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Sample Question:

In the Stem: Water moves up the xylem vessels by capillary action, root pressure and/or transpirational pull. Xylem vessels are narrow and capillary force pushes water upwards. The cells of the root endodermis actively secrete salts into the xylem vessel, making the xylem sap in the root very concentrated. This draws water onto the xylem vessel, creating a pressure which pushes the sap upwards. Evaporation of water from the leaves by transpiration creates a tension in the xylem vessels which is transmitted back to the roots. Water molecules stick to each other in the xylem vessels, thus the water column is continuously pulled upwards towards the leaves.


Sample Question 1: Describe briefly how a nerve impulses crosses the synapse. Sample answer: 1. 2. 3. 4. The arrival of an impulse causes the synaptic vesicle to fuse with the membrane of the synaptic knob. Synaptic vesicles releases neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter binds to the receptor of the postsynaptic neurone to generate a new impulse.

Sample Question 2: Diagram 5 shows the various structures involved in regulation of temperature in the human body.

A workers enters a cold room that stores frozen meat. Explain how the regulation of the worker's body temperature occurs. (10marks) Sample Answer: When the environment is too cold, the stimulus is detected by cold receptors in the skin. Nerve impulses are sent via afferent nerves to the hypothalamus or control centre. The hypothalamus also detects a decrease in the temperature of its blood supply. The hypothalamus or control centre sends out nerve impulses via efferent nerves to the effectors. Sweat glands are not stimulated, thus there is no sweating. Vasoconstriction of arterioules in the skin occurs. Less blood flows to the skin, less heat is lost to surroundings. Hair erector muscles contract, hair shafts become erect trapping a thicker layer of air which acts as a heat insulator. Adrenal glands release adrenaline and the thyroid gland releases thyroxine. These hormones increase the rate of breakdown of glycogen to glucose and the increase in metabolic rate. Shivering takes place, this results in increased production of heat. Shivering takes place, this results in increased production of heat. These responses produce more heat and reduce heat loss to the environment. The body temperature is maintained at the normal level.