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TRANSILVANIA UNIVERSITY OF BRAOV FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

Master Study Systems

Program:

Advanced

Electrical

CSH PROJECT
Students: Banica Ana-Maria Canja Cristina

Gr. SEA 4706

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Project

advisor:

prof.

Dr.

ing.

Corneliu

Marinescu
Project theme:
Design, modeling and performance analysis of a wind and PV hybrid system to supply energy for 10 - 12 rooms from a hotel situated in Bucovina. The main objective of our project is to desing and analyze the hybrid system following each of these steps: choice of the exact location and collect data about the wind speed, solar irradiance coefficient, temperature, latitude, longitude, air pressure; implementation of the bloc diagram; design of the electrical scheme of the system; calculation according to our consumers: number of appliances, installed power for each appliance, power consumption for each month of the year; choice of the wind turbine, solar panels, battery and diesel generator according to the calculations on power consumption; choice of the convertor based on the peak load of the system; simulation of the system using all the details mentioned before; analysis of the results, draw of the conclusions on the reliability and functionality of the system also some further work solutions.

These steps are followed by the zone renewable energy sources, efficiency of the wind turbine, solar panels, hydro generator and electric/electronic devices, economic issues all this in accordance with comparison to other devices.

Introduction Hybrid power systems based on new and renewable energy sources, especially photovoltaic and wind energy, are an effective option to solve the power-supply problem for remote and isolated areas far from the grids. Over the present years hybrid technology has been developed and upgraded its role in renewable energy sources while the benefits it produces for power production can't be ignored and have to be considered. Nowadays many applications in rural and urban areas use hybrid

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systems. Many isolated loads try to adopt this kind of technology because of the benefits which can be received in comparison with a single renewable system. For the Palestinian case, the daily average of solar radiation intensity on horizontal surface is about 5.4 kWh/m2 and day, while the total annual sunshine hours amounts to about 3000 [1]. These figures are relatively high and very encouraging to use PV generators for electrification of certain loads as it has been world wide successfully used. The annual average of wind velocity at different places in Palestine is about 3 m/s which makes the utilization of wind energy converters surely un feasible in such places . In other places it exceeds this number and reaches up 3 to 5.5 m/s (Al-Mazra'a Al-sharqiyah/Ramallah is an example and it is the case under study in the thesis ) which makes it feasible to be used to operate a wind turbine. At Nablus, the annual average of wind velocity reaches to about 4.5 m/s . Nablus site is also considered in this study as a comparison with Ramallah site [2] . Technically a system which is entirely dependent only on renewable energy sources can not be a reliable electricity supply, especially for isolated loads in remote areas. This is because the availability of the renewable energy sources can not be ensured. Therefore, wind , solar PV hybrid systems, which combine conventional and renewable sources of energies, are a better choice for isolated loads. A hybrid system using wind , solar PV, diesel generator as a back up system, and a battery as a storage system is expected to: satisfy the load demands , minimize the costs , maximize the utilization of renewable sources, optimize the operation of battery bank, which is used as back up unit , ensure efficient operation of the diesel generator, and reduce the environment pollution emissions from diesel generator if it is used as a stand alone power supply. The high capital cost of hybrid systems is affected by technical factors such as efficiency, technology, reliability, location, as well as some nontechnical factors, so the effect of each of these factors shall be considered in the performance study of the hybrid system. One of the important factors, which directly affects the electricity cost is correct system-sizing mechanism of the systems components. Over-sizing of components in hybrid system make the system, which is already expensive, more expensive, while under-sizing makes the system less reliable. Thus optimum sizing for different components gives economical and reliable benefits to the system.

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1.Location Chosen

PROBOTA

47 38 33 N, 27 5 E 47.2300, 27.3000

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Fig.1. Locations for the demonstration system (Google Earth)

Climatic conditions determine the availability and magnitude of solar and wind energy at a particular site. For different districts and locations, climatic conditions, including solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature, and so forth, are always changing. For better utilization of the solar and wind energy resources we use a potential site where are analysed the characteristics of solar radiation and wind.

1.1. Solar energy resource

With a solar radiation of 1000 1300 kWh/m Romania has a valuable potential for solar energy application. Romanias geographical distribution of solar energy potential reveals the fact that more than 50% of Romanias territory benefits from an annual energy flow ranging between 1,000 1,300 kWh/m2 per annum. Solar energy potential is given by the average solar energy quantity received in horizontal plane which is estimated at approximately 1,100 kWh/m2 per annum in Romania.

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Solar energy is converted into electricity using photovoltaic installations consisting of solar modules of different configurations and dimensions. Romanias exploitable potential for electrical energy generation by photovoltaic systems is approximately 1,200 GWh per annum.

Performance of Grid-connected PV PVGIS estimates of solar electricity generation Location: 4722'47" North, 2731'14" East, Elevation: 0 m a.s.l.
Fixed system: inclination=35, orientation=0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ed Em Hd Hm

1.54 2.39 3.27 3.59 4.26 4.23 4.30 4.31 3.78 2.94 1.68 1.27

47.8 67.0 101 108 132 127 133 133 113 91.1 50.3 39.3

1.82 2.88 4.10 4.71 5.78 5.83 5.96 5.93 5.01 3.75 2.05 1.50

56.4 80.6 127 141 179 175 185 184 150 116 61.5 46.5

Yearly average Total for year

3.13

95.3 1140

4.12

125 1500

Ed: Average daily electricity production from the given system (kWh) Em: Average monthly electricity production from the given system (kWh) Hd: Average daily sum of global irradiation per square meter received by the modules of the given system (kWh/m2)

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Hm: Average sum of global irradiation per square meter received by the modules of the given system (kWh/m2)

Fig. 2. Global Solar Rank [http://www.3tier.com]

Fig.3. Global radiation and solar electrical potential 1.2. Wind energy resource

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For the first year since 2007, wind energy in 2010 was not the leading sector in terms of the value of the capacity of new facilities based on ecological electrical energy sources. Wind constituted 16.8% of the capacity of all new energy sources. Wind energy has taken the lead among alternative energy sources in Romania. According to the Energy Regulatory Authority, the total capacity of wind farms in use amounted to 469 MW at the end of May 2011.

Wind measured at 10 m height: Mounth[day] January February March Aprilie May June July August September October November December Wind speed [m/s] 5.0 5.0 5.4 4.7 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.9 5.0 4.9 5.1

Monthly wind data recorded near the village Probota [http://www.inmh.ro]:

Fig.4. Wind speed in January

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Fig.5. Wind speed in February

Fig.6. Wind speed in March

Fig.7. Wind speed in April

Fig.8. Wind speed in May

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Fig.9. Wind speed in June

Fig.10. Wind speed in July

Fig.11. Wind speed in August

Fig.12. Wind speed in September

Fig.13. Wind speed in October

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Fig.14. Wind speed in November

Fig.15. Wind speed in December

Fig. 16. Global Wind Rank [http://www.3tier.com]

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Fig.17. Annual average wind speed

According to many renewable energy experts, a small "hybrid" electric system that combines wind and solar (photovoltaic) technologies offers several advantages over either single system. In much of the places, wind speeds are low in the summer when the sun shines brightest and longest. The wind is strong in the winter when less sunlight is available. Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. Solar and wind energy systems are omnipresent, freely available, environmental friendly, and they are considered as promising power generating sources due to their availability and topological advantages for local power generations. Hybrid solarwind energy systems, uses two renewable energy sources, allow improving the system efficiency and power reliability and reduce the energy storage requirements for stand-alone applications. The hybrid solarwind systems are becoming popular in remote area power generation applications due to advancements in renewable energy technologies and substantial rise in prices of petroleum products. To demonstrate the efficiency of the wind and the solar in our location, we simulate a hybrid system for a hotel situated in Probota. We use also a wind turbine and a solar panels. In the next pages we describe the system components and the most efficiency solution. The solar and wind power outputs can fluctuate on an hourly or daily basis. The standalone system must, therefore, have some means of storing energy, which can be used later to

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supply the load during the periods of low or no power output. Alternatively, the wind or pv or both can also be used in a hybrid configuration with diesel engine generator or with fuel cells.

2. Hybrid System Components


Block diagram:

Fig. 18. Block diagram of the hybrid system. A hybrid solarwind system consists of PV array, wind turbine, battery bank, inverter, controller, and other accessory devices and cables. A schematic diagram of a basic hybrid system is shown in Fig. 18. The PV array and wind turbine work together to satisfy the load demand. When the energy sources (solar and wind energy) are abundant, the generated power, after satisfying the load demand, will be supplied to feed the battery until its fully charged. On the contrary, when energy sources are poor, the battery will release energy to assist the PV array and wind turbine to cover the load requirements until the storage is depleted. The hybrid solarwind system design is mainly dependent on the performance of individual components. In order to predict the systems performance, individual components should be modeled first and then their combination can be evaluated to meet the demand reliability. 2.1.Wind turbine General Aspects Small wind turbines are wind turbines which have lower energy output than large commercial wind turbines, such as those found in wind farms. These turbines may be as small as a fifty watt generator for boat, caravan, or miniature refrigeration unit. Small units often have direct drive generators, direct current output, aeroelastic blades, lifetime bearings and use a vane to point into the wind. Larger, more costly turbines generally have geared power

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trains, alternating current output, flaps and are actively pointed into the wind. Direct drive generators and aeroelastic blades for large wind turbines are being researched. Smaller scale turbines for residential scale use are available, they are usually approximately 2.17.6 m in diameter and produce electricity at a rate of 300 to 10,000 watts at their tested wind speed. Some units have been designed to be very lightweight in their construction, e.g. 16 kilograms, allowing sensitivity to minor wind movements and a rapid response to wind gusts typically found in urban settings and easy mounting much like a television antenna. It is claimed, and a few are certified, as being inaudible even a few feet (about a metre) under the turbine. The majority of small wind turbines are traditional horizontal axis wind turbines, but Vertical axis wind turbines are a growing type of wind turbine in the small-wind market. These turbines, by being able to take wind from multiple dimensions, are more applicable for use at low heights, on rooftops, and in generally urbanized areas. Their ability to function well at low heights is particularly important when considering the cost of a high tower necessary for traditional turbines. Dynamic braking regulates the speed by dumping excess energy, so that the turbine continues to produce electricity even in high winds. The dynamic braking resistor may be installed inside the building to provide heat (during high winds when more heat is lost by the building, while more heat is also produced by the braking resistor). The location makes low voltage (around 12 volt) distribution practical. Wind turbine implementation

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS: Supplier / producer: WES BV Life expectancy: Minimum 15 years Service maintenance: once a year Nominal Power Output: 2.5 kW at 140 rpm Cut in wind speed: 3 m/s Cut out wind speed: 20 m/s Nominal wind speed: 9 m/s Survival wind speed: 59,5 m/s (IEC 614001 class 2). Yawing active: yawing Power regulation: fixed pitch stall Hub height: 12.25 m. or 6.25 m. Number of blades: 3 Rotor diameter: 5 m Noise emissions: at 9 m/s 35 dB(A) at 20 m

Fig.19.WES 5 Tulipo 2.5 kW AC Wind Turbine

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ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS: Power: 2,5 kW Voltage: 400V/50Hz 3 phase or 400V/60Hz 3 phase Connection grid: connected Converter back-to-back inverter (IGBT) CERTIFICATION: Wind turbine IEC 61400-2 (wind class 2) Certification IEC 61400-22 by UL Lightning security NEN 1014 Protection IEC 529 Harmonics NEN 11000-3-2- (< 16A) EMC EN 55081-1 en EN 55082-2 (CE) SAFETY (IEC 61400-2) Safety: normal safety through central control Autonomous: safety circuit rpm > 150, stop (brake and emergency yawing) Safety actions: Failsafe brake on fast shaft of generator independent yawing of 90 degrees Emergency battery: 24Vdc/24 Ah for yawing and safety circuit

GENERATOR: Type: a-synchronous Brake: Spring powered electromagnetic brake of 80 Nm on fast shaft MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS: Tower: steel, height 12 m, diameter 273 mm Total weight: 850 kg Foundation: Concrete block with anchor Nose, cover glass reinforced epoxy Blades glass reinforced epoxy Corrosion protection Total construction is galvanised

Fig. 20. Energy production of the turbine WES Tulipo

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The power of the turbine at the specifical wind speed:


Wind speed [m/s] 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 Power output [kW] 0.000 0.000 0.068 0.243 0.530 0.958 1.553 2.159 2.474 2.595 2.625 2.598 2.552 2.382 2.192 1.960 1.768 1.495 1.310 1.055

Fig. 21. The power curve of the WES Tulipo Turbine

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2.2. Solar panel General Aspects Photovoltaic energy is the energy produced by photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy directly into electricity, based on the photoelectric effect. These cells are made of semiconductor materials similar to those used in electronic circuits in semiconductor chips and electronic devices composition. Today, solar energy is considered as an alternative to conventional fuels, used for power generation. However, because this energy depends on many factors such as weather, season, day-night alternation or positioning on the globe, the use of this resource is more restricted. In order to optimize and obtain a good efficiency as special methods have been developed, such as MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking), which aims to extract maximum power at any point of time. Whether we speak of power watts or order of tens of kilowatts, solar panels are always accompanied by a voltage and frequency converter (inverter power) which allows its connection to the grid (or another application) and transfer control power. At the same time, these power converters include some algorithms to improve the overall efficiency of the entire equipment. However, any constructive solution would choose, high efficiency can not exceed a few percent. Because of this, and the relatively high price per kW installed, the spreading of this type of energy is made in a reduced rhythm. Even so, solar panels are starting to be used increasingly often in residential applications, to provide part of the electricity consumed in homes. Solar PV generation involves the generation of electricity from free and inexhaustible solar energy. The major advantages of a PV system are: Sustainable nature of solar energy as fuel; Minimum environmental impact; Drastic reduction in customers electricity bills due to free availability of sunlight; Long functional lifetime of over 30 years with minimum maintenance; Silent operation no sound pollution (no moving parts).

The major disadvantages of PV system are: Initial cost; Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC when used in curently existing distribution grids; The PV energy conversion efficiency is up to 22%, but usually under 15%; Limited power density: approximately 1000W/m2 depends of the location; Solar electricity is not available at night and is less available in cloudy weather conditions; Solar electricity is almost always more expensive than electricity generated by other sources.

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A PV system consists mainly of: PV panels that convert the solar power into DC electrical power; Power converter that transforms the DC power into AC power. Basics of PV energy conversion: PV cell converts sunlight directly into electricity; It is made of semi-conducting material in two layer: P and N; When radiation from the sun hits the photovoltaic cell, the boundary between P and N acts as a diode: electrons can move from N to P, but not the other way around; Photons with sufficient energy hitting the cell cause electrons to move from the P layer into the N layer; An excess of electrons builds up in the N layer while the P layer builds up a deficit; The difference in the amount of electrons is the voltage difference, which can be used as a power source. PV Module Characteristics:

Fig. 22. Sunmodule SW 245 Mono

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Nominal voltage = 24 V Price per module (5>quantities) = 470 $ Price per module (10>quantities) = 450 $ Price per module (20>quantities) = 400 $ [http://www.solarpanelstore.com/solar-power.large-solar panels.solarworld_sw.sw_245.info.1.html]

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Maximum power of one module calculated in the month with the lowest daily solar radiation : Pmax ' = Pmax Pmax t coef d temp = 245 245 0.0045 23 = 219.65 220 (W) where: Pmax - maximum power at a cell temperature of 25 C; t coef - temperature coefficient; d temp - difference between 25 C and 2 C (temperature in december) 2.3. Charge Controller (Regulator) Modeling and Sizing Charge controller is an essential component in hybrid systems where a storage system is required. It protects battery against both excessive overcharge and deep discharge. Charge controller shall switch off the load when a certain state of discharge is reached, also shall switch off battery from the DC bus when it is fully charged. Charge controller can be adjusted to deal with different charge and discharge conditions. Charge controller act as interface between each of wind turbine and PV panel and the DC bus where the battery is connected 2.4.Battery Leadacid batteries are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors. The following battery is used: MODEL: L16RE-B DIMENSIONS: inches (mm) BATTERY: Flooded/wet lead-acid battery COLOR: Maroon (case/cover) MATERIAL: Polypropylene

Fig. 23. Trojan L16P Battery Product specification:

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Charging Instruction:

Operational data:

TROJAN L16RE-B PERFORMANCE:

CYCLE LIFE:

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Capacity vs. temperature:

Battery dimensions:

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Price for 1 baterry = 155$ [http://www.solarpanelstore.com/solarpower.batteries.trojan_battery.trojan_l16reb.info.1.html] 2.5.Diesel Generator A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often called an alternator) to generate electrical energy. Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to the power grid, as emergency power-supply if the grid fails, as well as for more complex applications such as peak-lopping, Grid Support and export to the power grid. Sizing of diesel generators is critical to avoid low-load or a shortage of power and is complicated by modern electronics, specifically non-linear loads.

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Fig.24. Diesel Generator Product Description: Max. AC output(KVA): 2.2/2.5 Rated AC output(KVA): 1.7/2.0 Rated AC Voltage(V): 110, 220, 230, 240, 110/220V, 120/240V Power Factor(cos): 1.0 Type: Brushless, self-excitation, 2-poles, Single-phase Voltage Regulator: Condenser Type DC Output: 12V/8.3A(option) Engine Model: DH170F Type: Forced air-cooled, 4-stroke, Diesel Engine Displacement(cc): 211 Max. Output(Hp/rpm): 4.2/3600 Fuel: Diesel Light Fuel Fuel Tank capacity(L): 14 Continuous Operating Hours(H): 12.0/11.0 Oil: SAE 10W30(Above CC grade) Oil capacity(L): 0.75 Ignition System: Direct injection Starting System: Recoil Operating Noise Level(7m)db(A): 78 79 Net Dimension LXWXH(mm): 640x480x535 Overall Dimension LXWXH(mm): 655x495x555 N. W. /G. W. (kg): 58/61 20GP/40GP/40HQ: 156/324/324 Place of Origin: China(Mainland) Model No.: Andi2500L Payment Terms: 30% T/T before production Minimum Order: 5 pcs Price Terms: CIF Packaging: Carton Delivery Lead Time: 20-25 days Price for 1 diesel generator = 685 $

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Fuel consumption: 895 l/year Fuel price: 1.65 $/l Total price for Diesel generator and fuel for a 5 years project:
DG _ price = 685 + 895 1.65 5 = 8068 ($)

[http://chinaandi.en.made-in-china.com/product/XqSEUcpvXukg/China-DieselGenerator-AD-03-.html] 2.6.Convertor

Fig. 25. FX & VFX Series FX3048T Convertor The OutBack FX Series is a modular "building block" sine wave inverter/charger which can be used for both small and large power systems. Each OutBack FX inverter/charger module is a complete power conversion system - DC to AC inverter, battery charger and AC transfer switch. Additional FX inverter/chargers can be connected at any time in parallel (120 VAC), series (120/240 VAC), or three-phase (120Y208 VAC) configurations. This allows a system to be tailored to meet the specific power conversion requirements of the application, both at the time of the installation and in the future. The OutBack FX series is also available in export versions with 230 VAC, 50 Hz output that can be connected in parallel (230 VAC) or in three-phase (230Y400 VAC) configurations. Up to eight FX inverter/chargers can be connected together to provide up to 20 KW of continuous power conversion capacity. The OutBack FX is designed to survive harsh environments anywhere in the world. The unique sealed, gasketed die-cast aluminum chassis protects and keeps the power conversion components cool without requiring outside air to be blown through the sensitive electronics. This reduces the major causes of inverter failure - corrosion, dust, insect and animal damage. The FX can be used in high ambient applications up to 60 degree C with reduced output ratings. The OutBack FX series inverter/charger system is designed for both residential and commercial stand-alone or back-up power applications with battery energy storage. It is designed to operate as a coordinated system with the other OutBack products (i.e. the PSDC, PSAC and PSR enclosures as well as the MX60 MPPT charge controllers and MATE system controller and display). Applications:

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Hot and humid climates where a protected area is not available for installation of the inverter/charger system Salt air environments such as Hawaii where you can't get away from the salt air and where there is little difference between indoors and outdoors Dirty environments where dust or drifting organic matter such as cottonwood could clog air openings in an unattended system Boats and RV's where water might splash on the inverter Greater control of unwanted radio frequency interference

Specifications: Continuous Output Power: 3000 VA Continuous Output Current at 25 degrees: 25 amps AC RMS Idle Power (120 VAC Output No Load): 23 W DC Output Voltage: 120 VAC/60 Hz DC Input Voltage (Nominal): 48 VDC Peak Efficiency: 92% Output Voltage Regulation: +/-2% Continuous DC Charge Rate: 35 Amps DC Frequency Range: 50-70 Hz DC Input Voltage Range: 42-68 VDC Warranty: 2 years (Optional 5 year extended warranty Price for one inverter/charger = 1863 $ [http://www.solarpanelstore.com/pdf/fx_vfx_series_domestic.pdf http://www.solarpanelstore.com/solar-power.outback-inverters.outbackfx.fx2548t.info.1.html]

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6. Consumers (Loads) Power consumers:


DISPOZITIVE Becuri economice Frigider Congelator Masina de spalat rufe Cuptor microunde Masina de spalat vase Aspirator Mixer Cafetiera Statie de calcat rufe TV Computer Imprimanta Ink jet Sistem 5.1 Quantity 40 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 2 1 1 1 10 1 1 Power[W] 20 90 90 2200 1220 2300 1000 450 1160 2400 100 500 35 200 700 7 860 100 hours/day 6 5 5 2 0.5 7.5 1 0.5 0.25 0.5 6 3 1 2 0.25 1 0.25 14 Energie totala/zi = day/week 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 1 7 5 7 7 1 2 5 7 5 7 Wh/day 4800 900 450 4400 610 17250 1000 225 290 1200 7800 3000 35 400 175 70 215 1400 44220 Total percentage/day 10.85% 2.04% 1.02% 9.95% 1.38% 39.01% 2.26% 0.51% 0.66% 2.71% 17.64% 6.78% 0.08% 0.90% 0.40% 0.16% 0.49% 3.17%

Storcator de fructe si legume Lampa de birou Toaster Centrala electrica

Power consumed during one day:

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Power consumed during one day

Energy daily consumption

There are considered two types of loads: AC consumers (big consumers) DC consumers represented by the iluminate, refrigerator, microwave

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Fig. .AC Consumers

Fig. DC Consumers

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For a complex analysis Homer software is used.

Fig. Designed Hybrid System in Homer software In Homer we simulated a lot of systems. We chose six exemple s to find the best price for our implementation project. Case 1.PV(2.2kW)+WT(2.5kW)+Diesel Generator(5kW)+Batteries(8strings x 3 in parallel) +Converter(3kW)

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Figure: Monthly average active power production We optained a total production of 12.398 kWh/year and the consumption is 10.096 kWh/year and we have a 622 kWh/year excess of the electricity. The fuel consumption of the diesel generator is 1.002 l/year and the electrical production is 2.751 kWh/year. The total cost of the system is: 202.048$.

2. PV(3.51kW)+WT(2.5kW)+Diesel Generator(5kW)+Batteries(8strings x 4 in parallel) +Converter(3kW)

Figure: Monthly average active power production We optained a total production of 12.375 kWh/year and the consumption is 10.096 kWh/year and we have a 784 kWh/year excess of the electricity.

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The fuel consumption of the diesel generator is 433 l/year and the electrical production is 1.244 kWh/year. The total cost of the system is: 199.311$.

3.PV(7.91kW)+WT(2.5kW)+Diesel Generator(5kW)+Batteries(8strings)+Converter(3kW)

Figure: Monthly average active power production We optained a total production of 18.047 kWh/year and the consumption is 10.096 kWh/year and we have a 6.863 kWh/year excess of the electricity.

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The fuel consumption of the diesel generator is 943 l/year and the electrical production is 1.967 kWh/year. The total cost of the system is: 209.259$.

4. WT(2.5kW)+Diesel Generator(5kW)+Batteries(8strings x 4 in parallel)+Converter(3kW)

Figure: Monthly average active power production We optained a total production of 12.318 kWh/year and the consumption is 10.096 kWh/year and we have a 36.1 kWh/year excess of the electricity. The fuel consumption of the diesel generator is 1.819 l/year and the electrical production is 5.144 kWh/year. The total cost of the system is: 207.588$.

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5. PV(7.91kW)+Diesel Generator(5kW)+Batteries(8strings x 4 in parallel)+Converter(3kW)

Figure: Monthly average active power production We optained a total production of 12.792 kWh/year and the consumption is 10.096 kWh/year and we have a 644 kWh/year excess of the electricity. The fuel consumption of the diesel generator is 1.360 l/year and the electrical production is 3.885 kWh/year. The total cost of the system is: 46.357$.

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6. Diesel Generator(5kW)+Batteries(8strings x 3 in parallel)+Converter(3kW)

Figure: Monthly average active power production We optained a total production of 12.238 kWh/year and the consumption is 10.096 kWh/year and we have a 0.0711 kWh/year excess of the electricity. The fuel consumption of the diesel generator is 4.442 l/year and the electrical production is 12.238 kWh/year. The total cost of the system is: 60.201$. System[kW] PV 2.2 3.5 7.9 X 7.9 X WT 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 X X DG 5 5 5 5 5 5 Bat 8x3 8x4 8 8x4 8x4 8x3 Conv 3 3 3 3 3 3 Total production [kWh/year] 12.398 12.375 18.047 12.318 12.792 12.238 Excess of the electricity [kWh/year] 622 784 6.863 36 644 0.071 Fuel consumption [l/year] 1.002 433 943 1.819 1.360 4.442 El. Production of the DG [kWh/year] 2.751 1.244 1.967 5.144 3.885 12.238 Total Cost [$] 202.048 199.311 209.259 207.588 46.357 60.201

The best price of the system simulated in Homer is obtained in the second exemple and we detail in the next pages.

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Figure : Solar resource for PV

Figure: Output active power of the PV power

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Figure: Site specific wind resource

Figure 22: Wind turbine output active power

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Figure 23: WT inverter and rectifier output active power

Figure : Diesel generator output active power

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Figure Battery Characteristics

Figure: Monthly average active power production

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Figure: Cash Flow by components

Figure: Cash Flow by cost type

PV + battery+WT+Diesel Generator We use : 16 PV modules were chosen, 4 strings connected in parallel with 4 PV modules connected in series on each string, so that we have a 48 V DC Bus;

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8 string x 4 in paralle battery Trojan L16P with this specification:

Because one Trojan T105 Plus battery has 6 V nominal voltage, 8 batteries connected in series must be used in one or more strings connected in parallel so that the total nominal voltage of the batteries to be the same as the DC Bus voltage. A Tulipo wind turbine:

Diesel Generator Maximum power of one module calculated in the month with the lowest daily solar radiation : Pmax ' = Pmax Pmax t coef d temp = 245 245 0.0045 23 = 219.65 220 (W) where: Pmax - maximum power at a cell temperature of 25 C; t coef - temperature coefficient; d temp - difference between 25 C and 2 C (temperature in december) Total power obtained from solar panels:

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P = 16 * 220 = 3520 [W] Total price for the solar panels: PV _ price = 16 * 400 = 6400 ($) After we explain the most efficient method, we calculate the total electrical consumption of the hotel.

The amount of electricity bill based on annual consumption is: Tariff D simple monomial Consumption Inductive energy billed Capacitive energy billed Loss Excise Total Quantity [kVARh] 10096 0 0 0 10096 Price unitary without TVA 0.4651 0 0.0635 0.4651 Value excluding TVA[lei] 4695.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.55 4717.20 Value with TVA[lei] 5822.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 26.72 5849.33

Result a invoice monthly average of 60 million.

7. HYBRID SYSTEM SIMULATION in Matlab A software program using Matlab was developed to simulate the hybrid system behavior. An hourly time step is used through this simulation. By using computer simulation, the optimum system configuration can be found by comparing the performances and energy production costs of different system configurations.

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8. Economic Evaluation of the Hybrid System The costs of a hybrid system include acquisition costs, operating costs, maintenance costs and replacement costs. At end of the life of the system, the system may have a salvage value. An economic analysis is done based on life cycle costing method, which accounts for all costs associated with the system over its life time, taking into account the value of money. Life cycle costing is used in the design of the hybrid system that will cost the least amount over its lifetime. Cost annuity( cost required to generate 1 kWh of energy) is an indication on the cost of the system so that the system with the least cost annuity is selected. Costs of hybrid system include: components initial costs, components replacement costs, system maintenance costs, fuel and/or operation costs, and salvage costs or salvage revenues. Initial costs include purchasing the following equipments required by the hybrid system: wind turbine, PV modules, batteries, diesel generator, charge controllers, bidirectional inverter, management unit, cables, and other accessories used in the installation including labors . We know that the entire investition is aprox. 200.000$. We can calculate the amortization of the investition, and we can see that is 20 years. Amortization Calculator

Calculation Results: Summary: monthly pay total of 240.00 monthly payments total interest paid $716.43 $171,943.45 $71,943.45

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Annual Amortization Schedule beginning balance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 $100,000.00 $97,330.20 $94,495.74 $91,486.45 $88,291.55 $84,899.60 $81,298.44 $77,475.17 $73,416.09 $69,106.65 $64,531.42 $59,674.00 $54,516.98 $49,041.89 $43,229.10 $37,057.80 $30,505.86 $23,549.82 $16,164.74 $8,324.16

interest $5,927.37 $5,762.71 $5,587.88 $5,402.28 $5,205.22 $4,996.01 $4,773.90 $4,538.09 $4,287.74 $4,021.94 $3,739.75 $3,440.15 $3,122.08 $2,784.39 $2,425.87 $2,045.24 $1,641.13 $1,212.09 $756.60 $273.01

principal $2,669.80 $2,834.47 $3,009.29 $3,194.90 $3,391.95 $3,601.16 $3,823.27 $4,059.08 $4,309.44 $4,575.23 $4,857.42 $5,157.02 $5,475.09 $5,812.78 $6,171.30 $6,551.94 $6,956.05 $7,385.08 $7,840.57 $8,324.16

ending balance $97,330.20 $94,495.74 $91,486.45 $88,291.55 $84,899.60 $81,298.44 $77,475.17 $73,416.09 $69,106.65 $64,531.42 $59,674.00 $54,516.98 $49,041.89 $43,229.10 $37,057.80 $30,505.86 $23,549.82 $16,164.74 $8,324.16 $0.00

An annual interest rate of 6% was considered, while the project life year was taken as 20 years.

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9. Conclusions: Based on the simulation program results previously presented, the following conclusions can be demonstrated: Anna & Cristina Mountain House (Fig. ) is an example of a building used through the entire year and powered by a hybrid system consisting of a diesel generator,solar panels, wind turbine and storage batteries.

Fig. . Anna&Cristina Mountain House The building reliable electricity supplies.

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Solar modules installed on the roof convert sunlight into ecological electricity no noise and emissions. While electrical consumers can be fully electrical fed when sunlight is strong enough, and the energy excess can be stored in batteries, and the power can be used from the batteries at night and during bad weather. If the wind speed is high enough, wind turbine provides energy and charge batteries. Once the batteries are fully charged, wind turbine production is reduced when the wind is strong. An inverter converts direct current from batteries in 230 V, alternating the current so that all ordinary commercial electrical can be used. A diesel generator provides energy security even when the weather is bad. To take advantage of energy supply as well as possible, computer monitors and controls the whole system. Solar and wind energy are the most accessible natural resources, and inexhaustible source of renewable energy. Depending on the weather, and the geographical area, solar and wind energy are complementary. Making a hybrid system (sun, wind) generation using the most favorable state of nature at a time, renewable energy is the essence of efficiency.Wind-solar hybrid system (WSH) is the best (complete, efficient, versatile, economical, advantageous) power supply system, totally or partially independent of local resources / national. WSH is a power generation system that uses wind energy entirely and solar energy. The results are widely used in areas without electricity or frequent power interruptions, the lighting of roads, housing, communications stations, islands. The system combines two types of green energy, wind energy and solar energy, taking into account environmental protection and energy saving,wind-solar combination can produce more energy. The system is easy to install, low maintenance cost. The WSH is more efficient than classic solar generation system (PV), in ensuring power supply and is ideal as a new source of supply of housing. The stand-alone hybrid solarwind power generation system is recognized as a viable alternative to grid supply or conventional fuel-based remote area power supplies all over the world. It is generally more suitable than systems that only have one energy source for supply of electricity to off-grid applications. However, the design, control, and optimization of the hybrid systems are usually very complex tasks.

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