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ORIGIN

GOLD
Segregation deposit, Utah gold hill

IRON
Liquid magmatic: titano-vanadiumbrg iron ore.

ALUMINIUM
-

MANGANESE
-

CHROMIUM
Magmatic segregated deposits closely associated with ultrabasic rocks. Sukinda Cr belt, kondapali, sitampundi.
-

COPPER
-

LEAD
-

ZINC
-

MAGMATIC DEPOSIT

Montana cable mine

CONTACT METASOMORPHISM

Magnetite deposits of Vishakhapatnam, Palamu of Bihar

Kodurites, a hybrid rock formed due to migmatization, found in khondalite terrians of Andhra & Odisha.

Kolar gold field, Karnataka

HYDROTHERMAL REPLACEMENT

Hutti gold field

FORMATION

Intrusive magmatic hydrothermal orgin: apatitemagnetite rocks of Singhbhum Fault & fissure fillings of hematite, Valdurthy & Ramalkota in Kurnool dist.

Small manganese deposits are formed

Small packets of hydrothermal chromite deposits are cited.

HYDROTHERMAL CAVITY FILLING

MODE

SEDIMENTATION RESIDUAL CONCENTRATION

Continental sedimentary depo(fluvial, lagoonal, or lacustrine): Ironstones of Raniganj & Auranga coal field{siderites} Marine sedimentary: Travancore with ilmenite Lateritic deposit, Decan traps

Distinct lamination or banding conformable with the shales and cherty silica are founded in manganese ores associated with BIF of KeonjharSundergarhSingbhum belts. -

Copper ores generally formed from hydrothermal solutions, also collects other minerals in its path so association of gold, silver etc with copper is noticed. Replacement dominates over cavity filling. Singbhum Cu belt, Khetri...

Both occurs as loads or veins, as metasomatic replacement and contact metamorphic deposits and also as cavity and joint filling deposits. Jawar, amba mata (gujurat)

OF

MECHANICAL CONCENTRATION

SUBLIMATION OXIDES AND SECONDARY ENRICHMENT

Placer(associa ted generally with magnetite, zircon, garnet, monazite) deposits, Subarnarekha river
-

Under suitable conditions bauxite deposits are formed, eastern ghat ,lohardaga Jharkhand, -

Lateritoid deposits have resulted from the surface alteration of manganiferrous Dharwarian rocks. -

In some places disseminated grains have undergone residual concentration. Chromite also forms placer deposits as it is heavy and resists chemical weathering.

Y Y

METASEDIMENTARY ORIGIN

Banded-magnetitequartzite (BMQ)formations of Dharwar

SEDIMENTARY EXHALATIVE PROCESS

Geosynclinals submarine magmatic deposit, pocket iron ores in Dras-Thasgam area, Ladakh

Primary oxides present in metamorphosed manganiferrous sediment, further oxidised to form supergene oxides(pyrolusite, psilomelane), Manser formation Formed through the metamorphism of manganiferrous sedimentary rocks, Sauser, Gangpur, Champaner(Gujurat), Aravalli -

Some oxidised (capping) and sulphide supergene enriched deposits exist.

OXIDES

Hematite-Fe2O3 Magnetite Fe3O4

Corundum-Al2O3

HYDROXIDES

GoethiteFe2O3.3H2O Limonite2Fe2O3.3H2O LepidochrositeFeO.OH Turgite2Fe2O3.H2O Siderite-FeCO3

DiasporeAl2O3.H2O BoehmiteAl2O3.H2O GibbsiteAl2O3.3H2O

Pyrolusite-MnO2 Braunite-Mn2O3 HausmaniteMn3O4 Sitaparite(MnFe)2O3 Psilomelane ManganiteMnO.OH

Chromite-FeO.Cr2O3

Cuprite-Cu2O Tenorite-CuO

CARBONATES

RhodocrositeMnCO3 -

SULPHIDES

MINERALOGY

Pyrite-FeS2 Marcasite- FeS2 Ptrrhotite

SILICATES

ELEMENTARY STATE OTHER FORMS

Native gold AMALGAM:gold amalgam gold-silver, gold-palladium, gold-antimony , gold-bismuth, gold-rhodium. Tellurides : CalaveriteAuTe2, Sylvanite(Au,Ag)Te2 PetziteAg3AuTe2

ChamositeFe3Al2Si2O16 Greenalite Stipnomelane minnesotite -

Rhodonite-MnSiO3 Spessartite3MnO.Al2O3.3SiO 2 -

Malachite-(green) CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 Azurite-(azure blue) 2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 Chalcopyrite- (brass yellow)-CuFeS2 Bornite-(coppery red-peacock ore)Cu5FeS4 Chalcosite- Cu2S Covellite-(indigo blue)- CuS Enargite- Cu3AsS4 Tetrahedrite-(grey copper)- Cu8Sb2S7 Chrysocolla-(bluish green/ sky blue)CuSiO3.2H2O Native copper (copper red colour & metallic lustre) -

CerussitePbCO3 Galena(high sp. Gr.-7.47.6)-PbS2

Smithsonite-ZnCO3

Sphelarite--(zincblende)- ZnS

Sulphate:AnglesitePbSO4

RECENT

Placer deposits:
BiharSubarnarekha (Chotnagpur), south koel, sona river Assam placersdihing, lohit, subansiri river. Madhya Pradesh: alluvial gold on river beds of son, IB rivers.

Laterite deposits of

Decan Traps

Bihar & Jharkhand: Ranchi, Palamu Lohardaga, lateritic cappings on granitic gneisses Odisha:
metallurgical Al ore in koraput, Kalahandi, Keonjhar & Sundargarh-

Goa: latritoid
deposit

Eastern ghat(EGB) Maharashtra:


Kolhapur, Kolba, ratnagiri-Decan

traps Karnataka:

Western Ghat belt, Belagum, N & S Kanara-

Decantraps Andhrapradesh:

Visakhapatnam- EGB

Madhyapradesh: Decantraps Tamilnadu:

Sarguja, Bilashpur, Amarkantak plateau-

Shevaroy hiil-

charnokites
CENOZOIC

GEOLOGICAL DISTRBUTION

MIOCENE & EOCENE: ironstone

Jammu & Kashmir:


Dras , Ladakh Manipur: Manipur east.

Tamilnadu:

Trvancore & Malbar

Uttranchal:
MRSOZOIC -

Almora & Nainital JURASSIC: iron stones of Rajmahl bed,

Jharkhand:
PALEOZOIC Birbhum

Rajmahal trap

West Bengle: Tamilnadu:


Travancore GONDWANA: iron stone shales of Barren measure & Barakar fm

West Bengle:
PROTEROZOIC -

Birbhum & Auranga field Andhra Pradesh: Ferruginous quartzites in cuddaph Bihar & Odisha: Titaniferous & Vanadiferous ddeposits- SE Singhbhum, Mayurbhanj dist. Apatite-magnetite deposit in Singhbhum Cu-belt.

Andhrapradesh: Agnigundala belt, Cumbum fm of Cuddaph super gr. Bihar & Jharkhand::
Singhbhum-Cu-belt Chibasabfm of singhbhum gr. Hesatu-Belbathan beltChotanagpur-granitegniess.

Andhrapradesh: Agnigundala belt

ARCHEOZOIC

Karnataka: kolar

& hutti..active field; gadakpotential/ abandoned mines. Dharwat gold field in Shimoga dist.

Madhyapradesh:

gonditic Mn of Chindwara-Balaghat dist, Manser, lohangi & Chorbaoli fms of Sauser gr.

Odisha: Sukinda Crbelt,Jajpur; Nausahi belt, Keonjhar iron ore gr.

Rajasthan:

Andhrapradesh: Tamilnadu:

Andhra Pradesh:

Maharastra:

Ramgiri, anantpur dist.

Karnataka:

Tamilnadu:
Wynad

Bihar:

Kundra kocha field, Lowa & Mysara field..

Banded ferruginous formation BHQBMQ (metamorphic equivalant), Dharwar belt

Bhandara & Nagpur Odisha: Bonai $ Keonjhar- JamdaKoira horse shoe belt, iron ore gr Koraput, Kalahandi & Bolangir-Eastern Ghats. Sundargarh, gonditic Mn-Gangpur gr.

Kondapali- Eastern Ghat gr. Sitampundi- Eastern Ghat gr. Bihar: Jojohatu, Chaibasa gr. Karnataka: Mysore & Byarapur- Dharwar gr.

Zawar-belt- Aravali gr. [Pb+Zn] Gujurat: Amba-Mata deposit [Pb+Zn+Cu]


Odisha: Sargipali deposit, Sundargarhgangpur gr.

Rajasthan:

Khetri belt, Pur- Banera-Bhinder belt

Maharastra:

Madhya Pradesh:

Karnataka:

Bhandara & RatnagiriSakoli gr.

Godi block, Raigarh dist

Bellary, Chitradurga, Dharwar gr.

Bihar & Jharkhand: Kolhan Andhrapradesh:


kodurite- Eastern ghat-khondalitesSrikakulam.

fm. Of Singhbhum gr.

Madhyapradesh: Malanjkhand-Chilpi ghat gr. Andhrapradesh: Khammam, Gani & Kurnool dist Karnataka: Chitradurga & Hassan distDharwar-schist- belt