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Heart Structure and Cardiac Cycle Questions

1.

The diagram shows a section through a human heart.


C
B
A

(a)

Which of the blood vessels labelled A to D


(i)

takes blood from the heart to the muscles of the arms and legs;
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(1)

(ii)

is a vein which contains oxygenated blood?


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(1)

(b)

Is the right ventricle filling with blood or emptying? Give two pieces of evidence from the diagram to
support your answer.
Filling or emptying? ..................................................................................................
Evidence
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
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(2)

The graphs show some changes in pressure and volume during part of a cardiac cycle.

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A o rta

P re ssu re

V e n tric le

V o lu m e
of
v e n tric le

(c)

Y
T im e

Describe what the graphs show about the pressure and volume in the ventricle between times X and Y.
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(1)

(d)

At point Y, the valve between the aorta and the ventricle opens. Use the information about pressure on the
graph to explain why.
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(1)

(e)

Explain the changes in the volume of the ventricle between times X and Z.
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(3)
(Total 9 marks)

2.

The graph shows changes in the volume of blood in the left ventricle as the heart beats.

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140
A
120

100
V o lu m e /
cm 3
80

60

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2

1 .4

T im e / s

(a)

(i)

The horizontal line labelled A on the graph shows when blood is leaving the ventricle. Explain, in
terms of blood pressure, why blood does not flow back into the atrium during this period.
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(2)

(ii)

Draw a horizontal line on the graph, to show the period in one cardiac cycle when the muscle in the
wall of the ventricle is relaxed. Label this line with the letter B.
(1)

(b)

(i)

Draw a horizontal line on the graph to show one complete cardiac cycle. Label this line with the
letter C.
(1)

(ii)

Use line C to calculate the number of times the heart beats in one minute. Show your working.

Answer ...................................
(2)

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(c)

The table shows the blood flow to different parts of the body at rest and during a period of vigorous
exercise.
Part of the body

Rate of blood flow/cm3 minute1


at rest

during exercise

Brain

750

750

Heart muscle

300

1 200

Gut and liver

3 000

1 400

Muscle

1 000

16 000

All other organs (except lungs)

1 550

1 550

(i)

Use the figures in the table to calculate the cardiac output at rest.

Answer ...................................
(1)

(ii)

Give two ways in which cardiac output is increased during a period of vigorous exercise.
1.........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2.........................................................................................................................
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(2)

(d)

Describe the parts played by the sinoatrial node (SAN) and the atrioventricular node (AVN) in controlling
the heart beat.
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(6)
(Total 15 marks)

3.

Table 1 shows the blood pressure in the left atrium, the left ventricle and the aorta at different stages in a cardiac
cycle. These three parts of the circulatory system have been labelled A, B
and C.

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B lo o d p r e s s u re /k P a
T im e /s

P a rt A
(le ft a triu m )

P a rt B
(le f t v e n tric le )

P a rt C
(a o rta )

0 .6

0 .3

1 2 .1

0 .1

1 .1

0 .7

1 1 .7

0 .2

0 .6

1 2 .6

1 1 .8

0 .3

0 .9

1 4 .8

1 3 .6

0 .4

1 .2

1 .1

1 2 .8

0 .5

0 .6

0 .2

1 2 .6

0 .6

0 .6

0 .2

1 2 .4

Table 1
(a)

What is the evidence from the figures in Table 1 that part B is the ventricle?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

(i)

At 0.3 s, the atrioventricular valves are closed. Give the evidence from Table 1
which supports this statement.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

For approximately how long is the valve between the left ventricle and the aorta open? Give the
reason for your answer.
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(2)

(c)

The figures in the third column of Table 1 show the changes in pressure in the left
ventricle.
(i)

Describe how the pressure in the left ventricle differs from that in the right
ventricle.
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain what causes this difference.


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..........................................................................................................................
(1)

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Table 2 compares some features of different blood vessels from a dog.

P ro p erty
A r te r y

A r te r io le

C a p illa r y

D ia m e te r o f lu m e n

0 .4

30 m

8 m

T h ic k n e s s o f w a ll

1 m m

20 m

1 m

T is s u e s p r e s e n t in w a ll
E n d o th e liu m

E la s tic tis s u e
M u s c le
T a b le 2
(d)

K ey

T is s u e p re s e n t
T is s u e a b s e n t

What is the thickness of one of the endothelial cells lining these blood vessels?
Answer: ............................................................... m
(1)

(e)

Explain why an arteriole may be described as an organ.


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(2)

(f)

Use the information in Table 2 to explain how the structure of the walls of arteries, arterioles and
capillaries is related to their function.
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(6)
(Total 15 marks)

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4.

(a)

During the cardiac cycle the heart fills with blood and then the ventricles contract. The table gives the
filling time and the contraction time at different heart rates.
Heart rate/beats
per minute

Filling time/seconds

Contraction
time/seconds

39.7

0.37

1.14

49.6

0.38

0.83

71.4

0.38

0.46

81.1

0.38

0.36

87.0

0.39

0.30

(i)

Give two conclusions that can be drawn from the figures in the table.
1 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain how you would use the figures in the table to calculate the contraction time at a heart rate
of 60 beats per minute.
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...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

What additional information would you need in order to find the cardiac output at a particular heart
rate?
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The diagram shows variations in blood pressure in different parts of the circulatory system.
L e ft v e n tr ic le
A

A o rta

V e in

P re ssu re

T im e

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T im e

T im e

(i)

Complete the table with ticks to show whether each of the valves is open or closed at the point
indicated with the letter A on the diagram.
Valve located between

Open

Closed

left atrium and left ventricle


left ventricle and aorta
right atrium and right ventricle
right ventricle and pulmonary artery
(2)

(ii)

A pulse can be felt when the fingers are placed over an artery that is close to the surface. Explain
why a pulse cannot be felt when the fingers are placed over a vein which is close to the surface.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

What causes the blood pressure to increase at the point indicated with a letter B on the diagram?
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...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

5.

This diagram shows a human heart seen from the front.


B C

(a)

(i)

Which one or more of vessels A to D contains oxygenated blood?


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

During a cardiac cycle, the pressure of the blood in vessel C is higher than the pressure of the blood
in vessel B. Explain what causes this difference in pressure.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

What does the diagram suggest about the pressure in the atria compared to the pressure in the ventricles at
the stage in the cardiac cycle represented in the diagram? Explain your answer.

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.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(c)

The wave of electrical activity which coordinates the heart beat is delayed slightly at part X. It then passes
along part Y to the base of the ventricles.
Explain the importance of
(i)

the slight delay at part X;


...........................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

the electrical activity being passed to the base of the ventricles.


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...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

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