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1.

[1]

2.

(i)

the amount of energy required to remove one (mole of) electron(s); from (one mole of) an atom(s) in the gaseous state; greater positive charge on nucleus / greater number of protons / greater core charge; greater attraction by Mg nucleus for electrons (in the same shell) / smaller atomic radius;

(ii)

[4]

3.

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq); SO3(l) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq); Ignore state symbols. Na2O: basic and SO3: acidic;

3
[3]

4.

(a)

Group: number of outershell/valence electrons; Period: number of occupied (electron) shells; C: 2 and Si: 3;

2 1

(b)

[3]

5.

[1]

6.

[1]

7.

[1]

8.

[1]

9.

[1]

10.

[1]

11.

(i)

complex (ion) / the charge is delocalized over all that is contained in the brackets; colour is due to energy being absorbed when electrons are promoted within the split d orbitals; the colour observed is the complementary colour to the energy absorbed / OWTTE; Accept either answer for first mark. changing the ligand / coordination number / geometry changes the amount the d orbitals are split/energy difference between the d orbitals / OWTTE;

(ii)

2 max

[3]

12.

Na2O + H2O 2Na+ + 2OH / Na2O + H2O 2NaOH; P4O10 + 6H2O 4H3PO4; Ignore state symbols.

2
[2]

13.

[1]

14.

[1]

15.

(a)

2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) / Na(s) + H2O(l) NaOH(aq) + H2(g)! Award [1] for correct balanced equation. Award [1] for correct state symbols for sodium, water, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. Second mark is not dependent on equation being correctly balanced. (Rb more reactive because) electron lost further from nucleus so less tightly held; Rb electron is in 5th energy level and (Na less reactive) as electron lost in 3rd energy level / OWTTE;

(b)

Allow [1 max] for electron arrangements of Na (e.g. 2,8,1) and Rb if second mark is not scored.

[4]

16.

(i)

solution becomes yellow/orange/brown/darker; chlorine is more reactive than iodine (and displaces it from solution) / OWTTE; Allow correct equation (2KI + Cl2 KCl + I2) for second mark or stating that iodine/I2 is formed. no colour change/nothing happens as fluorine is more reactive than chlorine / OWTTE;

(ii)

1
[3]

17.

Down group 1: metallic bonding gets weaker; radii/atoms get bigger / delocalized electrons shielded/screened from nucleus by filled shells; Down group 7: increased Mr of halogen molecules / OWTTE; intermolecular/van der Waals/London/dispersion forces increase;

[4]

18.

[1]

19.

Sc has no d electrons as an ion / Cu has d electrons; Cu compounds are coloured / Sc compounds are colourless; Cu has more than one oxidation state / Sc has only one oxidation state; Cu compounds can act as catalysts / Sc cannot act as catalysts;

3 max

[3]

20.

(i)

AlCl3 covalent and Al2O3 ionic; AlCl3 (simple) molecular and Al2O3 (giant ionic) lattice; OR AlCl3 is covalent and simple molecular/small molecules held together by dipoledipole attractions; Al2O3 is ionic and Al3+ and O2 ions are held together in a (giant) lattice;

2 max

(ii)

AlCl3 is acidic and Na2O is basic and P4O10 is acidic; AlCl3 + 3H2O Al(OH)3 + 3HCl / AlCl3 + 6H2O [Al(H2O)6)]3+ + 3Cl and

[Al(H2O)6]3+ [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ + H+; Accept suitable alternative hydrolysis expressions or reactions with a base. Na2O + H2O 2NaOH; P4O10 + 6H2O 4H3PO4; Accept suitable reactions with an acid or base. (iii) AlCl3 does not conduct in the solid/molten state; Al2O3 conducts when molten (but not when solid); Al2O3 contains mobile ions when molten and AlCl3 has neither mobile ions nor delocalized electrons / OWTTE; Reference to mobile ions or electrons must be made.

3
[9]

21.

B
[1]

22.

B
[1]

23.

(a)

as (cat)ion becomes more positive / Na+, Mg2+, Al3+ / size/radius decreases / charge density increases; Do not allow increasing number of protons or increasing nuclear charge. attraction for mobile/valence/delocalized/sea of electrons increases; Do not accept cloud of electrons. 2

(b)

larger molecule / higher Mr/ M / greater number of electrons; Do not accept larger/higher/greater mass. greater van der Waals/dispersion/London forces; 2

(c)

Si: giant/network/macromolecular/3-D covalent bonding; No mark for strong bonding without reference to covalent and network. No mark for molecular. Ar: (simple) atomic / (only weak) van der Waals/dispersion/London forces; No mark for (simple) molecular. 2
[6]

24.

(i)

atomic number / Z; Accept nuclear charge / number of protons. Across period 3: increasing number of protons / atomic number / Z / nuclear charge; (atomic) radius/size decreases / same shell/energy level / similar

(ii)

shielding/screening (from inner electrons); No mark for shielding/screening or shielding/screening increases. Noble gases: do not form bonds (easily) / have a full/stable octet/shell/energy level / cannot attract more electrons; Do not accept inert or unreactive without reference to limited ability/ inability to form bonds or attract electrons.

[4]

25.

(i)

energy/enthalpy change/required/needed to remove/knock out an electron (to form +1 /uni-positive/ M+1 ion); in the gaseous state; Award [1] for M(g) M+(g) + e. Award [2] for M(g) M+(g) + e with reference to energy/enthalpy change. increasing number of protons/atomic number/Z/nuclear charge; atomic radii/size decreases / same shell/energy level / similar shielding/ screening (from inner electrons); No mark for shielding/screening or shielding/screening increases. Na: delocalized electrons / mobile sea of electrons / sea of electrons free to move; No mark for just mobile electrons. P: atoms covalently bonded / no free/mobile/delocalized electrons;

(ii)

(iii)

[6]

26.

[1]

27.

[1]

28.

(i)

Na: 11 p, 11/ 2.8.1 e and Na+: 11 p, 10 / 2.8 e / Na+ has 2 shells/ energy levels, Na has 3 / OWTTE; Na+: has greater net positive charge/same number of protons pulling smaller number of electrons; Si4+: 10 e in 2 (filled) energy levels / electron arrangement 2.8 / OWTTE; P3: 18 e in 3 (filled) energy levels / electron arrangement 2.8.8, thus larger / OWTTE; OR Si4+: has 2 energy levels whereas P3 has 3 / P3 has one more (filled) energy level;

(ii)

Si4+: 10 e whereas P3 has 18 e / Si4+ has fewer electrons / P3+ has more electrons;

[4]

29.

(i)

outer electron in Al is in 3p/p orbital/sub-shell/sub-level; higher orbital/sub-shell / e further from nucleus / shielded by 3s electrons; in S, electron paired in 3p/p orbital/sub-shell/sub-level; repulsion between paired electrons (and therefore easier to remove);

(ii)

[4]

30.

(i)

Lewis acid-base (reaction); H2O: e pair donor, Fe3+: e pair acceptor / H2O donates an electron pair to Fe3+; 2 d sub-levels are split into two sets of orbitals (of different energies); electron transitions between (d) orbitals of different energies / d-d transition(s); transmitted (visible) light is complementary colour;

(ii)

[5]

31.

[1]

32.

[1]

33.

[1]

34.

[1]

35.

d orbitals are split (into two sets of different energies); frequencies of (visible) light absorbed by electrons moving from lower to higher d levels; colour due to remaining frequencies/complementary colour transmitted; Cu2+ has unpaired electrons/partially filled d sub-level; Zn2+ has filled d sub-shell; electronic transitions/d-d transitions possible for Cu2+ / no electronic/d-d transitions

possible for Zn2+; Allow wavelength as well as frequency.

4 max
[4]

36.

NH3: Lewis base / Cu2+: Lewis acid; each NH3 /ligand donates an electron pair (to Cu2+); NH3 replace H2O ligands around Cu2+ ion/around central ion; forming coordinate (covalent)/dative covalent bond;

3 max
[3]

37.

(i) (ii)

MgCl2(weakly) acidic and MgO alkaline; MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2; Ignore state symbols.

[2]

38.

[1]

39.

[1]

40.

[1]

41.

(a)

in the solid state ions are in fixed positions/there are no moveable ions / OWTTE; Do not accept answer that refers to atoms or molecules. 2O2 O2 + 4e / O2 O2 + 2e; Accept e instead of e. (i) basic; Allow alkaline Na2O + H2O 2NaOH / Na2O + H2O 2Na+ + 2OH; Do not accept

(b)

(c)

(ii)

[4]

42.

(i)

first ionization energy: M(g) M+ (g) +e/e / the (minimum) energy (in kJ mol1) to remove one electron from a gaseous atom / the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms; periodicity: repeating pattern of (physical and chemical) properties;

(ii)

2.8.8/sp version; Accept any two of the following: the outer energy level/shell is full; the increased charge on the nucleus; great(est) attraction for electrons;

3 max

(iii)

17 p in Cl nucleus attract the outer level more than 11 p in Na nucleus / greater nuclear charge attracts outer level more; Allow converse for Na. Do not accept larger nucleus. S2 has one proton less / smaller nuclear charge so outer level held less strongly / OWTTE; Allow converse for chloride. Do not accept larger nucleus. the radii of the metal atoms increase (from Li Cs) (so the forces of attraction are less between them) / OWTTE; the forces of attraction between halogen molecules are van der Waals; forces increase with increasing mass/number of electrons;

(iv)

(v)

[10]

43.

[1]

44.

[1]

45.

(i) (ii) (iii)

+2; +3; +2; Only penalize once if roman numerals are used or if written as 2+ or 3+.

1 1

[3]

46.

(i)

(Cu) 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d10 / 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1; Do not accept [Ar]4s13d10. (Cu+) 1s22s22p63s23p63d10; Do not accept [Ar]3d10. 2

(ii)

Cu2+ has an incomplete d sub-level and Sc3+ has no d electrons; the d sub-level is split so the d electrons (in copper) can be excited by visible light / OWTTE;

[4]

47.

[1]

48.

[1]

49.

(a)

Na, Mg: basic; Al: amphoteric; Do not accept amphiprotic. Si to Cl: acidic; Award [1] for stating oxides become more basic towards left/Na and more acidic towards right/Cl. Do not penalize incorrect formulas of oxides.

(b)

NO2/nitrogen dioxide / N2O4/dinitrogen tetroxide / SO2/sulfur dioxide / SO3/sulfur trioxide; Do not accept NO/NOx/CO2/CO.

(c)

measure electrical conductivity; strong acids are good conductors/better conductors than weak acids / weak acids are poor conductors; OR react with magnesium or a named active metal/metal carbonate/hydrogen carbonate/ bicarbonate; Do not accept Na/K strong acids react faster/more gas bubbles (per unit time)/more heat produced / weak acids react slower/less gas bubbles (per unit time)/less heat produced; Do not accept answers based on titration curves as they are based on pH. Accept Neutralization: weak acid would produce less energy/less temperature increase compared to a strong acid.

2 max

[6]

50.

[1]

51.

[1]

52.

(a)

(i)

dumbbell-shaped representation along the z-axis: Sign of wave function not required. 1

(ii)

1s22s22p63s23p63d5 / 1s22s22p63s23p64s03d5 / [Ar]4s03d5 / [Ar]3d5; Do not allow 2, 8, 13. Lewis base / (species/ion/molecule) with lone pair and dative covalent/coordinate bond (to metal) / bonds with metal (ion)/ complex ion;

(iii)

(iv)

has partially filled d subshell/sublevel/orbitals; d orbitals are split (into two sets of different energies) colour due to electron transition between (split) d orbitals; frequencies of visible light absorbed by electrons moving from lower to higher d levels, colour due to remaining frequencies; Allow wavelength as well as frequency. 3 max

(v) Accept half-arrows or full arrows. Do not penalize if additional sublevels are shown, if sublevels are not labelled or if no boxes are drawn (providing system of arrows correct). Do not award mark if sublevels are incorrectly labelled. Orbital diagram may also be represented with sublevels shown at different relative energy positions.

1
[7]

53.

(i)

Group: number of valence/outer energy level electrons same; Period: electrons are in same valence/outer energy level; Accept number of energy levels containing electrons occupied. Accept shell for energy level. 2

(ii)

4; Allow the mark if the correct individual orbitals (e.g. 2s etc.) are listed.

1
[3]

54.

[1]

55.

[1]

56.

[1]

57.

[1]

58.

[Fe(CN)6]4 = +2; [FeCl4] = +3; Award [1 max] if 2+ and 3+, 2 and 3 or II and III stated.

[2]

59.

[1]

60.

Oxides of: Na and Mg are basic; Al is amphoteric; Si to Cl are acidic; Ar has no oxide; All four correct award [2], two or three correct award [1]. Na2O + H2O 2NaOH and SO3 + H2O H2SO4; Must be balanced for mark. Award marks for alternative correct equations such as SO3 with NaOH.
[3]

61.

A
[1]

62.

[1]

63.

(i)

an ion or molecule, with a lone pair of electrons that coordinates to a metal atom or to a metal ion to form a complex / (OWTTE) and cyanide/CN;

(ii)

Fe3+ = 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d5; [Ar] 5 unpaired electrons; 3d
5

; 3

(iii)

presence of unpaired electrons; the d orbitals are split into two energy levels; electrons move between these energy levels; absorb energy from light of visible wavelength / OWTTE; Award [1] each for any three.

3 max
[7]

64.

(i)

NaCl conducts and SiCl4 does not; NaCl ionic and SiCl4 covalent; ions can move in liquid (in NaCl); NaCl pH = 7; salt of strong acid and strong base / Na+ and Cl not hydrolysed; SiCl4 pH = 0 to 3; HCl is formed / strong acid formed;

(ii)

[7]

65.

[1]