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CHAPTER II GENERAL ENGLISH

A. Pendahuluan General English yang akan dibahas pada bab ini meliputi review tentang tenses, passive voice, kata sandang, preposition, adjective adverb dan abstract noun. Dengan review materi ini diharapkan mahasiswa dapat memahami lebih baik lagi tentang struktur kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris yang selanjutnya diterapkan untuk memahami dan menterjemahkan teks-teks berbahasa Inggris ke bahasa Indonesia atau sebaliknya dengan baik dan benar. Selain itu materi ini juga diaplikasikan ketika melakukan percakapan dalam bahasa Inggris, sehingga percakapan dilakukan dengan baik dan benar. B. TENSES REVIEW 1. Present Tenses Peristiwa atau kegiatannya masih ada hubungannya dengan waktu sekarang. Macamnya ada 4, yaitu: 1. Simple Present Tense 2. Present Continuous Tense Continuous Tense a) Simple Present Tense a. Rumusnya: Subject He, She, It, Predicate Verb-1 + s/es/ies Complement Object/Adverb 17 3. Present Perfect Tense 4. Present Perfect

Noun (singular) I, You, We, They, Noun (plural) b. Penggunaan Dipakai untuk menyatakan kebiasaan (habitual action) sampai saat ini. Ciri katanya: always, usually, sometimes, often, seldom, hardly, scarcely, dan rarely atau everyday, every week, every month, every year, dan lain-lain. Juga untuk menyatakan hal-hal yang bersifat umum/abadi (general truth). Contoh: Anita operates computer every day. Ali goes to library every Thursday. They search information from the internet every morning. Water freezes at 0 Celsius. Students need love and attention. The earth revolves around the sun once in every 365 days. Do you believe what he says about Pythagoras Theorem? Does your lecturer go to campus every day? How many times a week does he teach you operating system? b) Present Continuous Tense a. Rumusnya: Subject He, She, It, Noun (singular) I You, We, They, Noun (plural) Predicate is + Verb + ing am + Verb + ing are + Verb + ing Complement Object/Adverb Object/Adverb Object/Adverb 18 Verb-1 Object/Adverb

b. Penggunaan Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan atau peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung saat ini. Penandanya (adverb of time) : now, at this moment, at present, dan lain-lain. Contoh: I am reading an online novel at the moment. We are listening to the physics lecturer at present. You cant see Tom now, he is having a bath. I am not studying cryptograhpy now. Is Mr. Budi listening to a radio now? Are you studying database this semester? Why is the boy crying? Whom is Erlina waiting for? Where are you studying? How many boys are studying analysis of algorithm?

c) Present Perfect Tense a. Rumusnya : Subject He, She, It, Noun (singular) I, You, We, They, Noun (plural) c. Penggunaan Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan atau peristiwa yang baru selesai dilakukan. Cirinya: just, already, ever, never, dan yet. Contoh: 19 Predicate Has + Verb-3 (been) Complement Object/Adverb

Have + Verb-3 (been)

Object/Adverb

He has already finished his homework before you come (+). I havent learned that software yet (-). I have received many email this month. Have you ever been to Bali? Has Hardi locked the gate? Where has the dog slept? Why have the children gone to the zoo? Who has helped you?

d) Present Perfect Continuous Tense a. Rumusnya:

Subject He, She, It, Noun (singular) I, You, We, They, Noun (plural) b. Penggunaan

Predicate Has + been + Verb + ing Have + been + Verb + ing

Complement Object/Adverb

Object/Adverb

Digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa kegiatan atau peristiwa sudah dimulai pada waktu yang lalu tetapi masih berlangsung sampai saat ini. Cirinya di antaranya adalah : FOR + jumlah waktu atau SINCE + titik waktu. Juga pertanyaan How long ? Contoh: I have been studying computer for three years. I have been studying Mathematics since I was a child. How long have you been studying computer? She has been waiting for you for two weeks. 20

She has been waiting for you since two weeks ago. How long has she been waiting for you? The students have been discussing their lesson for two hours. The students have been discussing their lesson since two hours ago. I havent been working on lesson six long. Have you been reading a magazine in the classroom? What have you been doing since six oclock? How long have the students been discussing their lesson?

2. Past Tenses Merupakan bentuk kalimat yang menyatakan peristiwa atau kegiatan terjadi pada waktu lalu. Jenisnya ada 4 macam, yaitu: 1. Simple Past Tense 2. Past Continuous Tense Tense a) Simple Past Tense a. Rumusnya ada 2 yaitu: Subject + Verb-2 + Object 3. Past Perfect Tense 4. Past Perfect Continuous

(Complement) atau: Subject He, She, It, I, Noun (singular) You, We, They, Noun (plural) to be was were Complement Noun/Adjective/Adver b Noun/Adjective/Adver b 21

b. Penggunaannya: Simple past tense, dipakai bila tidak diketahui bagaimana kegiatan atau peristiwa itu selanjutnya. Ciri katanya: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last year, two days ago, an hour ago, this morning (jika diucapkan setelah pagi), just now (apabila baru saja diucapkan). Contoh: I did the calculus task last night. We made the inventory application program yesterday. I didnt understand the material about genetic algorithm. She was ill last week. You were absent last monday. - I sneezed while the teacher was speaking.

b) Past Continuous Tense a. Rumusnya: Subject + was/were + Verb-ing + Object (Complement) b. Penggunaannya: 1) Digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa suatu peristiwa sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lalu. Jadi, berupa kalimat majemuk. 2) Biasanya ditandai dengan WHEN atau WHILE. Contoh: I was reading the software engineering book WHEN she came. They were discussing their lesson WHEN I watched TV. She made the graph WHILE problems. 22 we were doing another

My brother played guitar WHILE John was writing a letter. WHEN she was walking on the street, she found a wallet. While he was sleeping, I listened to the BBC News. When the students were doing the test, the teacher sat in front of the class. Who sang WHILE Albert was playing the guitar?

c) Past Perfect Tense a. Rumusnya: Subject + had + Verb-3 (been) + Object (Complement) b. Penggunaanya: 1) Digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa kegiatan atau peristiwa sudah selesai sebelum kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lalu. Past Perfect Tense juga digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat majemuk. 2) Biasanya ditandai dengan BEFORE atau AFTER. Contoh: Before she went out, she had locked the door. We had been there before he arrived. The man had finished the work before she entered the room. They continued to study after they had taken a rest. After you had signed the letter, he gave it to me. After I had read the announcement, I wrote an article. The paper boy went home after he had delivered the newspapers. Before I met him, I had made an appointment with him. You had watered the flowers before it rained. The lady looked so sad after she had heard the bad news. 23

Ali hadnt heard the news before you told him. Had he known the country before he visited it?

d) Past Perfect Continuous Tense a. Rumusnya: Subject + had + been + Verb-ing + Object (Complement) b. Penggunaannya: 1) Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan atau peristiwa yang masih sedang dilakukan pada waktu lalu atau ketika/sebelum kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lalu. 2) Biasanya ada FOR + BANYAK WAKTU atau SINCE + TITIK WAKTU. Contoh: We had been studying English for 2 years last vacation. Yesterday, she had been waiting for the bus for 5 hours. We had been watching TV for half an hour when you came. He had been painting for all day before I took his dinner. When they visited me, I had been living in this town for 10 years. The students had been discussing the assignment for 15 minutes before the teacher began the lesson. Had the children been watching television before they were sent to bed? 3. Future Tenses

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Merupakan bentuk kalimat yang menyatakan suatu kegiatan atau peristiwa yang direncanakan akan terjadi pada waktu yang akan datang. Dibedakan atas 4 jenis, yaitu: 1. Present Future Tense 2. Future Continuous Tense a) Present Future Tense a. Rumusnya: Subject + shall/will + Verb-1 (be) + Object (Complement) Untuk yang segera terjadi: Subject + am/is/are + going to + Verb-1 (be) Object (Complement) Penggunaan: 1. Menyatakan perbuatan yang akan dilakukan pada waktu yang akan dating 2. Membuat suatu janji ( She will help you with your homework tomorrow ) 3. Menunjukkan syarat (He will give you a good dictionary if you go with him) 4. Memohon kepada seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu ( Will you please help me to get the book ) b. Ciri katanya: Biasanya memakai kata: Tomorrow, next week, soon, later, tonight. Contoh: 25 + 3. Future Perfect Tense 4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

They will play tennis tomorrow. We shall see this film tonight. I am going to leave for London. I shall be twenty-one on Sunday. Tomorrow will be Monday. Will you help me to get the mathematics book? Ali will not ( wont) finish the work soon. What will the children do this afternoon? Why shall you stay at home tonight? How much money will Endah spend at Taman Monas?

Catatan: 1) will = ll, misalnya Ill, well. 2) will not dapat ditulis wont; shall not dapat ditulis shant. b) Future Continuous Tense Subject + shall/will + be Object (Complement) Contoh: At seven oclock tomorrow morning I shall be having breakfast. What will you be doing at ten tonight? I shall be waiting for you in my room after supper/dinner. Anik will be visiting us tomorrow. I believe he will be coming this way. I shall be seeing him tomorrow. The sun will be shining in a minute. Will Mrs. Hasan be cooking the meals in half an hour? How many students will be joining our club? 26 + Verb-ing +

What will you be doing tomorrow?

c) Future Perfect Tense Menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang akan selesai atau dalam keadaan sempurna Subject + shall/will + have (Complement) Contoh: I shall have seen it. By tomorrow, every one will have heard the news. I shall have finished this by dinner time. Will he have been selling all his furniture by next month? + Verb-3 + Object

d) Future Perfect Continuous Tense Menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang mulai sebelum waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang dan terus berlangsung sampai di waktu tertentu Subject + shall/will have Object (Complement) Contoh: I shall have been working. By next summer, she will have been teaching here for ten years. On April 2-nd. 2003, we shall have been living in this house exactly thirty years. Tugas: 27 been + Verb-ing +

Buatlah contoh-contoh kalimat yang terkait dengan aplikasi dalam bidang komputer sesuai dengan tensesnya. C. PASSIVE VOICE REVIEW Dalam melakukan kalimat pasif, subjek dalam kalimat tersebut tidak pekerjaan/ perbuatan, melainkan dikenai

pekerjaan/perbuatan, dengan ciri khasnya, bahwa kata kerja yang digunakan dalam kalimat tersebut berawalan di . Ciri-Ciri: 1. Letakkan Complement/Object dari kalimat aktif tersebut pada awal kalimat, jadi complement/object tersebut menjadi subject. 2. Jika dalam kal. aktif tersebut terdapat kata kerja bantu/auxiliary, maka letakkan kata tersebut setelah subject (yang berasal dari complement/object kal. aktif) dari kalimat tersebut. 3. Kemudian tambahkan be setelah kata kerja bantu tersebut, sesuai dgn subject kalimat pasif tersebut. 4. Kemudian letakkan kata kerja yang berasal dari kal. aktif itu setelah be itu, dalam bentuk past participle (verb 3). 5. Letakkan subject yang berasal dari kal. aktif tersebut, setelah kata kerja past participle yang biasanya didahului dengan kata by. Rumus-Rumus Kalimat Pasif 1. Simple Present Tense is/are + Verb 3 (past participle) Contoh: She reads the mathematics book everyday (aktif) The mathematics book is read by her everyday (pasif) He borrows the newspapers every Sunday. (aktif) The newspapers are borrowed by him every Sunday. (pasif) Hurricanes destroy a great deal of properties each year. (aktif) 28

A great deal of properties is destroyed by hurricanes each year. (pasif) 2. Present Continuous Tense is/are + being + Verb 3 Contoh: Anna is writing the letters. (aktif) The letters are being written by Anna. (pasif) Miss Niken is teaching the students. (aktif) The students are being taught by Miss Niken. (pasif) 3. Present Perfect Tense has/have + been + Verb 3 Contoh: Somebody has dropped a wallet on the road. (aktif) A wallet has been dropped by somebody on the road. (pasif) The company has ordered some new equipments. (aktif) Some new equipments (pasif) 4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense has/have + been + being + Verb 3 Contoh: She has been writing the letters for two hours. (aktif) The letters have been being written by her for two hours. (pasif) 5. Simple Past Tense was/were + Verb 3 Contoh: Marrys father promised her a prize. (aktif) 29 have been ordered by the company.

Marry was promised a prize by her father. (pasif penekanan pada Marry) A prize was promised to Marry by her father. (pasif penekanan pada prize) 6. Past Continuous Tense was/were + being + Verb 3 Contoh: My father was painting the wall. (aktif) The wall was being painted by my father. (pasif) He was doing the homework when I came. (aktif) The homework was being done by him when I came. (pasif) 7. Past Perfect Tense had + been + Verb 3 Contoh: My sister had finished the work before I came. (aktif) The work had been finished by my sister before I came. (pasif) He had spoiled the whole evening by showing his temper. (aktif) The whole evening had been spoiled by him by showing his temper. (pasif) 8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense had + been + being + Verb 3 Contoh: She had been doing the work for two hours when I came. (aktif) The work had been being done by her for two hours when I came. (pasif) 9. Tense dengan modals: will, shall, can, must, may, etc. will 30

shall can must may etc. Contoh: They will leave the house next week. (aktif) The house will be left by them next week. (pasif) They must invite Dian to come to the meeting. (aktif) Dian must be invited by them to come to the meeting. (pasif) He can give the books next week. (aktif) The books can be given by him next week. (pasif) He may lock the doors before leaving the house. (aktif) The doors may be locked by him before leaving the house. (pasif) 10. Modals bentuk Past would should could might had to etc. Contoh: They should study the books. (aktif) seharusnya = should The books should be studied by them. (pasif) They had to tell the matter to her. (aktif) The matter had to be told to her by them. (pasif) Tugas: Buatlah kalimat-kalimat pasive yang merupakan aplikasi dalam bidang ilmu komputer sesuai dengan tenses-nya. 31 + be + Verb 3 + be + Verb 3

D. KATA SANDANG 1. Kata Sandang a dan an satu/tunggal. a hat (sebuah topi) a student (seorang siswa) a horse (seekor kuda) an actor (seorang aktor) an apple (sebuah apel) an elephant (seekor gajah) a) Article (Kata Sandang) untuk benda/orang yang berjumlah

Kecuali: an hour, an herb , dan a university. b) Artikel a/an digunakan untuk kata benda tunggal yang dapat dihitung, ketika benda itu digunakan pertama kalinya dan tidak menunjuk pada benda tertentu. I met a woman last night. Yang salah: I need a water. I need an oranges. It is a big. She is a my friend. rasio. Oranges are 2 dollars a kilo. He can run ten miles an hour. I go to school five times a week. 2. KATA SANDANG the a) Kata sandang the dipakai di depan sebuah kata yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya pada kalimat yang sama atau pada kalimat sebelumnya. I have a novel but the novel is not interesting. b) The digunakan di depan kata benda yang sudah pasti. Can you give me the knife on the table? 32 Yang benar: I need water. I need oranges. It is a big house. She is a friend of mine.

c) A/an digunakan untuk menyatakan harga, kecepatan , dan

c) The digunakan di depan kata benda tunggal yang menunjukkan sebuah kelompok. The tiger can live in Sumatera. d) The digunakan di depan adjective (kt. sifat), yang digunakan sebagai kata benda. The deaf (orang-orang tuli) . The blind in the area need help. They will help the poor in Bali. e) The digunakan di depan nama benda yang merupakan satusatunya. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The moon is beautiful if seen from the earth. f) The digunakan di depan nama terusan, nama hutan, laut, sungai, gugusan pulau, rangkaian pegunungan, gurun, danau, wilayah, cinema, alat musik, koran, kapal. The Suez Canal, the Black Forest, the Bali Sea, the Sahara Desert, the Toba Lake, the Times, the Beatles, the Titanic. We are going to the cinema. I can play the guitar. g) The TIDAK BOLEH digunakan di depan nama jalan, nama kota, nama benua They live in the Green Street (Salah). They live in Green Street (Benar) . h) Sebelum nama-nama yang terdiri dari adjective + noun atau noun + of + noun. The national gallery, The tower of London. E. PREPOSITION (KATA DEPAN) Hampir semua kalimat memuat preposition. Preposition (kata depan) adalah kata yang pada umumnya ditempatkan sebelum kata benda (noun) atau kata ganti (pronoun) untuk menunjukkan hubungan 33

dengan bagian-bagian kalimat yang lain. Dan, kata benda atau kata ganti yang mengikuti preposition harus berkedudukan sebagai objek. 1. About (sekitar, kira-kira, tentang, dsb) 10. 11. He walked about the school. Its about 2 oclock. The book is about the Values of Nation Character. Look at the figure above. The sky is above the earth. She took a walk across the garden. She came here after me. They are at home now. I get up at five oclock every morning Who is running behind you? He stood beside the window. I didnt expect anyone besides you. The problem was done by Anik. I know the mathematics teacher by his name only. I go to school by motorcycle. In (di dalam, pada) They are in the waiting room. She was born in 1975. Into (ke dalam, menjadi) 34

2. Above (di atas)

3. Across (melewati) 4. After (setelah) 5. At (di, pada)

6. Behind (di belakang) 7. Beside (di samping) 8. Besides (selain/kecuali) 9. By (oleh, dari, naik)

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

The boy went into the class room. The verb is changed into the noun. In front of (di depan) The Biology teacher is in front of the class. Inside (di dalam) He stays inside the house when it starts raining. Among (di antara lebih dari dua) There is an apple among the oranges. Around (mengelilingi) She walks around the park. Pass around these handouts, please. At the back of ( di belakang) He is sitting at the back of the car. As for as/as far as (sejauh, hingga) They walked as for as twenty kilometers. Before (sebelum) I never go home before one oclock p.m. Below (di bawah) I saw the sea below us. Look at the figure below. Beneath (di bawah saling menempel) The envelope is beneath the stamp. Between (di antara dua benda) He sits between Anik and Yanti. On line g, point P between point A and point B. Beyond (di luar) It is beyond my power. But (selain, kecuali) No one but he has done this problem (Tidak seorang pun kecuali dia yang telah menyelesaikan soal ini) Down (turun berupa gerakan) 35

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. -

He climbed down the stairs. Please sit down. During (selama) She stayed here during her holidays. Except (kecuali) They were all here except him. For (untuk, selama, karena) The letter is for you. I have been here for six weeks. He was punished for stealing. From (dari) We came from Blora yesterday. Steel is made from iron. Near (dekat) My house is near the school. Of (bagian dari, yang) The son of my teacher is a lawyer. He is a man of great skill (Dia adalah seorang laki-laki yang sangat terampil). On (di atas, pada) The book is on the table. Ill come here on Sunday. Onto (di atas) She walks onto the podium. Out of (keluar lawan dari into) She walked out of the office. Outside (di luar atau di sebelah luar) I met her outside the office yesterday. Over (di atas tapi tdk bersentuhan, melintasi, lewat, di The ceiling is over the floor. 36

seberang)

36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. -

The plane is flying over the island. My father is over eighty years old now. They live over the street. Round (mengelilingi) They sat round the table. Since (sejak) We have been learned here since two hours ago. Through (melalui) We can see the flowers through the window. Till (sampai/hingga) I will always love you till the end. To (untuk, pada, ke) I give it to you. We must obey to the rules. I go to school everyday. Toward (menuju) He was driving toward the town. Under (di bawah, kurang dari) The pencil is under the table. She is under seventeen years old Until (sampai, hingga) He lived here until he was twenty. Up (di atau ke atas) He climbed up the hill. Up to (sampai, hingga) I dont know her name up to now. Upon (pada) Peace be upon you (Semoga kesejahteraan ada pada Anda) With (dengan, kepemilikan, pada) Can I go with you tonight? The boy with the blue eyes is my brother. 37

48. 49. 50. 51. 52. -

He was very angry with me. Within (dalam jangka waktu) Can you do it within a month? Without (tanpa) I wont go without her (Saya tidak akan pergi tanpa dia) Against (menentang) Her father is against her joining the camping program. Along (sepanjang) We took a boat ride along the Bengawan Solo river. Away (menjauh) The boat sailed away from the harbor.

F. ADJECTIVE Kata sifat adalah kata yang membatasi/menjelaskan kata benda atau kata ganti. House The big house. membatasi house. The big new house membatasi. The big, new, white house membatasi. Dibedakan: 1. Kata sifat yang menjelaskan kualitas/keadaan kata benda atau kata ganti. Strong, small, industrious (rajin), bitter (pahit), tired, annoying (menjengkelkan). 2. Menjelaskan kata benda atau kata ganti. Their car, some chicken, each student, an apple, that girl, a university . Contoh: 38 big, new, dan white semakin big dan new kata-kata yang lebih big disebut adjective, karena

1. She is a beautiful girl. Beautiful menjelaskan girl (noun). The cleaning women worked on the car. 2. She is beautiful. Beautiful menjelaskan she (pronoun). G. ADVERB (Kata Keterangan) 1. Untuk menerangkan kata kerja (verb) 1) Ani can run quickly. 2) Miss Ana works here. 3) Nina walked slowly into her room. 4) The birds sing sweetly. 5) She welcomed me warmly. 6) They work hard. 7) She speaks English fluently. 8) My mother drives her car carefully. 9) That store sells the toys expensively. 2. Untuk menerangkan kata sifat (adjective) 1) She has a very new book. 2) She is very beautiful. 3) It is now too hot to play tennis. 4) He is very rich. 3. Untuk menerangkan kata keterangan lainnya 39

1) He runs unusually fast. 2) She sings very well. 3) He works very hard. 4. Untuk menerangkan kata depan (preposition) 1) Come back at about five oclock. 2) The cat was sitting almost outside the door. 3) She arrived long before the time. 4) The bee flew exactly over my head. 5. Untuk menerangkan kata sambung 1) I want to know precisely how the accident happened. 2) I like this place simply because the air is cool. 3) I arrived at home shortly before the rain feel.

H. ABSTRACT NOUN 1. Dengan memberikan akhiran ment pada kata kerja. Advertise Agree Argue Arrange Develop Entertain Measure Advertisement Agreement Argument Arrangement Development Entertainment Measurement Iklan Persetujuan Perdebatan Penyusunan Perkembangan Hiburan Ukuran

2. Dengan memberikan akhiran ion, tion pada kata kerja. Connect Adopt Associate Connection Adoption Association Hubungan Adopsi Perkumpulan 40

Collect Act Confuse

Collection Action Confusion

Kumpulan Perbuatan Kebingungan

3. Dengan menambahkan akhiran ation, cation, ition pada kata kerja. Admire Compete Compose Repeat Expect Apply Classify Collect Repeat Classify Admiration Competition Composition Repetition Expectation Application Classification Collection Repetition Clasification Kekaguman Persaingan Karangan Pengulangan Pengharapan Lamaran Penggolongan Kumpulan Pengulangan Penggolongan

4. Dengan menambahkan akhiran ance, ence pada kata kerja. Hinder Enter Admit Appear Attend Confide Assist Differ Obey Hindrance Entrance Admittance Appearance Attendance Confidence Assistance Difference Obedience Halangan Jalan masuk Pengakuan Penampakan diri Kehadiran Kepercayaan Bantuan Perbedaan Kepatuhan

5. Dengan menambahkan t. Complain Fly Contain Descend Complaint Flight Content Descent Keluhan Penerbangan Isi Keturunan 41

Deceive

Deceit

Penipu

6. Dengan menambahkan y. Discover Deliver Injure Recover Discovery Delivery Injury Recovery Penemuan Penyerahan Luka Kesembuhan

7. Abstract Noun yang sama bentuk dengan kata kerjanya. To To To To hope help mind love Hope Help Mind Love Pengharapan Pertolongan Pikiran Percintaan

8. Abstract Noun dari kata sifat, dengan menambah ness. Good Happy Polite Sad Goodness Happiness Politeness Sadness Kebaikan Kebahagiaan Kesopanan Kesedihan

9. Abstract Noun dari Common Noun. Agent Champion Child Hero Friend Agency Championship Childhood Heroism Friendship Keagenan Kejuaraan Masa kanakkanak Kepahlawanan Persahabatan

10.

Abstract Noun dari kata sifat lainnya. Patient Young Important Deep Patience Youth Importance Depth Kesabaran Masa muda Pentingnya Dalamnya 42

Hot Poor Wise Long True Beautiful Fluent Brave 11.

Heat Poverty Wisdom Length Truth Beauty Fluency Bravery

Panasnya Kemiskinan Kebijaksanaan Panjangnya Kebenaran Kecantikan Kelancaran Keberanian

Dengan menambah ing pada kata kerja. To write To broadcast To read To speak Writing Broadcasting Reading Speaking Tulisan Siaran Bacaan Percakapan

12. Kata benda dibentuk menambah cy, -ancy, -ency. Agent Infant Lieutenant Bankrupt 13. Agency Infancy Lieutenancy Bankruptcy

menjadi

kata

benda,

dengan

Perwakilan Masa kecil Pangkat letnan Kebangkrutan

Dengan penambahan ian atau an. Indonesia Library Magic Music Indonesian Librarian Magician Musician Orang Indonesia Pustakawan Tukang Sihir Musikus

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