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Aung Kyaw Moe / Task 4 - Humanitarian Aid and Supply Chain

Memo To: Date: RE: Francois Damba


28 May 2013

From: Aung Kyaw Moe TASK 4 HUMANITARIAN AID SUPPLY CHAIN

There are various humanitarian actors working in Betaland. All of them are scrutinized here very briefly and also reflecting what are the opportunities with them for SCILaid Betaland.

Government in Betaland
To provide humanitarian aid in the emergency situation is the major responsibility of any government, whether it may be a local, district or national government. In this case, a government may play different roles as follows: As the sole provider of humanitarian aid As the decision-maker deciding to call for outside international organizations for help or to help with sufficient available resources locally obtained As the host-country to all external humanitarian organizations As the co-ordinator of programmes in different sectors As the main supporter of military infrastructures such as vehicles and telecommunication network

UN Agencies in Betaland
UN Agencies are the international bodies operating according to a mandate that is given by the UN General Assembly. The following is taken from the UN website www.un.org :Since it first coordinated humanitarian relief operations in Europe following the devastation and massive displacement of people in the Second World War, the United Nations has been relied on by the international community to respond to natural and man made disasters that are beyond the capacity of national authorities alone. Today the Organisation is a major provider of emergency relief and longer-term assistance, a

catalyst for action by governments and relief agencies, and an advocate on behalf of people struck by emergencies. The United Nations has been engaged on two fronts. On one hand it has sought to bring immediate relief to the victims, primarily through its operational agencies, on the other hand it has sought more effective strategies to prevent emergencies from arising in the first place. There are a number of specific UN agencies that have specific mandates to work in humanitarian action. UNIRP UNIRPs chief mandate is to lead and coordinate international action for the worldwide protection of refugees and the resolution of refugee problems. UNIRP tries to make sure that everyone has the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another state, and to return ones home country voluntarily. UNIRP involved with the other groups of Humanitarian Organizations which is fully authorized by its Executive Committee and the UN General Assembly. IDPs (internally displaced persons) and the people who are stateless or whose nationality is disputed, are included in the program of relief aid by UNIRP. UNIRP encourages states and other institutions to reduce the forced displacement of the people, to create conditions which are conducive to the protection of human rights and to consolidate the reintegration of returning refugees in their country of origin. UNIRPs core value is Impartiality since it protects and assists to refugees and others in an impartial manner, on the basis of their need alone. It pays particular attention to the needs of children and promotes the equal rights of women and girls. UNIRP fully implies the principle of participation by helping refugees on decisions that affect their lives. Opportunities for SCILaid UNIRP provides money and goods to SCILaid and SCILaid is implementing relief program in accordance with the principle of Impartiality and involvement of targeted beneficiaries. United Nations Food Aid (UNFA) Another international Humanitarian Organizations that is helping SCILaid is The United Nations Food Aid (UNFA) which is the food aid arm of the United Nations system. Eradicating hunger and poverty is the main objectives of UNFA. It seeks to help to improve the lives of the poorest people - people who, either permanently or during crisis periods, are unable to produce enough food or do not have the resources to otherwise obtain the food that they and their households require for active and healthy lives.

In the light of the principle of Universality, UNFA will apply food aid to support economic and social development. Moreover, it seeks to response refugee and other emergency food needs and the associated logistics support The core policies and strategies that govern UNFA activities are to provide food aid:

To save lives in refugee and other emergency situations; To improve the nutrition and quality of life of the most vulnerable people at critical times in their lives; and To help build assets and promote the self-reliance of poor people and communities, particularly through labour-intensive works programmes.

UNFAs view is that food aid is essential for all humanitarian relief activities. It is inherently linked up with the development activities. Therefore, the provision of relief food aid will be coordinated with the relief assistance provided by other humanitarian organisations. Another thing is that food aid is a fundamental investment in the development human resources. Food can be utilized to use poor labour in order to create employment and income and to build the infrastructure essential for sustainable development. UNFA mainly concentrate on utilizing the available resources what it is best suited to implement its mandates in a cost-effective way. UNFA also manages to avoid negative effects on local food production, consumption patterns and dependency on food aid. Not only food but transport and logistics expertise were provided by UNFA and assistance to ensure rapid and efficient delivery of humanitarian aid. UNFA is keeping the principle of Neutrality in aid assistance since it take advantage of its capability to operate almost everywhere in the developing world, regardless of the political orientations of governments, and to maintain a neutral stance for assistance in situations where many donor countries could not directly provide assistance. Opportunities for SCILaid UNFA is the main provider of food items to SCILaid Betaland. United Nations Protection Fund (UNPF) United Nations Protection Fund (UNPF) is working for the protection of children's rights their basic needs and helping to actualize their opportunities to reach their full potential. Under the guidance of the Convention on the Rights of the Child UNPF strives to establish children's rights as enduring ethical principles and international standards of behaviour towards children. UNPF based such value as the survival, protection and development of children for the sake of universal development imperatives that are integral to human progress. UNPF is providing special protection for the most disadvantaged children - victims of war, disasters, extreme poverty, all forms of violence and exploitation and those with

disabilities. Coordinating with the other United Nations partners and humanitarian agencies, UNPF initiates rapid response available to its partners to relieve the suffering of children and those who provide their care. UNPF gives priority to the most disadvantaged children and the countries in greatest need because its approach is non-partisan and its cooperation is based on the principle of discrimination. The major aim of UNPF is to promote the equal rights of women and girls and to support their full participation in such different sectors of life as the political, social, and economic development of their communities. Opportunities for SCILaid UNPF can be a potential implementing partner for SCILaid Betaland because in the refugee camps at the border areas, there can be some issues of child right abuse and oppression of women. UNPF is a major player and a flagship that is fighting for the right and protection of women and children. The International Committee of Humanitarian relief (ICHR) The International Committee of Humanitarian relief (ICHR) is an international organization based on the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence. Its major contribution to the field of humanitarian aids is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance. The ICHR ensure the enforcement and respect for international humanitarian law by means of minimizing the dangers to which people are exposed, preventing or putting a stop to violations committed against them, upholding their rights, making their voices heard and providing them with support. The ICHR mainly works for the protection of civilians and prisoners/detainees (detention). ICHRs main programs comprise the following sectors: Health and Nutrition, economic security, water and sanitation, access to food (food security) and hygiene education. It also promote the international humanitarian law for enforcement of using force with restraints and it trains and lobbies the armed forces. There is an essential part of the ICHR's preventive work which is a mine and Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) awareness programme. This programme can help to reduce casualties caused by mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW). Opportunities for SCILaid ICHR can be a strong partner of SCILaid for the following areas of humanitarian aids activities: Health Care and Hygiene Education Food Security Education for children

Raising awareness of Mine and Explosives

NGOs in Betaland
There are two main types of NGOs. They are: International NGOs working in the international field. Local NGOs working in their own country. NGO have their own rules, their own charter, code of conduct, ethics etc., but they are not mandated by any officially recognised body to act in particular aid situations or activities. Poverty Relief International (PRI) Poverty Relief International (PRI) is working for both long-term development, and emergency work. Its other activities include research and campaigning for a fairer world. PRI works on a broad range of issues, including trade, conflict, debt and aid, and education. This organization is working for humanitarian aids project for over 60 years. In the domain of water and sanitation programs, PRIs water engineers are very professional for providing large scale water supplies in the most difficult areas. PRI is also very active in lobbying to change the international policies and practices and it takes a leading role for ensuring the poor to have their rights and opportunities. PRI is famous for its campaign and building of alliance with the other humanitarian actors. For the sake of raising public awareness, it strongly designs and utilizes the Media available. PRIs right based approach consists of the 5 main basic rights Right to sustainable livelihood Right to basic social services Right to life and security Right to be heard Right to have an identity

Opportunities for SCILaid The common area of interest between PRI and SCILaid is that of water and sanitation supply. There are able water and sanitation experts working with PRI and they can

provide a very strong technical assistance and transfer of technical know-how for the implementing programme of SCILaid in Betaland .

Emergency Health Relief (EHR) Emergency Health Relief (EHR) is an international NGO which is an independent medical humanitarian organisation that delivers emergency aid to people affected by armed conflict, epidemics, natural or man-made disasters, or exclusion from health care in more than 70 countries. In its more than 3000 missions, EHR can employ volunteer doctors, nurses, logisticians, water-and-sanitation experts, administrators, and other medical and nonmedical professionals. More than 20,000 locally hired staff are helping these professionals to provide medical care. EHR provides a variety of health related services such as rehabilitation and running of hospitals and clinics, performing surgery, battles epidemics, and implementation of vaccination campaigns. It also operates feeding centers for malnourished children, and offers mental health care. EHR treats patients with infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, and HIV/AIDS, and provides medical and psychological care to marginalised groups such as street children. In the area of water supply, EHR also constructs wells and dispenses clean drinking water, and provides shelter materials like blankets and plastic sheeting. EHR can mobilize both volunteers and professionals based on independent assessments of need and volunteer systems and 80% of its funding sources come from the general public whereas other 20% comes from the various institutional donors. Opportunities for SCILaid EHR can help SCILaid in the following sectors: Malnutrition treatment for children Prevention and Care of infectious diseases Counselling and caring of Mental health Water Supply and Sanitation

Humanitarian Relief Society (HRS) Humanitarian Relief Society (HRS) is a Betaland nongovernmental Organisation. HRS's programmes address needs in the principal areas of food, security and agriculture as well as health and HIV/AIDS.

HRS also supports water resource development, environmental management, basic education, micro enterprise development and emergency humanitarian aid. HRS is working in close collaboration with Betaland concerned authorities. For example the HIV/AIDS programme is done under the coordination of Betaland Ministry of Health. HRS's HIV/AIDS Initiative promotes prevention through basic HIV/AIDS information and counselling; education on topics such as gender inequity, crossgenerational and transactional sex, life skills, and stigma reduction; and techniques ranging from peer education to creative uses of drama. Opportunities for SCILaid HRS can be a future partner of SCILaid for the projects that alleviate the problems generated by HIV/AIDS. It can be a main source of resources in terms of prevention and treating HIV and Opportunistic Infections suffered by the AIDs patients.

Donors in Betaland
Without funding, the provision of humanitarian aid and all the activities associated with it could not be actualized. Donors therefore play a key role in providing the funds, or gifts in kind (goods or services donated free of charge). The organisations involved in providing aid are relying on the money provided by these donors to maintain the ongoing running costs. Donors also give money and gifts in kind needed to provide development aid or to respond to a disaster situation and they also provide funds for specific use or may leave it to the aid organisation to decide how to use the funds. There are 2 Institutional donors working in Betaland . The Humanitarian Aid Agency's (HAA) The only institutional donor that provides funding to SCILaid is The Humanitarian Aid Agency's (HAA). HAA is a donor organization that ensure goods and services including essential supplies, specific foodstuffs, medical equipment, medicines and fuel to get to crisis zones fast. Services may include medical teams, water purification teams and logistical support. Using the help of its partners, HAA is able to mobilize Goods and services to the disaster areas. More than 85 countries in the world received humanitarian aid funding from HAA. Its grants cover emergency aid, food aid and aid to refugees and displaced persons, worth a total of more than 500 million per year. HAA addresses the following issues more than just fund humanitarian aid:

Feasibility studies for its humanitarian operations. Monitoring humanitarian projects and setting up coordination arrangements. Coordinates disaster prevention measures by training specialists, strengthening institutions and running pilot micro-projects.

Provision of technical assistance to the partners. Raising public awareness about humanitarian issues through actions carried out directly by HAA in order to promote the awareness of humanitarian aid. Provision of financial support for network and training study initiatives in the humanitarian field.

HAA demands the absolute transparency so it has strict procedures to ensure that public money is used with efficiency. The Humanitarian Organizations which receive HAA funding have to adhere strictly to these rules and are accountable for the resources allocated to them by HAA. Opportunities for SCILaid SCILaid have had a 3 month contract with HAA, which is now being extended for another 6 months. So far, in term of operation, the donors are quite satisfied with the operational reply, but again, they are still waiting for the last report from Homeland. The Global Aid Agency (GAA) Being a part of the Government, GAA manages aid to poor countries and works to get rid of extreme poverty. GAA is headed by one of the senior ministers in the Government. This shows that the way the Government sees
reducing poverty around the world is much important.

GAA is participating in the process of fighting against hunger and poverty in a global scale. One fifth of the whole mankind is very poor and it shows the worse effect in the rate of U5 children mortality which is 10 millions annually. 113 millions children are not learning in the schools. Poverty is also the main cause of war, political conflicts, crimes, illegal drug trafficking and spread of the contagious diseases. GAA is working for the global plan of reduction of poverty to its half at 2015. The main values GAA enshrine are: ambition and determination to eliminate poverty diversity and the need to balance work and private life ability to work effectively with others desire to listen, learn and be creative professionalism and knowledge

Opportunities for SCILaid GAA can provide funding and in kind donation to SCILaid for fighting against hunger, disease and poverty in Betaland.

Best Regards, Aung Kyaw Moe