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Articles Johannes Berger* Sebastian Bruschetini-Ambro Johann Kollegger

DOI: 10.1002/suco.201100022

An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

It is proposed to build concrete bridges with tendons fully encapsulated in plastic ducts and without the use of reinforcing steel. In this case the durability of the proposed bridge depends only on the durability of the concrete because corrosion is no longer a determining factor regarding the lifetime of the structure. The requirements of the serviceability and ultimate limit states are fulfilled by providing post-tensioned tendons with strands fully encapsulated in plastic ducts and watertight anchorages. Since the proposed bridge does not contain any steel, which would be endangered by material-related corrosion, there is no need for insulation to the deck. Consequently, there is also no need for pavement and edge beams. This concept of building bridges represents a breakthrough with regard to sustainability and durability of concrete bridges and is applicable to small and mediumsized bridges. The method has already been implemented for the design of the Egg-Graben Bridge in the Groarl valley in the province of Salzburg, Austria. Prior to the actual construction of the bridge, large-scale tests were performed to obtain practical values for the serviceability, ductility and loadbearing capacity of this structural system.
Keywords: durability, prestressing, large-scale tests, concrete bridge, electrically isolated tendon, plastic duct

Research programme

The research project Prestressed concrete bridges without reinforcing steel, sealing and pavement was initiated in order to improve the durability of concrete bridges. To achieve more durable concrete bridges, it is suggested that concrete bridges should be built with the following characteristics: The bridge is prestressed and has no mild steel reinforcement. The prestressing steel is arranged in plastic ducts and is also fully encapsulated in plastic at the anchorages. There is no longer a need for sealing because there is no reinforcement in the structure that is endangered by corrosion. There is no longer a need for a pavement to protect the membrane. It is proposed to build the pavement with high-quality concrete in a composite form with the structure as the upper part of the bridge. The edge beam is an integral part of the structure. Bridges with short spans can also be designed as integral bridges. During construction, the economic advantage of the project consists of savings with regard to construction materials, i.e. neither reinforcing steel nor insulation, expansion joints or edge beams are needed. Considering the future savings in operation and maintenance, as well as the unlimited lifetime, the bridge will show a superior economic performance compared to conventional bridge structures.


Frequently, the serviceability of the conventional sealing of concrete bridges turns out to be unsatisfactory in practice. Imperfect sealing leads to chloride infiltration into the structure due to cracks. If a road passes under a bridge, there is the risk of chloride ingress caused by salt spray spread over the surface of the bridge. In addition to the sealings liability for repairs, the pavement requires regular repair work. This periodic maintenance work causes high costs and affects the traffic flow. The aim of the project presented in this paper is to develop a technology that increases the life expectancy of concrete bridges and thus at the same time reduces the frequency of repair work.


Large-scale tests

* Corresponding author: Submitted for review: 21 April 2011 Revised: 07 June 2011 Accepted for publication: 26 June 2011

Large-scale tests were performed to obtain practical values for the serviceability, ductility and loadbearing capacity of this structural system, see Fig. 1. The design of the specimens was inspired by the Egg-Graben Bridge. The dimensions were 15.3 0.63 0.5 m (L W D) and the effective span of the continuous beam was 7.5 m. Forces were applied at distances of 2.5 m from the intermediate support. For prestressing, a post-tensioning system with plastic ducts and fully encapsulated anchorages was used. Each tendon consisted of 7 strands of 150 mm2, grade 1570/1770. The specimen was concentrically prestressed with straight tendon guidance and was deviated over the final 1.5 m. The reinforcing bars were arranged to prevent

2011 Ernst & Sohn Verlag fr Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin Structural Concrete 12 (2011), No. 3


J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

Structural Concrete 03/2011: Nr. 022

Structural System

Cross Section

Span 1 7.5m 2.5m 2.5m

Span 2 7.5m

0.08 0.34 0.08


0.315 0.315 0.63m

Fig. 1. Experimental setup

700 600 500

Load [kN]

400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 Span 1 15 Span 2 20 25

1st Crack Intermediate support

Displacement [mm]

Fig. 2. Loaddeflection relationship

splitting tensile stress in the anchorage area of the tendons. Grade C30/37concrete was used. The company that later carried out the prestressing work for the bridge was also involved in the production of the specimens in order to gain experience at a very early stage of the project with regard to the construction process and the installation of a measuring system (electrically isolated tendons) for monitoring the corrosion protection. A detailed description of the tests and test results can be found in [1].

2.1.1 Load-deflection relationship

The load (displacement-controlled) was gradually applied in order to record the development of cracks. The cracking moment, calculated with the mean value of the concretes tensile strength (C30/37, fctm = 2.9 N/mm2) was 302 kNm. The first cracks appeared over the intermediate support at a moment of Mcrack,support = 448 kNm and in the span at Mcrack,span = 363 kNm. Of great interest was the structural behaviour in the cracked state. The load was increased until the first cracks became visible, which appeared at the intermediate support at a force of 285 kN. Up to this point, a linear relationship between load and deformation was visible, see Fig. 2. Starting from the first crack in the intermediate support area, a linear relationship is still recognizable, but with a slightly shallower

slope due to the redistribution of the internal forces because of the cracked section at the intermediate support area. The load was then increased until the first cracks were visible in the span area, which took place at a force of 420 kN. After that, the load-deflection relationship was not linear any more because of the cracks, and a greater increase in deformation occurred. The last load level reached was F = 656 kN, with a maximum deflection of umax = 21 mm, which corresponds to a ratio of l/357. The achievement of the ultimate capacity was announced by the appearance of cracks (bending shear cracks), spalling in the concrete compression zone and by the rapid growth in deformations for an insignificant increase in load.

2.1.2 Crack pattern

The first cracks (intermediate support area) that occurred had a crack width of 0.05 mm and a length of 0.10 m. After a further increase in the load (from 285 kN to 420 kN), cracks also appeared in the span area, the crack width at the intermediate support was already 0.5 mm and the crack length 0.30 m. The cracks that appeared in the span had a width of 0.05 mm and a length of 0.10 m. Ultimate capacity was reached at a load of 656 kN, with a maximum crack width of 2 mm and a maximum crack length of 0.37 m. Upon reaching the ultimate load,


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1st Crack Span

J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges 2.50m 2.50m

Span 1

Span 2

Fig. 3. Crack pattern at ultimate load

800 MRm = 673 kNm 1st Crack Intermediate support 600 100 200 6 1 2 0 200 1st Crack span 100 600 MRm = 673 kNm 800 MRm = 673 kNm 1st Crack span 0 2 1 6 8 10 12 MRm = 673 kNm 1st Crack Intermediate support

Moment [kNm]

Strain [] Span 1: Concrete-C Span 1: Tendon-C Span 1: Tendon-T

Fig. 4. Momentstrain diagram

Int. Support: Concrete-C Int. Support: Tendon-C Int. Support: Tendon-T

Span 2: Concrete-C Span 2: Tendon-C Span 2: Tendon-T

MRm = 673 kNm

800 600 elastic relationship

Moment [kNm]

1st Crack Intermediate support 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005

100 200 0.000 0 200 1st Crack span 400 elastic relationship 600 800 MRm = 673 kNm





Curvature [m1] Span 1

Fig. 5. Moment-curvature relationship

Intermediate support

Span 2

the average crack spacing was 0.35 m, the maximum 0.40 m and the minimum 0.22 m, see Fig. 3. Spalling was clearly visible in the concrete compression zone.

2.1.3 Strains in concrete and tendons

For the determination of the strain and curvature relationships, the strains due to post-tensioning and dead load

were calculated with a modulus of elasticity of 33000 N/mm2. The measured strains in the concrete in compression and the tendons are shown in Fig. 4, which also provides information about the strains in the concrete and tendons under ultimate load. At the intermediate support in the compression range, the curve is linear up to a moment of 448 kNm (c = 0.73 ). Thus a nonlinear curve is the result, in which the maximum compres-

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J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

sion of the concrete amounts to c,u = 4.21 . Due to post-tensioning, the strain in the tendon was p,0 = 6.10 and the maximum strain reached during the test was p,u = 10.19 . In the span, the strain was measured at the points of load application. The compression in the concrete compressive edge is the same in both spans, linear up to a moment of 363 kNm with a compression c = 0.67 . The maximum compression, c,u = 2.29 , was reached at a moment of 640 kNm. The strain in the tendon on the tension side behaves differently. Compared to span 2, a greater increase in the strain can be seen in span 1 up to the first crack. After cracking, the opposite behaviour is noticeable. The maximum elongation was p,u = 10.27 . Strain curves for the tendon in compression are shown as well.

Table 1. Project participants

Client: Contractor: Tensioning: Research:

Province of Salzburg ALPINE Bau GmbH Grund- Pfahl- und Sonderbau GmbH Vienna University of Technology

Table 2. Project information

Concept: Structural calculations: Construction design: Project data

Dipl.-Ing. Franz Brandauer Prof. Dr.-Ing. Johann Kollegger Institute for Structural Engineering, Vienna University of Technology BauCon ZT GmbH, Zell am See

Planning team

2.1.4 Moment-curvature
The moment-curvature relationship is shown in Fig. 5, and knowledge of the stiffness can be gained from this relationship. The curvature of the cross-section at the intermediate support progressed linearly until the first crack appeared and corresponds well with the calculated elastic moment curvature = M/EI (Ec = 33 000 N/mm2). After the appearance of the first crack, a significant drop in stiffness is noticeable. Again, in the fully cracked state, a nearly constant stiffness EI(II) can be observed; however, it amounts to just 1/9 of the stiffness of the uncracked crosssection. The maximum curvature is max;support = 0.0195 m1. The relationship in the two spans is not completely identical. In the uncracked state, span 2 shows a greater curvature than span 1. After the first cracks have occurred, a contrasting behaviour can be observed.

Duration: Sept 2007 Dec 2009 Bridge length: 50.68 m

Salzburg, Austria. The partners involved in the project are listed in Tables 1 and 2.


Bridge design


Results of experimental investigations

The construction of crack-free concrete bridges with corrosion-resistant reinforcement can be accomplished according to the system described. The omission of reinforcing steel is regulated by standards such as EC2 [2, 3], and the requirements of this structure regarding serviceability, ductility and loadbearing capacity could be demonstrated experimentally. It was also shown that by using prestressing only without further reinforcement, ductile behaviour at the ultimate limit state can be achieved. The announcement of the failure by deformations, large crack widths and, finally, through spalling of the concrete in the compression zone as required in the design of reinforced concrete structures, was sufficiently demonstrated by the tests. The comparison of the ultimate load reached experimentally with the calculated ultimate load show that the calculations with mean values of material strengths are in good accordance with the experimental values.

Due to the heterogeneity of the rock (geological fault zone in the area of the bridge, different rock properties between the two abutments and partially within the contact area of one abutment) and the steepness of the terrain, a structural system was required that would span the valley without any support. It was decided to build an arch bridge because under the present conditions, the demands on the supporting structure could be best met with an arch. In choosing the shape of the arch, it was observed that due to the different heights of the arch base points, an asymmetric deformation of the structure occurred under dead loads. To solve the problem, a polygonal arch form was chosen. It was not possible to comply with the request of the Bridge Department of the province of Salzburg, i.e. to design an integral bridge. The initial calculations showed that the additional stresses due to temperature variation and shrinkage caused large restraint forces. For this project it was decided to install elastomeric bearings to separate the superstructure from the abutment walls. The design of the bridge was also inspired by Schwandbach Bridge (1933), Switzerland [4]. That bridge, designed by Robert Maillart, is a very slender bridge, curved on plan, with an arch of 0.2 m thickness and a span of 37.4 m, and has been protected as a historic monument since 1984.

3.2 3 Egg-Graben Bridge


The Egg-Graben Bridge is the first bridge in Austria for which the method of prestressing without using reinforcing steel for the superstructure was used. The bridge was built for the upgrade to the L109-Groarler state road and is located in the Groarl valley the province of

The abutments are rotated through 30 to the road axis and are founded fully in the unweathered rock. The transition of the superstructure to the soil behind the abutment was achieved with drag plates attached to the structure with stainless steel reinforcement. The Egg-Graben Bridge was designed as a polygonal arch bridge, see Fig. 6.


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J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

Fig. 6. Longitudinal section along bridge axis

Fig. 7. Standard section through bridge superstructure

Following the design of the Schwandbach Bridge, the layout of the arch on the mountain side is straight and on the downhill side it follows the curvature of the deck. The arch has a thickness of 0.50 m at the bearing and tapers along the first 3.50 m to a thickness of 0.40 m, then remains constant over the entire arc length. The two arch piers are 3.25 and 3.70 m high, with a thickness of 0.16 m. The front of the piers overhangs on the downhill side, which emphasizes the curvature of the bridge on plan. A continuous prestressed concrete slab was chosen for the superstructure, which is curved on plan with a radius of 50 m. This slab is supported by two pier walls as well as the intersection with the arch in the middle. The resulting five-span superstructure with two cantilevers on the bearing axis has a total length L = 2.37 + 7.97 + 7.97 + 14.03 + 7.97 + 7.95 + 2.42 = 50.68 m on the bridge axis. Fig. 7 shows a cross-section, a slab 9.50 m wide and 0.50 m deep.


Analysis [5]

The design of the bridge was carried out with the loads according to Eurocode, taking into consideration the individual effects of dead load, wind load, temperature effects, unusual effects and traffic loads on bridges, as regulated by the Austrian Standard NORM EN 1991-2 [6]. The relevant forces for the design of the bridge resulted from varying effects with regard to road traffic. Load model 1 (LM1) was used as the traffic load. Loading due to special vehicles was not considered. Due to the complex geometry, the forces were calculated using a finite element program in a 3D model. The 3D model corresponds to the actual geometry of the bridge, only the transverse gradient was neglected. To verify the results, a 1 m strip of the bridge was analysed with a program for the design of frame structures. Determina-

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J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

tion of the forces was accomplished with a linear elastic material model.

3.3.1 Superstructure reinforcement

To ensure structural safety and serviceability, the slab was prestressed in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Essentially, there is no further steel reinforcement, except in the edge and the local anchorage zone (splitting tensile). Stainless steel reinforcement (1.4571, BSt 500) was used for these two applications. For the longitudinal and transverse directions, 07-150 tendons (Ap = 1050 mm2) in steel grade St 1570/1770 were used. The tendons are fitted in plastic ducts. They were sealed with a permanent plastic anchor cap and the plastic ducts were grouted with cement mortar. The number of tendons was chosen in such a way that the analysis of decompression for the frequent combination of actions would be met at each point of the bridge. Several alternatives were studied in order to find an optimum tendon profile. Ultimately, a central tensioning in both directions of the bridge was chosen. In the longitudinal direction, two tendons were arranged one above the other. A total of 15 tendons was required, which resulted in a spacing of 0.63 m. The spacing of the 94 transverse tendons is 0.50 m on the mountain side and 0.54 m on the downhill side. The analysis for the limitation of crack widths at the serviceability limit state was performed as follows. According to NORM EN 1992-1-1 7.3.2 (4) [2], NORM EN 1992-2 [3] and NORM EN 1992-1-1 [2], no minimum reinforcement is required for structural elements made of prestressed concrete if under the characteristic combination of actions and the characteristic prestress the concrete remains in compression or the absolute value of the tensile stress in the concrete is less than ct,p. The value for ct,p can be found in the National Annex. For the concrete used, the recommended value is fct,eff = fctm = 2.9 N/mm2 (Austria). To prevent tension from indirect effects (restraint forces), the bearing of the structure was chosen in such a way that no restraint forces from thermal stress or shrinkage would occur. Since the analysis could be performed for the relevant position, the superstructure does not need minimum reinforcing steel. Three different load combinations were considered for the analysis at the ultimate limit state: Permanent and temporary design situations Exceptional design situation Earthquake The bridge is located in earthquake zone 1 and the reference ground acceleration for the site is 0.41 m/s2. The results of the calculations show that the load combination for the seismic design is not the decisive design situation for the bridge. The relevant forces for the design of the bridge were the result of the basic combination. The bending analysis showed that the moment of resistance MRd of the superstructure is greater than the effective moment MEd due to the relevant load combination. The ultimate limit state analysis is guaranteed only by prestressing, so no further reinforcing steel is used. The analysis of the shear resistance was carried out by comparing the effective shear force VEd and shear force

resistance VRd in the relevant section. Since the design value for the shear force resistance VRd,c is higher than the effective shear force VEd, transverse reinforcement (shear links) in the structure has been omitted.


Construction work on site

Construction work for the substructure began in the autumn of 2008. The unweathered rock was found 8 m below ground level and so extensive excavation work was required. The foundation consisted of a reinforced concrete slab (L W D = 15.0 /5.0 2.0 m) on the rock. The work for the falsework of the arch began the following spring. During the concreting of the arch, the region where the intersection of the arch with the superstructure takes place was omitted. The intersection was cast simultaneously with the superstructure. In the steep region of the arc, from the foundation to the rising wall, a wall formwork was used and filled with self-compacting concrete. With regard to the assembly, particular attention was necessary when the reinforcement for the arch was laid because the starter bars for the pier walls were made of stainless steel (1.4571, BST 500). To avoid galvanic corrosion [7], contact between normal reinforcing steel and stainless steel reinforcement had to be ruled out. Conventional reinforcing steel was used for the arch because no direct penetration of water contaminated with chloride was expected and the geometry of the arch was designed in such a way that no tensile stresses occurred under dead load. Further, the material costs were much lower compared with those of stainless steel. Self-compacting concrete was also used for the pier walls reinforced with stainless steel. Due to the very thin cross-sectional dimensions of the arch, which were possible only because of the special geometry of the arch, an accuracy of 10 mm was specified for the construction. After completing the formwork for the superstructure, the anchor pockets, which had been produced at the factory, were mounted. For the anchorage of the longitudinal tendons, placed in the structure area above each other, it was necessary to deviate them at both abutments in order to accommodate the anchor heads. The plastic duct sections 5 m long were connected by mirror welding. The sensitivity of the plastic ducts with regard to the thermal expansion behaviour needed special attention. The thermal expansion of the ducts could be controlled as soon as an orthogonal grid of tendons was formed and the strands were inserted. For the location and the installation of the tendons at the proper level, supports made of fibre-cement blocks (cut lengths) were arranged at each intersection between longitudinal and transverse tendon, see Fig. 8. The maximum distance between the supports for the ducts was 0.80 m according to the approval [8]. Since the distance between longitudinal tendons was 0.63 m, and 0.50 m between transverse tendons, it proved to be advantageous to support every intersection between tendons. To ensure a flat contact area between fibre-cement block and duct, plastic half-shells were clipped to the ribbed duct. The fibre-cement blocks were attached by plastic cable ties. The cross-connection of the ducts formed a stable mesh, see Fig. 9.


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J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

Fig. 8. Detail of tendon support

Fig. 10. Stainless steel reinforcement to control tensile splitting in anchorage zones

Fig. 9. Tendons in superstructure

Threading of the strands was carried out prior to concreting. The weight of the strands corresponded to the buoyancy force resulting from the volume of the duct in the concrete. Therefore, the ducts were not secured against floating. The reinforcement content of the structure amounted to 85 kg of prestressing steel per cubic metre of concrete. Steel reinforcement (stainless steel) was installed only in the side areas and the local anchorage zone to resist the tensile forces, see Fig. 10. The following actions were taken in order to reduce restraint due to hydration before tensioning: To keep the temperature development low, concrete C30/37(56)/ BS1C/GK22/F45 was used. This RRS concrete (radically reduced shrinkage, according to NORM B 4710 [9]) reaches its design strength after 56 days. The slower setting process leads to a lower temperature development. The shortening of the superstructure due to loss of hydration heat and early shrinkage did not result in restraint stresses because of the favourable bearing conditions with the fixed point at the intersection of arch and superstructure in the middle of the bridge. The autumnal weather conditions also had a beneficial effect. The concreting of the superstructure with the integrated edge beams began on 15 September 2009 at 6.45 a.m. and lasted 12 hours. The weather turned out to be

Fig. 11. Concreting the superstructure

favourable and the air temperature ranged between 5 C in the morning and 20 C at noon. A temporary timber construction was built for concreting the superstructure, see Fig. 11. The surface treatment was carried out by spraying an evaporative protection. Two days after concreting, the tensioning was carried out with 25 % of the full prestressing force. The full prestressing force was applied 13 days after concreting. The tensioning process always started with the transverse tendons. After completing the stressing operations, the grouting of the ducts was carried out with cement mortar. The concentric compressive stress applied in the longitudinal direction amounted to 8.0 N/mm2, and 5.0 N/mm2 in the transverse direction. Striking of the bridge formwork began one month after concreting had finished. The deformation of the structure due to self-weight amounted to 4.0 mm in the centre,

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J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

The impedance between the strands and the steel reinforcing bars is measured. As there is no reinforcing steel located in the structure, an additional stainless steel reinforcing bar was installed to take measurements. For the Egg-Graben Bridge, five measurements have been carried out so far. On average, the length-normalized electrical resistance amounts to Rl,mean = 7500 km (Rl,min = 6800 km, Rl,max = 10 000 km). Fluctuations in the results are due to changing environmental conditions such as humidity, rainfall, temperature or season. The value requested by the client was set at Rl,reqd > 300 km (= high electrical insulation). The very high values measured are due to the tightness of the plastic ducts. An EIT measuring box has been installed so that it is possible to carry out further measurements in the future.

Fig. 12. View of underside of bridge Pez Hejduk:


Fig. 13. View of finished bridge Pez Hejduk:

Prestressed concrete bridges without steel reinforcement are well in accord with the requirements with regard to serviceability and ultimate limit states. The durability of the bridge depends only on the durability of the concrete when corrosion of the reinforcement is prevented. No additional steel reinforcement is necessary for prestressed bridges with bonded tendons completely encapsulated in plastic ducts. The tendons are well protected and therefore not susceptible to corrosion. This idea is a new perspective regarding the construction of durable bridges and is applicable for small and medium-sized bridges. It took several years of research work at the Institute for Structural Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, with the aim of improving the durability of concrete structures. The approach of building concrete structures without reinforcing steel susceptible to corrosion has been found in the course of the research project and has proved effective. The feasibility of the technology was proved in extensive experimental studies and numerical simulations. Together with a client interested in innovation, the method could be applied for the first time for the construction of the Egg-Graben Bridge.

and thus complied with the calculated deformation. The completed bridge is shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The cost of the bridge amounted to 1,063,304.00 incl. 20 % VAT. This represents a price of 2,209/m2 bridge superstructure.

The field tests were performed within a research project which is funded by: sterreichische Forschungsfrderungsgesellschaft mbH (FFG) Vereinigung der sterreichischen Zementindustrie (VZ) Bundesministerium fr Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT) Land Salzburg, Abteilung 6, Landesbaudirektion, 6/23 Brckenbau Autobahnen- und Schnellstrassen-Finanzierungs-Aktiengesellschaft (ASFINAG) BB Infrastruktur Bau AG, ES-Brckenbau und konstruktiver Ingenieurbau ALPINE Bau GmbH STRABAG AG, Sparte Hoch- und Ingenieurbau Holcim (Wien) GmbH Their support is gratefully acknowledged.


Electrically isolated tendons

The post-tensioning kit used allowed the longitudinal tendons to be run electrically isolated. Using a system with compatible plastic ducts and an anchor with plastic ducts provides an opportunity for non-destructive monitoring of corrosion protection of tendons by measuring the electrical resistance [10]. The use of electrically isolated tendons permits checking of the electrical insulation and the tightness of plastic ducts, and thus facilitates measurements with regard to the condition of a tendon during its entire service life. A decrease in the resistance indicates the ingress of moisture into the duct. This therefore amounts to monitoring the corrosion protection of the prestressing steel.


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J. Berger/S. Bruschetini-Ambro/J. Kollegger An innovative design concept for improving the durability of concrete bridges

1. Illich, G.: Versuche an statisch unbestimmt gelagerten Plattenstreifen ohne Bewehrung aus Betonstahl. Master thesis, Vienna University of Technology, E212-2, 2008. 2. NORM EN 1992-1-1. Eurocode 2.: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton und Spannbetontragwerken, Teil 11: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln fr den Hochbau, Nov 2005. 3. NORM EN 1992-2 Eurocode 2.: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton und Spannbetontragwerken, Teil 2: Betonbrcken- Bemessungs- und Konstruktionsregeln, Sept 2007. 4. Eidgenssische Materialprfungs- und Versuchsanstalt fr Industrie, Bauwesen und Gewerbe Zrich.: Versuche und Erfahrungen an ausgefhrten Eisenbeton- Bauwerken in der Schweiz 1924-1937, Beilage zum XXVI. Jahresbericht des Vereins schweizerischer Zement-, Kalk- und Gips- Fabrikanten, 1937. 5. Ambro, S. Z.: Betontragwerke ohne Bewehrung aus Betonstahl. PhD thesis, Vienna University of Technology, E212-2, 2008. 6. NORM EN 1991-2, Eurocode 1.: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke; Teil 2: Verkehrslasten auf Brcken, Aug 2004. 7. Nrnberger, U.: Korrosion und Korrosionsschutz im Bauwesen. Wiesbaden, Bau-Verlag, ISBN 3-7625-3199-4. 8. European Technical Approval ETA 06/0006.: VSL Post-Tensioning System, Post-Tensioning Kits for Prestressing of Structures, Jul 2006. 9. NORM B 4710.: Beton Teil 1: Festlegung, Herstellung, Verwendung und Konformittsnachweis (Regeln zur Umsetzung der NORM EN 206-1), Oct 2007. 10. Elsener, B.: Monitoring of electrically isolated post-tensioning tendons, Tailor-Made Concrete Structures Walraven & Stoelhorst, Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2008.

Johannes Berger, Dipl.-Ing. Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Structural Engineering Karlsplatz 13/212-2 1040 Vienna Tel.: +43-1-58801/21256 Fax: +43-1-58801/21299

Sebastian Zoran Bruschetini-Ambro, Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. formerly: Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Structural Engineering Karlsplatz 13/212-2 1040 Vienna currently: Strabag AG, Wien

Johann Kollegger, O. Univ. Prof., Dipl.-Ing., Dr.-Ing., M.Eng. Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Structural Engineering Karlsplatz 13/212-2 1040 Vienna Tel.: +43-1-58801/21202 Fax: +43-1-58801/21299

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