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Culture Journal [VOLUME VI]

ISSN: 2241-1720
Registered in the International Catalogue -Publications Series in Paris VOLUME VI MAY 2013

The scientific journal for culture and education

Contact: mail@culturejournal.net EDITORIAL BOARD


Editor: Alexandros Argyriadis Members: Alexandros Argyriadis Agathi Argyriadis Christin Coumadorakis Alex babalis Alex Tsallos Symeon Nikolidakis Steve Stand
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INDEX
Racism and Otherness: Theoretical approaches on the Modern society Fragou Iliana 3

The code of honor and shame through the portrait of the hero in Greek and Turkish literatures Stella Papakonstantinou 16

Cooperative actions within the learning framework on the basis of projects in the subject of Biology in the 1st Lyceum grade Babou, D 32

Narrative study- A way to interpret social change Gouvalas Athanasios 45

Aristotle Fragos: Works and analyses from the collection Cycle of undefined range Nikolidakis Symeon, Sissas Konstantinos 55

Folk songs: educational history and policy and school books Antonopoulou Aggeliki 62

Instructions for authors

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Racism and Otherness: Theoretical approaches on the Modern society


Fragou Iliana, German Teacher researcher on Ethics, mausel20@hotmail.com

Abstract Racism and racist behavior, their association with the other, their definitions and traits are the subject matter of the present paper. An attempt is made to investigate what otherness refers to, namely people of different skin color, religious, linguistic and cultural origin. Besides, racism is thoroughly analyzed in all its dimensions and on the basis of prejudice and stereotypes so that the potential source of this growing social problem is better located and the corresponding approaches conducive to bridging the gap between natives and foreigners are investigated. Reference is also made to the state responsibilities regarding institutions that contribute to social discriminations. The concept of multiculturalism is also scrutinized basically in terms of racism and its relation to the school reality and, more specifically, the relationship between native and foreign students, the educational means and topics available and the opportunities offered. Finally, reference is made to the antiracist model of education and its contribution to projecting equality, pursuing justice and liberating all students from prejudice and stereotypes. The implementation of this procedure aims at the shrinking of this problem and the foreigners integration into society.

Key words: equality, institutions, justice, multicultural, prejudice, stereotype.

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

GENERAL REFERENCE TO RACISM

Etymologically speaking, the word racism comes from the Spanish word raza and the Portuguese raca dated back in 13th century. A general definition of what racism is would be formulated as follows: a malignant system of prejudice and stereotypes according to which a race is deemed superior to the other ones (Trilianos, 2006). Nowadays, this phenomenon is particularly stressed while there is the realization that racism has many fans and, correspondingly, receivers victims. The racism system and its beliefs, when in function, are conducive to justifying and vindicating the superiority of a social group to the others (Colley, 2005).

Many times, discontent about a person becomes its stigma with a characterization or, even more common, abhorrence and indifference towards this person has been revealed. Perhaps, Skouteri is masterfully wondering, in her book, about discriminations that racism, eventually, and maybe (unwillingly) associates people with each other (Skouteri & Didaskalou, 2003). Even though it is an overly realization it is well enough conducive to serious thinking about what are all those elements that, according to human belief, make people differ from the others and should make them superior. Or, the connotation that the real problem is not the stranger but our self is perhaps formed by all those outbursts and hostile tensions. Whether this is true or not, racism has been and still is a major social issue proved to remain unsolved.

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1.2

DEFINITON

OF

THE

TERMS

OTHERNESS

AND

RACISM AS WELL AS THEIR PARTIAL TRAITS

Nowadays, there is a multitude of definitions referring to what otherness is. Some of them are hereby cited to end up to the conclusion that all people, generally speaking, refer to diversity. Otherness is the lack of similarity per species, position, class etc (Kyridi-Andreou, 2005). Otherness is related to the exclusion from the -inner circle- due to diversity (Chrysochoou, 2005). The question lays in who is the other posing a priori categorizations and criteria which are used as a means to compare and classify the other. A number of recognition mechanisms follow related to how the stranger (Papataxiarhis, 2006) can be tolerable both on social and political level. It is very often the case, though, that this cultural otherness becomes the subject of indifference and disdain from the dominating groups against minorities, especially when this cultural difference is potentially deemed a threat.

Otherness is distinguished in the following partial traits: a) Social otherness (Kyriakidi & Andreou, 2005): it is related to the marginalizing culture against nationalistic minorities, b) Universal otherness (Kyriakakis & Michailidou, 2005): it is given by discourse utterance, especially words, setting, in this manner, the limits of discrimination between us and the others and c) Cultural otherness: it refers to the differences of power and forms of the non dominating culture. Such differences are: national and nationalistic, religious and linguistic (Gotovos, 2002). By the term racism what is meant is a combination of perceptions, stances and behaviors enforcing the weak and minority people to a subject living only
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because they belong to a distinct set of people (Tsiakalou, 2002). As a result, they are excluded from the partial social groups and public occupations.

It is noteworthy that racism has many different forms and is not confined only to one theory or doctrine. Some of the basic racist traits are as follow: a) Stereotype, b) Prejudice, c) Bias is about the unpropitious stance and behavior, against individuals or a group, which is not based on experience critically investigated, d) Sexism (Vernikos & Daskalopoulou, 2002) refers to lurking discriminations against women and individuals of homosexual preferences, e) Racism stems from the race discrimination policy, f) Xenophobia is activated by the prejudiced fear about the unknown stranger (Kyridi Andreou, 2005) and g) Minority are called those groups of individuals associated with each other in terms of origin, beliefs or behaviors.

1.2.2 PARTIAL FORMS OF RACISM

Taking into account all the aforementioned, it is well understood that racism is the outcome not only of racist perceptions but of erroneous generalized stances about individuals deemed different due to religion, skin color or other divergences from the common model. Afterwards, racism is categorized in the following partial forms: a) Institutionalized racism forms the most powerful form of racism, as it is enforced by the state authority. Negative perceptions and stances both on individual and social level are primarily supported and reinforced by the state. The case of the Eastern European countries Romas is characteristic (Tsiakalou, 2002), b) Phobic racism Xenophobia is hatched within coercive, usually family, environments where the weak members are called to obey the coercive father. Such emotions of submission which are manifested either through hatred or love expressions are then conducive to disdain of the other and strengthening of the I (Govaris, 2001), c) School exclusion (Evangelou & Kantzou, 2005) exists within school as a proof that the educational environment is not sometimes culturally neutral in terms of its teaching orientation and, therefore, seems to refuse to change the school menu (Zoniou-Sideri & Charamis, 1997). Thus, special groups of students are
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excluded from the educational system resulting in their school failure or even their refusal for further school attendance, d) Social racism (Ucar, 1996) distinguishes people in superior inferior, in clear miasmatic etc. depended on their social group. Such social discriminations are an everyday phenomenon in European countries where the idea of the salad bowl (Govaris, 2001) prevails and e) Cultural racism is a form of racism generated by the members of society on the basis of specific social patterns and stereotypes being informative, in advance, about the stances and roles of each gender. Such roles are indicatively the womans role in society as the second gender as well as the in-gender sexual patterns rejecting both heterosexuality and homosexuality (Vernikos & Daskalopoulou, 2002).

The above definitions about racism are conducive to the realization that racism always presupposes some form of power or authority resulting in the subject living of the weak group at the expense of which negative measures or negative behaviors have been institutionalized.

1.2.3 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RACIST BEHAVIOR

Racism is not one and, definitely, not unified. Nevertheless, it is determined and partially set into limits by same basic characteristics. The base of racism, as it has already been mentioned, is prejudice and stereotypes against the diversity of the other and more specifically in peoples multicolor skin. The racist is aware of and perceives the differences among civilizations; however, none of them worth comparing to his own one. The superiority and supremacy of his civilization and race are set as a rule while xenophobia and nationcentralism are, then, cultivated by the individual. Xenophobia is the outcome of an unreal speculation and mistrust towards the stranger and it is manifested through negative behavior against the minority. On the other hand, nationcentralism is mainly based on the projection only of the individuals race culture civilization.

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Moreover, individuals ruled by excessive, incalculable and fanatic behaviors are presented with obsessions about a hostile environment (Tsiakalou, 2002). It is deemed that minorities are supported by hostile emotions and tend to be harmful against them. Another basic characteristic of racist behavior is the individuals exclusion from public high offices or social occupations due to their sexual preferences and peculiarities. These individuals are the stigma of society and, therefore, are not in favor of its goods and benefits. In addition, linguistic racism is another trait of racist tendency. Through language, disapproval and derision against the minority individual is expressed through the articulation of poignant comments about its social background and the ridicule of its perceptions and beliefs. Finally, intimidation or blackmailing (Trilianos, 2006) is inherent racist behavior, therefore, worth mentioning. By the term intimidation, reference is made to the repetitive and unprovoked harassment at the expense of the weak entity who finds it difficult to defend itself. Intimidation blackmailing is manifested in various forms. These manifestations may include psychological violence, sexual harassment, corporal violence and economic exploitation (Unicef).

To face similar behaviors, the implementation of an antiracist policy is required on all institutional, social and educational levels. Thus, the prerequisite of systematic information of its members about the peculiarities and differences of the guests aiming at the even co-existence and development of both groups is also formed.

2.

PREJUDICE

AND

STEREOTYPES:

CONCEPTUAL

APPROACH

Modern societies are multicultural as a great variety of national, linguistic, religious and cultural groups co-exist within them. Therefore, it is about the well-known melting pot (Chrisochoou, 2005) in which the society is invited to secure prosperity of freedom and equality for individuals from all groups. But this is often conducive to negative stances namely prejudice against
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individuals of different groups resulting in the generation of a negative atmosphere between natives and foreigners. A conceptual approach about what prejudice is would be formulated as follows:

Prejudice is the negative perception and view towards a particular person or a particular group without being based on reality (Govaris, 2001).

Prejudice may be conducive to racism by supporting it through these two additional traits. The first trait is the power and the possibility to use it at the expense of the target of prejudice and the second one is related to the prejudiced individuals frame of mind as well as their power to behave in a racist manner (Tsiakalou, 2002).

In contrast to prejudice, stereotypes appear to be the outcome of rendering supposed characteristics of a group to its single members. In particular:

A stereotype is an excessive belief, indissolubly associated with the tendency for categorization, aiming at the justification of our behavior in relation to the procedure of categorization (Evangelou & Kantzou, 2005).

Therefore, the bases to cultivate prejudice, underlining, in this manner, that the communication among individuals is blocked and becomes unfeasible is formed by the stereotypical thinking in co-ordination to the unsociable categorization and negative emotions.

3. RACISM IN THE MULTICULTURAL SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT

Before analyzing racism within the school framework, it would be a good idea to clarify the definition of multiculturalism as well as its origin towards the school environment.

By the term multiculturalism, reference is made to the phenomenon of social pluralism (Govaris, 2001). This definition, however, acquires a dual dimension within school. As a result, the school is invited, on the one hand, to attune this
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nationalistic multitude and, on the other hand, to prepare these national groups on all social, political and economic levels making them able to confront problems such as democracy, racism, sexism and equality.

The consideration on the creation of a multicultural school commenced in the early 70s (Nikolaou, 2000) based on a program carried out by the National Foundation for Educational Research (Zoniou Sideri & Charamis, 1997) and was primarily supported by the English government with the publication of the Green Book in 1977, Education at Schools.

Schools are considered to be a determinant factor in the formulation of student behavior and, as a result, the native students respect towards their foreign peers should be promoted and any form of racism or prejudice should be repressed. It is suggested that a number of common procedures and stances conducive to a prejudiced disposal against the cultural multi-coloring should be avoided. Therefore, the aims of multicultural education are as follow: a) The cultivation and development of the basic human abilities such as critical thinking, imagination, self-criticism, self-respect so that the student is able to live a life free of prejudice, stereotypes and doctrines in the future, b) The objective is the emotional identification and approach of human beings of different cultural origin, by cultivating intellectual and moral virtues such as respect, love, openness to the world, healthy thinking and objectivity and c) Teaching languages, civilization, history, geography and religions to students by shifting the interest in the culture of the entire humanity and not only in theirs is pursued. Through the acquisition of full-scale knowledge, equal opportunities are experienced by the student in order to succeed in his future studies (Trilianos, 2006).

Taking into account the aforementioned and wishing to achieve the best possible for tomorrows children, teachers ought to be specifically careful in order to avoid racist phenomena in the school environment. Similar racist phenomena are observed even today and have the following forms: a) Natives racist behaviors which are left unpunished, b) Indifference to complains generated by students experiencing racism, c) Imposition of more severe
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disciplinary measures to foreign students, d) Minority students mother tongue banning at school and their coercing in participating in activities contrary to their culture and religion and e) Parents with different cultural background are discouraged to participate in school activities as well as in parents associations due to the lacking translation services for a more effective communication with the natives (Evangelou & Kantzou, 2005).

To end up, the drafting of an education of a more solid knowledge base should be carried out not to wink at each students needs but to respect him and encourage him to set high values and objectives.

4.

THE ANTIRACIST MODEL OF EDUCATION

The antiracist model was developed in the mid 80s, mainly in England and USA. Despite the former reference to the educational dimension of the multicultural school environment, the antiracist model is here to bridge the gap in relation to the multicultural model. Although concentration more on the individual stances rather than the social power was made by the latter, the antiracist model has now been invited to highlight the social institutions and set new structures in education. Thus, its interest is shifted to three basic objectives (Nikolaou, 2000): a) To project equality in education for all children irrelevant from their racial origin, through the abolition of educational systems existing in favor of inequality, b) To pursue justice for all by offering equal opportunities both on developmental and social levels and c) To emancipate and liberate not only the natives but the foreign students, too, from racist models.

To materialize the above objectives, a series of radical changes in the school Curricula, creating, thus, a healthy school environment free from discriminations and prejudice should be achieved. Such a program should form the base of selecting cognitive experiences on the following four basic pivots: a) The selection of the teaching material should reflect its internationalmultiform perspective, b) It should transmit accurate information about racial
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and cultural similarities and differences, c) It should equally address minority groups members as individuals with the various forms of their traits and d) Prestige should be rendered to the nations multiform while the description should be made under their terms and with characterizations of the reception country.

To sum up, the School Program should respect the national diversity, the minority groups mother tongue and the expectations both from parents and children. A specific and unifying code of antiracist behavior as well as a direct system of settling any racist outbursts should also be available. The welltrained educators-teachers could contribute to combat such situations through appropriate strategies and various role games by assisting the students in realizing what is wrong in the small school society. Students are supported in preserving a mutual respect among each other by all classroom organization, educational means and topics interchange. Finally, supporting minority students and their parents through personal sessions and encouragement to get involved with various school events is a preparation for their further development and socialization.

5.

CONCLUSIONS

On the occasion of the major social problem of racism as well as its partial traits, the conclusion that the need for multicultural information and education forms the central pivot and top priority in our pluralistic world is drawn. People are still being encouraged by fear and prejudice stereotypes, in combination to unawareness, to manifest hostile behaviors and intolerant thoughts against the others, the foreign people. The youth, being societys future, ought to be encircled by broad notions of cultural diversity and should project respect for the multiform population. Any differences and peculiarities among them and their peers should be recognized and embraced both within the framework of a healthy dialogue and in a more general and friendly communication. It should
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be perceived by everyone that hospitality, spread around as a Greeks characteristic, does not form a haphazard expression but it is the confirmation of the real proof in everyday life. Hostility and detachment should be replaced by respect and sympathy as human needs form the major objective for all human beings irrelevant from color, sexual or religious preference or cultural origin. It is a proof that, genetically speaking, people are almost similar among each other and that there is one and only origin for all modern human races. It is therefore unintelligent trying to set the frames and barriers when everything around is so fluid and uncertain. This is even more evident nowadays when institutions and values collapse while people should stand up to it should this expression be allowed to confirm and prove their human origin by applying the saying love thy neighbor as you love yourself.

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Bibliography , . & , . (2002). : . : , . (2001). . : , . . (2002). . : Colley, JP. (2005). . : , . & , . (2005). . : , . & , . (1997). : - . : , . & , . [.] (2005). . , , . : , . & , . [] (2005). . : Gutenberg . (2000). . . : , . [.](2006). :

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(2003).

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: University Studio Press , . [.] (2006). . :


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, . (2002). . : Ucar, A. (1996). Auslndische Kinder in der Deutschen Sonderschule. : Schneider Verlag Hohengehren Gmbtt , . (2005). : . :

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THE CODE OF HONOR AND SHAME THROUGH THE PORTRAIT OF THE HERO IN GREEK AND TURKISH LITERATURES

Stella Papakonstantinou- Scholar in Social Anthropology & International Relations LSE & SOAS Alumni

ABSTRACT

My initial intentions concerning the present discussion had been to make a comparative examination on ethnic stereotypes as these were present in texts of the Greek and Turkish literatures. However, after intense research on the field for many months, I became acquainted with the code of honor and shame, which provided me with a number of other observations between the two countries. Therefore I decided that it would be much more interesting to compare and contrast the concepts of honor and shame as a whole instead of limiting the discussion to a mere ethnocentric dimension.
By unfolding the complicated code of honor and shame I was fascinated by the elements it encompasses which under no circumstances were exhausted in the present discussion and which went beyond my limited perception on cultural affairs at the time. Through the lens of Social Anthropology I was able to understand the way the code was manifested through gender roles, ethnic stereotypes, heroic actions and honorable deaths in the portrayal of the literary characters under examination. The most important observation was that the code of honor and shame is chameleon-like: It takes its coloration from a substratum of social exchange and ethics which is culturally specific (Gilmore, 1987, p.100).

Key words: honour, shame, masculinity, honourable death, social setting, epic hero, heroism, social justice.

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Introduction The issue of honour and shame was first raised in the late 1950s by a group of Social Anthropologists such as John Peristiany, Julian Pitt-Rivers, Julio Caro Baroja, Michael Herzfeld and others in a cross-cultural attempt to reveal the continuity and persistence of Mediterranean modes of thought (Peristiany, 1965, p. 9). They conducted fieldwork in many communities in the Mediterranean and were primarily concerned with the concepts of honour and shame as social evaluations around which personhood, social status and gender relations were constructed. Their observations motivated me to examine the concept of honour and shame on a comparative basis between Greek and Turkish literature as a means of comparing and contrasting notions around which the construction of masculinity and the super hero revolved. Therefore, the present essay is an attempt to shed some light into the highly complicated concepts of honour and shame, as they are present in Greek and Turkish literary texts. The subject of literature is treated in this paper as a means of understanding the values of Greek and Turkish societies under examination. According to Fernando Poyatos, literature is a rich source of documentation about a culture because it is through literature that the writer transmits signs of communication to a wider public (Poyatos, 1988, p.p.13-14). My choice of literary works is confined to three writers, two from Modern Greek literature and one from the Turkish literary field. From the Greek side, I chose Stratis Myrivilis and Elias Venezis because both of them were born in areas were the Greek and Turkish elements coexisted for a number of years prior to the evacuation of Smyrna in 1922. Stratis Myrivilis was born and raised in the island of Lesbos and Elias Venezis, in Aivalik in Asia Minor. Yaar Kemal was born and raised in a small village in the area of ukurova in South-East Turkey, where there was not a case of such coexistence between the two ethnic communities. Nevertheless his topics are similar to those present in both Myrivilis and Venezis works and there are many similarities between them. These common themes and also an inspiration drawn from the oral folklore tradition from their respective countries made me place these three authors together in a comparison. The texts that I chose as a representative sample of an attempt to analyze the code of honor and shame are Stratis Myrivilis Vasilis Arvanitis, Elias Venezis Aioloki Ghe and Yaar Kemals Memed My Hawk. Also, I should say here that the quotations from the Greek texts presented in this discussion are my own translation and there was an effort to keep them as close as possible to the original meaning.

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The focal point of my analysis in the present discussion is the code of honour and shame as represented by the epic hero who personifies this code in its most ideal and pure form. I have chosen the defense of the weaker members of the society by the epic hero as the best way of illustrating the way the code of honour and shame operates. Furthermore, the discussion includes a core element, that of honourable death as a means to analyse an honourably led life. It is not only the kind of life they lead but it is also the way they choose to die which renders them honourable instead of shameful.

CHAPTER I

On the Code of Honour

Every society has its own rules of conduct, which safeguard the social order and the proper function of its institutions. The code of honour and shame belongs to the sphere of customary laws, which are equally important along with the formal laws- since people are called to abide by them. According to John Peristiany honour and shame are social evaluations (Peristiany,1965, p. 9). They are a system of social values and ideals by which both the private but also the public performance of individuals can be evaluated as members of a given society. It is the restless eyes of public opinion, which constitute this code operable and valid and individuals have to conform to it. This idea was also put forward by Pierre Bourdieu who argued that honour is the basis of the moral code of an individual who sees himself always through the eyes of others, who has need of others of his existence, because the image he has of him is indistinguishable from that presented to him by others (Bourdieu, 1965, p.211). Thus, within the system of honour, the individual is placed at the centre of the frame and a whole network of relationships extends to every aspect of his/her social conduct. On the individual level, the code of honour encompasses a right to status which is established through the recognition of a certain social identity (Pitt-Rivers: 1966: 22). This observation brings us closer to more practical interpretations of the code of honour. The formation of a social identity depends on an individuals actions in acc ordance with the moral values of society and its claim to command what is right and what is wrong (PittRivers, 1965, p. 22). In other words, it is the way a person acts and what he/she represents in a society through these actions, which establishes his/her social standing. Moreover, it can be Culture Journal - May 2013 18

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argued that the code of honour and shame encompasses also the moral values of a society, which have to be respected and put into practice by its members. Both sexes claim acknowledgement of their honourable behaviour. However, in the present discussion we are mostly concerned with mens honour and especially, though not exclusively, with the model of the hero who claims the ultimate honourable acknowledgment since he is supposed to encompass the code of honour in its most ideal form. The right to status -as manifested by a mans actions and the kind of person he aspires to be- has different meanings for men belonging into different groups within the same community. As Freud has correctly argued masculinity has to be earned (cited Gilmore, 1987, p.17).

A way by which masculinity and status is gained is when a man displays honesty in his dealings and contacts with other men. The keeping of ones promises, the paying of owing dues in money or in labour on time are supposed to be highly valuable characteristics of a person. They render his word valid and this is a very important evaluation of an honourable man. Also, a man can gain social recognition and status through his work and the contribution that he makes to society, so, skill in a craft or a particular job is equally important. In our study, the people who have the courage and skill to become smugglers gain most of the respect because being a smuggler is considered to be a dangerous affair. Being able to overcome danger without being killed is an honourable act in itself because it is masculine. This brings us closer to the observation that an aspect of honour is the self-discipline of men over cowardice. As a head of a family and/or a member of a lineage a man is supposed to be the guarantor and the defender of his land, womenfolk and livestock. Thus, there is a stress on the importance of strength, both physical and psychological, in the face of danger. The man who is able to defend himself and his family and/or lineage immediately earns respect and a good reputation in the social community into which he belongs. Respect and a good reputation are both evaluations and measurements of honour. Of course, the people who cultivate the land and produce the years wheat and are honest in their dealings with other people are respected as well. Regardless of his individual actions, a man also reflects the status of the family/lineage/tribe into which he belongs. The lineage status can be measured in various ways. The most important indicator is the lineages size in terms of the number of its members. Another important factor is its wealth which is translated as
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land and livestock. The groups ability to defend all these things is in turn an honourable act. The fact that a man is not only judged by his individual behaviour and actions but also through his membership of a wider whole such a lineage, also reveals the existence of a collective code of honour and shame.

On the Code of Shame The concept of honour requires some specific qualities on the part of the male members of a community and through them, directs the men to a prescribed mode of personal and public behaviour. Men try to put in practice all these ideals through their actions but there exists a danger of failing in the task to earn their masculinity and be rendered shameful in the eyes of society.
Shame is the complementary evaluation to honor and has the power to deprive a man from his social status and standing in the community. Shame poses a challenge to all the values we have discussed so far. If a man neglects his duties towards his kin and especially if he does not defend land and livestock, he is dishonored. It is also a mans responsibility to defend the weak and help the needy firstly of his lineage and then of the wider community. Success in doing so brings him honor and status but failure to do so brings about humiliation and shame. Also, when a man is not honest with his dealings with other people and has a deceitful behavior against them, he is perceived to be dishonorable by the other members of the group. However, according to Michael Herzfeld, treacherous and cunning behaviour is only forgiven if it is for the defence and the furthering of the interests of his family (Herzfeld, 1985, p.16). It is again both individual and collective status and honour, which are endangered since a mans actions are not restricted to himself but affect the whole of his surrounding including relatives and friends. Therefore, one can argue that honour and shame are reciprocal moral values representing primordial integration of individual to group (Gilmore, 1987, p.2). Society forms the ideals and the moral values into which the individual has to conform to. If they are worth of its esteem and praise it rewards them with an honourable label. Otherwise, society diminishes them to shameful members who are incapable of defending land, womenfolk and kin.

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CHAPTER II:

The Social Setting

The code of honour and shame is intrinsically connected with the community into which the people belong and it is this community, which evaluates the claim of a mans right to pride, social status and honour or dishonour. According to Jane Schneider, the Mediterranean honour and shame code originated historically in a political and economic system where small atomistic kinship units competed over scarce resources in the absence of a centralised and effective state control (Schneider, 1971, p.24). In that system of economic and institutional poverty, male honour became an extremely valuable part of every familys public image. The institutional and political aspect is very important in this case since, in societies with the absence of an efficient political authority and state control, people had to take the law in their hands in order to be protected. In many cases they also had to reside with a powerful head of a family or a lineage that provided, cared and protected them. It is therefore the rural areas, which provided a fertile ground for observations about these values. Because of the fact that village settlements were closed systems, the code of honour and shame could operate more easily. Based on the fact that community members know each other, social control in the form of gossip is much more effective. In such a setting we become acquainted with the characters of the three writers under examination in this paper. Yaar Kemal, Stratis Myrivilis and Elias Venezis have a very important characteristic in common when it comes to compare their works. All three come from rural areas of their respective countries and they choose to place their stories in settings outside big urban centres. The area of ukurova in the case of Yaar Kemal, the island of Lesbos in the case of Myrivilis and the small village in Asia Minor in the case of Venezis are all located in the periphery and quite far away from urban developments. It is in these rural peripheral settings that the code of honour is preserved since it is connected with a traditional way of life. Rural areas also provide interesting observations on social, political and economic circumstances, which exist through an unbearable inequality of wealth and power. These circumstances give rise to local heroes who instead of being seen as mere criminals
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they are viewed as symbols of freedom and justice by society. According to Eric Hobsbawm, it is in these societies with class divisions that social banditry takes place because it challenges those who hold or lay claim to power, law and the control of resources (Hobsbawm, 2000, p.8). Social banditry is important to keep in mind especially when examining certain actions of the characters when these try to restore order. It is also among bandits and smugglers, who live under constant danger, that the code of honour and shame is best depicted.

CHAPTER III:

The Construction of Manhood And The Defense of the Weak

The three characters under examination here, namely, Memed, Captain Pagidas and Vasilis have many things in common in the way they are presented by the respected writers. Through the lens of the code of honour and shame we can observe that all three of them are depicted as the ultimate heroes of their societies. They represent the ideals of masculinity through their respective personalities, and through the profession of smuggling, which is by itself an element by which stereotypes about masculinity can be measured. In Memed My Hawk, Yaar Kemal depicts the troubles of a young boy who becomes a man under circumstances of extreme economic poverty. The first seeds of social banditry as observed by Eric Hobsbawm can be applied to young Memed who is the ultimate victim. He is only an orphan child when he is firstly mistreated by the rich and cruel Abdi Agha and even when he grows up, his relationship to Hate is jeopardized again by the Agha who seems to rule the peasants lives. However, it is also quite early that we can see that Memed is different from his co-villagers since he dares to escape being a child and dares to do it for the second
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time with even more odd chances to survive. He wants to take his life in his hands. This can be a first sign of his genuine manhood since he has to survive outside of the village setting in order not to be caught for attempting to kill the Agha. He thus finds refuge in Sleymans home who takes him to Deli Durdus band in the mountains to rescue him. On the mountain he not only has to prove that he is able to survive but he also has to differentiate himself from the kind of person that Deli Durdu is. He is thus introduced to the code of honour and shame by Sleyman. According to the latters judgment, Deli Durdu is not a trustworthy man: All the villagers complained bitterly about him. No one could travel safely on the roads. If he caught anyone he would strip him naked of all his possessions, taking even his underclothing. Durdu heeded neither friendship nor relatives and Sleyman hesitated to entrust Memed to his care (Kemal, 1961, p.98). Thus, we see that Deli Durdu is far from being respected by the villagers because of his dishonorable style of banditry. He neither honours his friendships nor his blood relations. Moreover, Sleyman tells him: Youve made brigandage a disgraceful profession, Only a few more years and Ill become rich, replies Deli Durdu, Must I tell you why you took to the mountain? Just to show off (Kemal,1961, p.101), is the sharp answer of Sleyman. In other words, Deli Durdu is a disgrace to the profession of brigandage which is supposed to be one of the most honorable professions for true men of altrouism. Durdu only wants to be rich and also to show off. In contrast to him, Memed has to prove that he is a honorable man. Sleyman advises him: You must behave with dignity If you ever kill an innocent man or one who has never done much harm, or if you kill for money, you wont escape me. However, if you meet a hundred Abdi Aghas kill them all (Kemal, 1961, p. 99). In other words, a true man can never inflict harm to an innocent person or kill for money since then he will only be considered a shameful thief. On the other hand, in the case of someone who is cruel, unjust, and is harmful to a lot of people such as Abdi Agha, an honourable person like Memed should not hesitate killing him. Moreover, an honorable man should defend the weak and protect those in need. In an event where, Kerimoghlou, the chief of the nomads is being robbed by Durdu, Memed defends him by going against his leader and breaks away from Durdus band. The chief had previously sheltered and fed Memed and his companion
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Jabbar when they were wounded in a battle with another band. In the beginning, when Durdu humiliates him by wanting to strip him naked, Memed was ashamed and avoided Kerimoghlous gaze (Kemal, 1961, p.152). However, his integrity and honour prevails and does not leave Durdu unpunished. He challenges his authority in front of his men and thus shames him. The defense of the weak is a very important element of the code of honour and the man in power such as the bandit always has to protect and provide for such people. It is not only the poor laborers and the ones in need but also the mentally disturbed who deserve respect and protection. In the novel of Elias Venezis entitled Aeoliki Ghe, the smuggler hero, Captain Pagidas defends the mad outcast Stefanos. Stefanos is the madman of the village since he has an obsession to construct a clock, which would tic endlessly. One night, he happens to pass by the tavern where Captain Pagidas and his men drink. Pagidas asks Stefanos to show him the way the clock works and in the meantime one of his men sets Stefanos on fire so that the other men can laugh and humiliate him. However, this is not within the intentions of Captain Pagidas who when he sees the fire: stands up and pulls the laughing crowd away. He kneels and firmly grasps the madmans feet, his trousers, so that the flames could be put off (Venezis, 1994, p.101). After he makes sure that poor Stefanos is fine, he shouts: Whos the dog that did this? (Venezis, 1994, p. 102). Every one of Pagidas men looked at him straight in the eyes. The only one who did not was Miltiadis, the barber who: kept his head low. He was a petty man, a coward. Wherever there was a smugglers feast, he always showed up ready to do the most humiliating deeds in order to please the mighty. Thinking that he would please Captain Pagidas he set Stefanos on fire (Venezis, 1994, p.102). Captain Pagidas is enraged and beats Miltiadis up for teasing and humiliating a defenseless creature like Stefanos. What is more striking is the description of the last scene by the author whereby after he beats Miltiadis, Pagidas takes Stefanos by the hand in order to help him because he could barely walk and so: every one around them pulled away to make room. And in the silence imposed, everyone, the women, the smugglers and the street children, saw stunned, the two men of passion walking away hand in hand: the one who chased blood and death and the other who chased sounds (Venezis, 1994, p. 103).
This scene is very descriptive and transmits to the reader a whole range of emotions from anger and a sense of injustice when poor Stefanos is set on fire by Miltiadis- to feelings Culture Journal - May 2013 24

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of relief and social justice from the part of the mighty Captain Pagidas when he punishes Miltiadis. He also safeguards the honour of Stefanos and he shames Miltiadis by showing his disapproval and rage against the petty act that he committed. However, the scene ends with the bitter realization that both men are men of passion. In this case of course the Greek word pathos not only has a connotation of a passionate and impulsive personality but also of a man who suffers. These two people, both entrapped in their own madness suffer by chasing something that will be their end: blood and death in the case of Captain Pagidas and sounds in the case of Stefanos who becomes unstable from his obsession. One such case of a passionate hero is the case of Vasilis Arvanitis by Stratis Myrivilis who also defends the weak in the same way as the other two characters do. In the village where Vasilis lives, there is a rich and stingy butcher, named Sotiris Youtafos who takes advantage of all his workers and never pays them. One of them was a fifteen-year-old orphan boy called Zafiris. One day when Vasilis passes by Sotiris shop he sees the orphan boy -whom the butcher had tied on a ladder- upside down. Vasilis jumps in and with a supernatural strength sets the boy free (Myrivilis, 1978, p. 583). Meanwhile Sotiris watches everything but does not react. Vasilis comes then out of the shop and tells him: I will kill you if you dare harm the orphan boy again And smiles bitterly to the butcher (Myrivilis, 1978, p. 583). In this case, as in the previous ones, we have the same pattern of social justice, which lifts the hero Vasilis- in the eyes of his co-villagers as the supreme guarantor of safety and defence. It is not only justice claimed in the name of all the labourers whom Sotiris took advantage of, but also justice paid in the name of Zafiris who was Sotiris labourer but also a defenceless orphan. Sotiris comes to be humiliated in the eyes of the people whom he used to terrify. It is Vasilis who with his strength, skill, and his power- defends the weak boy but also goes against the authoritarian attitude of the butcher who being rich determines the fate of all the people who work for him. Being the most powerful person in the community who holds the status of the hero, he takes the part of the weak and imposes his right. However, not all three heroes are equally victimised by their respective societies. This element of victimisation is an important observation to be made about the characters because it has repercussions on the code of honour and shame. It is clear from the beginning of the story that Memed personifies the ultimate victim before becoming the ultimate hero. Being the victim of social injustice, he has to take responsibility for defending the honour and dignity on a twofold basis. As a human being against the rich and cruel Agha but also as a defender of a whole community whose blood is being sucked by a system, which takes advantage of human existence and labour. If Pagidas and Vasilis are victims, they are not such in the same way as Memed is. They are the victims of their own deeds and not of a

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society, which is based on such extreme social differentiation and polarisation in the way Yaar Kemal presents Memeds village in Anatolia. These three figures however, incarnate a code of honour, which is translated so far as the defense of the weak. Nevertheless, this action does take social dimensions in the case of Vasilis as well, where the butcher is punished for being rich and cruel. However, Vasilis does not have the same responsibility for an almost collective honour and shame as Memed does. Memed is seen as the product of a society based not on merit but on unequal distribution of wealth where the mass of the people live in extreme poverty with no alternative option. In other words, Yaar Kemal gives a merciless portrayal of peasant conditions in Turkey (Dino, 1986, p. 266). On the other hand class and social background in both Myrivilis and Venezis even though it is mentioned- is not their focus. Therefore, through the action of defending the weak, we can see the construction of the ideal man and also of the hero. These three characters incarnate the ideal code of honour in their respective societies and present a role model for their co-villagers.

An Egoistic Case of Honour and Shame: Vasilis Arvanitis

The depiction of the hero Vasilis by the Greek author Stratis Myrivilis reveals a different dimension of the masculine figure and the code of honour and shame. Many commentators -among which Pavlos Andronikos and Dimitris Tziovas- have analysed thoroughly the psychological state of both Vasilis and the narrator of the novella. These psychoanalytical insights however could divert us from the theme of honour and shame and that is why they are not going to be reviewed here. However, we need to look at Vasilis behaviour and attitudes in the way that affect a code of honour which slightly differs from the portrait of the hero we have been discussing so far.
Vasilis is different from both Memed and Captain Pagidas in the sense that on the one hand he combines an ideal form of masculinity but on the other he also has the childish characteristics of immaturity and stubbornness (Andronikos, 1985, p. 120). This unique combination is what makes Vasilis special. The narrator admits that it is difficult to categorise Vasilis under any label since he accepts that: There are different kinds of heroism and there are different kinds of heroes (Myrivilis, 1978, p. 561). Therefore, the specific hero is more Culture Journal - May 2013 26

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multi-dimensional from his two counterparts. Being always unpredictable and driven by a passionate existence, he challenges the authority of his father, the other men of the village setting, his enemies and even God. By killing a snake in the narrators house and by personifying the ultimate masculine figure through his love for war and women, he is admired and even envied by the entire village. This extreme admiration of the villages in raising Vasilis to almost a god-like figure and his self-awareness drive him to arrogant deeds that challenge the order of the social institutions. The contradictory image of the popular hero and the spoilt child (Tziovas, 2003, p. 145) is the means by which the author invites us to recognise that Vasilis cannot be integrated into his contemporary society. The code of honour and shame, by which he abides, is his own wishes and the way he perceives the world around him. According to the author himself, Vasilis has an unnecessary heroism, which is wasted in his surrounding that is not able to understand him. Aggressive and revengeful, narcissistic and stubborn, masculine and childish, Vasilis is beyond good and evil (Vitti, 1980, p. 120). That is what gives him more human dimensions in contrast to both Memed and Captain Pagidas who are seen as almost entirely good. Therefore, he is freer in his own peculiar way.

CHAPTER IV:

Dear Honourable Death The notions of honour and shame are not only present in the way a man chooses to live his life but also in the way he dies. It is the characters end, which proves whether they have led a truly honourable or shameful life. The ideal death for honourable men such as bandits and smugglers is to die in the heat of action because they do not want to face the decadence of old age. It is therefore shameful to die in bed and in the safety of the hearth. They would much rather die fully armed and having the illusion that they are able to fight with death himself. Moreover, it is also that their honourable reputation has to be transmitted to the generations to come. They are interested in what people will say about them after their death. Therefore, they have a responsibility of living but also dying in a masculine and honourable way. In the case of Memed, in the last battle with the gendarmes, he wants to surrender because his wife has given labour to a baby-son. However, Iraz, Hates cell-mate, who is with the couple, uncovers the mother and the child and with cruel
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words to the Captain of the gendarmes denotes him: Sergeant, do you think its you who made Memed surrender? She pulled the blanket away and exposed the baby. Heres who made Memed surrender. And you boast you are a man! (Kemal, 1961, p. 336). In other words, Memed would surrender and thus destroy his honour only in order to save his newborn baby and his wife. In the end, Memed does not die but looses everything. Hate dies in the battle, and he, being unable to keep the baby in the mountains, gives it to Iraz who is taking care of it in the place of her dead son, Riza. Memed, after solving his affairs of honour against Abdi Agha and restores social justice: galloped through the village like a cloud and was gone, lost to sight No news of Slim Memed was ever heard again (Kemal, 1961, p. 351). However, he becomes a legend and people gather each year and have a feast on his honour when they set the thistles into fire. It is their way of commemorating their own saint and saviour. He therefore succeeds in staying in popular memory by becoming a legend. In Aeoliki Ghe, Captain Pagidas has a very honourable death. He stays behind to defend the land of Asia Minor against the army which comes from Anatolia: He is going to fight with them and die. He cant do otherwise (Venezis, 1994, p. 306). He knows that he is going straight to his death. He refuses to run away from his fate, which is blood, war and death. He earned his honour by being a true man, and does not want to be ashamed by leaving as a coward. A different case of death is described in the case of Vasilis who commits the ultimate sin of hubris to God and receives nemesis. On Good Friday, when the Epitaph is circulating around the village, Vasilis enters the scene with a great sense of religious disrespect and halts the litany. Halt! Nobody passes by here. Not even God! That is my order. Take it away, go back! (Myrivilis, 1978, p. 599). He evacuates the street by scaring people away with his gun and remains all alone. On his way to his twin lovers house, he twists his leg and breaks it. Not being able to tolerate the idea that he would remain handicapped for the rest of his life, he commits suicide and ends his life. When, before the deed, the priest is called by the twins to exorcise the evil, he says that it is God who punished Vasilis for not letting the Epitaph pass by. Then, Vasilis, enraged by this cunningness of God says to the priest: If that is so, why did He not come and fight me like a man? Here, thats how true men fight each other (Myrivilis, 1978, p. 602). And he took his knife and stubbed it to his chest. Committing suicide is a grave sin by the Greek Orthodox religion and the priest
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refuses to bury him in the local cemetery. Then, Vasilis companions take their chief and in a litany, which reminds scenes from pagan rites, under the brutal sounds of the drums of war, burry him outside the Christian cemetery, in an upright position. This is the final act which confirms that Vasilis never belonged to his society; he could never be restricted to his contemporary rules of conduct. However, it was again his way of dying honourably through his choice and refusing to be humiliated towards himself and his community. Vasilis is a true tragic hero and for him suicide is the last act of heroism. Sacrificing himself is preferable than living a shameful life.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

In the present examination, I have tried to encompass the dimensions of honour and shame and explain the coherence of the whole concept and the relation betwen its different meanings as these are apparent in the Greek and Turkish literary texts. To pull all threads together, therefore, we need to reach the various sets of conclusions about this complex thread, which is called the system of honour and shame.
As a first set of observations, we can say that the code of honour and shame is something more than a means of expressing approval or disapproval. It possesses a general structure which is seen in the institutions and customary evaluations which are particular to a given culture (Peristiany, 1965, p. 10). As integrated values of the social system, the notions of honour and shame define the roles of individuals as members of particular groups within society. Even though it would be interesting, as previously mentioned, to examine more thoroughly the position of women within this context of honour and shame, the fact that in Mediterranean societies, men have a dominant position in all aspects and activities of life, requires that we make our observations by putting them at the centre of the system (Zeid, 1965, p. 256). Furthermore, it is not ordinary men who have been the topic of the present discussion, but heroes because they reflect the moral dimensions of the code of honour and shame in its most ideal form. In this context, of ideal masculinities and war-like models, the characters of the Greek and Turkish writers are seen as representative figures of the code of honour and shame. Both the Greek and Turkish literary texts under examination here provided us with useful Culture Journal - May 2013 29

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observations about the way the writers from these two countries perceive and describe this code.

What can be observed from the comparison of these two literary fields, the Turkish and the Greek is the fact that honour and shame encompass elements, which are in their majority common between the two communities. Public esteem, respect, social status -in the Greek and Turkish lands- are embedded in the process of proving oneself publicly. (Gilmore, 1987, p. 10).
The three writers, whose texts have been chosen for analysis here, construct similar portraits of the ideal masculine figures and through them transmit the message of honour and shame. It is through the defence of the weak and the prospect of social justice that honour can be gained both on an individual and a collective basis by these masculine figures. All these factors contribute to an understanding of how the system of honour and shame works in the Greek and Turkish literary context. Excellence in these qualities pertains the ideal type of man but deficiency in them opens the way to social destitution (Peristiany, 1965, p.10). However, it is these values that remind us the common moral qualities that are the essentially defining features of the Mediterranean culture area (Brandes, 1987, p.133).

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REFERENCES ANDRONIKOS, P. (1985). The Narrator of Stratis Myrivilis Vasilis Arvanitis. In: Alexiou, M & Lambropoulos, V. (eds). The Texts and Its Margins: Post-Structuralist Approaches to 20th century Greek Literature. New York: Pella. BOURDIEU, P. (1965). The Sentiment of Honour in Kabyle Society. In: Peristiany J.G. (eds) Honour and Shame: The Values of Mediterranean Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. BRANDES, S. (1987). Reflections on Honour and Shame in the Mediterranean. In: Gilmore, D.D. (eds). Honour and Shame and the Unity of the Mediterranean. (A special Publication of the American Anthropological Association, No 22) CAMPBELL, J. K. (1992). The Greek Hero. In: Peristiany, J.G. & Pitt-Rivers, J. (eds). Honour and Grace in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press DINO, G. (1986). The Turkish Peasant Novel or the Anatolian Theme. World Literature Today, 26 (2). Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 266 GILMORE, D.D. (1987). Introduction: The Shame of Dishonour. In: Gilmore D. D. (eds). Honour and Shame and the Unity of the Mediterranean. (Special Publication of the American Anthropological Association, No 22) HERZFELD, M. (1985). The Poetics of Manhood: Context and Identity in a Cretan Mountain Village. Princeton: Princeton University Press. HOBSBAWM, E. (2000). Bandits. London: Abacus. KEMAL, Y. (1961). Memed My Hawk. London: Collins & Harvill. MYRIVILIS, S. (1978) Vasilis Arvanitis in Anthologia Ellinikou Diigimatos Athens: Estia. PERISTIANY, J.G. (1965). Honour and Shame: The Values of Mediterranean Society. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. PITT-RIVERS, J. (1966). Honour and Social Status. In: Peristiany J.G. (eds) Honour and Shame: The Values of Mediterranean Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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POYATOS, F. (1988). Literary Anthropology: A New Interdisciplinary Approach to People, Signs and Literature. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamin. SCHNEIDER, J. (1971). Of Vigilance and Virgins. Ethnology. 9 (1). p. 24 TZIOVAS, D. (2003). The Other Self: Selfhood and Society in Modern Greek Fiction. Oxford: Lexington. VENEZIS, E. (1994). Aeoloki Ghe. Athens: Estia. VITTI, M. (1980). Ideologiki Leitourgia tis Ellinikis Ithografias. Athens: Kedros. ZEID, A.A.M. (1965). Honour and Shame Among the Bedouins of Egypt in Honour and Shame: The Values of Mediterranean Society (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson), p.

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Culture Journal [VOLUME VI] Cooperative actions within the learning framework on the basis of projects in the subject of Biology in the 1st Lyceum grade
Babou, D., Secondary Education, Msc (c), despkas@hotmail.com

Abstract The present research aims at studying the 1st Lyceum grade students perceptions in relation to the Group Inquiry Projects implementation in the subject of Biology. An improvised questionnaire based on open questions and structured in 4 thematic pivots in combination to field notes was used. The participants in this research were students of all four departments of the 1st Lyceum grade of an Attica Northern suburbs school (85 students in total) while the teaching suggestion was implemented in the 12th chapter of Reproduction Development of the unit Sexually Spread Diseases and Maternal Nursing Benefits both for fetus and mother in the subject of Biology of 1st Lyceum grade. The data process resulted in the fact that Group Inquiry Projects were particularly appreciated by students elevating both the collaboration dynamics and motives increase for learning while their implementation is concurrently reinforcing students self-esteem and meta-cognitive ability. Key words: Learning through projects, cooperative learning, group inquiry projects.

1. Introduction When the school classroom is organized according to the Group system and Inquiry Compositional projects are implemented, these projects are then called Group Inquiry Projects (Kapsalis & Nima, 2008). The combination of interdisciplinary and team spirit stimulates students interest improving both their attitudes and self-esteem and their abilities to cooperate extending to their learning and knowledge maintenance. The present research suggests a learning framework which combines cooperative actions and inquiry compositional projects in secondary education. Both teaching methods are combined to form the ideal framework for experiential learning, skills natural development as well as team spirit development in all educational grades students.

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2. The research 2.1 The objective and research inquiries Over the past years in the Secondary Education Greek School, in particular, students are invited to participate in volunteer programs such as Environmental Education, and so forth, which are actions primarily based on the project method. Innovative actions, group cooperative procedures and inquiry projects from the domains of natural sciences, art, literature and other are also integrated in the teaching of subjects by many teachers. The present research was motivated by the previously mentioned actions. In particular, the implementation (through the students own eyes) of group actions in the 1st Lyceum grade subject of Biology was studied. 1st grade students of all 4 departments of the same school participated for the time period from 24-1-12 until 31-3-12. More specifically, the learning framework is related to the 12th chapter of Reproduction Development of the unit Sexually Spread Diseases and Maternal Nursing Benefits both for fetus and mother. The criterion to select this project was based on the writers personal interest as well as the results probable utility in future researches carried out both by her and other individuals. The objective and inquiries of the present research are hereby formulated: Research objective: It aims at studying the 1st Lyceum grade students viewpoints related to the function of Group Inquiry Projects in the subject of Biology. Research inquiries: They are as follow: To what extent can the implemented teaching method integrating Group Inquiry Projects: 1. Develop and create new learning motives among students, 2. Increase students self-esteem, 3. Increase students meta-cognitive ability, 4. Develop cooperation skills and motives among students.

2.2 Theoretical standpoints on Projects and group teaching According to Matsagouras (2007) the Project Method, even though it could be implemented in individual work, is mainly an implementation of Group teaching. Without absolutely removing frontal teaching (a thing that is not possible) the pursuit
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is to make students work in groups and carry out activities instead of merely answering questions (Group Inquiry Projects G.I.P.). Carrying out projects is based on group and experiential learning as well as on the interdisciplinary approach of knowledge and forms the best way to implement crosscurricular teaching, investigatory and collaborative learning while the student is concurrently receiving the good feelings emanating from knowledge and school work is not being addressed as a compulsory work or, to sound more lenient, as a drudgery. Students collaboration and group works form the main attribute of G.I.P. methodology. Students are divided into groups and each group undertakes the responsibility to carry out on their own and in a manner mostly wished the subject matter process. Students collaboration is carried out throughout the stages that follow. They work jointly at school and, many times, at home, too. Information is gathered from various sources and following that the subject matter is analyzed and composed by all of them. The subject matter of the group is divided into parts and everyone is responsible for his / her own field of investigation while they are obliged, within a specific time period, to make a presentation of the information processed by all of them as a group. Students exchange viewpoints, agree or disagree, communicate among each other and find solutions that are accepted by the whole group every time. In this manner, students are activated, undertake responsibilities and learn to work collectively (Koptsis, 2009). As it is mentioned by Anderson et al. (2004), bibliography on group learning indicates how the structures developed within a classroom seem to favor high level bondages among students; therefore, the students interactions within the framework of the small group society is conducive to multiple benefits. Students work in small groups, cultivate critical thinking (Matsagouras, 2004) and special relationships among them, previously absent, start to be constructed (Anderson, A.; et al, 2004). According to Gillies (2004). One of the basic principles being the basis for group teaching is that should the members of the group comprehend that collective success is the prerequisite for individual one, there will be, then, mutual assistance to achieve the goals of the group. Individual knowledge and individual social development is produced and promoted by the entirety of learning experiences obtained within environments of social interaction (Frydaki, 2001). The experience obtained by students throughout projects process forms a significant source of learning while the students needs, dispositions and interests are critical
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(Korre, 2010). It is about a student-centered teaching model according to which the student is responsible for his learning as being of a curious and studious nature while learning itself can be pleasant and tempting for him (Pigiaki P., 1998). According to relevant researches carried out by Steinberg and Kincheloe 1998, Kellett 2005 (in Matsagouras, 2011) the projects educational significance lays in that students thinking, creativity and initiative are activated through their direct and active involvement in all the Inquiry Project phases. Besides, the interest in the subjects allocated is increased because students conceive, in practice, the contribution of the subjects taught to comprehend the world and to confront daily problems and important life issues on a local and global level. In addition to that, they aim at the development of reflection, critical and self-critical thinking, personal responsibility about human choices and actions, the prevailing standards, values as well as sociopolitical and moral dilemmas involved in modern multicultural societies. They are deemed to promote collectivity and cooperation provided that students, within the framework of Inquiry Projects, cooperate in groups to study the subject matter and carry out joint works of a scientific base concurrently creating channels of communication among school, local society, its problems and its carriers. Moreover, the issues examined on local, national and global level prepare students in thinking and acting as responsible citizens of their country and of the world. It is realized, therefore, that cooperative forms of teaching, under particular circumstances, are conducive both to the students academic performance and the reinforcement of their interpersonal relationships.

2.3 Methodology - Data collection method The qualitative method of non participatory observation as the most suitable to carry out, in reference to information and data collection regarding students everyday life and under the circumstances given, is eventually selected for the specific pilot research (Educational inquiry in practice) (Bird, Hammersley, Gomm, & Woods, pp. 30,39) as well as in terms of its aims (to investigate any changes in the students attitude and behavior during their transition from traditional teaching to Group Inquiry Projects). On the basis of this general aim, the in depth examination of possible changes regarding the students attitudes and behavior during their transition from one teaching form to the other was deemed appropriate.
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The 1st Lyceum grade students comprising two departments of an Athens suburb school form the sample of this pilot research. The particular school is situated in one of the most developed areas of Athens since it is resided by a middle and upper civil class population with a relevantly powerful economic capital. It is deemed a relevantly big school in terms of the number of its students but with a moderate performance level concerning the panhellenic entrance examinations. The departments student force participating in the research is characterized by a relevant homogeneity in terms of school performance (3rd High School Grade scoring). Students, in their majority, are moderate and no one of them was found to have learning difficulties by KEDDY (Differential Diagnosis Centers and Support). The Group Inquiry Projects implementation, in reality, was materialized in students of four departments of 1st Lyceum grade, divided into four groups of five students each (total of students per class, 20-22). Surplus students were regularly placed in groups. A total of 16 groups were formulated and questionnaires with open questions were distributed to each one of the students after completion of the Group Inquiry Projects method implementation (24-1-2012 until 31-3-2012). 69 supplementary

questionnaires were received by the total of 85 students. Sixteen (16) questionnaires were not filled in due to the negative reply statement of the students parents regarding their participation in the pilot research. 2.4 Data collection tools The Questionnaire The initial thinking of administering individual interviews would be a timeconsuming procedure (within the framework of the pilot research) for both sides (the students and the researcher). Thus, under a co-evaluation of the method pros and cons such as low participation percentage, difficulty to check, in terms of validity and reliability, the information collected or the risk of a different interpretation of the same question (Faulkner, Swann, Baker, Bird, & Carty, 1999, pp. 90-102), the drafting of a written questionnaire to be filled in by students in their free time was decided. The 1st Lyceum grade students of all 4 departments were given questionnaires with open questions (Annex 2 The Questionnaire) following their parents guardians written consent (Annex 1 Letter to students parents about their participation in the pilot research). Guiding, complex, annoying, ambiguous and negative questions were omitted.
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The questionnaire was primarily read in the classroom and questions not clearly comprehended by students regarding the information required were clarified. The students were asked to fill in and return it to the teacher in a predetermined time period (until 6/4/2012). Students anonymity, to avoid probable prejudice from both sides, was preferred. The pilot research questionnaire was constructed in a unified unit of 15 open questions which are closer to the research qualitative nature. Besides, a large number of open questions in a relatively small sample require a long time for processing (Faulkner, Swann, Baker, Bird, & Carty, 1999, pp. 90-102). The research inquiry questions were fully met by the questionnaire while the students were informed, in a separate paragraph, about the research content and the reasons of its administration as well as confidentiality, anonymity and guidelines for filling in. 2.5 The non participatory observation The non participatory observation method with open type field notes that was selected is a flexible method which is used in combination with other methods of data collection such as, for example, interviews or questionnaires (Faulkner, Swann, Baker, Bird, & Carty, 1999, pp. 117-137). It is a basic tool in researches of the pedagogical domain. The researcher is present in a particular space under his true capacity and observes situations and facts. When he wants to observe a class, for instance, he sits at the back of the classroom keeping notes. A technique making the researcher invisible is the ideal in this case (Bird, Hammersley, Gomm, & Woods, 1999, p. 175). The use of such a tool could facilitate the study of how students interpret what is happening around them (that is the Group-Project implementation) and how this affects their behavior afterwards. Observations done by the researcher teacher for the time period of project assignment to students and without focusing on the research inquiry questions but with as much spontaneity as possible and without prejudice were recorded. As regards the latter, in particular, the researchers personal agenda was used to record personal feelings and reflections about the research procedure (Faulkner, Swann, Baker, Bird, & Carty, 1999, pp. 31-32). The observations recording (a sheet with two columns, notes and comments) was made during the class (at site) and mainly at the moment when each departments students, in groups, were discussing about the issues of their project in the classroom. Following that, after the class (during the interval or at home) the field notes as well as her comments were filled in the specific daily sheets by the researcher. A total of
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36 sheets corresponding to 9 sheets per department, one for every day of teaching Biology, were filled in by the teacher (9 lessons were totally carried out per department between 24-1-2012 and 31-3-2012). A sample of field notes and comments from the first department of 1st grade for 6th March 2012 is illustrated in Annex 3. 2.6 Research validity and reliability Since validity and reliability of the data collected forms the issued to be pursued, they can be secured by triangulation through the crossing of various data. Thus, the more methods to detect research data are used, the higher probability lays for data validity (Bird, Hammersley, Gomm, & Woods, 1999, p. 180). According to Lacey (Bird, Hammersley, Gomm, & Woods, 1999, p. 183), the combination of more different data collection methods provide elements supporting one another and all together comprise a comprehension worm-screw. For these reasons, questionnaires, field observations and the personal agenda were used by the researcher in order to achieve the best possible full scale view and comprehension of the research situation. In terms of our research reliability, the sample used, both in number and type (all levels students) forms a representative sample of this pilot research. 2.7 Data processing During qualitative analysis, the initial stages of research drafting, the nature of analysis techniques to be used are not easy to be precisely determined. The qualitative analysis techniques are less standardized in relation to the quantitative ones in which their determination is more precise. Data codification, in both kinds of research, forms the basic means of their analysis (Faulkner, Swann, Baker, Bird, & Carty, 1999, p. 127 & Bird, Hammersley, Gomm, & Woods, 1999, p. 331-332). When reference is made to codification what is meant is the determination of categories and the data and information integration to the corresponding categories, per case. In qualitative analysis, one more thing to be decided about is what the most suitable categories to integrate data and comprehend them are. Between the two aforementioned data analysis methods, the one of thematic analysis, as the most suitable in relation to the one of discourse analysis, was chosen for the present research. Discourse analysis focuses on a specific text or a number of texts closely interweaved among each other. But in the case of our research there are a lot of and various data sources (questionnaires, field observations and agenda), their
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writing was done in different ways and their content is different and inappropriate for discourse analysis. Our data were organized and codified in the following thematic units identical to the research pivots: 1. New motives for learning, 2. Students self-esteem, 3. Students meta-cognitive ability, 4. Skills and collaboration motives among students.

2.8 Results and data analysis The 69 questionnaires collected as well as the researchers observations and personal agenda were codified each one separately in 4 thematic units and were being concurrently studied analyzed. Based on their analysis, in relation to the first unit concerning the creation of new motives for learning, most students regard the lesson through the G.I.P. as particularly interesting, different, light and informative while we escape from the ordinary and predetermined lesson of the book. Besides, they can learn better by substantiating our knowledge as well as broaden their knowledge in relation to the book that provides the basic things. It is also mentioned that we search to a larger extent (that is information) and are not merely bored by the particular book, thus, we learn. The subject of Biology is mentioned by a female student to contain quite difficult scientific terminology which is incomprehensive to students and quite tiring without the G.I.P. through which they are given the possibility to cooperate, communicate and better study, while at the same time, we are provided with the opportunity to learn things which I have always wanted to study in depth. Biology was mentioned by a male student to be tiring and unsubstantial because the book is closely written Another one stated that the use or not of G.I.P. could make no difference whereas a third student mentioned that it could be the same amusing and educating without G.I.P. if the appropriate procedure was followed. It was also mentioned that this method is not the suitable one for all chapters and a combination of methods should be done.
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The majority of students viewpoint that the subject could be done more hours per week (two at least) instead of one according to the current situation because it is pleasant since I can learn about my body and feel happy every time they have Biology is of special interest. In the second unit regarding the increase in the students self-esteem, most students believe that they are able to assist their fellow-students because we acquire knowledge that makes us able to do this. Some of them do not feel able to do this because they themselves face enough difficulties in comprehending the notions but they are willing to help through the cooperation conditions created. Another viewpoint of significant interest is that the class participants can contribute to a better flow of the lesson and knowledge acquisition while all unknown aspects of the subject can be covered. The third unit concerned the students meta-cognitive ability. Students believe that they learn faster and better through group projects and because I remember better through what I have done with my fellow students, the central points at least, but when I emphasize on the subject. Besides, according to another student everything is a matter of systematic and correct study programming whereas memorization is not a way to learn in contrast to G.I.P.s through which knowledge is consolidated. Another student replied that he still learns by heart and not effectively and that the way the lesson is administered is not responsible for this but the material structure and the large number of useless details for Lyceum students. Another one mentioned that it is up to the students attempt to concentrate and learn a couple of things. There is a common viewpoint by many students that the book is not appropriately-to-our-level written and that the G.I.P. helps overcome this problem. The last unit dealt with the skills and cooperation motives among students and their viewpoints, in their majority, coincided in that working in a group is much more interesting, fun, having a great time, discovering knowledge from which we benefit and that it can not be compared to individual work, it is much easier, conducive to a safer outcome for successful work, teaches us how to work in groups which will be of great help to the rest of our lives, it is not tiring at all but rather relaxing, sharing responsibilities and the workload, more ideas are presented, we learn how to discuss at the same time, my fellow students make corrections and provide supplementary feedback.
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Those ones that replied differently regarding the aforementioned viewpoint mentioned that it is better to work individually so that each ones idea and opinion is separately presented and because at some moment there are contradictions whether someone works more or less. Additionally, it is a matter of coincidence to work in groups and enjoy it. Reference was also made to scoring in the sense that in individual projects the score is personal showing who has worked and who has not. A student mentioned that I would rather work on my own because cooperating with another person requires huge responsibility and attention because should a mistake be made the responsibility lays for the other member of the group. More generally, no cooperation problems or intense annoyance among group members was mentioned because every member was assigned an equal amount of work and that everyone worked on his own duties. It was also obvious that groups were organized on the basis of friendly relationships (hopefully all friends work together) while their cooperation preferences were towards cooperative individuals sharing the same interests with me trying as much as I do so that the outcome is successful. The issue of time was also mentioned in the sense that group work is far more interesting provided that there is adequate time to meet inside or outside school. Moreover, misunderstandings or quarrels among the group members were not mentioned at all. 3. Discussing the results The study of the questionnaires, observations and the researchers agenda showed that students corresponded positively to the Group Inquiry Projects implementation in the specific subject of Biology; the lesson was much more pleasant and different in relation to formal ordinary teaching. Learning was organized by students through free procedures, as per the G.I.P. implementation, in order to acquire the knowledge pursued. Besides, the student-centered teaching model, according to which the student is responsible for his learning as being of a curious and studious nature, confirms that learning itself can be pleasant and tempting for the student (Pigiaki P., 1998) while new motives for learning are concurrently being created. It has been observed that the whole teaching procedure and the teacher-researchers role focus on the creation of an environment suitable for students to learn on their own. The formation of groups with accepted and cooperative members in areas that facilitate learning (school classrooms or meetings in the students houses), means such as the computer or other supplements except for the school book as well as the relatively quiet formulation of a
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school environment far off tensions and noises are conducive to knowledge and facilitate its acquisition through a natural and unconstrained manner. It seemed that the method implemented introduced the students active participation and selfactualization possibilities both in acting and thinking, made students feel responsible and significant individuals, able to confront school life situations while their selfesteem was simultaneously being increased (Dervisis, 1998). The students were obviously satisfied with the result and group members showed responsibility in cooperation without special problems while, at the same time, their activation was large and pleasant in order to acquire knowledge far beyond the one provided by the school book. What was not obvious through the present research and about which the group discussions psychoanalysis could form another case study for a future research, was the manner through which the groups were selected. The researcher left the students to freely select the group members, a fact that provided no information at all whether students accept some fellow students diversity or the manner under which it was addressed. According to Slavin (1982) the G.I.P. implementation develops the group members emotional intelligence conducive to the students positive attitude towards school, a fact not absolutely confirmed but a positive attitude in terms of knowledge in Biology and group members cooperation was at least obvious. The students viewpoint that G.I.P. is not suitable for all subjects and all chapters is noteworthy. It should also be taken into consideration the increase of Biology instruction hours in order to become more assimilative and constructive and the method to be better administered. Reference is also made to a closely written, hard-tounderstand book whereas the G.I.P. implementation helps them comprehend in depth all these notions. 3.2 Confinements and a need for further research The most significant confinement of the present research is that it run over many partial issues. As a result, it was not possible to penetrate to some of them. But this can be justified by the fact that the subject matter was much avant-garde; therefore, the study substantially forms a preliminary research aiming at depicting a more general tendency, a fact which has been achieved according to our belief. A future research may focus on more basic and interesting issues. 4.3 Conclusion
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The present research proves that the G.I.P. implementation in 1st Lyceum grade Biology was positively received by the majority of the school students. Besides, it has been studied and has been in accordance with the bibliographical speculations about the creation of new motives for learning, increase of students self-esteem and their meta-cognitive ability as well as the cooperation motives and skills.

Bibliography Anderson, A.; et al. (2004). classroom climate and motivated behaviour in secondary schools. Learning Envinments Research. Bird, M., Hammersley, M., Gomm, R., & Woods, P. (1999). E - . : . Gillies, R. (2004). The effect of cooperative learning on junior hight school students during small group learning. Learning and Instructiom. Faulkner, D., Swann, J., Baker, S., Bird, M., & Carty, J. (1999). . : . Slavin, R. (2006). : . , . , . (1998). . , Gutenberg , ., & , . (2008). . : . , . (2009). Project. : . , . (2004). . : . , . (2007). . : . , . (2011). - . : . , . (1998). , . , . , . (2001). . : .

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Narrative study- A way to interpret social change


Gouvalas Athanasios, Community Pharmacist, MSc (Cand) Public Health and Social Change, University of Cumbria, UK, agouvalas@hotmail.com

Abstract There is currently a shift in perspective within the qualitative paradigm, toward narration and away from description, especially in the humanities, social sciences and medicine. We have, therefore, reduced the role of our work away from the hierarchical position of creating conclusive knowledge to that of interpreting and storytelling personal experience. In this paper a narrative interview was the basis to record certain aspects of life and then to discuss the impact on population health and wellbeing. Although the narrative does not focused on illness particularly, issues and perceptions of health arise for discussion. Factors such as, work environment, unemployment, social exclusion, economic crisis seemed to play an important role in social reality and to influence the health.

Key Words: Narrative research, storytelling, illness, social change.

1. Introduction The aim of this work is to explore the ways through narrative interview that affect the perception of people about their lived and health experiences. A narrative interview is
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being used to collect data about life and to negotiate meanings and findings. The paper concentrates on the narrative significance and meaning trying to manipulate, organize and interpret the original tale. Although the narrative does not focused on illness particularly, issues and perceptions of health arise for discussion. Finally the paper concludes that work place, unemployment, poverty, and social exclusion as some factors contributing at the impact upon the quality of life. 2. The narrative interview The study of narratives has received great attention specifically in the social sciences with connection to health-medical matters. Story-telling or narrative has been described as a natural impulse that is a recollection of what happened, what was done, and what was of interest, in temporal sequence (Tappan 1989). There are two actors in the narrative interview process, the teller and the hearer. The story-teller naively, descriptively, informally and idiosyncratically gives light to a piece or period of his life. The hearer must interpret the expressed personal experience to create conclusive knowledge. As Mello(2002, p.232) points out, this is not the easiest of things and since the essence of narrative is ephemeral and personal, we must seek ways to negotiate meanings and findings using the stories of data, varied perceptions of the field, and our creative work as writers of research discourse. 3. The study My study consisted of a narrative interview with a close relative an 88 year old man. The interview was conducted at a pharmacy location and was carried out in a conversational manner. I encouraged the narrator to recount his life experience from a specific period of his life which includes the years immediately after World War II. It is a period that has not been studied particularly (in Greece) with regard to population movements, which under the weight of the special circumstances of wartime are sometimes violent, sometimes intentional, sometimes subordinated to military strategies e.g. evacuations of villages and large areas. It is estimated that one tenth of the Greek population moved in the period 1940-1946 and about 600-700 people per thousand during the Civil War (Kotzamanis 1990, Laiou 1992). Movement was in opposite directions-town-village-town-village movements to bring the population of rural areas, especially those who came from the theater of war and civil conflicts, to experience urban lifestyle. In this way and although the environment of insecurity(EOI) as conceptualized by Sirkeci (Sirkeci 2005) existed, we can agree
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for this period that the nature of urban development and associated with this internal migration patterns were mainly due to external political and military pressures and economic and social conditions that shaped them (Kayser 1968, Mpournova 2005, Stathakis 2004). The interview was tape-recorded with the consensus of the participant and transcribed. The main aim was to gain access to subjects lived experience and from this point to explore knowledge embedded within his life. 4. Findings It is apparent that organizing, analyzing and discovering theoretical meanings from a narrative can be challenging due to the nature of narrative because, it is iterative and evolutionary(Mello 2002, p233). In my study effort has been made to understand and give meaning to lived experiences. The interview revealed three main points that influenced the old mans perception of his life. The work environment The rapid changes in working environment during the migration from the village where he lived to the big city were mentioned in the interview with emphasis. Mr. Elias stated: My work was constantly changing.nobody pay me my weight has been continuously down. The insecurity from the unstable work environment as well as stress expressed from the unpaid work and the close relation of his weight loss shows with clarity the direct connection of unpaid work to the weight loss and overall health. Research has shown the relationship of the income as the occupational skill level is strongly inversely related to morbidity and mortality rates (WHO, 2009). Furthermore stress in the workplace increases the risk of disease (Wilkinson & Marmot 2003, Higginbottom 2006). Constantly changing jobs is another factor that has influence in the self perception of health (Ferrie et al.1995). From the worlds of Mr Elias stems a disappointment for this period of life. Psychological implications in health are often a consequence of job dissatisfaction (Faragheret al. 2003) that leads often to low self esteem. Work and related social self-esteem affects interaction with others including friends, relatives, partners or children. In addition, the unemployed carry within them deep feelings of inadequacy and weakness.
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Poverty

In another point of interview the participant describes his return from the big city to the village where he has his own business. At first I went quite well but after the competition revealed and then the destruction came quickly. I lost my store then my house and needed a place to live. My friends became fewer. It was the most difficult period of my life. Fortunately found a job in a watchmaking store. The experience of poverty and social exclusion are apparent here. Poverty and social exclusion have a major impact on health. Historical figures demonstrate that there is an almost linear relation between health and wealth (WHO, World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care, Now More Than Ever).

Source: WHO, World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care, Now More Than Ever : Figure 1.4: 2008, Switzerland)

The prospect of becoming homeless or living in poor housing as a consequence of poverty increases the risk of physical safety and health (Dodd R, Munck L, 2002). As a population struggling under the combined burdens of residential instability, poor social networks, and significant levels of physical and mental health disease these people also stressed the health care system as they sought help for primary care medical and psychiatric problems in emergency departments instead of in outpatient
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clinics or private offices. They overused an already overcrowded and expensive part of health delivery facilities (Schanzer et al. 2006). Unemployment and poverty leads to social exclusion. Exclusion from social life, prevention from participation in education and gaining access to services and activities and a poor quality environment (Wilkinson & Marmot 2003). Poverty is not only a poors country phenomenon it continues to exist even in the richest countries of the World. In Great Britain The National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal: a framework for consultation(2000), points out the impacts of poverty and social exclusion which follow unemployment. In these neighbourhoods compared with the rest of the country many deprived areas have 30 per cent higher mortality rates; 25 per cent more people with low skills and literacy; unemployment rates six times as high; and three times as much burglary. Poverty and unemployment exacerbate a whole range of other social problems, including family breakdown, poor health, youth disaffection, drugs and crime. In my country where a major economic crisis was revealed in 2009 major economic indexes show an extended and deep recession that have lead to an explosive rise in unemployment with very ominous prospects for the next decade (IMF Country Report (2012), Hellenic Statistical Authority (2012)).

Source: IMF, Country Report No. 12/57, March 2012, Washington, D.C.

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Source: Hellenic Statistical Authority, Labour Force Survey: Jan 2012, Piraeus, 12 Apr 2012.

Most researchers tend to agree that the loss of employment increases the risk of mental disorders and their psychosomatic symptoms. Many surveys agree that there is a strong affinity between unemployment and the rise in depression, stress, substance abuse and antisocial behavior (Murphy&, Athanasou 1999). Numerous new studies reveal the consequences of the economic crisis on health and well being. A significant increase in HIV infections (rise by 52% in 2011 compared with 2010), (Paraskevis & Hatzakis, 2011), with many of new these HIV infections linked to an increase in prostitution and associated unsafe sex (EKTEPN, 2011). The Minister of Health (Loverdos, 2011) reported that suicides rose by 40% in the first half of 2011 compared with the same period in 2010.The national suicide helpline reported that 25% of callers faced financial difficulties in 2010 (Katsadoros et al. 2011) and reports in the media indicate that the inability to repay high levels of personal debt might be a key factor in the increase in suicides. Further studies confirm the strong relation between unemployment and suicide. Stuckler et al. (2009) noted that every 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a 0.79% rise in suicides at ages younger than 65 years. Furthermore, job loss is accompanied by mental disorders, problems of dependence and addiction to substances and adopting unhealthy lifestyles with increasing consumption of low nutritional value of food, tobacco and addition of alcohol and poor management of diseases by the insufficient financial health services.
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5. Conclusion

In this paper a narrative interview was the basis to record certain aspects of life and then to discuss the impact on population health and wellbeing. As personal narratives are means by which the links between body, self and society are articulated (Bury 2001), they are an attractive subject for analysis. In this way my aim was to interpret the experiences and verbal expressions into factors that contribute and influence changes in life and health. As social and cultural factors shape our worldview and inform our health behaviours, have a clear impact on health (OBrien 2003). In our journey factors such as, work environment, unemployment, social exclusion, economic crisis seemed to play an important role in social reality and to influence the health as well as the social equilibrium. he search and tackling for causes who maintain inequality in access to jobs, health and equal social participation are fundamental objectives of any social model. In this quest, we have to constantly make sure that the ultimate source of each countrys wealth - its people- should not be undermined. Because they are always paying the ultimate price.

References Bury, M (2001) Illness narratives: fact or fiction? Sociology of Health & Illness Vol. 23 No.3 , pp 263-285.

Dodd R, Munck L (2002) Dying for change : poor people's experience of health and ill-health. World Health Organization : World Bank : Voices of the Poor, Geneva, Switzerland.

EKTEPN, (2011) Report of the ad hoc expert group of the Greek focal point on the outbreak of HIV/AIDS in 2011. Athens: Greek Documentation and Monitoring Centre for Drugs, 2011.
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Faragher EB, Cass M, Cooper CL, (2005) The relationship between job satisfaction and health: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med 2005;62:2 105-112.

Ferrie EJ, Shipley JM, Marmot MG, Stansfeld S, Smith GD, (1995) Health effects of anticipation of job change and non-employment: longitudinal data from the Whitehall II study, BMJ 1995;311:1264.

IMF, (2012): Greece, Request for Extended Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility, Country Report No. 12/57: March 9, 2012: Washington D.C.

Katsadoros D, Bekiari E, Karydi K, et al. (2011) Suicide help line 1018: characteristics of callers for January-December 2010. 21st Panhellenic Conference of Psychiatry; Athens, Greece; May 57, 2011.

Kayser, B. (1968). Human geography of Greece. Data for the study of urbanization, Athens, EKKE. Kotzamanis, B. (1990). The mobility of the rural population in the decade 1940-1950 and the restructuring of the socio-demographic map of postwar Greece. approach. Epitheorisi Koinonikon Erevnon, 77, pp 97-126. Laiou, A. (1992). Greek displacements in the countryside during World War II in Baerentzen, L., Iatridis, D. and Smith, O., (eds.) Studies on the Civil War 1945-1949, Athens, Olkos, pp 67-114. First

Loverdos A. (2011) Response to question by Member of Parliament, reference number: 56885.Athens: Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity, 2011.

Mello, R (2002) Collocation analysis: a method for conceptualizing and understanding narrative data. Qualitative Research 2(2): 231-243. Mpournova, E. (1999). Deaths from hunger- Athens in winter 1941-1942, Archeiotaxio , May 2005, 7, Themelio, pp 52-73.

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Murphy GC, Athanasou JA. (1999) The effects of unemployment on mental health. J Occup Organ Psychol 1999; 72:83-99. OBrien, V (2003) The Social Context of Health: Culture and Health in Public Health Development in Kyrgyzstan: Education, Science, Practice. Proceedings of the International Conference on Public Health in Kyrgyzstan, Chalpon Ata, 9-11 October 2003. Bishkek: Kyrgyz State Medical Academy

Paraskevis D, Hatzakis A. (2011) An ongoing HIV outbreak among intravenous drug users in Greece: preliminary summary of surveillance and molecular epidemiology data. EMCDDA Early Warning System, 2011.

Schanzer B, Dominguez B, Shrout PE,. Caton C. L.M. Homelessness, Health Status, and Health Care Use. American Journal of Public Health: March 2007, Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 464-469. Higginbottom, G.M.A. (2006) Pressure of life: ethnicity as a mediating factor in mid-life and older peoples experience of high blood pressure. Sociology of Health & Illness Vol. 28 No. 5 2006 ISSN 01419889, pp. 583610.

Sirkeci, I (2005) War in Iraq: Environment of Insecurity and International Migration. International Migration 43(4): 198-214.

Stathakis, G. (2004). The Truman Doctrine and The Marshall Plan- The History of American Aid in Greece, Athens, Vivliorama.

Stuckler D, Basu S, Suhrcke M, Coutts A, McKee M. (2009) The public health effect of economic crisis and alternative policy responses in Europe: an empirical analysis. Lancet 2009;374:315-323, 25 July 2009.

Tappan M.B. (1989) Stories lived and stories told: the narrative structure of late adolescent moral development. Human Development 32, 300-315.

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The National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal: a framework for consultation (2000): report by the Social Exclusion Unit, The Cabinet Office, 35 Great Smith Street, London.

WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2009: Environment and health risks: the influence and effects of social inequalities, Report of an expert group meeting, Bonn, Germany, 910 September 2009. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 52 pp.

WHO, World Health Report 2008:Primary Health Care, Now More Than Ever : 2008 Switzerland.

Wilkinson RG, Marmot MG, editors. The solid facts. Second. Copenhagen: WHO Europe; 2003.

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Aristotle Fragos: Works and analyses from the collection Cycle of undefined range

Nikolidakis Symeon, Philoligist, simosnikoli@yahoo.gr Sissas Konstantinos , Philologist

Abstract

Telis Fragos is one of the most modern literary figures of Messinia having written a multitude of works. He is the holder of many awards with the most important of them the title of Dr. of Literature. Up today, he has published 6 poem collections and 2 novels. In the present paper, an effort is being made to locate the basic characteristics of Telis Fragos poetic creation while some indicative analyses of poems from the collection Cycle of undefined range are being carried out.

1. Biography and analysis of works

Aristotle Fragos was born in Kalamata on 19.5.1946. He is married to Vasiliki, maiden name Antonea, and has a girl named Iliana Fragou. He graduated the 6-grade High School at his birthplace and after that he traveled to Western Germany, to Gppingen, in particular, where he lived for about eleven years. During h is residence there, he attended some specialized schools of economy and was qualified in sales technique regarding the bank domain. Afterwards, he worked for the German financial Bank Group Kreissparkasse as a bank clerk, at the beginning, and as a branch sub-director later on.

He has been a permanent resident of Kalamata since 1977. Ever since 1982 he was actively involved with literature. At that time, he published his first poem collection Dead Street. Afterwards, he published Blossom City in 1983, Sleep Chemistry in 1992, May Melody in 1996, Color Whispers in 1999 and Polymnia in 2004. The outcome of his collaboration with the Panhellenic Association For Young Literary Men of Thessaloniki was the publication of his first novel Paper Gods in 2004. In July 2008, his 8th book (2nd novel) under the title Rain Games was
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published. In January 2010, his 9th book (7th poems collection) under the title Cycle of undefined range was published.

He is a member of the Greek Literary Men Society, the International Greek Literary Men Association, the Popular Library of Kalamata and he is an elected president of the Messinia Authors Society for the period 2011-2013.

He is the holder of various awards with the most important of them the title of Dr. of Literature, which he received during the Olympic Literature, held in 2005 in China by The International Poetry Translation and Research Centre. He was then acknowledged the best poet for 2005. As regards the other awards, an indicative reference should be made to the 1st award and gold medal for the poems collection Polymnia from the International Greek Literary Men Association in 2005. He received the 2nd award in the 25th International Competition announced by the International Greek Literary Men Association in 2006. Besides, in 2006, he participated as an honored guest at an event held by the 4th General Lyceum of Kalamata when he presented his poems. He also participated in the poetry symposium Festivali Nderrkombetari I Poezise Ditet E Naimit in Tetovo, Fyrom. In 2007, his contribution to Letters was awarded by the Municipality of Athens Cultural Organization with an honorary award. Additionally, he participated in a European Poets Conference and competition conducted by the literary Magazine Antares in Galati, Romania and received the 1st award and a medal. In 2007, he also received a 1st award for his poem Iniohos in a poets competition held by the International Greek Literary Men Association and participated, as one of the three official guest poets, in a poetic evening held by the Philologists Association of Messinia at the Conservatory of Kalamata. In 20 08, he received the 3rd award as well as a purse in a pahnellenic literary competition which was administered by the Naturalist Association of Patra and received the 1st award for his novel RAIN GAMES by the International Greek Literary Men Association. In 2009, his writing (novel RAIN GAMES, published in 2008) was presented in the hall of MICHAILAS AVEROF of the Greek Literary Men Society.

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Many of his poems were translated into English, German, Chinese, Albanian and Romanian. They were also published in the NEW YORK HERALD TRIBUNE by the poet Nick Spania on 11th-12th February 1984, in the Chinese Literary magazine The World Poets Quarterly in 2005, in the Anthology Festivali Underkombetar I Poezise Ditet E Naimit (EDITION X) issued due to the literary festival in Tetovo, Fyrom and in the literary magazines of Romania: Plumb (Bacau), Antares (Galati) in 2006 as well as in the Romanian Anthology Cetatea Culturala in Clui-Napoce in April 2007. Additionally, there were publications in the Romanian Anthologies: POEZIA (Iasi), POESIS (Satu Mare), 2006, in the Italian Anthology Sull Ultima Riga Del Foglio in 2010, in the German Anthology Gedicht Und Gesellschaft 2011 annually issued by Frankfurter Bibliothek, in the Diary of Messinia 2011, in the Anthology Diasporic Literature issued by the Australian Homogeny to honor the World Poetry Day (21.3.2012), in the Korean literary magazine The International Literary Art Magazine (The Moonlight of Korea) 2012.

The fact that he has repeatedly written and is still writing articles in the daily local press concerning social issues is remarkable. He is also engaged with artistic wooden compositions in the sense that he actually uses useless woods washed up by the sea in winter to make compositions as he primarily turns them to raw material with insignificant or slightest interventions. They were called Trash Pieces of Art by a local newspaper when they were exhibited in public at the cultural center of Kalamata in 2000 when the poems collection COLORS WHISPERS was being simultaneously presented.

One other thing that is noteworthy is his attempt to translate 130 poems into Greek from the poems collection: GELASSEN ATMET DER TAG = The day breathes calmly written by the German-Jewish poet Rose Auslaender, Ruth Schmertzers nickname (1901-1988).

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2. Characteristics of his poetry In the collection Cycle of undefined range which is the center of the poetic subjects speculation from 2004 until 2008, an intense and compact lyricism is observed. As he is motivated by everyday life, he reshapes images while, at the same time, he reflects on a transitional level with various everyday images which satisfy, hurt or bother him. He is innovative while being in an open dialogue with the reader. He turns the reader into an initiate of a transitional reality leading him to speculate with him, to feel his quests and agonies trying to find together a solution to everyday issues.

Moving on the verge of poetry and prose and being armed with the free verse, free of any form of verse convention, he innovates and reshapes words, notions and situations. His thoughts come out of his mind and unconsciously pass on the paper without any superficiality. The elaborated speech in connection with the often purposeful lack of punctuation and the use of counter-poetic words underlines the poets communicative touch with the reader. This dialogue expands to the poems since it often reflects on the Other and forms the means through which the response of the simple man is shown.

The conjunction among the past, present and future underline the continuation of society and life. Being aware of the literature history from the ancient times until today, he harmoniously co-matches the heroes and symbolizes them by composing an atmosphere of continuation and inter-dependence which is obvious and forms the objective of modern literature. His style is clearly personal, not easy to be imitated and forms the poets identity.

The purposeful prose speech and realism often add an ironic touch to the poems aiming at the criticism of the wrong things in society and at the presentation of speculations about life and the human being.

The local elements are obvious in his poems. Without the characterization of the localist, the lover of the land of Messinia praises his country and integrates it to a transitional, love level by forging the beauty and his love for it.
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The issues he deals with form every simple persons speculation. He manages to transmute the everyday aspect into poetry, the small pleasures into the center of his poetic creation. Love and romance have an idiosyncratic role in his poetry since they are praised, always within the framework of moral and spiritual perfection. The language is simple demotic Greek and the style is elegant, lyric and spontaneous. His poems are characterized by emotional charge, musicality and evocativeness.

There are three categories of poems in his collection: first of all, there are poems related to social consideration dealing with issues of everyday life, as it has already been mentioned, in which the problems faced by society are transmuted into poetry. The second category contains love poems in which love is idealized by the poetic subject the woman is praised and put in the center of consideration both for the human being and society. The third category comprises of poems for poetry. In this category, the poet introduces the reader to his mental work showing the manner in which a poem is composed. He invokes the muse of poetry and introduces his speculations, considerations and the difficulty in writing a poem. To write a poem is as difficult as to get inspired about it. Words react with meaning, images with thought and compose a circle in which the powers of logic with illogic, truth with myth, today with yesterday and tomorrow are in contradistinction. His prose poems, moving within the same framework, show the poets experimentation in a new kind armed with the poetic verse shortness, while the strength of prose composes a form of poetry allowing the reader to self-actualize. The poetic touch provides the reader the possibility to make his own reading and understand, from his own viewpoint, the notion through a mental trip on the verge of poetry and prose. The poets secrets are unveiled while he is armed with the dynamics of his writing within a society in which the standard is identical to what is correct and moral.

The moral messages conveyed are of a special nature. They form a standard for the young within a society in which there are multiple and everyday challenges. The antidote to this society is poetry in which the eyes of truth and the power of love
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compose, in connection with poetry, a cycle of undefined range in which today gives hope for tomorrow letting the reader draw his own conclusions.

3. Indicative analyses of poems from the collection Cycle of undefined range In Aristotle Fragos poetry, the elements of speculation and meditation are observed to be given in a harsh way to the reader, but through the poetic speech and after a thorough reading the messages which the poet wants to convey are obvious. There is pace and speed which both work harmoniously giving a different nuance. Realism is prevalent while, through protest and the intense love element, he tends to unmask the lie and present the truth. The verse acquires a breath and a movement becoming more direct to the reader in this manner. When reading his poem The poem not found all the above characteristics are evident. Reiteration is also observed. The poets agony in the quest for a poem is intensely disseminated. This agony is combined to the quick description, a detailed description of images and his vivid life. He makes an effort to display the content and its characteristics, yet it is difficult for the magic image to be conceived in mind as it is continuously escaping. Afterwards, the questions posed tend to touch off the readers imagination and stir his interest in the lost poem. It is about a quest of the poem that can not be found. Finally, it is characterized as ragged; lost as it moves around in cities, avenues, squares and rubbish dumps contaminating the urban area. The conclusion to be drawn is that the poem will eventually end up to a lamentation. The poem is coherent and the conclusion is finally drawn by the poet. His poetry and similarly the questions that find no answer are driven by a meticulous, literal and figurative speech. Aristotle Fragos is the protagonist in his poems. The narration is carried out in first person and it is characterized by an inner focus. Particularly, in his poem The poem of my own he states in a sense of responsibility that he is determined to write a poem of his own which is different unlike all the others since none of the existing poems seems to touch him. He underlines that his own poem will be completely irrelevant from the rest of the poems already been written. It will be simple, light and relaxing, not meant to be tiring for the reader. There are a lot of and
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evident similes used by Fragos in the poem. His new poem is light so that in the air rustle it flaps like a swallow in the sky. The reader is given a sense of participation in this procedure when such images are used. His speech is simple and colloquial. He wants to be comprehensible and convey messages but, in the end, it is pin-pointed that nothing is going to be revealed. He is true to his viewpoints and this is perceived by the words I am bound and I swore silence.

There are messages conveyed to the readers through the poems. Agony is observed, specifically, in the poem Now in which the intense element of love which has been betrayed, disdained and tends to be forgotten little by little like friendship, too, is discussed about. The overall distinct elements in his poetry depict Aristotle Fragos vivid character that is his participation as he forms the central persona in them. He talks about his experiences and memories. He wishes to convey messages to the readers in order to be comprehensible. In some poems his speech is colloquial, yet the words are rather poetic at some parts. The reader through his reading puts color to the words which are appropriately placed in his poems. The style is simple and plain while metaphors, similes and reiterations are prevalent in his poems providing a different nuance. Realism and the element of love are profound and clear. Another characteristic of his poetry which is located in his poem I forgot to tell you is the cycle made by the poet since he opens and closes the poem with exactly the same expression and consideration. He makes and effort to covey the true and real element to the reader while he disapproves of the lie. Both his aim and objective are the truth, something which is pursued. His origins are obvious through his poetry. Therefore, Aristotle Fragos could be placed in the urban environment since his descriptions in his poetry provide similar elements and characteristics. The urban environment into which Fragos is integrated is absolutely justified by the description in his poem Pericles Evgenides, in the such a little piece of color and at the end of the poem Language of the eyes.

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Folk songs: educational history and policy and school books Antonopoulou Aggeliki, Philologist, aantonopoyloy@yahoo.gr

Abstract The subject of the precise essay refers to the presence of folk songs in the books of primary and secondary school, from 1974 till today. Through the examination of the different types of folk songs, we are aiming at the messages which are coming up and the comprehension of a whole era too. The essay consists particularly of the registration of folk songs from the anthology and the study of Greek language in the primary school. Moreover, is composed of texts of modern Greek literature from the secondary and high school. Folk songs reflect the spirit of Greek people, through which, they express themselves in their everyday life. The combination of rhythm and music, which decorate the lyrics of the songs, is also, of great importance. It is remarkable that, folk songs have survived through the ages and are characterized as a living part of Greek modern history. Key Words: folk songs, greek school books, educational history, tradition 1. The importance of folk songs gradual increase in the school books of primary and secondary school. During 1974, an educative legislation had been instituted about reforms, which were realized in 1964. These new reforms concurred to the domination of democracy. Their target was the better equivalence of the general and vocational secondary education. More specifically, the change of the school years from six to nine and the reform of secondary school into a common school of general education (seventh till ninth class). The result of this change was the end of vocational schools of lower secondary education, as well as the entrance examinations in primary and secondary school. In addition, the obligatory secondary education (tenth- twelfth class), was divided into General high school and Vocational high school, which are equivalent to each other. Those who graduate from General high school are able to enter the institutions of higher education, as opposed to those who graduate the Technical- Vocational high schools. Furthermore, it is significant that the demotic (Greek language) has dominated over all grades of education, while at the same way, translated classical texts were taught to lower secondary education. Under the governance of Karamanlis
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in 1977, the University of Patras, Ioannina, Irakleion and the Polytechnic faculty of Hania were established. Then, during 1981, G. Rallis as prime minister of the country had to face many problems in higher education and thus the downgrading of studies. When the socialist government dominated, the educational reforms were mainly aiming at the democratization of studies. We should mention the following educational changes. Since then, there is the automatic entrance to primary education and the end of examinations for the production in secondary education. The choice of direction is on the last year of High School (twelfth class), where students choose between four sets instead of two, that existed until that period. In addition, in 1984, an experimental unified High School was established to higher secondary education, which was aiming at a union between general and technical education. The production of students to the Professional high school continues until today. As a special attention was given to reforms of higher education, KATTE changed into technological education institutes. In the same way, according to the law- framework under of 1982, reforms took place in universities and postgraduate studies were formed. In addition, pedagogical sections were established, which had as a consequence, the removal of pedagogical academies from the educational scene. It should also be stressed that the government of A. Papandreou voted the law- plan, for the application of the monotonic in spelling. Moreover, in 1985, the government established four new universities. The university of Aegean (Mytilini), Ionian (Corfu), Thessaly (Volos) and Attiko. During 1990, there was a low quality of educational process. We should also, underline that this era minimum educational reforms were marked, as successive changes are dominated in the political scene (alternations in the governments of Kassotaki, Lambrakis Papagou). 2. Research on folk songs in school books This essay discusses the presence of folk songs in twenty-six school books of first degree education (primary school) and second degree education (secondary school and high school), during 1974 until today. Among these books, eighteen touching the six classes of primary school, six books touching the three classes of secondary school and finally, two books touching the first class of high school. We should mention that concerning the old edition of school books, three parts of the anthology, the second part of the study of greek language (first class of primary school), the third part of the study of greek language (second class of primary
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school), the fourth part of study of greek language (second class of primary school), the third part of the study of greek language (third class of primary school), the third part of the study of greek language (fourth class of primary school), the second part of the study of greek language (sixth class of primary school) and finally, the third part of the study of greek language (sixth class of primary school) were all included. Now, regarding the new edition of school books, the research includes the anthology of literary texts of first and second class of primary school, the anthology of third and fourth class of primary school and the anthology of fifth and sixth class of primary school. Moreover, the first issue of study of greek language (first class of primary school), the second issue of study of greek language (second class of primary school), the second part of study of greek language ( fourth class of primary school), the second part of study of greek language (sixth class of primary school), which are all included. We have also, examined the texts of Greek modern literature of the first, second, third class of secondary school (older and newer school books), as well as, the texts of Greek modern literature of the first class of General High school (old and newer school books). In addition, it is important to underline that, in a detailed registration of folk songs, in the first part of the anthology (old edition), twelve folk songs are included, while in the second part of the anthology (old edition), six folk songs are included. Finally, nine folk songs are included in the third part of the anthology. We should mention that, in the old school books, the second part of study of greek language (first class of primary school), includes one folk song. The third part of study of greek language (second class of primary school) and the fourth part (second class of primary school), also include one folk song. It is the same for the third part of study of greek language (third, fourth and sixth class of primary school). Finally, the second part (sixth class of primary school), includes three folk songs. Concerning the newer books of anthology, it should be stressed that, the anthology of first and second class of primary school, include five folk songs, the anthology of third and fourth class include three folk songs, while the anthology of fifth and sixth class includes five folk songs. Then, the research on folk songs of the newer school books of study of greek language, includes one folk song from the second part
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(second class of primary school), as well as two folk songs from the second part of the fourth class. Furthermore, two folk songs are indicated from the second part (sixth class), while one folk song is indicated from the third part (sixth class). Regarding the texts of modern Greek literature (old school books) of secondary school, we should underline that in the literary texts of the first class, there are two folk songs, in the second class there are nine folk songs and finally in the third class there are seven folk songs. There are also, three folk songs in the texts of modern Greek literature (first class of secondary school), as well as, there are four folk songs in the second and third class of secondary school. It is remarkable that, in the old edition of texts of modern Greek literature (first class of primary school), five folk songs are included, while in the newer edition sixteen folk songs are included. On the whole, we should mention that from the twenty six school books, which were examined, one hundred seven folk songs are included. Among them, there are klepht folk songs, akritika, lullabies, ballads, historic folk songs, funeral folk songs, Christmas and New Years Eve carols, wedding folk songs and love folk songs.

Through the examination of folk songs in the school books of primary, secondary and high school, we noticed that, there is a gradual increase of them from primary school to General high school. The messages which are transmitted through the folk songs are mainly social and political. Folk songs are instrumental in Greek childrens national conscience. 3. Approaching folk songs in the school books of secondary school 3.1. Texts of modern Greek literature in the first class of secondary school The book of the first class includes the folk song named My sleep and take it from me is placed among the category of lullabies. In the island of Karpathos, the custom of "seven" survives, even nowadays. According to this custom, the relatives of the family are gathering in the house of the infant, taking part in a ceremony, in honour of his birth. In addition, the parents put the baby into a blanket, by waving the baby, in order to fall asleep. The same folk song is included in the school book of anthology (newer edition), in the third and fourth class of primary school. This lullaby comes from the area of Karpathos and is included in the volume A of G.M. Georgiou, entitled Karpathiaka.
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Now, concerning the factual questions, the students are asked to write how the value of the new-born daughter is declared in the folk song. Then, the students should write the products and the foods, which exist in the folk song and match them in the productive activities of the people. Finally, the students should find the quotations, which include themes of the Christian religion. The student community is also, asked to search for the customs of birth from other regions of Greece and to present them in the classroom with music. Moreover, there is a folk song entitled A proud eagle, which is included in the klepht folk songs, in which is mainly obvious the allegorical element. The folk song that we mentioned above is included in the collection of our great folklorist N.G. Politis. It is also included in the school book study of the Greek language of the primary school (sixth class). It is also significant that, this folk song underlines the glory and the gallantry of the eagle, which is compared to the bravery of a klepht during the Turkish occupation, who is fighting even under adverse conditions for the liberation of his homeland. Then, the students are asked to gather the elements for the comprehension of the folk song, in order to reproduce the character of the klepht, who is compared to the "proud" eagle. In addition, the students are asked to write the importance of the nature on the action of eagle- klepht. Finally, they should mention the language of the folk song, as well as its parts of speech. Moreover, we should refer to the folk song named The daughter who shines, which is included in the folk songs of love. The love mood is obvious on the whole folk song. The love couplets known as couplet songs are also, widely spread and survive through time. The love songs are separated into praises, sorrows, stubborn, teasing songs and as well, in other categories. We should also, mention that this folk song constitutes a praise of the sweetheart and the daughters beauty is celebrated through her comparison to the sun and the moon. Then, the students are asked to look for the points, on which daughters beauty is shown off, not only through the comparison but also, the exaggeration. Furthermore, the students should appreciate between the sun and the daughter, whose brilliance outweighs, through a parallel use of words and expressions of this folk song. They should also make a comparison among the folk song and two couplets, which are included in the collection of N.G. Politis, entitled Eklogai of Greek peoples songs. The comparison would refer to the contents level of the texts.
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Finally, it is important to underline that, the students are asked to gather information and visual material concerning the relation of female beauty in the ancient Greek mythology to celestial bodies and constellations. 3.2. Texts of modern Greek literature in the second class of secondary school. Another folk song, which is cited, named Digenis, is included in the akritika folk songs. These songs refer to the bravery shown by Akrites on the borders of the Byzantine Empire. The symbol of Akrites heroic exploits is Basileios Digenis Akritas. It is also significant that, this folk song is a Cretan variant, which concerns the battle between Digenis and Death, where eventually, Digenis was defeated. The same folk song exists in the third part of the anthology (older edition), as well in the songs named akritika, which were choosen to create an anthology by B. X. Makis. Finally, the students should criticize the reaction of natures elements on the oncoming death of Basileios Digenis Akritas. Moreover, the students are asked to observe both human and supernatural features of Digenis and also, the exaggeration which appears in this folk song. Then, we should refer to the folk song named of Basilis , which is included in the category of klepht folk songs , which deal with the feats of klephts. Basilis is the central physiognomy of the whole folk song. It is remarkable that, the young klephts during Turkish occupation, were at liberty, in contrast to the rest of the people, who were enslaved under the Turks. So, Basilis as a brave young klepht, who refused to live enslaved and preferred to live on steep mountains. Then, there are two folk songs, which are included in expatriations songs, which refer to the emigration of people from their homeland. The expatriation is a usual phenomenon in Greece, not only in the past, but also in modern times. Through these songs, we can notice the nostalgia of Greeks, who immigrate to a foreign country. We should also, refer to the folk song entitled I want to go to foreign lands , which is included in expatriations songs and has been attended by G. Saunier, in contrast to the folk song My immigrant bird , which is included in the folk songs gathered by the great folklorist N. G. Politis. Both folk songs show off the two sides of pain. The first deals with the hardships of the immigrant, who is far away from his homeland. The second one deals with the nostalgia of the daughter for her loved one, who is far away. So, we notice that the separation of the immigrant from his beloved persons was deeply painful and the only hope was his return- repatriation to his homeland.
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3. Texts of modern Greek literature in the third class of secondary school We should mention that there are two folk songs, which are included in the collection of N. G. Politis, entitled Eklogai of Greek peoples songs .The first folk song comes from the island of Chios, recorded by Claude Foriel, a philhellene person. The second one comes from the city of Korinthos, recorded by M. Leleko. The folk song entitled My sleep, take it of me, is a lullaby and is addressed to a little boy. The next folk song Sleep my little star, refers to a little girl. The same folk song is included in the third part of the anthology (older edition), in the third and fourth part of the anthology (newer edition) and finally, in the texts of modern Greek literature in the first class of secondary school. Now, concerning the factual questions, the students are asked to the parts where the maternal affection is expressed and also, the importance of the little children for their mothers. Then, they should notice who are the aids of the new-born child, both in the case of son and daughter. Finally, they should find out the similarities between lullabies and fairy tales. Furthermore, the students should observe and write down the folk narrations about the young ladies of noble rank of Byzantium, which are included in the folk song Sleep my little star. Then, they should also find out both the differences and similarities among girls and boys, taking into account their behaviour, interests and activities in modern times. The next folk song named of Parga, is a historic folk song, which refers to a specific historical period. Parga was firstly, under the occupation of Venetians and then under French occupation, as happened with the Ionian islands. Later, Parga passed to the British and finally, was given to the Turks conquerors. It is remarkable that, the people of Parga in order to avoid the physical assaults of the conquerors, escaped to the Ionian islands, having with them holy relics and churchs pictures. We should also, underline that the native population dug the graves of their families, placed the relics of the ancestors in the markets square, in order to avoid their violation. This folk song is included in the collection of N.G. Politis, entitled Eklogai of Greek peoples songs. Concerning the factual questions, the students are asked to find out the typical motifs, which exist in the folk song and the points, where the bravery of the inhabitants is presented. Then, they should notice the mood and the subjects of verbs which are used in the folk song. Both the popular wisdom and
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learned poetry was dealing with the history of Parga and particularly with the lyric song (ode) In Parga of Andreas Kalvos, which is also included in the school book. The students should mark the differences among the two folk songs and the lyric song of Kalvos. It is also important to criticize the way history and Christian tradition are connected. In the end, they should deal with the betrayal, which aims at economic benefit, taking into account the school book of history. The following folk song entitled The bridge of Arta , is included in the category of the well- known variations. This song concerns the ancient tradition according to which, the sacrifice of a living creature was required for the construction of buildings. This song can be found in the text of modern Greek literature, in the third class of secondary school (older edition). The composition of this song connects to a legend according to which, the bridge was built in the morning, but strangely at night, was demolished, creating a mystery! The folk songs which refer to several buildings can be found not only in Greece, but also in the Balkan peninsula. The variation comes from the island of Corfu and is included in the collection of N.G. Politis, entitled Eklogai of Greek peoples songs. Regarding the factual questions, the students are asked to divide the poem in sections and then, to give a title to each of them. Moreover, they should find out the way the difficulty of bridges foundation is stated and which is the possibility of bridges creation. As well as they should write down the purpose of birds existence in the process of poems plot. They should also emphasize the utility of both adverbs, which are used by the master builder and the winged messenger. The reaction of master builders wife, hearing the unpleasant try and her feelings for her husband, constitutes an important point too. We should also, underline that the students are asked to notice the elements of the folk song, which clearly indicate that is included in the kind of variations. To sum up, they should gather information about the construction of stony bridges in whole Greece. Information should also, be found concerning the wider importance of these valuable buildings through time, after a cooperation among students and professors of geography and technology.

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Bibliography , . (2005). (1204-1985). : , . & , . & , . (2009). , . , . & , . & , . (2008). , . . & . & . (2009). , . , . (1999). . : , .. (2010). . :

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