The man had a full stomach.
Speaking = Man is the subject signaled by the article The. Had is a past tense verb.
Stomach is an object signaled by the article a and its position, modified by
the adjective full.
Change your idea a little bit ~~~ Below are some adjectives in the post noun position.
Watch where the commas are.
D N Adj. V-ed
1. The boy, afraid, retreated.
Speaking = Boy is the subject signaled by the article The. Afraid modifies boy, and
retreated is a past tense verb.
D N
Adj.
V-ed Pron.
2. A beast, unsightly, frightened us.
Speaking = Beast is the subject signaled by the article A. Unsightly modifies beast,
and frightened is a past tense verb. Us is an object pronoun, because of its
position.
D
N
Adj.
V P.Adj.
3. His accent, foreign, was strange.
Speaking = Accent is the subject signaled by the pronoun His. Foreign modifies
accent, and was is a past tense verb. Strange is a predicate adjective.

407

D N Adj. V-ed Pron.


4. The idea, brilliant, amazed us.
Speaking = Idea is the subject signaled by the article The. Brilliant modifies idea, and
amazed is a past tense verb. Us is an object pronoun, because of its position.
D N
Adj.
V-ed Int. Adv.
5. Her gift, expensive, seemed too much.
Speaking = Gift is the subject signaled by the pronoun Her. Expensive modifies gift,
and seemed is a past tense verb. Too is an intensifier modifying the adverb
much.
D N
Adj.
V-ed Pron.
6. The climb, dangerous, challenged me.
Speaking = Climb is the subject signaled by the article The. Dangerous modifies
climb, and challenged is a past tense verb. Me is an object pronoun because
of its position.
D N
Adj.
V-ed D N
7. The children, unhappy, refused the candy.
Speaking = Children is the subject signaled by the article The. Unhappy modifies
children, and refused is a past tense verb. Candy is the object signaled by
the article the and its position.
D N
Adj. V-ed
D OP
8. The hikers, weary, rested after the trip.
Speaking = Hikers is the plural subject signaled by the article The and the s ending.
Weary modifies hikers, and rested is a past tense verb. After the trip is a
prepositional phrase.

408

Unit 2

Noun Adjunct or Appositive

D NA
N
V-ed
3. The picture frame was painted.
Speaking = Frame is a noun signaled by the determiner the, and its position as the
subject of the sentence. Picture is a noun adjunct because it will fit into a noun
position. Example: The picture was painted.
D Adj.
N
VI
OP
4. The football coach talked (to us).
Speaking = Coach is a noun signaled by the determiner the, and its position as the
subject of the sentence. Football is an adjective modifying coach. There is no
noun adjunct or appositive noun, because football does not fit into the noun
position.
Pron. VI N D App.N D OP
5. I knew Tim, the boy (with the hat).
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun, knew is the past tense verb. Tim is a noun because of
its position as the object. Boy is an appositive noun, signaled by the determiner
the and meaning the same thing as Tim, or adding to our knowledge of Tim.
N
D NA VI
OP
6. Rollo the clown ran (toward us).
Speaking = Rollo is the subject because of its position. Clown is a noun adjunct signaled
by the determiner the. Clown is a noun adjunct, because it can fit into the
noun position. Example: The clown ran (toward us).
D NA N
V-ed D
N
7. A wall chart revealed the information.
Speaking = Chart is the subject because of its position and signaled by the determiner
A. Information is a noun because of its position as the object and signaled by
the determiner the. Wall is a noun adjunct, because it can fit into the noun
position. Example: A wall revealed the information.
Pron. VI
Adj.
OP
8. We went (to summer school).
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun, went is the past tense verb. There is no noun
adjunct, or appositive noun.

409

Pron. VI
D OP D App.N
9. We talked (with the man), our teacher.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun, talked is the past tense intransitive verb. Man is a
noun because of its position as the object of the preposition with. Teacher is
an appositive noun, signaled by the determiner our and meaning the same
thing as man, or adding to our knowledge of man.
D NA
N V-ed
10. The freight train rumbled by.
Speaking = Train is the subject because of its position and signaled by the determiner
The. Freight is a noun adjunct, because it can fit into the noun position.
Example: The freight rumbled by.
DN
D App.N V-ed
11. His chair, a wreck, was thrown away.
Speaking = Chair is a subject signaled by the determiner His. Wreck is a an appositive
noun, signaled by the determiner a and meaning the same thing as chair, or
adding to our knowledge of chair.
What is the predicate adjective test for the adjective and the subject position for

the noun adjunct?


The predicate adjective is in the predicate section of the sentence, and refers to the subject.
The noun adjunct is in the subject part of the sentence and can replace the noun in the
sentence.
D
Adj.
N VI
OP
1. The handsome boy turned (toward me).
Speaking = Boy is the subject because of its position and signaled by the determiner
The. Handsome is an adjective, because it modifies the noun boy. Handsome
cannot replace the noun, so cannot be a noun adjunct.
D NA
N V-ed
2. The mountain top seemed quite high.
Speaking = Top is the subject because of its position and signaled by the determiner
The. Mountain is a noun adjunct, because it is in the subject section of the
sentence and can fit into the noun position. Example: The mountain seemed
quite high.

410

Pron. V-ed D Adj. N


3. He borrowed my red pencil.
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun because of its position. Pencil is a noun signaled by
the determiner my. Red is an adjective because it modifies pencil. It is in the
predicate section of the sentence, but does not refer to the subject, nor can it
replace the noun.
N V-ed
D
NA.
OP
4. Sue looked (at my stamp collection).
Speaking = Sue is a noun because of its position. Collection is a noun because of its
position as an object of the preposition and signaled but the determiner my.
Stamp modifies collection and can replace it. It is therefore a noun adjunct.
D NA N V-ed D
OP
5. A sweet taste was (in his mouth).
Speaking = Sweet is a noun signaled by A and its position. Was is the past tense verb.
Mouth is the object of the preposition in and signaled by the determiner his.
Sweet modifies taste and can replace it. Therefore it is a noun adjunct.
D Adj.
N V-ed
D OP
6. The delivery boy came (to the door).
Speaking = Boy is a noun signaled by The and its position. Came is the past tense verb.
Door is the object of the preposition to and signaled by the determiner the.
Delivery modifies boy, but cannot replace it. Therefore it is an adjective.
D Adj.
N
V
V-ed
7. Your foolish actions are not wanted.
Speaking = Actions is a noun signaled by Your and its position. Are ~ wanted is a past
tense verb phrase. Foolish modifies actions, but cannot replace it. Therefore it is
an adjective.
Pron. V-ed D NA. N
D OP
8. We bought a gun rack (at the store).
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun. Bought is the past tense verb. Store is the object of
the preposition to and signaled by the determiner the. Gun modifies rack,
and can replace it. Therefore it is an adjective.

411

Pron.V-ed D Adj. N
9. It was a desolate country.
Speaking = It is a subject pronoun. Was is a past tense verb. Desolate modifies country, a
noun signaled by the determiner a. Desolate cannot replace country so is an
adjective.
N NA
N
V-ed
N
10. The principle reason seemed sound.
Speaking = Reason is a noun signaled by the determiner The. Seemed is a past tense
verb. Sound is a noun signaled by its position as the object. Principle is a noun
adjunct, because it adds to or can replace reason. (The principle seemed sound.)

412

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

Bright

brighter

brightest

Difficult
Majestic
Brown
Tasty
Blissful
Fruitful
Wide
Costly
Shrill

more difficult
more majestic
browner
more tasty
more blissful
more fruitful
wider
more costly
shriller

the most difficult


the most majestic
the brownest
the most tasty
the most blissful
the most fruitful
the widest
the most costly
the shrillest

Directions:

Write the comparative and superlative degrees for these adverbs.

Soon
Bravely
Merrily
Quickly
Slowly
Freely
Loyally
Fast
Sadly
Honestly
Truthfully
Wisely
Devoutly
Broadly

sooner
more brave
more merry
quicker
slower
freer
more loyal
faster
sadder
more honest
more truthful
wiser
more devoutly
broader

413

soonest
the bravest
the merriest
the quickest
the slowest
the freest
the most loyal
the fastest
the saddest
the most honest
the most truthful
the wisest
the most devoutly
the broadest

Unit 4 Adjective or Adverb


sub.

LV PA D N
2. Jane seemed sad that day.
Speaking = Jane is the subject. Seemed is a linking verb. Sad is a predicate adjective
applied to Jane. Day is a noun signaled by the determiner that and its
position as object.
sub. V-ed Adv.
OP
3. The boys drove later (to the farm).
Speaking = Boys is the plural subject signaled by the determiner The and the s
ending. Drove is a past tense verb modified by later, an adverb. Farm is a
noun signaled by the determiner the and its position as object of the
preposition.
D sub. V-ed Adv. OP
4. His house appeared old (to us).
Speaking = House is the subject signaled by the determiner His. Appeared is a past
tense verb modified by old, an adverb. Us is a noun signaled by the determiner
the and its position as object of the preposition.
sub. V-ed Adv.
5. Jean sewed neatly.
Speaking = Jean is the subject, because of its position. Sewed is a past tense verb
modified by neatly, an adverb.
D sub. V-ed Adv.
OP
6. The boy jumped high (over the fence).
Speaking = Boy is the subject signaled by the determiner The. Jumped is a past
tense verb modified by high, an adverb. Fence is a noun signaled by the
determiner the and its position as the object of the preposition.
sub. V-ed Adv. D Pron.
7. Grace seemed happy about it.
Speaking = Grace is the subject because of its position. Seemed is a past tense verb
modified by happy, an adverb. It is an object pronoun signaled by the
determiner about.

414

Pron.V-ed Adv.
OP
8. It tasted delicious (to me).
Speaking = It is the a subject pronoun because its position. Tasted is a past tense
verb modified by delicious, an adverb. Me is a noun signaled because of
its position as object of the preposition to.
D sub.
V-ed PA
OP
9. Our room continued cold (for an hour).
Speaking = Room is the subject signaled by the determiner Our. Continued is a past
tense verb. Cold is a predicate adjective, because it is found in the predicate
side, and modifies the subject room. Hour is a noun, signaled by the
determiner an, and its position as object of the preposition.
D sub. V-ed Adv.
OP
10. The dog ran quickly (into the house).
Speaking = Dog is the subject signaled by the determiner The. Ran is a past tense
verb modified by quickly, an adverb. House is a noun signaled by the
determiner the and its position as object of the preposition.
Pron. V-ed Adv. OP
11. She sang well (for us).
Speaking = She is the subject pronoun because if its position. Sang is a past tense
verb modified by well, an adverb. Us is an object pronoun as the object of
the preposition.
D sub.
V-ed
Adv.
12. The student appeared confident.
Speaking = Student is the subject signaled by the determiner The. Appeared is a
past tense verb modified by confident, an adverb. The object is assumed.
Pron. V PA
OP
13. He is glad (about the outcome).
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun, because of its position. Is is a present tense
verb. Glad is a predicate adjective, because it is found in the predicate, and
modifies the subject. Outcome is a noun signaled by the determiner the
and its position as object of the preposition about.

415

D sub. V-ed Adv.


OP
14. His car veered sharply (to the left).
Speaking = Car is the subject signaled by the determiner His. Veered is a past tense
verb modified by sharply, an adverb. Left is a noun signaled by the determiner
the and its position as object of the preposition to.
D sub. V-ed PA
OP
15. My boots seemed new (to him).
Speaking = Boots is the subject signaled by the determiner My. Seemed is a past
tense verb. New is a predicate adjective, because it is found in the predicate
and modifies the subject. Him is a noun because of its position as the object
of the preposition.
D
sub. V-ed Adv.
Pron.
16. Your father walked quickly past me.
Speaking = Father is the subject signaled by the determiner Your. Walked is a past
tense verb modified by quickly, an adverb. Me is an object pronoun because of
its position.
D sub. LV
PA
17. Your father seems businesslike.
Speaking = Father is the subject signaled by the determiner Your ending. Seems is
a linking verb. Businesslike is a predicate adjective, because it is found in the
predicate and modifies the subject.
Pron. V-ed Adv.
OP
18. We swam bravely (up the river).
Speaking = We is the subject pronoun. Swam is a past tense verb modified by
bravely, an adverb. River is a noun signaled by the determiner the and its
position as object of the preposition up.
D sub. V-ed Adv.
OP
19. A deer walked slowly (to the fence).
Speaking = Deer is the subject signaled by the determiner A. Walked is a past tense
verb modified by slowly, an adverb. Fence is a noun signaled by the determiner
the and its position as object of the preposition to.

416

Pron. LV
PA
20. It seemed inquisitive.
Speaking = It is the subject pronoun. Seemed is a linking verb. Inquisitive is a predicate
adjective because it is found in the predicate and modifies the subject.
D Adj. sub. V-ed Adv.
2I. The graceful deer walked away.
Speaking = Deer is the subject signaled by the determiner The. Graceful is an adjective
because it modifies deer. Walked is a past tense verb modified by away, an
adverb.
Pron. LV D Adj. N
22. I saw a graceful deer.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position. Saw is a past tense linking
verb. Deer is a noun signaled by the determiner a and modified by graceful,
an adjective.
D Adj. sub. V-ed Adv.
23. A cold wind blew hard.
Speaking = Wind is the subject signaled by the determiner A, and modified by cold,
an adjective. Blew is a past tense verb modified by hard, an adverb.
D Adj. sub. V-ed Adv.
24. The white snow drifted lazily.
Speaking = Snow is the subject signaled by the determiner The and modified by
white, an adjective. Drifted is a past tense verb modified by lazily, an
adverb.
D Adj. sub. V-ed. D N
25. A brilliant sun shone that day.
Speaking = Sun is the subject signaled by the determiner A and modified by brilliant,
an adjective. Shone is a past tense verb. Day is a noun signaled by the
determiner that.

417

D Adj. sub. V-ed Adv.


26. The swift sleds zipped along.
Speaking = Sleds is the subject signaled by the determiner The and modified by
swift, an adjective. Zipped is a past tense verb modified by along, an
adverb.
Pron. V-ed Adv.
27. I ran fast.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position. Ran is a past tense verb
modified by fast, an adverb.
Pron. LV PA
28. I was moody.
Speaking = I is a subject pronoun because of its position. Was is a linking verb.
Moody is a predicate adjective because it is found in the predicate and
modifies the subject.
D sub. V-ed Adv.
29. That noise sounded harsh.
Speaking = Noise is a subject signaled by the determiner That. Sounded is a past
tense verb. Harsh is an adverb, because it modifies the verb.
D Adj. sub. LV PA
30. Some harsh noises are offensive.
Speaking = Noises is a plural subject signaled by the determiner Some and the s
ending. Are is a linking verb. Offensive is a predicate adjective, because it is
found in the predicate and modifies the subject.
D Adj. sub. LV PA
3I. The blue rug looked dirty.
Speaking = Rug is the subject signaled by the determiner The. Looked is a linking
verb. Dirty is a predicate adjective, because it is found in the predicate and
modifies the subject.
Pron. V-ed Adv.
OP
32. We walked silently (over it).
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun because of its position. Walked is a past tense
verb modified by silently. It is a noun because it is the object of the
preposition over.

418

D Adj. sub. V-ed


33. The dim lights flickered.
Speaking = Lights is the plural subject signaled by the determiner The and the s
ending. Dim is an adjective because it modifies the subject. Flickered is a
past tense verb.
Pron. V-ed Adv. OP
34. He ran swiftly (to school).
Speaking = He is a subject pronoun because of its position. Ran is a past tense verb
modified by swiftly. School is a noun because it is the object of the
preposition to.
D sub. V-ed D Adj. OP
35. His book lay (on the clean floor).
Speaking = Book is the subject signaled by the determiner His. Lay is a past tense
verb. Floor is a noun because it is the object of the preposition on and
signaled by the determiner the. Clean is an adjective and modifies the noun
floor.
D sub. Adv. V-ed
36. The lion suddenly sprang.
Speaking = Lion is the subject signaled by the determiner The. Sprang is a past tense
verb modified by suddenly, an adverb.
D sub. V
PA
OP
37. Your pie smells delicious (to me).
Speaking = Pie is the subject signaled by the determiner Your. Smells is a present
tense verb. Delicious is predicate adjective because it is found in the predicate
and modifies the subject. Me is a noun because of its position as object of the
preposition to.
sub. LV
Adj.
38. Peter seemed unhappy.
Speaking = Peter is subject. Seemed is a linking verb. Unhappy is a predicate adjective
because it is found in the predicate and modifies the subject.

419

Pron. V-ed Adv. D N


39. We slid easily that day.
Speaking = We is a subject pronoun. Slid is a past tense verb modified by the adverb
easily. Day is a noun signaled by the determiner that and its position as the
object.

Unit 5 Functions of Nouns


~~ N
V-g
N
D
N
N
2. Jean makes Joe some cookies (each week).
~~ sub.
IO
DO
OP
~~ D N
V-ed D
N
3. The artist painted the picture.
~~
sub.
DO
~~ D N V-ed D N
D
N
4. The boy found a puppy (by the lake).
~~
sub.
DO
OP
~~ N V-ed D N
N
5. Bill washed the coat (with soap).
~~ sub.
DO
OP
~~ D N V-ed D N
N
6. The man was a leader (of men).
~~
sub.
DO
OP
~~ N
V-t
N
D
D
N
7. Father took the dog (into the woods).
~~ sub.
DO
OP
~~ N
V-g N D N
N
8. Linda wrote Sue a note (of thanks).
~~ sub.
IO
DO
OP

420

~~ D
N
V-g D N
D
N
9. My mother baked a cake that week.
~~
sub.
IO
DO
~~ D
N
V
D N
10. Some kites sailed high (in the air).
~~
sub.
OP
~~ D
N
V-g
N
D N
11. The usher found Mary a seat.
~~
sub.
IO
DO
~~ D N V-ed D N
D N
12. The bird built a nest (in the tree).
~~
sub.
DO
OP
~~ N
LV
PN
D N
13. John became president (of the class).
~~ sub.
OP
~~ N LV D
PN
D
N
14. Joe is the chairman (of the group).
~~ sub.
DO
OP
~~ N V-t D N
D
N
15. Jan hit the ball (over the fence).
~~ sub.
DO
OP
~~ N
LV
D
PN
16. Susan became an actress.
~~ sub.
DO
~~ D N V-t D N
17. Each boy took his book.
~~
sub.
DO

421

~~ D
N
V-t
D N
18. The monkey learned the trick.
~~
sub.
DO
~~ D N
N LV PN
19. The boy (near me) is Tom.
~~
sub.
OP
DO
~~ D
N
V-g N D N
20. Our teacher read Jim the story.
~~
sub.
IO
DO
~~ N LV D PN
21. Tom was a friend.
~~ sub.
DO
~~ D
N
LV
D PN
22. The coach injured his leg.
~~
sub.
DO
~~ D N
D
N V-t N
23. The boy (on the grass) is Tim.
~~
sub.
OP
DO
~~ D
N
LV
D
PN
24. Many games entertained the men.
~~
sub.
DO
~~ D
N
V-t
N
25. All people want peace.
~~
sub.
DO
~~ N V-t D N
D N
26. He told the man (about a path).
~~ sub.
DO
OP

422

~~ D N V-t D N
D N
27. The fish had a scar (on its side).
~~
sub.
DO
OP
Unit 7

Contrasting forms
writes - writer
v-t

2. She writes to me often.

I want to be a writer.
maker make

v-t

3. The maker of the toys is Tom.

He will make me a toy.

abuse abuse
N

v-t

4. I've had enough of his abuse.


The bully will abuse you.
(Special note ~ Be sure to note the change in the s sound.)
collide - collision
N

v-t

5. A collision occurred there.

The cars will collide there.


walk - walking

v-t

6. I was walking down the hall.

The walk was satisfying.


paint - paint

v-t

7. Jim mixed the paint.

Jim did paint the wall.


amuse - amusement

v-t

8. This should amuse you.

We paid for the amusement.


423

NOUN OR ADJECTIVE?
child childish
Adj.

2. The childish boy stayed after school.

He acted like a child.

joy - joyous
Adj.

3. Our family knew no bounds to joy.

It was a joyous affair.

messy - mess
N

Adj.

4. It was a real mess.

The messy table was cleaned.


happy happiness

Adj.

5. The happy children walked home.

Their happiness seemed evident.

snow - snow
N

Adj.

6. Much snow fell that day.

We climbed a snow hill.


mannish man

Adj.

7. Jerry was a tall man.

A mannish boy came into the room.


fame famous

Adj.

8. His fame spread far

A famous person lives there.

424

Unit 8

Contrasting forms (2)

VERB OR ADJECTIVE?
weaken weak
Adj.

2. The boy was weak.

The strain will weaken the rope.


soft soften

Adj.

3. We should soften the bread.

Our car was on a soft shoulder.

deepens deep
V

Adj.

4. That color deepens.

He fell into the deep water.


brighten bright

Adj.

5. Jerry is a bright student.

The sun will brighten the room.


hard harden

Adj.

6. The hard substance was rock.

It will soon harden.

thick thicken
V

Adj.

7. Mother will thicken the gravy.

It was thick gravy.

enlarge large
V

Adj.

8. A large house was on the lot.

He will enlarge the picture.

shorten short
Adj.

9. That is a short rope.

Jim will shorten the rope.


425

ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB?
glad gladly
Adj.

Adv.

2. We were glad about the incident.

He will gladly do it.

sad sadly
Adv.

Adj.

3. They sadly talked about it.

It was a sad story.


politely polite

Adj.

Adv.

4. The polite lady appeared.

They talked politely.


bright brightly

Adj.

Adv.

5. A bright sun shone on the roof.

The sun shone brightly.

normally normal
Adj.

Adv.

6. We led normal lives.

They talked normally.


idly idle

Adj.

Adv.

7. Idle hands get one into trouble.

The boys sat idly in their chairs.

cheerful cheerfully
Adv.

Adj.

8. A cheerful smile is an asset.

She smiled cheerfully at us.

immediate immediately
Adv.

Adj.

9. He did it immediately.

He gave UB an immediate answer.


426

Unit 9

Contrasting forms (3)


ADVERB OR NOUN ?
seaward sea
N

Adv.

2. The ship went to sea.

The ship went seaward.


afoot foot

Adv.

3. Tom's foot is hurt.

It left him afoot.


ground aground
N

Adv.

4. We sat on the hard ground.

The ship ran aground.


daily day

Adv.

5. We worked each day.

We worked daily.
weekly week

Adv.

6. Every week was a bore.

We tried weekly.
part apart

Adv.

7. My part was long.

They drifted apart.


across - cross
N

Adv.

8. Each boy bore a cross.

They took the boat across.


nights nightly

Adv.

9. Some nights are dark.

Sharon came nightly.


427

ADVERB OR PREPOSITION?
about about
N

2. The boys moved about.

The boys moved about the room.


up up

3. The boys looked up.

They ran up the street.


before before

4. He notified us before.

We left before noon.


in in
N

5. The girls slowly walked in.

They passed in the hall.


down down

6. He threw the ball down the alley.

He threw the ball down.

along along
N

7. The children tagged along.

They walked along the shore.


up up

8. A plane flew up.

A plane bounced up the runway.


down down
N

9. The sun went down in the evening.

We traveled down the road.


428

Part VII Phrases and Clauses


Unit 1

Phrase or Clause

4. to me.
5. when she talks.
6. during the day.
7. after the ball game.
8. after the ball game was over.
9. We went to the game.
10. within the room.
11. while she was dancing.
12. before the noon hour.
13. since the game began.
14. The game began.
15. in the kitchen.
16. I went into the kitchen.
17. after we went into the kitchen.
18. when he saw us.
19. which you know.
20. by him.
21. I know him.

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

phrase
dependent clause
phrase
phrase
independent clause
independent clause
phrase
dependent clause.
phrase
dependent clause
independent clause
phrase
independent clause
dependent clause
dependent clause
dependent clause
phrase
independent clause

429

Unit 2

Complex Sentences

2. I know the person.

He painted that picture.

= I know the person who painted that picture.


Who painted that picture = an adjective or relative clause modifying person.

3. This is the picture.

It was the best.

= This is the picture which was the best.


Which was the best = an adjective or relative clause modifying picture.

4. The judges will choose a man.

The man is strong and healthy.

= The judges will choose a man who is strong and healthy.


Who is strong and healthy = an adjective or relative clause modifying man.

5. That is the person.

You know him.

= That is the person who knows him.


Who knows him = an adjective or relative clause modifying person.

6. This book is good.

This book is for sale.

= This book which is for sale is good.


Which is for sale = an adjective or relative clause modifying book.

7. Mary likes the book.

The book is about animals.

= Mary likes the book which is about animals.


Which is about animals = an adjective or relative clause modifying book.

8. Jane gave it to Tim.

Tim really appreciated it.

= Jane gave it to Tim who really appreciated it.


Who really appreciated it = an adjective or relative clause modifying Tim.

9. He is a pilot.

We can trust him.

= He is a pilot who we can trust.


Who we can trust = an adjective or relative clause modifying pilot.

10. Here is the book.

I read it.

= Here is the book which I read.


Which I read = an adjective or relative clause modifying book.

430

11. The man told us a story.

The man talked to us.

= The man who told us a story talked to us.


Who told us a story = an adjective or relative clause modifying man.

12. The horse appeared tired.


+
The horse won the race.
= The horse which appeared tired won the race.
Which appeared tired = an adjective or relative clause modifying book.


Unit 3 Complex Sentences 2
2. We told nobody about it.

We knew it.

(although)

= Although we knew it, we told nobody about it.

3. It was a long ride.

We got home.

(though)

= We got home, though it was a long ride.

4. We rode along.

Nothing happened.

(until)

= Nothing happened, until we rode along.

5. The children have gone.

The air is cooler.

(because)

= The air is cooler, because the children have gone.

6. He knew about it.

He told the teacher.

(since)

= He told the teacher, since he knew about it.

7. You buy me some oranges.

You go to the store.

(after)

= You go to the store, after you buy me some oranges.

8. You tell me about it.

You go.

(lest)

We left the game.

(before)

= You go, lest you tell me about it.

9. We stopped at Jim's house.

= We left the game, before we stopped at Jim's house.

10. Jim put it back.

He found it.

= He found it, even though Jim put it back.

431

(even though)

11. You will be happy.


+
You will hear about him.
= You will hear about him, so that you will be happy.


Unit 4

Sentence Signals Quiz

Test yourself by writing the names and what they signal in the right columns.
NAME
1. who
2. after
3. however
4. and
5. as
6. still
7. accordingly
8. while
9. but
10. whom
11. hence
12. as though
13. if
14. yet
15. so that
16. which
17. or
18. before
19. than
20. therefore
21. nevertheless
22. because
23. until
24. consequently
25. since
26. though
27. moreover
28. unless
29. although
30. that
(Two uses )

WORD SIGNALS?
relative or adjective clauses
subordinate clause
compound sentence
compound sentence
subordinate clause
compound sentence
compound sentence
subordinate clause
compound sentence
relative or adjective clauses
compound sentence
subordinate clause
subordinate clause
compound sentence
subordinate clause
relative or adjective clauses
compound sentence
subordinate clause
subordinate clause
compound sentence
compound sentence
subordinate clause
subordinate clause
compound sentence
subordinate clause
subordinate clause
compound sentence
subordinate clause
subordinate clause
relative or adjective clauses
compound sentence

432

(so that)

Unit 5

Adjective or Adverb Clause

2. You will be sorry.

You stop now. (if)

= You will be sorry if you stop now.

3. The man carried the supplies.

They were necessary. (which) (that)

= The man carried the supplies which were necessary.

4. He worked on the plans.

He left the room. (after)

= He worked on the plans after he left the room.

5. I took the book.

It was the largest. (which)

= I took the book which was the largest.

6. He stooped.

His back ached. (because)

= He stooped because his back ached.

7. They walked slowly.

They arrived at the park. (when)

= They walked slowly when they arrived at the park.

8. John is a person.

John likes apples. (who)

= John is a person who likes apples.

9. This is the lesson.

It caused us trouble. (that)

= This is the lesson that caused us trouble.

10. I shall tell you my name.

You don't know me. (because)

= I shall tell you my name because don't know me.

11. It was the place.

It scared us. (that)

= It was the place that scared us.

12. He ran so fast.

He became tired. (that)

= He ran so fast that he became tired.

13. You must return it.

You have my hat. (although)


= Although you have my hat you must return it.

14. He went into the house.

He could eat his lunch. (so that)

= He went into the house so that he could eat his lunch.

15. He met a boy.

+
= He met a boy who was lame.

433

He was lame. (who)

Unit 6

Adjective modifiers
Adj. sub.

V-t

4. A large boat arrived.


sub.

Large = an adjective word modifier.

Adj.

V-t

5. A boat (with passengers) arrived.


sub.

Adj.

With passengers = an adjective phrase modifier.


V-t

6. A boat [which had passengers] arrived.

Which had passengers = an adjective clause modifier.

Adj. sub. V-t

7. My little sister likes candy.


sub.

Adj.

Little= an adjective word modifier.


V-t

8. My sister (with the glasses) likes candy.


sub.

Adj.

With the glasses = an adjective phrase modifier.

V-t

9. My sister [who likes candy] is here.


sub V-t

Who likes candy = an adjective clause modifier.

Adj.

10. We saw a small bird.


sub V-t

Small = an adjective word modifier.


Adj.

11. We saw a bird (with few feathers).


sub V-t.

With few feathers = an adjective phrase modifier.

Adj.

12. We saw a bird [which had a worm].


Adj.

sub

Which had a worm = an adjective clause modifier.

V-t

13. The football players practiced hard.


sub

Adj.

Football = an adjective word modifier.

V-t

14. The players (on the field) practiced hard.


sub

Adj.

On the field = an adjective phrase modifier.

V-t

15. The players [who practiced hard] came in.


Adj.

Who practiced hard = an adjective clause modifier.

sub V-t

16. The lonesome boy walked slowly.

Lonesome = an adjective word modifier.

434

sub

Adj.

V-t

17. The boy (with the frown) walked slowly.


sub

Adj.

With the frown = an adjective phrase modifier.

V-t

18. The boy [who frowned ] walked slowly.

Who frowned = an adjective clause modifier.


Unit 7 Simple, Compound, or Complex
sub. V

1. The boy gave Tom an apple.


sub V-g

Simple sentence
sub aux

V-t

2. The boy gave Tom an apple, but he did not eat it.

Compound sentence

sub V-g

Complex sentence

3. [After he gave Tom the apple,] he left.


sub V-g

sub aux V-t

4. I know about his work because he told me.

sub

V-g

sub aux

Compound Sentence

V-t

5. Mary knew the story, but she wouldn't tell it.

Compound Sentence

sub V-g

6. [When Bob went to the movies,] he came home late.

Complex sentence

sub. V

7. I have several pencils.


sub V-g

Simple Sentence

sub aux V-t

8. When she was told, she wiped the silverware.


sub.

Compound Sentence

9. Jim expects the boys at noon.

Simple Sentence
435

sub.

sub. V

10. Bob and Ed ate and laughed.

Simple Sentence

Note: Don't confuse compound constructions for compound sentences.


sub V-g

sub aux V-t

11. Do you like history, or would you prefer to shop?

Compound Sentence

sub. V

12. Bill thought about it for several hours.


sub

V-g

Simple Sentence

sub aux V-t

13. If I don't take the test now, she will fail me.
sub V

Compound Sentence

sub

14. We looked everywhere; however, we could not find her.


sub V

sub

15. My sister is crabby; my brother usually smiles.


sub V-g

Simple Sentence
Simple Sentence

sub aux V-t

16. I gave him a bat, although I had another nearby.


sub V

sub

17. The ruler was on the floor, and the pencil was next to it.
sub V

Compound Sentence
Simple Sentence

18. She opened the book and tore the pages.

Simple Sentence

sub V-g

19. [When she arrived at home,] she started the lunch.


sub

V-g

sub aux

V-t

20. He must trip the lever, or he must wait for another ten minutes.
sub

V-g

Complex sentence
Compound Sentence

sub aux V-t

21. The janitor cleaned the room while I was in the hall.
Unit 9
Forming Noun Clauses

436

Compound Sentence

5. It is beyond me.

He does his work.

(As subject ~ use how)

= How he does his work is beyond me.

6. Father wondered

It happened to us.

(As DO ~ use what)

= Father wondered what happened to us.

7. It is a mystery.

You stare like that.

(As sub. ~ use why)

= Why you stare like that is a mystery.

8. This is not good.

You choose for whomever. (As OP ~ use whom )

= You choose for whomever is not good.

9. The is

I cannot see.

(As PN ~ use that)

= I cannot see that reason.

10. It is obvious.

He knows his lesson.

(As sub. ~ use that)

= That he knows his lesson it is obvious.


Unit 10

More Noun Clauses

sub. V
2. That he is my friend is true.

There is no noun clause.

sub. V
sub. V
3. The trouble is [that she is afraid].

Noun clause as the direct object.

sub. VI
sub. VI
4. We know of [whom you speak].

Noun clause as the object of a preposition.

sub. V-ed
sub. V-ed
5. He knew [that Tim was there].

sub. VI

Noun clause as the direct object.

sub. VI

437

6. We knew [which it was].

Noun clause as the object of a preposition.

sub. V
7. How he does his work is a mystery.

There is no noun clause.

sub. VI
sub. VI
8. The present will be given to [whomever you want].

Noun clause as the object of a preposition.

sub. V-ed sub. V-ed


9. We saw [that he was old].

Noun clause as direct object.

sub. V-en
sub.
V-t
10. The difficulty has been [that he will not try].

Noun clause as direct object.

sub.
VI
sub. VI
11. Father wondered [what happened to us].

Noun clause as direct object.

sub. VI
sub. VI
12. This is not good for [whomever you choose].

Noun clause as the object of a preposition.

sub. V
13. Why he does not do his work is a problem.

There is no noun clause.

sub. VI sub.
VI
14. The reason is [that I cannot see].

Noun clause as direct object.

sub. V
15. That he knows his lesson is a fact.

There is no noun clause.

sub. VI
sub. VI
16. I shall reply to [what you requested].

Noun clause as the object of a preposition.

sub. V
17. How he does it is easy.

sub.

VI

There is no noun clause.

sub.

VI

438

18. The mystery was [that she went at all].

Noun clause as direct object.


Part VIII
Unit 1

Identifying and Expanding

Identifying Initiatives

sub. LV
DO
2. I wanted [to watch].
sub. V
PN
3. His plan was [to watch].
sub.
Adj. V-t
4. His desire [to watch] was evident.
sub. V
DO
5. He hurried [to watch].

[To watch] = an infinitive used as the direct object.

[To watch] = an infinitive used as the predicate noun.

[To watch] = an infinitive used as the adjective phrase.

[To watch] = an infinitive used as the direct object.

sub. V
6. [To sing] is fun.

[To sing] = an infinitive used as the subject.

sub. V-ed DO
7. I wanted [to sing].
sub. VI
PN
8. His plan is [to sing].
sub. Adj. V-t
9. The idea [to sing] was good.
sub. V-ed
DO
10. We waited [to sing].
sub. VI

[To sing] = an infinitive used as the direct object.

[To sing] = an infinitive used as the predicate noun.

[To sing] = an infinitive used as the adjective phrase.

[To sing] = an infinitive used as the direct object.

PN

439

11. He tried [to dance].


sub. VI
PN
12. Sharon's plan was [to dive].

[To dance] = an infinitive used as the predicate noun.

[To dive] = an infinitive used as the predicate noun.

sub.
Adj. V-t
13. Sharon's plan [to dive] appeared a failure.
[To dive] = an infinitive used as the adjective phrase.
sub. LV
PN
14. [To dive] is a real thrill.
sub. V-ed DO
15. Jim went [to dive].

[To dive] = an infinitive used as the subject.

[To dive] = an infinitive used as the direct object.


Unit 2

Infinitive Phrases

sub. LV

DO

2. She is trying [to do it].


~ [to do it] is used as the direct object and like the direct object pattern.
sub.
Adj.
LV
3. The desk [to be sandpapered] is here.
~ [to be sandpapered] is used as the adjective and like the direct object pattern.
sub. LV.
DO
4. Terry is leaving [to go to town].
~ [to go to town] is used as the direct object and like the direct object pattern.
sub. LV
DO
5. Jim's object was [to give it to me].
~ [to give it] is used as the predicate noun and like the direct object pattern.
sub.

LV DO

440

6. [To jump high] was out of the question.


~ [To jump high] is used as the subject and like the adverb pattern.
sub. V-g
IO
DO
7. We worked [to obtain the provisions] for the trip.
~ [to obtain the provisions] is used as the adverb and like the indirect object pattern.
sub.
V-t
8. [To sing loudly] was not allowed.
~ [To sing loudly] is used as the subject and like the adverb pattern.
sub. V-g
IO
DO
9. We wanted [to go to the show] in the evening.
~ [to go to the show] is used as the indirect object and like the predicate noun pattern.
sub. V-t
PN
10. My hope is [to show Mary] a good time.
~ [to show Mary] is used as the predicate noun and like the indirect object pattern.
sub.
Adj.
V-t
11. The leaders [to be chosen that night]were in the room.
~ [to be chosen that night] is used as the adjective and like the direct object pattern.
sub.
Adj.
V-t
12. To explain several problems [to the class] would take much time.
~ [to the class] is used as the adjective and like the direct object pattern.
sub. V-g
IO
DO
13. The boys planned [to take a trip] into the mountains.
~ [to take a trip] is used as the indirect object and like the predicate noun pattern.
sub. V-t
DO
14. Karen told us [to eat the apples] quickly.
~ [to be sandpapered] is used as the direct object and like the adverb pattern.

441

Unit 3

Identifying Articles

sub. V-t
Part. DO
2. He caught the [bouncing] ball.

Bouncing is a participle modifying ball.

sub. Part.
V-t DO
3. The frog, [jumping], evaded us.

Jumping is a participle modifying frog.

sub.V-t
Part. DO
4. I saw the picture of the [sinking] ship.

Sinking is a participle modifying ship.

Part. sub. V-t


5. The [sleeping] child stirred.

Sleeping is a participle modifying child.

sub. V-t
Part. DO
6. They carried water to the [burning] building.

Burning is a participle modifying building.

sub. V- t Part.
7. The boy, [running], fell on the sidewalk.

Running is a participle modifying boy.

Part. sub.
V-t
8. The [wrecked] car was towed away.

Wrecked is a participle modifying car.

sub. V-t
Part. DO
9. He set up the [folding] chairs.

Folding is a participle modifying chairs.

sub.
V-t.
Part. DO
10. The teacher gave us our [graded]papers.

Graded is a participle modifying papers.

Part. sub.
V-t
DO
11. [Diving] frogmen recovered the money.

Diving is a participle modifying frogmen.

sub. V-t.
Part. DO
12. He closed the [sliding] door.

Sliding is a participle modifying door.

sub. V-t.
Part. DO
13. We found the [stolen] necklace.

Stolen is a participle modifying necklace.

sub. V-t. Part. DO


14. The wall [looked] painted.

Looked is a participle modifying painted.

sub.
V-t
Part. DO
15. They always wanted a [sailing] ship.

Sailing is a participle modifying ship.

442

sub. Part. V-t.


16. The players, [tired], lay down to rest.

Tired is a participle modifying players.


Unit 4

Participial phrases

Adv
DO sub. V-t
2. [Having done his lesson], Jerry left.
~ [Having done his lesson] modifies the noun Jerry. This is the adverb pattern.
Adj.
PN sub. V-t DO
3. [Hearing the story], we went home.
~ [Hearing the story] modifies the noun we. This is the predicate adjective pattern.
sub.
PN
V-t DO
4. The man, [being seen for the first time], impressed us.
~ [being seen for the first time] modifies man. This is the predicate adjective pattern.
IO
sub. V-g DO
5. [Giving the book] to his sister, John ran out.
~ [Giving the book] modifies John. This is the indirect object pattern.
sub.
Adj.
V-t
6. The child, [playing by the brook], fell in.
~ [playing by the brook] modifies child. This is the predicate adjective pattern.
DO.
sub. V-t
7. [Walking to school], she felt quite happy.
~ [Walking to school] modifies she. This is the direct object pattern.
Adj.
sub V-t Adv.
8. [Seeing the beautiful lake], we jumped in for a swim.
~ [Seeing the beautiful lake] modifies we. This is the predicate adjective pattern.
sub.
Adj.
V-t
Adv.
9. Fred,[stopping by the house], waited patiently.
~ [stopping by the house] modifies Fred. This is the predicate adjective pattern.

443

PN
sub V-t
10. [Smiling broadly], she stepped into the room.
~ [Smiling broadly] modifies she. This is the predicate noun pattern.
IO
sub. Adv. V-g DO
11. [Taking the hot potato in his hands], he quickly dropped it.
~ [Taking the hot potato in his hands] modifies he. This is the indirect object pattern.
sub.
Adj.
V-t
12. Tom, [hearing the noise on the patio], went outside immediately.
~ [hearing the noise on the patio] modifies Tom. This is the predicate adjective pattern.
DO
sub V-g
IO
13. [Hurrying to the station], father forgot his suitcase.
~ [Hurrying to the station] modifies father. This is the direct object pattern.
sub.
Adv. V-t
14. The dog, [watching us quietly], lay by the door.
~ [watching us quietly] modifies dog. This is the adverb pattern.
Adj.
sub. V-t
15. [Reading the book], Judy relaxed in her chair.
~ [Reading the book] modifies Judy. This is the predicate adjective pattern.
sub.
DO
V-t
16. The soldier, [carrying the flag high], marched proudly by.
~ [carrying the flag high], modifies soldier. This is the direct object pattern.
sub.
Adj.
V-t
17. The boys, [drilled to perfection], performed very well.
~ [drilled to perfection], modifies boys. This is the predicate noun pattern.


Unit 5

Identifying Gerunds

sub. LV DO
2. I like [camping].
sub. LV
OP
3. She told of his [singing].

Camping = a gerund used as the direct object.

Singing = a gerund used as the object of the preposition.

444

sub. LV PN
4. My hobby is [fishing].

Fishing = a gerund used as the predicate noun.

sub. LV PN
5. His pleasure is [eating].

Eating = a gerund used as the predicate noun.

sub. LV
DO
6. [Flying] seems difficult.

Flying = a gerund used as the subject.

sub. LV
DO
7. Joe tried [rowing].

Rowing = a gerund used as the direct object.

sub. LV PN
8. [Stealing] is unlawful.
sub. LV
OP
9. The artist lived by [painting].

Stealing = a gerund used as the subject.

Painting = a gerund used as the object of the preposition.

sub. LV
DO
10. June tried [studying].

Studying = a gerund used as the direct object.

sub. LV PN
11. Her difficulty is [spelling].

Spelling = a gerund used as the predicate noun.

sub.
LV
DO
12. [Working] requires effort.

Working = a gerund used as the subject.

sub. LV
DO
13. They liked [working].

Working = a gerund used as the direct object.

sub. LV
DO
14. [Fishing] takes patience.

Fishing = a gerund used as the direct object.

sub. LV PN
15. Joe's problem is [writing].

Writing = a gerund used as the predicate noun.

445

sub.
LV
OP
16. The teacher complained of his [running].
Running = a gerund used as the object of the preposition.
sub. LV DO
OP
17. [Soaking] is good for some clothes.

Soaking = a gerund used as the subject.

sub. LV DO
18. Their pastime was [golfing].

Golfing = a gerund used as the direct object.


Unit 6

Gerund Phrases

OP
IO
sub. LV
DO
2. [(By cleaning) my room] every day, I received an allowance.
Gerund phrase as a predicate adjective.
Gerund phrase has the OP pattern.
sub. LV
OP
3. We are not [good (at doing problems)].
Gerund phrase as a indirect object.
Gerund phrase has the OP pattern.
sub.
LV
4. [Singing loudly] is a lot (of fun).
Gerund phrase as a subject.
Gerund phrase has the Adv. pattern.
sub. V-g
IO
DO
5. Terry wanted [golfing as an activity].
Gerund phrase as a predicate adjective.
Gerund phrase has the IO pattern.

446

sub. LV
DO
6. I enjoy [playing ball (with the boys)].
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the DO pattern.
sub.
LV
OP
DO
7. We did not know (of his coming) yesterday.
Gerund phrase as a predicate adjective.
Gerund phrase has the OP pattern.
OP
DO sub. LV
8. (After [giving me) the ball], Jane walked away.
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the DO pattern.
sub.
LV DO
9. [Having a new car] was a novelty.
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the subject pattern.
sub. LV DO
10. [Talking about people] is not wise.
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the subject pattern.
sub. LV DO
11. [Flying a kite] is easy (on some days).
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the subject pattern.
OP sub.
LV
12. [(In taking our share)], we felt satisfied.
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the OP pattern.
sub. LV
OP
13. He tried [diving quickly (from the board)].
Gerund phrase as a indirect object.
Gerund phrase has the adverb pattern.

447

sub. LV
DO
14. [Being a leader] has its problems.
Gerund phrase as a predicate noun.
Gerund phrase has the DO pattern.


Unit 7

Identifying Verbals

sub. LV PN
2. [To write] is not easy.

To write is a infinitive used as the subject.

sub. LV
PN
3. [Writing] plays seems hard.

Writing is a participle modifying plays.

DO
sub.
LV
4. [Kicking the ball] (to left field), Jim then dropped back.
sub. LV
5. He wanted [to get away] (from the blockers).

Kicking the ball is a gerund used as the direct object.

To get away is an infinitive used as an adverb.

sub. LV
6. [Tackling] players helped (on each play).

Tackling is a participle modifying players.

sub. LV Adj. DO
7. The coach tried [winning] plays.

Winning is an participle modifying plays.

sub. LV Adj
DO
8. His object is [to win] the game.

To win is an infinitive used as the predicate adjective.

sub. LV
9. The [fumbling] fullback was tackled.

Fumbling is a participle modifying fullback.

sub. LV Adv. DO
10. Joe liked [being] an end.

Being is a participle used as an adverb.

448

sub. LV
Adj. OP
11. He was (on the [winning] side).

Winning is a participle modifying side.

sub. LV
DO
12. [Playing] football is my delight.

Playing is a gerund used as the subject.

sub. LV
IO
DO
13. We tried [to play] football every evening.

To play is an infinitive used as an adverb.

sub. LV
DO
14. [Running], the player dodged his opponents.

Writing is a gerund used as a predicate noun.

sub.
PN
LV
DO
15. The guard, [lunging forward], tackled the fullback. Lunging forward is a gerund used as a predicate adjective.
sub. LV
DO
16. They played a [passing game] (in the first half).

Passing game is a gerund used as a direct object.

sub. LV
17. [To get] to the goal line, Joe ran hard.

To get is a gerund used as the predicate adjective.

sub. LV
DO
18. [Diving] (across the line), he scored a touchdown.
Diving is a participle modifying the prepositional phrase (across the line).
sub. LV
Adj. DO
19. Our side was the [winning] team.

Winning is a participle modifying team.

sub.
LV
DO
20. [Passing and tackling] won the game (for us).

Passing and Tackling is a gerund used as the subject.

449

Unit 8

Expanding the Simple Subject (1)

Explain what your pre-modifiers are.


Write this on the lines below
(1) determiner
(2) possessive noun
(3) intensifier
(4) adjective
(5) participle
(6) noun adjunct
Pre-modifiers expand the head-word nouns.


Unit 9

Expanding the Simple Subject (2)

Assignment: Following the procedure above, try to e x p a n d a simple subject with


post-modifiers as indicated above.
Write this on the lines below.
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________

450

Unit 10

Expanding the Predicate

Assignment Using ideas from the constructions above, try to see how many different
additions you can make to a basic verb pattern.
Write this on the lines below.
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________________________________________
____________________________________________

451

Discovery ~ Discussion ~ Debate


This is a series of news stories. The design is to help students capture their
ideas as they work through the story included. Vocabulary is highlighted and
definitions given. In the end the students will be challenged to defend their
ideas through a short structured debate. Search for them on
http://www.scribd.com.

Making Conversation Work for You (Teacher/Student)


This is an ESL book. There are two versions. (soft cover) The teachers version includes ideas,
as to what to expect for each of three (3) levels. It also includes the games. The students
book is missing the games and the teachers notes.
The book starts with a 100 word exercise. This is a systematic list of four categories; Time,
Action, Motion, Emotion. These are the kinds of words needed for basic communication. It
expands to conversation building. Adding another four (4) categories, the combination
makes for larger sentences. This book ends with outlining, which is the core of essay and
conversation building.

You can find support files for this book on its homepage URL.
www.makingconversationworkforyou.com
www.makingconversationworkforyou-teacher.com

Other Self-Published Books


Anatomy of Emotion (Poetry) (iuniverse.com)
Ultimate Sacrifice (Biography) (iuniverse.com)
A Second Look at First Impressions (iuniverse.com)

452