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Why is this important?

To continue cellular life process, concentration of ions inside the cell must be different than outside the cell Maintain a constant cellular environment (homeostasis) Structure Composed of phospholipids and proteins Fluid-mosaic model Phospholipid bilayer barrier which isolates two sides of membrane Contains cholesterol stabilize and strengthen plasma membrane Pore protein forms channel/pore Carrier protein acts as carrier Glycoprotein protein with carbohydrate attached Fluidity of membrane cells are more flexible

The plasma membrane is semi-permeable/selectively permeable (only some substances can pass through) Factors determining whether molecule can pass through size and polarity Molecules that can pass through Lipid-soluble molecules (fatty acids and glycerol) Non-polar molecules (oxygen and carbon dioxide) Small molecules such as water ( Basically water is a polar molecule. However, its small size enables it to slide between phospholipid bilayer)

Pore proteins allow small watersoluble molecules and ions to pass through Carrier proteins have site that can bind to specific molecules (glucose molecules) before transporting them to plasma membrane. Passive transport (movement of substances across plasma membrane without input of energy) Example: gaseous exchange in alveolus and blood capillary Simple diffusion Movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, thus, going down a concentration gradient until a dynamic equilibrium is reached Osmosis: Diffusion of water Movement of water molecules from a dilute solution (water concentration high) to a concentrated solution (water concentration low) through semi-permeable membrane Facilitated diffusion Movement of substances across plasma membrane with the aid of carrier proteins and pores following the concentration gradient Example: ions, nucleic acids, amino acids and glucose

Carrier protein are specific (only can bind with certain molecules) Pore proteins form pore/channel Active transport Movement of solute/ion across plasma membrane against concentration gradient Requires energy and carrier protein Energy comes from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) generated during respiration in mitochondria Carrier protein has an active site to bind with molecule and another active site to bind with ATP. The carrier protein changes shape when phosphate group from ATP binds to it. Then, the solute is moved across the membrane. Ex. Absorption of water and intake of ions in plants Passive Transport Follows concentration gradient Does not need energy Can take place in living cells or non-living physical conditions Hypotonic- A solution with higher water potential than another solution Hypertonic- A solution with lower water potential than another solution Isotonic- A solution with same water potential with another solution Haemolysis- The bursting of red blood cells Crenation- The shrinking of red blood cells Plasmolysis- A shrinking of cytoplasm due to osmosis Deplasmolysis- A process of a cell gaining its turgidity back The proper functioning of plasma membrane is important to: Maintain a suitable pH and ionic concentration inside the cell for enzymatic activities To obtain certain food supplies for energy and raw materials To remove toxic substances Differences Concentration gradient Cellular energy Condition Active Transport Opposes concentration gradient Consumes energy Can only take place in living cells