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Soldier

pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


Soldierpilewallexcavationanalyzedwithlimitequilibrium andnonlinearanalysismethods
DeepXcavsoftwareprogram(Version2011) (ParatiePluswithinItaly) DocumentVersion1.0 Issued:2August2012 DeepExcavationLLC www.deepexcavation.com
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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


Thisexamplepresentsa25ftexcavationontherightsideofasoldierpileandlaggingwallsupportedby oneleveloftiebacks(Figure1).Asurchargewiththemagnitudeof0.6ksfisaddednearthewall.Tables 1through3presenttheassumedsoil,wall,andsupportpropertiesrespectively.

Figure1:Modeloftheproblem. Table1:Soilproperties. Soil Layer F Designparameter dry ELOAD (pcf) (ksf) (pcf) 120 120 313

(deg) 30

C (psf) 0

ERELOAD (ksf) 939

Table2:Wallparameters. Soldierpilesection Soldierpilespacing Walldepth Steel Lagging HP12x74 7ft 25ft A50 2intimberlagging

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


Table3:Supportparameters. Tiebackelevationonwall Tiebackspacing Angle Freelength Fixedlength Tiebackstructuralsection Prestress FirstweselecttouseEnglishunits.ThiscanbedefinedfromthelistintheGeneraltab(Figure2). 92ft 7ft 20deg 15ft 20ft 3strandtieback 60kips

Figure2:SelecttouseEnglishunits.

Next, we press the button (Figure3).

and we choose to set the general elevation to the elevation 100 ft

Figure3:Setgeneralelevationto100ft. Created by Deep Excavation LLC, Astoria, New York Page 3

Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


Next,we definethesoil properties.By pressingthe button in theProperties tabofDeepXcav,we can define the soil type properties. Figure 4 displays the dialog where these parameters are edited. DeepXcavprovidessomeusefultoolsfortheestimationofcertainsoilproperties.Bypressingthebutton wehaveaccesstothesetestsandestimators(Figure5).

Figure4:Soilpropertiesdialog.

Figure5:Soilpropertiesestimationtools. Created by Deep Excavation LLC, Astoria, New York Page 4

Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


The limit equilibrium method uses mainly the highlighted in yellow parameters presented in Table 4 below. The most important parameters are presented with bold letters. The vertical and horizontal permeabilities Kz and Kx are used when a flownet analysis is performed, while Kz is solely used when a 1Dsimplifiedwaterflowanalysisisperformed. Table4:Generalsoilparameters. Symbol t dry c Su v cv peak Kx Kz KoNC Description Totalunitweightofsoil(usedbelowthewatertable) Dryunitweightofsoil(usedabovethewatertable) Effectivesoilcohesion Undrained shear strength (used for clays when undrained modeling is selected).Inthenonlinearanalysisthisisusedasanupperlimitstrength Poissonsratio(usedforloadscalculatedwiththeoryofelasticity) Effectivesoilfrictionangle Constant volume effective shearing soil friction angle used in the nonlinear analysisforclays Peakeffectivesoilfrictionangleusedinthenonlinearanalysisforclays Soilpermeabilityathorizontaldirection Soilpermeabilityatverticaldirection Coefficient of atrest lateral earth pressures for normally consolidated conditions ExponentforcalculatingKowithKo=KoNC*[(OCR)^(nOCR)]

nOCR ParametersthatareusedinthenonlinearanalysismethodarepresentedinTable5.The>buttonsnext to each parameter can be used to estimate a soil property from available test data (SPT or CPT). For soils,ingeneral,theexponentialsoilmodeltendstoofferthemostrealisticapproachasitcapturesnon linearsoilbehavior. Table5:Elastoplasticsoilparameters. Symbol Description Evc Virgincompressionmodulusofelasticity Eur Reloadingelasticitymodulus Eload Loadingelasticitymodulus exp Exponent av Coefficientforverticalstress ah Coefficientforhorizontalstress Pref Referencepressure Eur Reloadingelasticitymodulus Kvc Loadingsubgradereactionmodulus kur Reloadingsubgradereactionmodulus

Elasticplasticsoil behavior

Exponentialsoil behavior

Subgrademodulussoil behavior

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


Inordertodefinethewallpropertiesanddimension,wedoubleclickonthewallonthemodel.Herewe can define the wall top elevation and the wall depth (Figure 6). In order to define the wall section, we pressthebutton (Figure7).

Figure6:Walldatadialog.

Figure7:Editwallsectiondatadialog. Created by Deep Excavation LLC, Astoria, New York Page 6

Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


Next, we apply a surcharge with a magnitude of 0.6 ksf in Stage 1. This can be done by pressing the button fromthetoolbarontheleftsideofthescreenandbyclickingontwopointsontheleftside of the wall. Then, the Edit distributed load dialog appears (Figure 8). In this dialog we can define the exactcoordinatesoftheloadandtheloadmagnitude.

Figure8:Editsurchargepropertiesdialog. Inconstructionstage2weaddatiebacksupport.Thiscanbedonebypressingthebutton fromthe toolbar on the left side of the screen and by clicking first on the wall and next to the ground. Then, the Edit support data dialog appears (Figure 9). In this dialog we can define the exact coordinates of the tiebacks place on the wall, the tiebacks free and fixed length, the spacing between the tiebacks, the installation angle and the prestress that will be used for this tieback only for this stage. Figure 10 presentsthemodelasinitiallysetupwithourassumptions.

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis

Figure9:Editsupportpropertiesdialog.

Figure10:ModeloftheprograminDeepXcav. Next,wechoosetousewallfrictionasapercentageofavailablesoilfriction(50%).Weapplythisoption in the Analysis tab of DeepXcav (Figure 11a). In addition, we choose to apply US allowable code settings intheavailableoptionintheDesigntabofDeepXcav(Figure11b).

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis

Figure11a:Wallfriction.

Figure11b:USallowablesettings. Thefollowingconstructionstagesarecreatedinthebasedesignsectionfirst: Stage0:Initialstages.Herewesetthewallandsoilparameters. Stage1:Excavationontherightsideofthewalltoelevation90ft. Stage2:Tiebackinstallation. Stage3:ExcavationtoElevation75ftandsurchargeapplication.

Finally,inthelaststage(Stage3)wechoosetochangetheDrivepressurestoPeck,fromtheanalysistab ofDeepXcav(Figure12).

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis

Figure12:UsePeck1969ApparentfordrivepressuresinStage3. Byrightclickingwiththe mouseinthedesignsectionsareaontheleftsideofthescreenwecanchoose to Edit the section name. We change it to LimitEquilibrium. Next, by rightclicking once again we choose to add as new section, and rename it to Nonlinear (Figures 13a and 13b). Now, we have to identicaldesignsections.

Figure13a:Renameandaddingnewdesignsections.

Figure13b:Theeditsectionnamedialog. In the Limit Equilibrium design section, we apply the limit equilibrium method from the analysis tab of DeepXcav(Figure14). Created by Deep Excavation LLC, Astoria, New York Page 10

Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis

Figure14:LimitEquilibriummethod. IntheNonlineardesignsection,weusethebeamonelastoplasticfoundationmethodfromtheanalysis tab of DeepXcav (Figure 15). A Mesh Delta of 0.25 ft will be used in this example for the nonlinear analysis. The Mesh Delta controls the number of nodes created along the wall for the nonlinear analysis.

Figure15:Beamonelastoplasticfoundations(nonlinear)method.

Wecalculatebothdesignsectionsbypressingthebutton .Afterthecalculation iscompletedtheAnalysisandcheckingsummarytableappears(Figure16).Inthenonlinearanalysisthe calculationshowsinredassomedesignitemsappeartobeunderdesigned.

Figure16:Analysisandcheckingsummarytable. Created by Deep Excavation LLC, Astoria, New York Page 11

Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis


IntheResultstabofDeepXcavwecanseeonthescreenavarietyofresultsforalldesignsectionsandall design stages. The following Figures present the wall embedment safety factors, the wall moment and shear diagrams, the wall displacements and the soil effective stresses as calculated with DeepXcav. The redlinesonthemomentdiagramsrepresentthedesigncapacityofthewall.

17a.LimitEquilibrium17b.Nonlinear Figure17:WallembedmentSafetyFactorsforbothdesignsections,stage3.

Stage1Stage2 Figure18:WallmomentdiagramsforLimitEquilibriumanalysisdesignsection.

Stage2Stage3 Figure19:WallmomentdiagramsforNonlinearanalysisdesignsection.

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis

Stage1Stage3 Figure20:WallsheardiagramsforLimitEquilibriumanalysisdesignsection.

Stage2Stage3 Figure21:WallsheardiagramsforNonlineardesignsection.

Stage1Stage3 Figure22:WalldisplacementsforLimitEquilibriumanalysisdesignsection.

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis

Stage2Stage3 Figure23:Walldisplacementsfornonlinearanalysisdesignsection.

Stage1Stage3 Figure19:SoileffectivehorizontalstressesforLimitEquilibriumanalysisdesignsection.

Stage0Stage3 Figure20:SoileffectivehorizontalstressesforNonlinearanalysisdesignsection.

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Soldier pile wall Limit Equilibrium Nonlinear Analysis

Stage2Stage3 Figure21:SoileffectiveverticalstressesforNonlinearanalysisdesignsection.

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