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# Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics Physical quantities Base quantities Derived quantities Scientific notation/ standard form Prefixes Scalar

## quantity Vector quantity Error Systematic errors Random errors

QUANTITIES that are measurable PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities but has its own definition PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that are derived from base quantities by multiplication or division or both POWERS of the base number 10 to show a very large or small number GROUP OF LETTERS placed at the beginning of a word to modify its meaning, which act as multipliers QUANTITY which has only magnitude or size (time, temperature, mass, volume, distance, density, power) QUANTITY which has both magnitude or size and direction (force, velocity, displacement, acceleration, momentum) DIFFERENCE between actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurement CUMULATIVE ERRORS that can be corrected, if the errors are known. (zero error, incorrect calibration of measuring instrument) ERRORS that arise from unknown and unpredictable variations in condition, and will produce a different error every time. Random errors are caused by factors that are beyond the control of observers. (human limitations, lack of sensitivity, natural errors, wrong technique) ERROR that arises when the measuring instrument does not start from exactly zero ERROR in reading an instrument because the observers eyes and the pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of scale PROCESS of determining value of a quantity using a scientific instrument with a standard scale ABILITY to register the same reading when a measurement is repeated (improve eliminates parallax error, greater care, not detective instrument) DEGREE to which a measurement represents the actual value (improve repeat readings, avoid parallax/zero error, high accuracy instrument) ABILITY to detect quickly a small change in the value of a measurement (thermometer thin wall bulb, narrow capillary) EARLY CONCLUSION that you draw from an observation or event using information that you already have on it GENERAL STATEMENT that is assumed to be true regarding the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable

Zero error Parallax error Measurement Consistency Accuracy Sensitivity Inferences Hypothesis

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Chapter 2: Forces and Motion Distance Displacement Speed Velocity Mass Acceleration Inertia Momentum Force Impulsive force Gravity Free fall Forces in equilibrium Resultant force Work Energy Elastic PE Kinetic energy Power Efficiency Elasticity Spring constant Elastic limit
how far a body travels during motion CHANGE IN POSITION of an object from its initial position in a specified direction RATE OF CHANGE of distance RATE OF CHANGE of displacement MEASURE of an objects inertia AMOUNT of matter in the object RATE OF CHANGE of velocity PROPERTY of matter that causes it to resist any change in its motion or state of rest PRODUCT of mass and velocity pulling or a pushing ACTION on an object LARGE FORCE which acts over a very short time interval RATE OF CHANGE in momentum FORCE originated from centre of the Earth that pulls all objects towards the ground FALLING of an object without encountering any resistance from a height towards the earth with an acceleration due to gravity An object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when forces act upon an object and it remains stationary or moves at a constant velocity SINGLE FORCE which combines two or more forces which act on an object Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. CAPACITY of a system to do work

Gravitational PE ENERGY STORED in the object because of its height above the earth surface
ENERGY STORED in the object as a result of stretching or compressing it ENERGY possessed by a moving object RATE at which work is done or energy is changed and transferred ABILITY of an electrical appliance to transform energy from one form to another without producing useless energy or wastage PROPERTY of an object that enables it to return to its original shape and dimensions after an applied force is removed FORCE needed to extend a spring per unit length MAXIMUM STRETCHING FORCE which can be applied to an elastic material before it ceases to be elastic

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PRINCIPLE Hookes Law Principle of conservation of energy Principle of conservation of momentum Newtons first law of motion Newtons second law of motion Newtons third law of motion
Hookes law states that the force, F applied to a spring is directly proportional to the springs extension or compression, x, provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. Principle of conservation of energy states that total energy in an isolated system is neither increased nor decreased by any transformation. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it can be transformed from one kind to another, and the total amount stays the same. The principle of conservation of momentum states that, in any collision or interaction between two or more objects in an isolated system, the total momentum of the system will remain constant; that is, the total initial momentum will equal the total final momentum. Newtons first law of motion states that a body will either remain at rest or continue with constant velocity unless it is acted on by an external unbalanced force. Newtons second law of motion states that the acceleration a body experiences is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to its mass. F =ma Newtons third law of motion states that to every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.

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Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure Pressure Gas pressure Buoyant force PRINCIPLE Law of Flotation Pascals Principle Archimedes principle Bernoullis principle
Law of floatation states that the weight of an object floating on the surface of a liquid is equal to the weight of water displaced by the object. (weight of object = weight of water displaced) Pascals principle states that a pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted uniformly in all directions throughout the fluid. Archimedes principle states that the buoyant force on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object (buoyant force = weight of water displaced) Bernoullis principle states that the pressure of a moving fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases, and the converse is also true. FORCE acting normally on a unit surface area FORCE per unit area exerted by the gas particles as they collide with the walls of their container (due to the rate of change of momentum) NET FORCE acting upwards due to the difference between the forces acting on the upper surface and the lower surface

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Chapter 4: Heat Temperature Thermometric property Thermal equilibrium Heat capacity Specific heat capacity Latent heat Specific latent heat of fusion Specific latent heat of vapourisation PRINCIPLE Boyles Law Pressure Law
Boyles Law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume provided the temperature of the gas is kept constant (PV = k) The pressure law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (in Kelvin), provided the volume of the gas is kept constant (P/T = k) Charles law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (in Kelvin), provided the pressure of the gas is kept constant (V/T = k) DEGREE of hotness of an object PHYSICAL PROPERTY of a substance which is sensitive to and varies linearly with the temperature change A STATE when heat transfer between the two objects are equal and the net rate of heat transfer between the two objects are zero HEAT ENERGY required to raise its temperature by 1C or 1 K HEAT ENERGY required to produce 1C or 1 K rise in temperature in a mass of 1 kg. HEAT ABSORBED OR RELEASED when a substance changes its state without a change in temperature is called the latent heat of the substance HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from solid state to liquid state, without a change in temperature HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from liquid state to gaseous state, without a change in temperature

Charles Law

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Chapter 5: Light Refraction Apparent depth, d Real depth, D Total internal reflection Critical angle Power of lens PRINCIPLE Laws of Reflection Law of Refraction Snells Law
- the angle of incidence, i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r (i = r) - the incident ray, normal and reflected ray will all lie in the same plane - The incident ray and the refracted ray are on the opposite sides of the normal at the point of incidence, all three lie in the same plane - Obey snells law The value of sin i is a constant. sin r PHENOMENON where the direction of light is changed when it crosses the boundary between two materials of different optical densities as a result of a change in the velocity of light. DISTANCE of the image from the surface of water (or the boundary between the two mediums involved) DISTANCE of the object from the surface of the water (or the boundary between the two mediums involved) TOTAL REFLECTION of a beam of light at the boundary of two mediums, when the angle of incidence in the optically denser medium exceeds a specific critical angle GREATEST ANGLE OF INCIDENCE in the optically denser medium for which the angle of refraction, r = 90 MEASURE OF ITS ABILITY to converge or diverge an incident beam of light

IMAGE CHARACTERISTICS Virtual an image which cannot be projected (focused) onto a screen Real an image which can be projected (focused) onto a screen Laterally inverted an image which left and right are interchanged Upright an image which in vertical position Diminished image formed is smaller than the object Magnified image formed is larger than the object

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Chapter 1 Waves Waves Wavefront Transverse Wave Longitudinal Wave Amplitude Period Frequency Wavelength, Damping
A TYPE OF DISTURBANCE produced by an oscillating or vibrating motion in which a point or body moves back and forth along a line about a fixed central point produces waves. LINE OR PLANE on which the vibrations of every points are in phase and are at the same distance from the source of the wave. In phase = same direction, same displacemen WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave (water waves, light waves, electromagnetic waves) WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave (sound waves, ultrasound) MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT form its equilibrium position MEASURE of height of the wave crest or depth of the wave trough. TIME TAKEN to complete an oscillation, from one extreme point to the other and back to the same position. NUMBER OF COMPLETE OSCILLATIONS made by a vibrating system in one second DISTANCE between successive points of the same phase in a wave DECREASE in the amplitude of an oscillating system is called damping. (Internal damping: extension and compression of molecules External damping: frictional force/ air resistance) a;f= Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force. The resonating system oscillates at its maximum amplitude. FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY of which an object vibrates. It is the frequency of a system which oscillates freely without external force Reflection of wave occurs when a wave strike an obstacle direction ; f = ; a = ; = Refraction of wave occurs when a wave travel from one medium to another f = ; v ; ; direction PHENOMENON in which waves spread out as they passed through an aperture or round a small circle f = ; = ; speed = ; v ; direction SUPERPOSITION of two waves originating from two coherent sources coherent = same frequency, amplitude and in phase Constructive interference occurs when the both crests or both troughs of both waves coincide to produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum amplitude Destructive interference occurs when the crest of one wave coincides with the trough of the other wave, thus cancelling each other with the result that the resultant amplitude is zero.

Resonance Natural frequency Reflection of wave Refraction of wave Diffraction of waves Interference of waves Constructive interference Destructive interference

## Antinode Node Electromagnetic waves Monochromatic light PRINCIPLE Principle of superposition

POINT where constructive interference occurs. POINT where destructive interference occurs. PROPAGATING WAVES in space with electric and magnetic components. These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation of wave. LIGHT with only one wavelength and colour

Principle of superposition states that at any instant, the wave displacement of the combined motion of any number of interacting waves at a point is the sum of the displacements of all the components waves at that point.

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Chapter 2 Electricity Charge, Q Current, I Potential difference, V Electric field Circuit Resistance, R
WORK DONE to move a unit of voltage in a circuit RATE of flow of charge WORK DONE in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another in an electric field A FIELD in which electric charge experiences an electric force A FIELD in which electric force acts in a particle with electric charge CLOSED LOOP through which charge can continuously flow RATIO of the potential difference across the conductor to the current flowing through it MEASURE of the ability of the conductor to resist the flow of an electric current through it certain temperature called the critical temperature

Superconductor CONDUCTOR in which its resistance will suddenly become zero when it is cooled below a Electromotive force (e.m.f.) Power rating PRINCIPLE Ohms Law
Ohms law states that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of conductor, if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant. That is, TOTAL ENERGY supplied by a cell to move a unit of electrical charge from one terminal to the other through the cell and the external circuit RATE at which it consumes electrical energy.

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Chapter 3 Electromagnetism Electromagnet Magnetic field Radial field Electromagnetic induction Root mean square current/ voltage Transformer PRINCIPLE Faradays Law Lenzs Law
The magnitude of the induced electromotive force (e.m.f.) is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux. Lenzs law states that an induced electric current always flows in such a direction so as to oppose the change (or motion) producing it. DEVICE in which magnetism is produced by an electric current TEMPORARY MAGNET which acts as a magnet when the current is switched on and ceases to be a magnet when the current is switched off REGION in which a magnetic material experiences a force as the result of a magnet or a current-carrying conductor MAGNETIC FIELD with the field lines pointing towards or away from the centre of a circle. PRODUCTION of an electric current by a changing magnetic field (conductor cuts across a magnetic flux OR a change of magnetic flux linkage with a coil) VALUE of a steady current/ voltage, which would produce the same heating effect in a given resistor. EQUIPMENT to raise or lower the potential difference of an alternating current supply

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Chapter 4 Electronics Thermoionic emission Work function Cathode ray Cathode ray oscilloscope
EMISSION of electrons from hot metal surface MINIMUM ENERGY required to eject electrons from surface fast moving ELECTRONS travel in a straight line in vacuum measuring and testing INSTRUMENT used in study of electricity and electronics

MATERIAL which allows current to flow thorugh them Conductor Semiconductor MATERIAL whose resistance is between good conductor and insulator MATERIAL which does not conduct electric current Insulator

## Junction voltage Rectification Smoothing Logic gates

POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE acting from n-type to p-type material of a diode across the depletion layer CONVERSION of a.c. to d.c. by diode PROCESS where output is smoothed by connecting a capacitor across load that acts as a reservoir and maintains potential difference across load ELECTRONIC SWITCHES with one or more inputs and one output.

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Chapter 5 Radioactivity Atom Nuclide Proton number Nucleon number Isotopes Radioactivity Radioactive decay Radioisotope Half life Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion PRINCIPLE Einsteins Principle of Mass-Energy Conservation
The change of energy is linked to the change of mass by the equation An atom consists of a nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons, with electrons orbiting the nucleus. TYPE of nucleus with particular proton number and nucleon number NUMBER of protons in the nucleus of an atom NUMBER of protons and neutrons in an atom ATOMS of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleon number (similar chemical properties but differs in physical properties) SPONTANEOUS DISINTEGRATION of unstable nucleus into a more stable nucleus with the emission of energetic particles or protons PROCESS where an unstable nucleus becomes a more stable nucleus by emitting radiations ISOTOPE that has unstable nucleus that tends to undergo radioactive decay TIME TAKEN for the activity of atoms to fall to half its original value TIME TAKEN for half the atoms in a given sample to decay PROCESS involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two nuclei of roughly equal mass and shooting out several neutrons at the same time. PROCESS involving the fusion of two or more small and light nuclei come together to form a heavier nucleus.