Anda di halaman 1dari 39

Descriptive Epidemiology

Practical session 2

Question 1
Comment on, and interpret, the following graphs/curves. Explain the variation in disease occurrence by different variables presented.

Question 1
The curve shows that the incidence of whooping cough in relation to age in years. It shows that the highest incidence of whooping cough is in infants and preschool children and later it decreases rapidly

Question 1
This could be explained by increased immunity status due to vaccination or infection which provide a long lasting immunity for the disease

Question 2
What is the name of this curve?
Bimodal age incidence curve

Question 2
Explain reasons of these two age-incidence peaks)?
The first peak could be explained by ovarian dysfunction The second is due to adrenal estrogen imbalances

Question 2
Give an example of another disease having a similar curve?
Hodgkins lymphoma

Question 3

What is the age group having the highest rate of gonorrhea?


Males 20-24 & 25- 29 Females 20 - 24

Question 3
What could be the possible explanation(s) for age and sex variation in incidence of gonorrhoea?
Sex variation could point to the greater tendency of males to engaged in risky sexual behaviors more than females. Gonorrhoea is more difficult to be diagnosed in females

Question 3
What could be the possible explanation(s) for age and sex variation in incidence of gonorrhoea?
The age group being the age of active sexual life and hence the greater incidence of highly risky behavior

Question 4
Define ethnic group?
A group of persons who lived together for a sufficient length of time to have acquired common characteristics whether by biological or social mechanism

Question 4
Comment on the above bar chart?
The following bar charts show a higher prevalence rates among Blacks as compared to whites and within each ethnic group males show greater prevalence of hypertension as compared to females

Question 4
Explain the ethnic differences?
Could be due to hereditary factors in blacks making them at a greater risk Poorer socioeconomic situations quality of food, higher stress level and delayed access to protective services

Question 4
Explain the sex differences?
Protective effect of hormones among females Less exposure to smoking

Question 5
Comment on the following graph?
This graph plots the incidence rate of TB among different districts in a city. From this graph we can see that district C has the highest incidence of all 5 districts and district D has the lowest rate.

Question 5
Suggest the characteristics of the population of the district that has the highest rate?
High crowding index Mal nourishment Bad ventilation and poor housing conditions

Question 6
What are the age and sex variations of lung cancer that may be concluded from the tabulated figures?
Lung cancer is more common in males than females Incidence increase in both sexes by age The highest incidence is in the age group of 60-85 in both males and females

Question 6
Interpret the sex variations?
Due to higher exposure to risk factors namely smoking in addition to occupational exposure among males as compared to females

Question 6
Interpret the age variations?
Cumulative effect of the risk factor (smoking &/or pollution)

Question 7
The peak of the curve is in the . season.
winter

Question 7
Why most cases of pneumonia occur in this season?
Over crowding and poor ventilation

Question 7
Name other diseases that may show the same seasonality?
Meningitis, influenza, measles, German measles, mumps

Question 8
What is the season of the highest number of cases? Explain why?
Summer Warm weather invites the multiplication of the organism, in addition to vector of the disease (flies)

Question 9
Describe and interpret the following curve.
This curve shows the cyclic trend of measles which occurs every 2 to 3 years

Question 9
Could this type of curve be seen in developed countries? Yes No
NO

Question 9
Explain your answer.
Due to vaccination which prevents the accumulation of susceptibles

Question 10
Distinguish between an epidemic and an outbreak?
Epidemic is occurrence of a disease in a community or a region in clear excess of normal expectancy Outbreak is a localized epidemic within a closed community e.g. school

Question 10
This curve suggests that the type of this epidemic is .
Point source epidemic

Question 10
State the main features of this type of epidemic?
The epidemic curve rises and falls rapidly with no secondary waves. The epidemic tend to be explosive, there is clustering of cases within a short period of time. All cases develop within one incubation period of disease

Question 10
Name the other type of epidemic, and mention its characteristics?
Propagated or contagious epidemic and its main features are:
Epidemic curve rises and falls gradually. Cases occur over a much longer period. Cases occur within more than one incubation period of the disease

Question 11
What is meant by the secular trend of a disease?
Implies changes in the occurrence of disease (i.e. progressive increase or decrease) over a long period of time, generally several years or decades

Question 11
What is the difference between the secular trends of X and Y diseases?
Disease X shows a progressive decline while Disease Y is showing progressive rise across years

Question 11
Give two examples for diseases having X pattern of secular trend, and give possible explanation(s)?
Infectious diseases in general due to medical advances like vaccination, antibiotics, and better diagnosis and treatment.

Question 11
Give two examples for diseases having Y pattern of secular trend, and give possible explanation(s)?
Chronic diseases due to changing life styles accumulation of risks and increasing life expectancies in addition advances in detection and diagnosis of diseases.

Question 12
Choose the best answer: This drastic decline in cases of typhoid fever, in the United States, could be MOSTLY attributed to:
Vaccination of high risk groups Implementation of disinfection methods of drinking water Administration of appropriate antibiotics Identification and treatment of typhoid carriers

Question 12
Choose the best answer: This drastic decline in cases of typhoid fever, in the United States, could be MOSTLY attributed to:
Vaccination of high risk groups Implementation of disinfection methods of drinking water Administration of appropriate antibiotics Identification and treatment of typhoid carriers

Question 13
What are the general characteristics peculiar to place?
Developed countries have greater incidence regarding breast cancer
Continent Rate

Europe North America Australia South America Asia Africa

62.4 99.4 84.6 46.0 33.3 16.8

Question 13
Comment on the data in the above table, and give the possible explanation(s) of the place differences?
This may be due to a better reporting system in these countries Increased life expectancy Western life style and lower fertility rates
Continent Rate

Europe North America Australia South America Asia Africa

62.4 99.4 84.6 46.0 33.3 16.8