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LT5 – Power Electronics I

Devices and Circuits

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 1


Announcement
• 3rd Tutorial this Wednesday/Thursday,
R261, 9AM
• Mid-semester exam on 9th Sept. (Tue)
at 9:30AM in EE351
• Mid-semester exam: mostly calculations
from LT1 to LT5 including TUT1-3
• Consultation: 12:30-13:30 on 5/9,
14:00-16:00 on 8/9

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 2


Power Electronics I
• Partial lecture slides prepared with content
from
– Mohan et al. Power Electronics: Converters, Applications,
and Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2nd Ed., 1995.

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 3


Copyright Notice
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Copyright Regulations 1969
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University of Sydney pursuant to Part VB of the
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Do not remove this notice.

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 4


UoS Quick-scan

LT3-4 LT5-6

Power Converter

LT8

LT7
ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 5
Outline
• Power switching concept
• Power semiconductor devices as
switches
• Operation principle of buck converter
• Driving the transistor
– Losses mechanism
– Gate drive

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 6


Outcome
• After this lecture, you will be able to…
– Identify the properties of power diode and
MOSFET
– Analyse a buck converter in different
operation modes
– Apply circuit theory to analyse other
converters
– Describe the operation of gate drive for
MOSFET

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 7


Electrical Energy Conversion by
Switching
• Electrical energy can be generated,
transmitted and converted for the load
• Process electrical energy by power
semiconductor devices & storage elements.
• Enable efficiency enhancement, size and
weight reduction of electrical equipment.
• Based on switching on and off the power
source by power semiconductors.
• Applications: power supplies for computers,
communication equipment, machine drives,
lighting, automobile and many applications.
ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 8
Electrical Energy Conversion by
Switching
• Electrical energy conversion can be classified
into the following four categories.

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Power Semiconductor – Diode
• General properties: Example: 1N4004
– Forward voltage drop vD Example: MBR1045
– Blocking voltage
– Reverse saturation current, NTC
– Repetitive pulse current A switch
driven by
voltage

Source: Mohan et al. 1995, pp. 17


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Power Semiconductor – Diode
• Voltage overshoot & reverse-recovery
transition

Switching Source: Mohan et al. 1995, pp. 535


Loss ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 11
Power Semiconductor – Diode
Example: MUR820
• Power diodes used in
switching mode power Fast recovery/
Schottky
supply
Line frequency

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Power Semiconductor – Diode
Diode/Rectifier
Single P-N Schottky
junction Barrier Diode
Symbol
Vf (Threshold) 0.6V 0.3V
Reverse 35ns - 2us Negligible
recovery trr
Breakdown > 1kV Up to 250V
voltage VT SBD favours
Leakage current ~2µA ~100µA low-voltage-
IR
high-current
Temp Coeff. PTC on IR & PTC on IR &
applications!
NTC on VT NTC on VT
Type Standard, UF, -
US
Example 1N4004 MBR1045
ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 13
Solving Reverse-Recovery Related
Problem
• Modified power converter
– Critical / boundary mode of operation of the
inductors
– Input current is continuous

IEEE Transactions of Industrial Electronics, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 767-776August 2003

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Power Semiconductor – MOSFET
• N-Channel MOSFET
– Voltage-controlled device plus body diode
– Threshold voltage VGS(th) Example: IRF540
– On-state resistance R(on) (∝ T, ∝ 1/VDSS)
– Operating temperature

Source: IR
Source: Mohan et al. 1995, pp. 25
ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 15
Power Semiconductor – MOSFET
• Relationship between VGS and ID
ID = 20A VGS = 15V

VGS = ?

VGS = 4.5V

Source: IRF540
International Rectifier
ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 16
Power Semiconductor – MOSFET
• Example: In a power converter, the
maximum continuous current through
the MOSFET is 5A and the drain-to-
source voltage when off is 75V. If the
power dissipation due to MOSFET’s
conduction loss should be less than 3W.
Please calculate the required on-state
resistance and select a suitable
MOSFET for this application.
ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 17
Buck (Step-down) Converter
• S. Ang 2005, pp. 17-27
• Circuit diagram

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 18


Buck Converter
Continuous
Conduction
Mode (CCM)

Key Switching
Waveforms

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 19


Buck Converter
• CCM voltage conversion ratio

• Critical inductance

• Output voltage ripple

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Buck Converter
• Example: A buck converter has an input
voltage of 12V. The switching frequency is
50kHz. The load requires an average voltage
of 5V with a maximum ripple voltage of 20mV.
The maximum ripple current of the output
inductor is 0.2A. Determine: (a) the duty cycle,
(b) the output inductance, (c) the output
capacitance, and (d) the output inductance if
the switching frequency is increased to
100kHz.

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Discontinuous Conduction Mode
• Voltage conversion ratio

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Discontinuous Conduction Mode
• Example: A buck converter has the
following circuit parameters: Vs=24V,
L=150uH, R=25R, C=1000uF, f=10kHz,
D=0.4. Find the following:
(a) Show that the inductor is in
discontinuous mode
(b) Determine the output voltage

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 23


Conduction Loss
• Loss due to ohmic resistance of device

Example: A DCM buck converter


operates at 25kHz and duty
cycle at 25% with input voltage
equals 12V. The output voltage
is 5V and inductance is 10uH.
Calculate the conduction loss
of the MOSFET if R(on) is 0.1R.

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 24


Switching Loss
• Loss due to switching of current and
voltage

How
Source: Mohan et al. 1995, to reduce it ?
pp. 21-23
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Gate Drive for MOSFET
• Totem-pole

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Gate Drive for MOSFET
• Need of floating gate drive

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Gate Drive for Buck Converter
• Floating gate drive

Source: IR2111
International Rectifier

ELEC3205 - Power Electronics I: Devices and Circuits 28


Gate Drive for Buck Converter
• Floating gate drive

Source: IR2111
International Rectifier

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Suggested Readings
• Ang and Oliva, 2005. Chapters 2.1-2.3.

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Size and Volume Reduction

SMPS

Output power = 380W


Linear regulator

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Applications of SMPS

Lighting
Car adaptor
Motor Drives
Lighting Computer

Telecom
Power Amp AC Adaptor and More……
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