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PeopleNology

Secrets Sex Seduction Selection Survival Sociology Smart Strong

Willy Nilly
PeopleNology

Willy Nilly SECRETS


for

Young Women
and their
by Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research
NollijyUniversityPeopleNology@Gmail.com GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved

Mothers

PeopleNology

Willy Nilly SECRETS


for Young Women and their Mothers
by

Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research


NollijyUniversityPeopleNology@Gmail.com GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved

Every Young Women discovers, given enough time the true story. Willy Nilly is the exciting story of

Women in America
and should be shared with all your friends to create better loving lasting relationships, improve experience levels, grow your emotional intelligence and learn the exciting truth about the Real Life Evolutionary Secrets inside every women.

PeopleNology

Willy Nilly SECRETS


for Young Women and their Mothers
by

Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research


NollijyUniversityPeopleNology@Gmail.com GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved

Every Young Women can freely distribute and share this information and knowledge with friends and family. The Evolutionary history of Human Beings is a complex subject that covers every knowledge discipline imagined. Knowledge at this level is for mature people that are searching for the why and the truth about the world around them. Why they feel, how they feel, the emotions of a young women and the struggle of being a parent.

PeopleNology

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

PeopleNology

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Every Women can start their own Local Chapter of Willy Nilly. Great for School projects, Church groups, Social activites and other learning and sharing environments.

PeopleNology

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

A woman is a female human. The term woman (irregular plural: women) usually is used for an adult, with the term girl being the usual term for a female child or adolescent. However, the term woman is also sometimes used to identify a female human, regardless of age.

You can see the diagram or drawing supplied by the government of the United States.

This plaque flys through the universe on space ships that will allow other living type beings to understand who we are, what we are, the differences and where we came from. You should understand, to our knowledge, the mother above, can and does create, another perfect creation and we know explore the universe.

You, the child, the most perfect creation, created by the most perfect creation, your mother, the mother of the universe.

You are the Perfect Creation

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

The word female comes from the Latin femella, the diminutive form of femina, meaning 'woman', which is not actually related to the word 'male.' The word was probably originally femella, meaning "young girl". In the late 14th century, the English spelling was altered so that the word paralleled the spelling of "male". The word female is generally considered neutral when used as an adjective; when used as a noun, it is often regarded as derogatory. Female judge would be preferable to woman judge; "This judge is a woman" would be preferable to "This judge is a female." There are exceptions: League of Women Voters is a name chosen by the mostlyfemale members of the League. The American Heritage Dictionary and the Random House Dictionary are not completely clear on this point, which is a sensitive point: it is hard to find neutral terms for women performing jobs once reserved for men, because these women generally insist that they belong there; and many other peopleincluding some womeninsist that they do not. The phrase the female, in the sense of the female sex or the class of all women, figures prominently in the first act of Henry V, in which Henry's bishops discuss with him the right of the French King to his throneand Henry's right to usurp it. They conclude that the salic law cited by the French is not really French, but German, and that Henry can properly invade France, thus prolonging the Hundred Years' War.

The mammalian female is characterized by having two copies of the X chromosome as opposed to the male which carries only one X and one smaller Y chromosome. To compensate for the difference in size, one of the female's X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell. In birds, by contrast, it is the female who is heterozygous and carries a Z and a W chromosome whilst the male carries two Z chromosomes. The distinguishing characteristic of mammalian species is the presence of mammary glands on the female. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that produce milk, which is used to feed the young during the period of time shortly after birth. Only mammals have the capacity to produce milk. The presence of mammary glands is most obvious on humans, due to the tendency of the female human body to store large amounts of fatty tissue near the nipples, resulting in prominent breasts. However, mammary glands are present in all mammals, although they are vestigial in male organisms. Mammalian females are also unique in that they all bear live young (with the exception of monotremes, which lay eggs.) However, there are non-mammalian animals (such as sharks) whose eggs hatch inside their bodies, which gives the appearance that they bear live young.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

The word girl first appeared during the Middle Ages between 1250 and 1300 CE and came from the Anglo-Saxon words gerle (also spelled girle or gurle), likely cognate with the Old Low German word gr (sometimes given as kerl).[2] The Anglo-Saxon word gerela meaning dress or clothing item also seems to have been used as a metonym in some sense.[3] Girl has meant any young unmarried woman since about 1530. Its first noted meaning for sweetheart is 1648. The earliest known appearance of girl-friend is in 1892 and girl next door, meant as a teenaged female or young woman with a kind of wholesome appeal, dates only to 1961.[4]

Deprecated meaning
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. Most sexual organisms have two sexes. In many cases, sex determination is genetic: males and females have different alleles or even different genes that specify their sexual morphology. In animals, this is often accompanied by chromosomal differences. In other cases, sex is determined by environmental variables (such as temperature) or social variables (the size of an organism relative to other members of its population). The details of some sex-determination systems are not yet fully understood. Although the word girl is sometimes used to describe a female of any age, such as in some casual social settings by women among themselves, when meant to describe a woman in professional or other adult contexts it might imply child or be otherwise misleading (as with the term boy when applied to an adult man), hence this meaning is often deprecated.[5]

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Biological gender interacts with environment in ways not fully understood.[7] Identical twin girls separated at birth and reunited decades later have shown both startling similarities and differences.[8] In 2005 Kim Wallen of Emory University noted, "I think the 'nature versus nurture' question is not meaningful, because it treats them as independent factors, whereas in fact everything is nature and nurture." Wallen said gender differences emerge very early and come about through an underlying preference males and females have for their chosen activities. Girls tend to like toys and other objects they can interact with, while boys will more likely prefer "things that they can manipulate and do things to." According to Wallen, expectations will nonetheless play a role in how girls perform academically. For example, if females skilled in math are told a test is "gender neutral" they achieve high scores, but if they are told males outperformed females in the past, the females will do much worse. "Whats strange is," Wallen observed, "according to the research, all one apparently has to do is tell a woman who has a lifetime of socialization of being poor in math that a math test is gender neutral, and all effects of that socialization go away."[9] Author Judith Harris has said that aside from their genetic contribution, the nurturing provided by parents likely has less long-term influence over their offspring than other environmental aspects such as the children's peers.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

European fairy tales have preserved memorable stories about girls. Among these are Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Rapunzel, Hans Christian Andersen's The Little Match Girl, The Little Mermaid, The Princess and the Pea and the Brothers Grimm's Little Red Riding Hood. Children's books about girls include Little House on the Prairie, Alice in Wonderland, Pippi Longstocking, Dragonsong and A Wrinkle in Time. Books which have both boy and girl protagonists have tended to focus more on the boys but important girl characters appear in Knight's Castle, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, The Book of Three and the Harry Potter series. There have been many American comic books and comic strips featuring a girl as the main character such as Little Lulu, Little Orphan Annie, Girl Genius and Amelia Rules. In superhero comic books an early girl character was Etta Candy, one of Wonder Woman's sidekicks. In the Peanuts series (by Charles Schulz) girl characters include Peppermint Patty, Lucy van Pelt and Sally Brown. In Japanese animated cartoons and comic books girls are often protagonists. Most of Hayao Miyazaki's animated films feature a young girl heroine, as in Majo no takkyubin (Kiki's Delivery Service). There are many other girl protagonists in the Shojo style of manga, which is targeted to girls as an audience. Among these

are The Wallflower, Ceres, Celestial Legend, Tokyo Mew Mew and Full Moon o Sagashite. Meanwhile, some genres of Japanese cartoons may feature sexualized and objectified portrayals of girls. Sexualization of young girls in art and entertainment has been a common theme across all eras and mediums. This has been more or less explicitly visible in modern cinema and television. Some famous examples include Taxi Driver, The Blue Lagoon, Lon: The Professional and Pretty Baby, all of which deal with young girls in adult situations, typically under extraordinary circumstances.

In common usage around the world, "adolescent", "teenager", "teen", "youth", "young adult", "lighty", "youngster", "youngin", "young person" and "emerging adult" may be considered synonyms - although the term 'teenager' is an artifact of the English counting system, something which does not occur in all languages.[8] In sociology, adolescence is seen as a cultural phenomenon for the working world and therefore its end points are not easily tied to physical milestones. As a transitional stage of human development, adolescence is the period in which a child matures into an adult. This transition involves biological (i.e. pubertal), social, and psychological changes, though the biological or physiological ones are the easiest to measure objectively. A person between early childhood and the teenage years is sometimes referred to as a pre-teen or tween. The end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood varies by country as well as by function, as even within a single country there will be different ages at which an individual is considered mature enough to be entrusted with particular tasks, such as driving a vehicle, having sexual relations, serving in the armed forces, voting, or marrying.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Puberty is the stage of the lifespan in which a child develops secondary sex characteristics (for example a deeper voice or larger adam's apple in boys, and development of breasts and more curved and prominent hips in girls) as his or her hormonal balance shifts strongly towards an adult state. This is triggered by the pituitary gland, which secretes a surge of hormones, such as testosterone (boys) or estrogen (girls) into the blood stream and begins the rapid maturation of the gonads: the girl's ovaries and the boy's testicles. Some boys may develop Gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormones, tissue responsiveness or obesity. Put simply, puberty is the time when a child's body starts changing to look more like an adult. The onset of puberty in girls appears to be related to body fat percentage. In most Western countries, the average age of a girl's first menstrual period, or menarche, fell in a decreasing secular trend.[citation needed] Girls start going through puberty earlier than boys. The average age for girls to start puberty is 10-12 while the average age for boys to start puberty is 12-14.

Adolescent psychology is associated with notable changes in mood sometimes known as Mood swings. Cognitive, emotional and attitudinal changes which are characteristic of adolescence, often take place during this period, and this can be a cause of conflict on one hand and positive personality development on the other. Because the adolescents are experiencing various strong cognitive and physical changes, for the first time in their lives they may start to view their friends, their peer group, as more important and influential than their parents/ guardians. Because of peer pressure, they may sometimes indulge in activities not deemed socially acceptable, although this may be more of a social phenomenon than a psychological one.[9] The home is an important aspect of adolescent psychology: home environment and family have a substantial impact on the developing minds of teenagers, and these developments may reach a climax during adolescence. For example, abusive parents may lead a child to "poke fun" at other classmates when he/she is seven years old or so, but during adolescence, it may become progressively worse, for example, the child may now be using drugs or becoming intolerably violent among other classmates. If the concepts and theory behind of right or wrong were not established early on in a child's life, the lack of this knowledge may impair a teenager's ability to make beneficial decisions as well as allowing his impulses to control his decisions. In the search for a unique social identity for themselves, adoles-

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

cents are frequently confused about what is 'right' and what is 'wrong.' G. Stanley Hall denoted this period as one of "Storm and Stress" and, according to him, conflict at this developmental stage is normal and not unusual. Margaret Mead, on the other hand, attributed the behavior of adolescents to their culture and upbringing.[10] However, Piaget, attributed this stage in development with greatly increased cognitive abilities; at this stage of life the individual's thoughts start taking more of an abstract form and the egocentric thoughts decrease, hence the individual is able to think and reason in a wider perspective.[11] Positive psychology is sometimes brought up when addressing adolescent psychology as well. This approach towards adolescents refers to providing them with motivation to become socially acceptable and notable individuals, since many adolescents find themselves bored, indecisive and/or unmotivated.[12] Adolescents may be subject to peer pressure within their adolescent time span, consisting of the need to have sex, consume alcoholic beverages, use drugs, defy their parental figures, or commit any activity in which the person who is subjected to may not deem appropriate, among other things. Peer pressure is a common experience between adolescents and may result briefly or on a larger scale. It should also be noted that adolescence is the stage of a psychological breakthrough in a person's life when the cognitive development is rapid[13] and the thoughts, ideas and concepts developed at this period of life greatly influence the individual's future life, playing a major role in character and personality formation.[14] Struggles with adolescent identity and depression usually set in when an adolescent experiences a loss. The most important loss in their lives is the changing relationship between the adolescent and their parents. Teen depression can be extremely intense at times because of physical and hormonal changes but emotional instability is part of being a teenager. Their changing mind, body and relationships often present themselves as stressful and that change, they assume, is something to be feared.[15]

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Adolescent sexuality refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in adolescents and is a stage of human sexuality. Sexuality and sexual desire usually begins to appear along with the onset of puberty. The expression of sexual desire among adolescents (or anyone, for that matter), might be influenced by family values and influences, the culture and religion they have grown up in social engineering, social control, taboos, and other kinds of social mores. The risks of adolescent sexual activity is sometimes associated with: emotional distress (fear of abuse or exploitation), sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AIDS) and pregnancy through failure or non-use of contraceptives. In terms of sexual identity, sexual orientation among adolescents may vary greatly across the spectrum from heterosexuality and LGBT orientations to pansexuality and sexual fetishism. According to anthropologist Margaret Mead and psychologist Albert Bandura, the turmoil found in adolescence in Western society has a cultural rather than a physical cause; they reported that societies where young women engaged in free sexual activity had no such adolescent turmoil, (that is until more recently, when information about the most dangerous STDs was made publicly accessible.) The age of consent to sexual activity varies widely between international jurisdictions, ranging from 12 to 21 years, although some governments, such as Canada's, are planning to raise the age to at least 16 in an effort to reduce the incidence of the most serious

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

the absence or rather removal of clothing, such as denuded, divested, peeled, stripped, unclad, unclothed, uncovered, undressed and dis- or un-robed. Another euphemism for the embarrassing state of nakedness is "exposed", to glances no less than to the elements; not only the expression "to show skin" refers to nudity in terms of the dermis, in Manx Gaelic jiarg-rooisht and Scottish Gaelic dearg risgte, translated as "stark naked", is literally 'red' naked, as such exposure may make one 'blush'.

Although "nude", "naked", "bare", "stripped", and other terms have the same objective meaning (i.e., not covered by clothing), they have differing subjective connotations, which partly match their differing etymologies. "Nude" originally had a meaning of "plain, bare, unadorned" in a broader sense when introduced into English from Latin nudus, originally only as a legal term meaning "unsupported by proof", since 1531; later used an artistic euphemism for physical nakedness in 1631. Meanwhile "bare" and "naked" derive from the common Old English words, with many cognates, for "uncovered". Some consider one term more appropriate than the other. The book Nude, Naked, Stripped suggests that these three terms define a continuum ranging from artistic or tasteful absence of clothing by choice, at one end, to a forced or mandatory condition of being without clothes (e.g., a strip search), at the other. In general, a "nude" person is unclad by choice and is generally shameless; a "naked" person is involuntarily caught undressed and is generally embarrassed.[original research?] Various synonyms refer specifically often as a negative to

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT A state of total nudity, with nothing covering genitals[clarify]. In English, phrases such as "nude", "bare" or "in the buff" (a reference to leather, i.e. skin notably hairless, unlike a pelt; compare "buck-naked"; Spanish also has the euphemism "en cueros", meaning "in leathers") carry a similar meaning. A special case is "stark naked", or "starkers", as these terms were erroneously changed from "start naked" (start is an Old High German word for "tail") to the "stark", an old Germanic word meaning "strong" but used as "utter(ly)".[original research?] Euphemisms may be used, such as "birthday suit" and "au naturel" (French for "in the natural state"). In the Dutch language a naked person may be described as "spiernaakt" ("muscle-naked", since the musculature is visible under bare skin) or "poedelnaakt" ("poodle-naked", which refers to the often-ridiculed shaving of poodle dog breeds), or as wearing "Adamskostuum" ("Adam's suit", i.e. the original unclothed state of Adam and Eve in Eden). A similar expression exists in Italian ("costume adamitico"). The French " poil" "to the (body) hair (or fur)" and its Spanish equivalent "en pelotas" ("in the balls, i.e. showing your testicles, though it applies to both males and females"), emphasize that human hair growth is generally too sparse for one to be considered covered without artificial clothing (while the pubic hair is often thicker, this area of the body is also most critical in the Christian tradition; in a few[clarify] Germanic languages, the very word for pubic literally means (and is cognate with the English word) "shame": skam in Danish, schaam in Dutch, Scham in German). Likewise in French, "nu comme un ver" ("naked as a worm") refers to absence of visually shielding hair, via a dysphemistic metaphor. While negatives such as "undressed" may also refer to partial nudity (cf. "topless", below) unless explicitly qualified, in artistic modelling the term "undraped" means completely nude, as opposed to such common practices as draping something over the sexual body parts (or over the face so as to make the model anonymous).[original research?] Full frontal nudity refers to wearing no clothing and facing the observer showing the pubic area, as opposed to only showing toplessness/barechestedness or bare buttocks. It is usually considered the most far-reaching form of nudity, with exception of a close-up of the genitals. In many cases, full frontal nudity is avoided in motion pictures by purposely placing objects to obscure an actor's or actress's genitals, or the shot is diffused by hazy lighting or focus. In one scene from A Shot in the Dark, actor Peter Sellers infiltrates a nudist colony but avoids full nudity by

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT holding a guitar in front of his genitals. Unlike the nudists, he is intensely embarrassed. Such techniques not only make some actors more comfortable but usually aim to pass censorship or prevent the film from receiving an unfavorable rating, which may impede the film's commercial success. Thus, revealing shots may be cut during the editing; sometimes a more liberal version is released separately: e.g., as director's cut. Few non-pornographic, mainstream American films show full frontal nudity in their theatrical versions, while more complete versions may be distributed in other countries, and/or on video tape or DVD (media which generally are more ready to distribute productions offending various taboos).

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Partial nudity
As the concept of nudity often refers more to perception by the observer than the mere description whether someone's body is covered or not, there can be a grey area, known as partial nudity. Thus, while someone exposing 'private parts' is often called 'naked' regardless of garments on other body parts, hence the terms halfnaked and, a fortiori, near-naked refer to a body that is not completely exposed, but showing more than is customary or considered quite acceptable, at least in a given context. However the quantity of skin exposed is not the determining criterion, it's the "quality" that counts for perception.

Terms like bare-butt and bare-ass or kaalgat in Afrikaans (literally 'bald [arse-]hole', also an illustration that one's own dense body hair is considered to undo or at least mitigate nudity; animal furs are probably the oldest form of warm clothing) focus only on the buttocks; apart from the literal sense (which may be functional, as in the case of a spanking) this is also a popular metaphor (also in other languages) for full nudity, at the same time more explicit than most euphemisms and yet avoiding to mention the genitals. The term topfree or topless is sometimes used especially in reference to females to describe the lack of clothing covering the breasts. For men, the same state of undress, however less strategic, is called bare chested or shirtless. See also cleavage (breasts) and cleavage (buttocks) Even a term referring to an apparently less revealing skin zone can be significant in a functional context, e.g., bareknuckle in certain martial arts, or even sometimes have strong cultural associations, as with barefoot. In the case of bare hand(s), the expression is even commonly extended as a counterpart to handling something with gloves to protect the hands, or even with a mechanical device, whether operated manually or not, allowing to keep the hands at safe distance. The naked eye is a similar figure of speech referring to human visual perception that is unaided by optic equipment.

Participant in the 2007 Summer Solstice Parade and Pageant in Seattle. Today even wearing boxer shorts, sufficient to guard the modesty of a shooto fighter, is described as near-naked in Japan because the appropriate kimono-type uniform associated with traditional martial arts is missing. Half-naked is also used for a degree of skin exposure that is not offensive (as no delicate zone is shown) but still barer than 'fully dressed', such as a man in bare torso. Yet for swimming the Japanese man feels comfortable in a most revealing fundoshi. As the exposure of specific, usually intimate, skin zones suffices to be offensive and/or sensual, it is not surprising that specific terms are commonly used for such cases. More specifically: Terms like bare balls (not to confuse with freeballs) and bollock-naked are used to explicitly emphasize the naked exposure of the most private parts, often as a dysphemism for total male nudity, even in a context where another part of the anatomy is functionally more relevant.

Nudity may be indirectly exposed through reflection. This may be accidental, or accomplished deliberately by the nude person [1], or accomplished by a voyeur.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

The act of revealing skin or even removing clothes, even when only to show another covering layer, is often regarded at least as erotic or offensive as the actual sight of bare skin. Thus one often feels the need to use a dressing-box etc. or at least retreats into a lockerroom with restricted access in order to change, even if one is already wearing underneath one's clothes the swimwear that will be shown without jeans after emerging, so not an inch of embarrassing exposure was involved in the disrobing. This very suggestive power of divesting is the basis of striptease, the very word rather referring to such a 'tease' by partial stripping off, rather than the 'full monty'. Such phobias are far more common in North America than in Europe or much of the rest of the world (e.g. Japan). In many European nations such fear of undressing would be classed as a form of mental illness. Similarly attitudes quite like those concerning nudity are often displayed towards clothing which covers the skin, but suggestively follows the contours of a sensitive body part, such as the male genitals in tights. Wet clothing which sticks to the skin, e.g. the buttocks or a female breast (as in a wet t-shirt contest), can thus also be regarded as if it had become truly transparent. The taboo by association can go even further: garments which prevent any exposure of strategic skin zones can themselves be given a subjective status rather fitting a revealing one, especially underwear - thus a man whose open trousers fly reveals nothing more than the color of the underwear, no skin, is nevertheless considered embarrassingly exposed. Thus euphemisms are used for undergarments, notably those in touch with the intimate parts, or even, as in the case of the word unmentionables, the trousers worn above these. The word dishabille (from the French dshabill 'undressed', which still refers to a negligee) uses a common euphemism for nudity to refer to being

partially or very casually dressed, a matter of comparison with the fashion-sensitive 'proper' dress, not to an actual revealing characteristic of the 'lesser' garments worn. In certain erotic fethisms, a second skin which in fact covers up the real skin is called this because it is perceived as providing a more intense stimulus than the normal response associated with real naked hide. Finally the 'image' of nudity and the notion of vulnerability are used for various absences of clothing and other symbolical objects where no body visibility is required thus people say they 'feel naked without...' about uniform, a badge of office, even a weapon.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Society's response to public nudity varies on the culture, time, location and context of the activities. There are many exceptions and particular circumstances in which nudity is tolerated, accepted or even encouraged in public spaces. Such examples would include nude beaches, within some intentional communities (such as naturist resorts or clubs) and at special events. In general and across cultures, more restrictions are found for exposure of those parts of the human body that display evidence of sexual arousal. Therefore, sex organs and often women's breasts are covered, even when other parts of the body may be freely uncovered. Yet the nudity taboo may have meanings deeper than the immediate possibility of sexual arousal, for example, in the cumulative weight of tradition and habit. Clothing also expresses and symbolizes authority, and more general norms and values besides those of a sexual nature. It is thus not clear what society and people's spiritual beliefs would have to be like, were nudity to be regarded as universally normal. Similar to religious traditions in which nudity symbolizes a nonrecoverable state of primal innocence, there also exist secular, cynical attitudes, accusing nudism of hypocrisy and repression. Such views are rarely taken seriously, however. Not all naturists frequently contemplate a society that would accept nudity in all situations, but when the question is put to them they do not tend to shun such a possibility. Still, their own social nudity might be viewed by some as merely an agreement of trust with others who share a rare degree of confidence and comfort in being nude. Another common distinction, also considered by censoring authorities, is that gratuitous nudity is perceived as more offensive than the same degree of physical exposure in a functional context, where the action could not conveniently be performed dressed, either in reality or in a fictitious scene in art. The intent can also be invoked:

whether the nudity is meant to affect observers; e.g., streaking can be considered unacceptably provocative, nude sun tanning viewed mildly as rather inoffensive.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Although exposure of women's breasts is considered perfectly acceptable in some western countries in appropriate settings, such as while suntanning, in the United States of America exposure of female nipples is still considered criminal by many states and not usually allowed in public (see Public indecency). Public breastfeeding, since the exposure it involves is functional, may be looked upon more mildly, but still it is sometimes considered problematic. Courts in some US jurisdictions where legal challenges have arisen, and other North American jurisdictions like Ontario have legalized the exposure of women's nipples, but not on equal protection grounds (see United States Constitution/Amendment Fourteen). Those grounds are the basis of the movement of "topfree equality," which promotes equal rights for women to have no clothing above the waist; the term "topfree" rather than "topless" is used to avoid the latter term's sexual connotations. However, there are still extreme reactions on the parts of many to exposure of the full breast, as in Janet Jackson's partial breast exposure during the half-time show of the 2004 Super Bowl.

During the witch-hunts the alleged witches were stripped naked and their entire body was shaved to discover the so-called witches' marks. The discovery of witches' marks was then used as evidence in trials[2]. Nakedness (full or partial) can be part of a corporal punishment or as an imposed humiliation (especially when administered in public). In fact, torture manuals may distinguish between the male and female psychological aversion to self-exposure versus being disrobed. In 2003, Abu Ghraib prison earned international notoriety for allegations of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period. Photographic images were widely circulated and exposed practices of posing prisoners naked, sometimes bound, covered in feces and being intimidated.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Nudity in front of a sexual partner is widely accepted, but there may be restrictions for example, only at the time and place of sex, or with subdued lighting, during bathing with the partner or afterward, covered by a sheet or blanket, or while sleeping. Nudity is closely associated with sexuality in most cultures where some level of body modesty is expected. This is evidenced by the existence of striptease in these cultures. Sexual dimorphism when depicted in the main stream media of these cultures is often seen as sexually related. As an effect of Catholic cultural heritage, in Latin cultures the common definition of modesty does not generally admit genital nudity, but the definition of what is lewd has changed and women's breasts are now commonly exposed or depicted without scandal.

In some hunter-gatherer cultures in warm climates, near-complete nudity has been, until the introduction of Western culture, or still is, standard practice for both men and women. In some African and Melanesian cultures, men going completely naked except for a string tied about the waist are considered properly dressed for hunting and other traditional group activities. In a number of tribes in the South Pacific island of New Guinea, the men use hard gourdlike pods as penis sheaths. While obscuring and covering the actual penis, these at a longer distance give the impression of a large, erect phallus. Yet a man without this "covering" could be considered to be in an embarrassing state of nakedness. Among the Chumash Native Americans of southern California, men were usually naked, and women were often topless. Native Americans of the Amazon Basin usually went nude or nearly nude; in many native tribes, the only clothing worn was some device worn by men to clamp the foreskin shut. However, other similar cultures have had different standards. For example, other native North Americans generally avoided total nudity, and the Native Americans of the mountains and west of South America, such as the Quechua, kept quite

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Islam on the other hand has a much more modest view regarding nudity. In Islam the area of the body not meant to be exposed in public is called the awrah, and while referred to in the Qur'an, is addressed in more detail in hadith. For men, the awrah is from the navel well to well below the knees, which means that in public Muslim men have to cover themselves at least from the navel down below the knees. For women, Islam may require them to observe purdah, covering their entire bodies, except the face (see burqa). However, the degrees of covering vary according to local custom and/or interpretation of Islamic Law

Still very different traditions exist among, for example, sub-Saharan Africans, partly persisting in the post-colonial era. Whereas some tribes and family-groups including some Togolose and Nilo-Saharan (e.g., Surma people) still commonly parade fully naked or without any covering below the waist (especially at massively attended stick fighting tournaments, where well-exposed young men can hope to catch the eye of a prospective bride), amongst Bantu people there is often a complete aversion from public nudity thus, in Botswana when a newspaper printed a photograph (seen here [3]) of a thief suffering lashes on the bared buttocks imposed by a traditional chief's court, there was national consternation, not about the flogging (actually extended soon to age 50 and to women) but about the 'peeping tom'. The Ugandan Kavirondo tribes, a mix of Bantu and Nilotic immigrants, traditionally went practically naked, but the men eventually adopted western dress.

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Willy Nilly SECRETS for Young Women and their Mothers Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Copyright 2008 POWERFUL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT