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Winter

10

essica Tseng

MP 908 11-10693
0

AE lnstitute Brusssels ssicatsengl@hotmail.com


32 494386864

Hollywood Classics Versus Unconventional Films


As one aspiring to be a debutant auteur filmmaker, 1am confounded by the visions and artistic choices 1should adhere to. ln the present age where motion picture isn't only one of the primary mediums of mass entertainment, but an art that has achieved milestones and proven as one to not saon touch the brink of obsolescence; 1fi nd it important to keep abreast of the developing complexity of this evolutionary art to open doors for inspiration. ln arder to begin this quest for artistic comprehension, 1will first define the a reas of interest that 1will frankly discuss within the following pages. Primarily, it is that of variation; a ward that in essence represents originality tome. Imagination may be an unconscious copy of another, but variation is identity. And that is true of film, as each work of art marks a style, particular trait, age, and sometimes, innovation. Hence, 1will aim to study in depth the different factors and elements that sets films apart, and in the broadest spectrum, the dominant Hollywood classics versus films of less conventional adherance. This in depth study will comprise of distinctions in films according to genres, narrative structures, and aspects of historical, social, and psychological contexts. As a note before commencement, 1feel the need to express that the many factors that 1will discuss may seem to sorne readers, abundantly informative, although 1find it will do the subject matter no justice if 1were to not encompass ali relative arguments and research in arder to achieve a perceptive distinction between the two genres of film.

As a preliminary, 1wish to take a few moments to define genre and narrative structure. ln direct quotation of the marvellous novel on genres by Barry Keith Grant "the signified of films to the practice of signification, from wh at a film "means" to how it produces meaning." is an exemplary definition of the difference between genre, being the "what", and the narrative structure, being the "how". The genre is essentially the content, or story that is being told, emcompassing theme, setting, characters and actions; while the narrative structure is the fusion of these events through time and space; in other words, the chosen chronological presentation of it. ln film terms developed by Russian formalists, we refer to this as the fabula and suyzhet. A more acute definition of the fabula is the perception or interpreted story a viewer receives when watching a film, thus the fabula can change from viewer to viewer. The suyzhet is essentially the arrangement of the components of a story; a pattern or formula that the filmmaker creates to direct the focus of the viewer, and through which the story is told.

Hollvwood's Classical Unified Narrative or the 3 Act structure


1 pay homage to Aristotle, as it is him who first conjured up the theory

of the 3 Act plot structure, or the importance of a beginning, middle, and end . And the power of such a structure is clearly evident in its resonance and further concretization in the world of today, a method prioritized by the leading motion picture industry, Hollywood. lt has become an age-defying standard norm, stressed as a convention to be adopted to ensure success for screenwriters and directors alike. Although, sorne would contest this tradition as contempory filmmaking has given rise to a new wave of films of da ring artistic boldness in defying conventional deviees of creation. Moreover, many have drawn widespread attention and gone on to being critically acclaimed works of art. Although, one should make note that non-3 Act structural and dissimilar ways of storytelling had existed long ago, such as the film noir genre, which adopts a non-linear construction. This will be more thoroughly discussed later on. Although not only present in classical construction, the predominant characteristic of the 3 Act structure is its linear temporal presentation . The unraveling of the characters, build-ups and the entirety of the story ali happens on a linear one way timeline, or a strict real to lite chronological order. For instance, a repetitive use of flashbacks would be a rarity fou nd in classical Hollywood films. To further understand the 3 Act structure, 1 will borrow the theory of Tzvetan Todorov, a Bulgarian structuralist linguist in the 1960s who tully developed the structure still strictly employed today. Todorov suggested that stories begin with an equilibrium or status quo, where ali opposing forces are in balance. This will then be disrupted by a complication or event, triggering further series of events wherefore problems must be solved in order to regain the balance of the fictional world . This can be defined in 5 clear stages :
Stage 1

Astate of equilibrium is defined.


Stage 2

Disruption to the equilibrium by sorne action or crisis.


Stage 3

The character(s)' recognition that there has been a disruption and sets goals to resolve them.
Stage 4

The character(s)' attempt to repair the disruption; obstacles need to be overcome to restore order.
Stage 5

Reestablishing of equilibrium . The situation is resolved and a conclusion is announced.

A more in depth and screenwriting oriented description of the 5 stages , The would be to return to the 3 Act structure, otherwise known as the "Act 1 Setup", "Act Il , The Development", and "Act Ill, The Resolution". The Setup This section generally composes one-quarter of a film's total length, and is the "hook" opening aimed at engaging the viewer through introducing the main characters, goals, and obstacles they are likely to face on their path to achieving their objective. The main conflict is also introduced. The Development The second act usually occupies the middle two-quarters of the film and involves the sub-Crisis and Climax developmental stages. The crisis defines the protagonist's recognition of a problem and his/her proceeding to setting himself/herself a goal. Then complications are added to the plot to prevent the protagonist down his objective path. Usually, a false resolution to the main conflict will be encountered by the character, and thereafter will be driven inevitably towards the climax where the the protagonist faces his/her ultimate conflict. The Resolution This final segment of the film comprises of the climax, where dramatic confrontation of ali the key elements and conflicts are waged and an eventual victor is determined. ln Hollywood films, the victor is usually the hero. Thus leading to the Closure segment of the film where ali ideas, issues or conflicts are resolved ; wherefore we inter a sense of a "happily ever after" for the protagonist.

A film such as Erin Brokovich perfectly illustrates this as it adheres to ali five stages, or 3 Acts of a classical structure. ln stage one(Act 1) of this film , Erin the protagonist is introduced tous as a broke, unemployed single mother unable to finding a job, gets in a car accident, and loses her lawsuit. This opening serves to lure the viewer towards the seducing protagonist, as the status quo demontrates Erin's day to day activities as ill-fated, and with the car crash and unemployment notwithstanding, it is still astate of equilibrium in the context of the entire film. Then an opportunity arises where Erin basically forces Ed Masry to give her a job. This propels us into stage two, where the complication or disequilibrium is set when Erin gets fired, not long after she began studying a case in Hinkley, California, for Ed Masry's law firm ; the case laying the basic conflict groundwork for the rest of the entire film . Although almost straight after this sequence, Erin gets rehired to win a suit against PG&E, which will be the sparking event for a series of complications and chains of events to follow. Which is where stage three(Act Il) commences, where Erin sets herselt the goal of getting a few Hinkley residents to hire Ed to represent them , ali the meanwhile getting romantically involved with George, which'll play as another element or potential obstruction to the

protagonist's objective path. Back in the law firm, Erin and Ed file the lawsuit, risking dismissal by the judge, which would destroy any hope of a settlement. This sequence is important as it represents the point of no return , to which the balance will inevitably tip one way or another towards the climax and end. So stage four commences, a series of ultimate struggles to restore order, where Erin's true values and endeavours are put to the tests. Here, Erin sees less of George and her kids, while Ed brings in a big firm that alienates the Hinkley plaintiffs. Then the highest stakes are set at this point, when most of the plaintiffs withdraw due to the bungled efforts of the new lawyers, and George leaves Erin. At this point in stage five(Atc Ill), the climax settles with the protagonist's last irrevocable strenuous effort to restore equilibrium . Erin rallies the Hinkley families to agree to binding arbitration, and finds evidence incriminating the PG&E corporate office. As a result, Erin and Ed win a $330 million dollar settlement, with an icing on top of the cake, as George returns home. Therefore equilibrium is again restored, and as a closure; Erin gets a $2 million bonus, and continues working with Ed. Yet another happily ever after classic. So as analyzed, every stage in this script serves as a build up to the inevitable climax, respecting ali turning points, and disruptions and regains of equilibrium. This preceding elaborate description of the Classic Hollywood structure comprising the 5 stages and the 3 Act are imperative to understanding the "Genre movie" and the social psychology behind this convention that will be discussed in the latter part of this paper.

ln returning to a more strictly narrative structural sense of the 3 Act construction 1will introduce its synonymie terms, Classical Unified Narrative. As demonstated above, Hollywood films are always goal-oriented, usually with a hero, or protagonist who sees through their objective in the end . And in a classic storytelling formula, a protagonist's story path will be accompanied by helpers, sub-helpers, villains, and sub-villains, there to either obstruct or aid the protagonist along his journey. These are ali theoretical character presets determined by a classical narrative structure. 1cali them , functionaries , as the characters ali have one thing in common , to aid the progression of the storyline. Each individual character may hold their own goals but their biggest contributing factors are to propel the story towards the protagonist's single objective and goal. This brings us to the important theory of causality. Now that ali factors of a classical structure have been presented and explained , 1will paraphrase my definition of a standard narrative; "a chain of events in cause-effect relationships occuring intime and space." Causality is cause and effect; in other words an action and a corresponding reaction , and this is how a sense of continuity and unity of time is achieved in standard storytelling . This can be interpreted as the underlying heartbeat that pushes a story along. Since Hollywood movies are predominantly single goal-oriented, therefore its narrative structure only has "one line of causality" or "a causal chain of events", as ali characters and events are "connected" in sorne way or other; in aid of one another towards the story's or protagonist's objective. This is ca lied a "Unified Narrative".

A good example of a film that perfectly conforms to this classical structure is The Untouchables. ln this film , the protagonist, Treasury officer Elliot Ness's quest is to capture criminal Al Capone and put him behind bars. This goal is clearly and explicitly presented from the start, and most scenes follow the protagonist's actions from there on. After Ness's first embarassing failure, we are introduced to the plot's first and most important functionary; the character Malone, an expert on Chicago and particularly in police work. Hereafter, both characters join forces as Malone tutors Ness on police work and delivers the last clue to catching Capone, at which point he is killed off. Malone's death serves as a plot function for strengthening Ness's resolve ; and equally reinforcing the audience's sympathy for the protagonist's quest. Other structural funtionaries are the secondary key supporting characters such as Stone, recruited from the police academy as an excellent marksman; and Ness's quartet of heroes, the accountant, whose structural plot function provides comic relief for the audience as weil as providing a solution for convicting Capone. Once these functions have been served , the accountant is expectantly killed off, to further stregthen Ness's determination and the audience's sympathy. The opposing "evil" characters of the story a Iso serve the same plot functionality of driving the story towards it's inevitable climax and end , as weil as providing the basis for the conflict. Parallel to Alfred Hitchcock's technique in North by Northwest(1959), the "bad" and "conflicting" entity is divided into two characters, the main character Al Capone, a remorseless yet sophisticated and amusing personality, reflects the villain James Mason character in North by Northwest. The sub-villain, as weil as a stronger embodiment of evil , Nicci, reflects the same ruthlessless as Martin Landau in Hitchcock's film , and both whose execution by the protagonist serve a structural ending for the films . This is essential to The Untouchables plot since the characters are based on actual figures, and it is expected that Capone ends up in prison(equally for James Mason); therefore the fictitious creation of an evil character such as Nicci and Martin Landau is essential to fullfilling the genre demand of necessiting a hero being driven to killing the bad character at the end of the film . Ali characters aforementioned, asides from serving a "classical genre" functionality, ali have one common structural purpose; to propel the story onwards by accompanying the protagonist on his quest line, therefore creating one causal chain of events, with the protagonist's sole objective as the guiding function and no other. This is a classA example of a "Unified Narrative" structural storytelling .

Cause and Effect


Before moving on to unconventional alternative narrative structures. A concise understanding of causality is gravely important as it will be a reccuring theme throughout the rest of the section to allow for complete comprehension of the distinctions between different paradigms and modules in narrative structures. As previously stated, cause and effect refers to action

and reaction , but it can also refer to a film's montage or editing, that is, the juxtaposing of shots. A director's or editor's choice of a sequence of shots can suggest a viewer to inter a particular meaning and interpretation based on the order and arrangement of shots aligned; and on other occasions, different atmospheres and moods. 1 will use Lev Kuleshov's(Russian filmmaker of the 1920s) legendary exemplary experiment to further illustrate this. Kulechov understood that viewers make sense of a film by connecting events; by linking images that we see in both time and space and creating a causal effect between them . Even when there is no obvious connection, we stiJl try to create one. This opened an artistic opportunity for directors to manipulate and exploit editing forms and techniques to further add meaning to their film . ln Kulechov's experiment, he presented the audience with alternating shots of an actor with one single unchanged expression with shots of different objects, such as food , a dead woman , and a child, to which the audience interpreted the actor's expressions as hungry, sad, and affectionate. This perfectly demonstrated the brain's functionality of trying to make continuitive sense of what we see. Sergei Eisenstein, another Russian filmmaker of the same era, advocated this idea in his beliet that consecutive shots that were not obviously linked would be more effective as the audience were forced to interact more to make the mental jump from shot to shot. Thus confirming present filmmaking ; elaborate montages employed to evoke certain ideas and concepts in the audience. Particularly effective in propaganda and advertising , where thematic ideas and associations due to careful editing is utilized more than elaborate storylines. Thematic concepts will be explained in the next section .

Multiple Narrative Structures


So as previously explained, a classical narrative breaks down into a causal chain of events(something that happens is a direct result or influence of another within the same narrative story), usually centered around a single goal-oriented protagonist, in which other "supporting" characters function to the extent of contributing to the development of the main plot. And alternately, th is is where 1 introduce the less conventional or Hollywoodian "Multiple Narrative Structure". This name is categorial to further sub-divided narrative structures. ln its broadest definition, a structure of this type would consist of the existence of more than one causal sequence of events(which constitutes a narrative) within the framework of a single picture, without one governing event to fuse them together. ln simplifying terms, a multiple narrative structure can be summarized as having more than one fine of causa/ity, and no real convergence the of many plots or narratives, seeing as an overinteraction of narratives would therefore inevitably create more of a causal effect between them . The terms causality and convergence are complementary of each other. A reference to fabula(story) and suyzhet(structure) will be necessary to deepen the understanding of the different types of multiple narrative

structures to come. A conclusive observation shows that there are an infinite number of ways a fabula can be presented , wherefore dissimilar forms of syuzhet can change the significance of one story in a number of ways. For example, Franco Zeffirelli's 1968 version of Romeo & Juliet holds a very different way of storytelling compared to Baz Luhrmann 's later version . ln the pure case of multiple narrative structures, a counfounding question is raised as to whether a viewer contructs multiple fabulas , or a single encompassing fabula of ali the different strands of storytelling. This inquiry on fabula will serve as my argumentative foundation for the two main forms of multiple narrative cinema; "Separated Multiple Narratives" and "lntegrated Multiple Narratives". This broad distinction sets apart pictures in wh ich the suyzhet prompts the viewer to interconnect the multiple narratives or strands, from pictures who do not. Although, a clear tine of distinction between the two is difficult to discern, as it can only be achieved through careful and thorough case studies of particular exemplary films. Since both the separated and integrated structures consist of more than one causal chain of events in its narrative, the defining distinciton lies therefore in that separated narrative structures encourage viewers to construct more than one fabula, which still holds relatively true for integrated narrative structures; although this latter suyzhet paradigm encourages audiences to form meaning from more of a thematic stance via the parallels observed between the multiple narratives. lt must be ta ken note of that these structures are basic modules that serve for general distinctions between pictures, and that what are so called grey areas must be taken account of since variation is an inevitable occurence with each new usage of these modules. These different structural paradigms allow for various combinations and hybrids that will later be further discussed. Titles such as Fargo, Short Cuts, Magnolia, and 21 grams ali pertain to the broad multiple narrative structure category.

Separated Multiple Narratives


Separated Multiple Narrative structures are commonly occurent in "compendium" films, in other words, a collection of short stories. An illustrative filmic scenario of this would be the clich three men sat a round a campfire in turn telling each other stories. Horror compendiums incorporating these similar structures were popular between 1962 and 1972, including titles such as Tales of Terror(1962), Tales from the Crypt(1972), and Dr. Terror's House of Horrors(1965). ln the latter, the story consists of five men travelling in a railway carriage who have their futures told by a sixth passenger who turns out to be Death. The five stories have similar fabula constructions, where the protagonist in each one dies of macabre or supernatural causes, but wholly separate from each other. The arder in which they appear is of no importance since the stories hold no causal effect on each other, nor do the parallels of each individual narrative invite the viewer to construct another level of meaning from them.

Asides from the three compendium film titles cited just previously, 1will throw in a few more titles for comprehension effect; Grand Hote/(1932), Califomia Suite(1978), Four Rooms(1996), and New York Stories(1991). Notice how the three first titles ali have the recurrant "hotel" theme, that strongly insinuates various "rooms" for various "narratives"; which would explain the narrative structural suggestions derived from the chosen words in the titles, such as Tales, Hon-ors, Rooms, and Stories. Similarly, films like these usually employ formai eues such as a title card or cloudy dissolve to begin the next episode, and a lack of recurring characters from story to story, to indicate constructions of separate fabulas. These pictures are best approached as a collection of short stories in which the structure is the binding that holds them together as one picture. The clear distinction here from an integrated multiple narrative is that they encourage viewers to construct several fabulas according to the various narratives instead of constructing another level of meaning from the parallelism evident in the stories. ln this case, fabula dominates theme. If we were to take away one narrative out of the seve rai narratives comprised in a single picture, the re would be no Joss of meaning. When a picture's multiple narrative construction is less rigid and detailed, the process of fabula construction becomes more complex. Films like these encourage similar-minded directors to work together, contributing their own anecdotes and styles to a themed compendium, such as Four Rooms, which was directed by four different people, reaffrrming a separated multiple narratives' absence of unity of meaning.

lntegrated Multiple Narrative Structures


ln the case of integrated multiple narrative structures, two or more narratives exist without exerting any great narrative power over each other or eventually converging into a unified narrative. So the viewer is therefore forced to draw parallels, comparisons and contrasts from the different narratives in order to construct a coherent meaning. Up till now, an integrated multiple narrative does not seem to differ much from any form of multiple narrative storytelling, although this is where the distinction begins. As mentioned in the previous paragraph , eliminating a strand of narrative or causal chain of events from a separated multiple narrative will not lead to a Joss of meaning, whereas it is on the contrary for integrated multiple narrative structures. Drawing from Lev Kulechov's theory of cause and effect, a viewer's psychology can be concluded in three ways depending on the structure employed by the picture it is that they are being shown. Since a viewer naturally expects a film to adhere to a sense of unity; in a classical structure, the audience will intuitively attempt to construct linkage between events and characters in order to achieve a sense of unity, or the plot or story in this single narrative. ln an integrated multiple narrative structure, the viewer, once failing to find a sense of unity, will retreat to the second stage of constructing several fabulas and causal chain of events to which he/she can see if a unified theme governs the many strands of narrative. This type of structural module therefore encourages a viewer to create thematic significance of the picture of which to identify with. If and only when this fa ils,

is the viewer forced to comprehend the story in a separated multiple narrative structural manner, therefore constructing several fabulas , with no governing theme. Parallelism is a key concept for ali forms of integrated multiple narrative cinema. ln simplistic terms, theme dominates fabula.(contrary definition of separated multiple narratives). Films today are increasingly employing this structural paradigm and emphasis on theme. Titles include Crash, The Fountain, American Beauty, Pulp Fiction, Sliding Doors, Mr Nobody, Love Actually, most cited have are not more than two decades old . Notably, science-fiction and disaster movie genres that deal with gloabl events from diverse perspectives often employ this type of structure. The suyzhet will typically follow several characters unrelated to each other, who might actually never meet du ring the course of the film. Examples include, Dr. Strangelove or a.k.a. How 1Leamed to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb(1964), Close Encounters of the third kind(1978), and Deep /mpact(1998). ln the strictest structural sense, the recent The Fountain(2006) by Darren Aronofsky is an example of what a pure integrated multiple narrative structure is. The picture has three distinguishable narratives, in which ali three's main characters are played by Hugh Jacksman and Rachel Weisz. The three storylines are situated five centuries apart, each with the similar plot of a man's refusai to accept the tate of a dying loved one. ln the first, in 16th century Central America in Mayan territory, conquistador Tomas quests for the tree of lite for his Queen. ln 2005, medical researcher Tommy obsessively seeks a cure for the brain tumour killing his wife, lzzi. ln 2500, space traveller Tom travels to a nebula in a bubble-shaped spacecraft that contains a garden and dying tree of life(the embodiment of his wife). The tact that the three narratives are separated temporally makes the episodes from each narrative clearly distinguishable, wherefore each storyline has absolutely no causal relationship upon each other. Due to the overly similar plots, a viewer can concede that a thematic concept is the driving force of the narratives to which a unified meaning can be derived. The fabula on the quest for immortality is an evident recurring plot in ali three narratives, wherefore the loss of one storyline will drastically weaken the film's thematic concepts of love, unacceptance, mortality, and equally immortality, emphasized by the three narratives' distant temporal placements to represent the longetivity of ali three them es. A very structural and orderly suyzhet can be observed in this film , from it's very episodic presentations, and particularly through sorne of the film's transitional cuts. An editing theme that can be witnessed numerous times throughout the story is the recurring transitional shot of one period-specific narrative juxtaposed with a similar mirrored transitional shot of a different period-specific narrative, emphasizing the parallel themes of the three narratives through the film's parallel editing in these transitional points. Relative to the subject, it is important to recognize the two forms of alternating editing , as it is essentially the manipulation of time, th us determining whether a unity of time(simultaneity) is present in a multiple narrative structure's given storylines. Alternating editing can be defined as the

intercalation of two or more different series of images, or between shots of temporal and spatial difference. If temporal simultaneity is not pertinent to the series, the cutting may be called para/le/ editing; if the series are to be taken as temporally simultaneous, then we have crosscutting. Since the three fabulas of The Fountain neither have causal nor temporal influence on each other, nor logically do the narratives ever converge; parallel editing is used in fusing the storylines. A few early exemplary films of this kind of editing usage are D.W . Griffith's lntolerence(1916), The Best Years of Our Lives, and The Yellow Rolls Royce. The list demonstrates that parallel storytelling had already been in usage dating back to an early era of filmmaking , and till now it's application has not been short of common .

Sub-Categories: lntegrated Double Narrative Structures


As seen in the above example, a film like The Fountain is easily distinguishable as an lntegrated Multiple Narrative structure since ali determining factors of causality, time and space, including editing ali construct clean-cut structural borders, evading any grey areas, maintaining the structuctural paradigm in its basic form . But certain particular and similar structures are much more ambiguous in their form, and can only be determined upon careful analysis in case to case scenarios. The integrated double narrative structure is of such complexity, mainly in its close similarity with sorne classical seemingly "double narrative" forms. The sharing component in both cinemas is they both appear to employ double narrative structures, where in tact the deception lies in that the two existing narrative paths in classical films are in tact are always causally related , despite impressions or illusions of dichotomy. This type of structural construction is quite often employed in classic Hollywood films so a quick clarification of the two similar structures can aid in comprehending the underlying factor that really makes up a multiple narrative structure. For comparisons sake, 1will use the classic Desperately Seeking Susan(1985) by Susan Seidelman, and Woody Allen's Crimes and Misdemeanours(1989) . The latter may seem to share an identical narrative form as the classic at superficial glanee, but it is actually an integrated double narrative structure. ln Desperately Seeking Susan, the plot follows two protagonists separately without having them meet until the end of the picture. The entire plot is built a round the farcical construction of the two characters continuously missing each other, which leads to the complications that make up the plot. ln Crime and Misdemeanors, two protagonists with little in common are also followed separately until they meet in the last sequence of the film. Although what makes the latter qualify for a double narrative is the lack of a narrative event that properly combines the characters; the lack of a causal relationship between the two strands of stories. lt is by mere chance that both protagonists happen to meet at ali in the end; and even then , it is interpreted more as an epilogue where both characters may reflect on the impact the preceding events have had on their respective lives. The overall

meaning or theme of the film would not have been lost if an alternate ending had not had the characters meet; therefore this sequence can be perceived as more random or coincidental. Whereas in Desperately Seekin Susan , the final meet between the two protagonists solves the build-up of the misunderstandings and brings closure to the two causal chains that had set each other in motion. The events of their continuous missing each other provides incentive for maintaining the protagonists' mutua/ goal until the very end , therefore having an unobvious direct effect on each other, but nevertheless existential. To summarize, at a closer look, Desperate/y Seeking Susan ultimately contains a causal relationship and a single unified goal from both narratives, and inversely, Crime and Misdemeanours contains no causal relativity and two separate plots with their own respective goals, in wh ich an inevitable theme is drawn.

Semi-multiple narratives
Certain genres of classical picture share certain traits with multiple narrative structures without truly sharing the defining features. Just like the preceding page had illustrated the fact that Desperately Seeking Susan follows its two protagonists separately does not make the film a double narrative picture, certain genres tend to focus on groups of people rather than on a single protagonist without using a multiple narrative structure. This is an example of genres that fall within the grey categorical area. The two genres that are a hybrid product of classical storytelling and multiple narrative structures are the heist movie and ensemble picture. The main structural difference between these two genres is the constitution of the group. Logically, the heist movie is always extremely goal-oriented. The preparation, to the execution of a robbery and the followed escape ali consitute the a goal for the group. Needless to say that the individual members of the group ali have their own individual sub-goals, oftentimes the betrayal of fellow gang member, but the sub-goals ali have a functionality in the causal structure of the plot, just like that of The Untouchables. The key difference that qualifies a heist movie like described as a semi-multiple narrative structure is that the suyzhet pays a lot more attention to individual sub-goals, typically by following different perspectives of different characters from the beginning of the picture until ali sub-goals converge into one dominant goal, where ali characters finally meet. So a typical semi-multiple narrative would have a more dispersed suyzhet in the beginning according to individual characters, but with an inevitable unision of ali mini or subnarratives at the end of the film, therefore ultimately resulting in one fabula . lnglourious Basterds(2009) by Quentin Tarantino, though not a heist movie, shares various traits of a semi-multiple narrative, and an element of group conspiracy. Ali narratives and characters hold their own causal chain of events that contribute to the single climatic ending of the film . The film is essentially a careful and slow build-up to the picture's grand final ; where each protagonist of each narrative, naively pursues their own goals, the two major sub-goals being the ones protective of nazi officiais, and the ones conspiring

against, where ali eventually concide in the theatre of a movie premiere that triggers a vast causal chain of events ending in massive slaughter. Again, the suyzhet allows for alternating editing between shifts of perspectives, up to the point where ali inevitably concide. lt is a series of mini fabulas stringed into one governing fabula. Earlier examples of heist movies of similar structure include Resevoir Oogs(1993) and Heat(1995). Dissimilarly, the group of protagonists in an ensemble picture is much less goal-oriented than groups in a heist movie. Typically, the ensemble picture deals with a group of characters that come together in one defined location for a short period of time; du ring which they attempt to solve sorne of their problems, sorne of which may be caused by other members of the group. The film usually ends with the characters going their separate ways, having unambiguously solved their problems or failed to do so. The focus of the picture is typically on the interaction within the group; where characters need each other to solve their problems, and usually succeed in the duration of their temporary co-existence. Since for the most middle part of an ensemble movie is built on interaction between members, the causal chain of events within this duration almost exempts this kind of genre as a multiple narrative structure. Although, since the picture is not singularly goal-oriented, but rather a complex structure of several more or less goal-oriented protagonists, it makes it eligible for a semi-multiple narrative. A closely structural-resembling ensemble picture of this sort is Vicky Cristina Barcelona(2008) from Woody Allen. The plot comprises complex entanglements of love and lust surrounding four main characters. Vicky, Cristina, Juan Antonio and Maria Elena each hold their own love interests or combination of love interests, to which pertains to their own individual goals. The suyzhet is organized like that of an ensemble picture where the protagonists arrive individually towards a specifie location, Barcelona, where ali sub-goals and characters concide, and then in the ending sequence of the movie, ali depart their own ways again. The characters' assembling in the mid-section of the picture is interactive insofar that the absense of one protagonist would disrupt the continuity towards a narrative closure; nevertheless, this very united illusion does not usurp the fact that each character holds their own sub-goals, and that the picture is not goal oriented ; with the existing causal relationship notwithstanding. Other earlier ensemble titles include The Big Chi//(1983), The Retum of the Secaucus Seven(1978), Peter's Friends(1992) and Beautiful Girls(1996). Since this genre deals with a single, if complex, narrative event, they do not really use multiple narrative structures, but their non-hierarchical structure of characters(as also in Vicky Cristina Barcelona) is in sorne ways very similar to it.

Other Unconventional Narratives Structures: Non-Linear Narrative Structures


Another effective alternative narrative structure to the common classic, is non-linear storytelling . This genre of film typically plays with the distortion of time to bath confound and engage the viewer. Stories with suyzhets like these usually maintain a similar classical plot structure to reduce complexity and the risk of uneasy comprehension for the audience. Therefore films like these usually contain one distinct, if complex, fabula, and one goal-oriented protagonist along a line of causaully related events and the respective subcharacters and functionaries. The description bears resemblance with the 3 Act plot structure, except the key element of a linear temporal narrative is exploitively disrupted to create a hightened sense of narrative gap and suspense that encourages the viewer to interact and assemble the puzzle pieces. This effect is created through careful editing and a repetitive application of flashbacks ; the purpose being th at previously unexplained events would later be explained through flashbacks , therefore filling plot gaps as we progress throughout the film. Recent titles such as David Fincher's Fight Club(1999), Forrest Gump(1994) Robert Zemeckis, Mr. Nobody(2009) Jaco Van Dormael , and La Mme(2007) Olivier Dahan are ali examples of films that employ time distortion for dramatic effect. However, the structural use of flashbacks in narrative had not been an innovation of the late century, as its application actually dates back a few good decades, notably the "film noir" era of the early 1940s to late 1950s. This post-Depression and War movie genre had already back then boldly defied classic Hollywood conventions of genre and narrative structures, through persistent incorporations of flashbacks, and the exploration of the deeperdarker themes that 1 will elaborate in later discussions on genres. Sorne acclaimed titles include Double lndemnity(1944) Billy Wilder, Scarlet Street(1945) Fritz Lang, and Oetour(1945) Edgar G. Ulmer.

Realistic Narrative Structure


Realistic Narrative Structures contain variation bath in its fabula and suyzhet. The narrative arrangements are usually divided into episodic stories, juxtaposed in no particular arder almost like a "slice of lite", where only parts of the character's experiences are revealed to us, although audiences generally learn enough about a character to which they can identify and sympathize with . Realistic narratives also deviate from genre convention , that in particular opposition to such films as the action picture or anything relatively fast-paced in terms of plot. Generally, this is because of the longer time it takes for the main storyline to emerge. Furthermore, these movies avoid clichs, stock characters and situations, simple melodrama, romantic ideas of destiny and tate, and happy, expected endings. Thus patience and focused attention is demanded of this genre audience. Portrayal of stories are aIso

said to be more complex and "real", thus the name of this kind of narrative. Memorable titles include John Ford's The Grapes of Wrath(1940) and Robert Altman's M*A *S*H(1969).

Formalist Narrative Structure


Unlike Realistic Narrative, Formalist Narratives are characterized by stylistic modes of filmmaking . Typically highly experimental and visual to the director's liking . Both narrative and plot elements are subject to stylization , exaggeration , and distortion to convey the artificiality of the film experience and create wholly imaginary fictitious worlds particular to the director's visions. Throughout the history of film, directors such as Jean Luc Godard , Alfred Hitchcock, and Steven Soderbergh have ali explored Formalist Narratives. Contemporary examples of this narrative employent include Tom Tykwer's Run Lola Run(1998) and Baz Luhrmann's Moulin Rouge(2001) .

So as readers can concede, narrative structures play one of the primary roles that sets apart a classic Hollywoodian genre from more marginal unconventional films. Although this is but the first step to a comprehensive study of a subject of this broad nature, sin ce many more factors are to be considered in properly categorizing the two sorts. Therefore following this section , 1proceed to adressing the second biggest factor in this search for distinction; and it is that of "Genre".

Defining Genre
There has been vast controversy concerning the term "genre" amongst many film theorists. Sorne argue that the broad definition, carelessness and ali too free usage of the word has rende red it ambiguous, and therefore incompetent for the task of properly defining films into categories upon which analysis is based . 1partly concur with this point of view since despite efforts of delving for particular genre names for the less "conventional" films , my research went unfortunately unrewarded. lt would seem as though films that stand outside of the standard norm are carelessly and hastily thrown into already existing categories, with generalizations such as "independent films" so to speak. Despite the fact that 1find it slightly unjust considering the merits of certain "new wave" films due to their striking originality, artistic choices, and countless factors , 1will nevertheless refer to these films as "independent", "unconventional", "new wave", or "antigenre" as generalizations for discussions to follow. However, it is undeniable that an understanding of genre and its main uses are crucial to laying groundwork for allowing for more concretized distinctions for comparing films.

Psychological 1 mplications
There are many factors(asides from the obvious purpose of distinguishing types of films) asto why we need genres, and how they originated , but 1will start with the briefest definition of genre as a "kind" of work, or an exercise in classification , but that which are also formulas that artists draw upon for the production of artworks that enable consumers and the viewing public to make sense of, based on their knowledge of previous works in the same category. So asides from being an influencial factor for screenwriters and directors alike to draw upon for basis for their own creations, genres serve the primary purpose of facilitating audience identification. This is principally do to with the "psychology" of the movie consumer. The meaning of a genre lies in the audiences' application of their own knowledge of the conventions of genre-construction. ln other words, a viewer would automatically draw conclusions, predictions and meanings from a film based on elements one can recognize as previously viewed in other films of the same genre. lt is assumed that audiences acquire more sophisticated knowledge of these conventions through increased experience in viewing a genre. This aids an audience in knowing what to expect, and allows popular culture to be easily consumed and broadly appreciated . Earlier filmmakers doubted an audience's ability to comprehend a film that deviated from standard norms, narrative structures, or genres, so most artists preferred not running the risk of experimenting, and to which production companies agreed upon even more earnestly. Thus the abundance of Hollywood classics is clearly self-explanatory. But that opinion is on its way of becoming obsolete, as new emerging artists and directors now know the extent to which an audience can interactively engage and interpret a film . They understand that variation in creation evokes adaptation from the viewer's part, and the exploration of such opportunities is the core passion of an artist. Classical Hollywood can stand as a paradox in itself as it is an industry stagnating its own vast possibilities for creation . That's why there is an almost perceivable shift of critical interest from the mundane classics, exhausted of its own repeated resources, to the more independent films and filmmakers that are gradually on the rise today. With technological milestones, relatively advanced filmic industrial hardware and software have become conveniently affordable to the masses. lndependent filmmaking will soon enough be a new movement on the rise; with endeavours that demonstrate passion is never short of original works of art alongside grossly high-budgeted productions.

The Propp Theory


ln order to understand the further psychologies and social implications behind genres, 1will briefly return to the 3 Act structure and elaborate on the plot to which 1haven't thoroughly discussed previously. As already covered by this paper, the 3 Act structure consists of a causal chain of events to which its unraveling is set in motion by the protagonist and his/her assisting or opposing sub-characters. ln classical structures, stock characters are the

predetermined prototypical or stereotypical model characters that fit the functions of progressing the plot towards its narrative end . This was a paradigm more or less put into theory by Russian formalist Vladimir Propp, who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements and concluded the following for character modules: He theorized that characters could be resolved into only 7 broad character types in the 100 tales he analyzed: 1 The villain - struggles against the hero. 2 The donor- prepares the hero or gives the hero sorne magical object. 3 The (magical) helper - helps the hero in the quest. 4 The prin cess and her father- gives the task to the hero, indentifies the false hero, marries the hero, often sought for during the narrative. Propp noted that functionally, the princess and the father cannot be clearly distinguished. 5 The dispatcher- character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off. 6 The hero or victim/seeker hero ) reacts to the donor, weds the princess. 7 (False hero)- takes credit for the hero's actions or tries to marry the princess.

Notice how ali these stock characters almost perfectly reflects ali the villain , sub-villain , hero, helper, sub-helper, dispatcher rotes in The Untouchables narrative. But non uniquely in this film , an endless majority of Classic Hollywood character/plot structures adhere to this paradigm in sorne form or another. For decades it is a concrete business and beliet system that th is module is the only one which performs most successfully; with simplistic audience-intended ying and yang characters, single storyline, and a linear temporal structure. 1 will not contest the powerful functionality and value of this paradigm , although 1 am one amongst many who now begin to dismiss its use as overly exploitive and therefore, easily tiresome and recognizable . Ofcourse this generality does not account for films still capable of bringing depth and originality to such a convention through elaborate and brilliant complex narratives and/or profoundly developed characterizations that we are readily if not willingly forgivable of the classical suyzhet utilization. To this, 1believe classic paradigms can still stand the test of time if narratives aren't repetitively centered around clichd themes, based on light, recognizable and re-used issues on love, war, crime, sex etc. By this 1 by no means am saying we should no longer explore these universal themes, but on the contrary, 1 encourage an artistic voyage to the unknown or belittled aspects of these themes, that in time have always been shunned by movie producers or fillmmakers fearing the lack of the entertaining "joy ride" most people seek out at a movie theatre. Although yet again, it pleases me to contradict this beliet as new generations are increasingly showing a pattern of audiences who seek and

enjoy complex variations of traditional genres which invite them to apply their know-how to interpreta film , particularly when they are faced with deviations from the prototypical genre. Audiences are willingly grappling hard or serious material to reflect upon. Afterall, the majority of best picture oscar wins evade grossly high-budgeted special effects oriented pictures for a reason ... 1 believe it is a reflection upon our society's still inclining nature towards profoundly sentimental and emotional themes.

History of Classical Genres


Practically ali genres any medriocre movie-buff has heard of has been covered , revised and made a convention of by Hollywood, as a standard to be referred toby filmmakers ali around. That various genres have changed and gone through cycles of popularity does not alter the fact that the basic underlying coordinates of a genre are maintained time after time. ln the best referral case, Western titles such as Edwin S. Porter's The Great Train Robbery(1902) , to Mark Rydell's The Cowboys(1972), or Henry Hathaway's True Grit(1968); the western has maintained a consistency of basic content; the plots, settings, and characters remain the same. What is true of the western is aIso true of the adventure film, the fantasy film, the crime film , and the musical, or any fictional genre one can identify. Any particular film of a defi na ble group is only recognizable as part of th at group if it is, in fact, an imitation of that which came before. Logically, like similarly discussed previously, it is only because we have seen other films that strongly resemble the particular film at hand that we can say it is a horror film , or a thriller, or a slapstick comedy. Each new film of the same genre and structure is an attempt to embody the essence of a well-known story. Despite its ageless success, it is nevertheless a very delimiting artistic choice to always comply to the norm. While the "new wave" films may have a whole life of experience to choose from, the genre film must be made from certain well-known and immediately recognizable plots; that usually deal with melodramatic incidents in which obvious villains and heroes portray the basic conflict of good and evil. No matter how complicated the plot of a genre film , there is never an ambiguous distinction between the good guys and the bad guys, wherefore we always know who to identify with and for how long.

Genres and their Sociologicallmplications


To better expound the plot conflict of good versus evil and their respective underlying social implications, 1 will illustrate obvious parallels that can be observed between several chosen genres.
The Horror Film: The first is that of a horror film and their strict dependence on the presence of a monster. ln doing so, they clearly perpetrate the linguistic connotation of "threatening inhuman being". Although by playing with different characters and plots, they can generate different meanings and associations for the the audience to identify with. ln the 19th century, the appearance of a monster is associated with a romantic overreaching ; the

attempt of a mad scientist to tamper with divine order; such as the Frankenstein films. ln this case, man equates monster, attributing to the monstrosity of humankind being outside nature, yet within confines of the selfestablished religion and science. With the horror film of today, the underlying connotation again equates monstrosity, although not in the over-romanticized versions of the 19th century, but with an equally intensifying equivalent from the 21st century. Once again, the monster is identified as the human being counterpart's unsatisfied sexual appetite and primitive violence. Overally speaking , the tonality of that of a horror movie, although more freely exploring the Freudian concepts of humankind, human taboos, fears and darker inhibitions, nevertheless holds a negative and restraining perspective of the being and the society, since fear would be easily identified as the leading emotional element of this genre.

ln the War Film: The most popular plot in a war film involves a group of men , individuals thrown together from separate backgrounds who must be welded together to become a well-equipped fighting machine. During the course of the film , the loners, rough edges, dents, and flaws in each individual character, like that in the film Air Force(1943) must be smoothed down to make them fit together. They must ali hang together or hang separately. The emphasis is on the team. Logically, the end goal of the war film is always the even larger group, the nation. The hero's primary function is to mold the group and personally oppose the idea of individualism when the group deviates in a path away from the group effort. Ultimately, the hero, is always in service of the group, of law and order, of stability, of survival, not of himself but of the organization or institution, no matter how individual his activities. Contrarily, the villain could be defined as the man who ruthlessly looks after his own needs, and who works for and will sacrifice himself for no one or nothing but himself. The underlying theme and meaning of this genre is the recurring restoration of social order.

The Police or Detective Film: This genre follows the same pattern as the preceding genre. Cops can perpetrate violent antisocial acts with impunity, if it is to fulfill their primary function of capturing the guilty party and restore order. Needless to say the private eye is also on the same side, as he/she is protecting the mindless masses from evil. The emphasis is always on the moral order of the community and for group benefit as opposed to persona! and material benefit.

Horror films need no elaboration on this point, and even science-fiction falls under the same societal order categorial theme. Though sei-fi genres usually do leave us wondering about the failure or continued existence of humankind, there is still implicit assertion that there is no survival without the group. Science will save us, and not the individual. Same applied to the Western ; clearly involved in the with the eventual triumpth of the forces of civilization , law and order, despite melancholic losses of individual freedom .

Similarly, the musical will often end with a wedding or a harmonie promise of one as the boy and girl come together after overcoming ali obstacles. Just like the Broadway show, where the star must always gon on despite persona! tragedy, standing as a metaphor for society. A brief summary of ali the basic plots should serve to demonstrate that the purging of emotional tension in genre film is a basic element of the ir structure. The internai tension between the opposing impulses of individuation and submission to the group, is released through the course of the film as the audience vicariously lives out their own individual dreams of glory or terror, identifying with the stereotyped characters in the fictitious world. But in the end, those impulses of antisocial behaviour are dismissed as we accept the inevitable justice of the social arder; the group is right, and we know it in our hearts that it is wrong to think otherwise.

The Unconventional Era


ln recent years, drawing from the "new wave" movement; it has become a fashion for sorne directors to use elements of genre film, plots, characters, etc, to create essentially, an "antigenre" film. That is, they will use everything according to the normal pattern, with the exception of simply changing the ending so as not to satify the audience's expectations of a conventional group-oriented conclusion. If the detective gives in to crime through bribery, or if the individual salves his own prioritized problems as opposed to those of the group, then the basic principle and idea of genre has been disrupted. lt violates the basic principle of a genre film which is that of social arder. These films intentionally "tip the balance" by suggesting that individual schemes and separations from the group can occur without consequences, therefore completely defying the essence of a classic. The genre is a structure that embodies the idea of form and a strict adherance to this form that restricts experimentation or tampering with the given modules, ideas, and arder of things. The genre film, or the classic film , is essentially conservative, both aesthetically and politically. And in arder to break from this tradition, is to change the heart of this framework. Sorne films decide topa rody and irony of this convention, or work subtly against it, and others decide to completely overturn the framework by holding up individual ideals as superior to group ideals. As a result, an interesting psychological conclusion can be analyzed. If the expected conclusion that an audience awaits for like that of a classical film is never realized, an inverse response of agitation, discomfort, and vague anxiety will be produced, as their vicarious guilty pleasures were never dissolved due to an unexpected deviated ending . Two examples of films with highly-unconventional and individualistically-oriented endings include Don Siegel's Charlie Varrick(1973) and the Coen brothers' No Country for 0/d Men(2007). Charlie Varrick, an otherwise conventional movie, at the end, has the protagonist with a million dollars impunity free. His escape from just punishment for daring to going up against the system of the institution, the banks, the corporations, the Mafia, consequently creates an inverse response from an audience usually

expectant of a group-oriented, classic justice rendered ending. The message is partly sublimai insofar that it lends an inkling of a persuasive thought to the audience that they themselves might be able to fight and win the system and institutions, if the character in the film can. ln No Country for 0/d Men, the plot, setting and characters are highly similar to that of a Western . ln the story, Chigurh, a ruthless cold-hearted hitman is hi red to recover a lost satchel of two million dollars, to which the protagonist Moss had found and retrieved. ln the end, Chigurh escapes from law and punishment after having murdered severa! men in the hunt for the satchel of money, and Moss gets executed by a gang of Mexicans. Neither character is a hero, and both are in pursuit of their own selfish individual goals. As chance has it, Moss, despite running away with money not belonging to him, is still the better man of the two but is nevertheless killed off at the end of the movie, wh ile Chigurh escapes, with a minor car crash accident. Here, it is individuation versus individuation, with no classical governing law incorporating a crowd pleasing narrative closure.

The Film Noir


Until the present moment, 1 have been generally referring to "new wave" films as examples of standard norm defying movements or pictures, although a quick skim in retrospect, like mentioned in section one, will reveal that a particular genre in the two short decades after the post-Depression and post-War 1940s have already taken a stance to classical forms of storytelling . lt is revolutionary that an actual existing genre dating back a few decades comprised of directors bold enough on taking the task that only mainly rising independent film artists and particular known directors dare embarking on today. Everything from the film noir's explored themes and issues, characters, narrative structures, plot, and editing, have constituted the antagonistic genre film of Hollywood Classics. lt could be considered as the innovative filmic movement of that era. Using the film noir genre to replace "new wave" as a comparison tool against classical pictures and forms of filmmaking will be more comprehensive as 1 can distinctly select certain traits and elements particular to the genres for side by side comparison ; whereas it'll be more difficult if 1 were to select a few contemporary titles of no specifie or real pertinent genre, seeing how most are unique onto themselves and don't hold particular unconventional elements that are precisely recurrant in several "new wave" films to which 1 can have concrete factors for comparison usage. Therefore 1 intentionally selected the film noir genre for this specifie purpose. The comparison will not be less viable due to the genre's era, since most innovative techniques witnessed in film noirs are still the basic foundations for innovative, unconventional filmmaking today. The definition of film noir is still a controversy to this day, and have film theorists mind-wrestling over a precise and accurate enough description. lt is partly ironie to the genre's black and white nature, of its ambiguous definitions

such as "We'd be oversimplifying things in calling film noir oneiric, strange, erotic, ambivalent, and cruel. .. " and an "elusive phenomenon ... always just out of rea ch". Film noirs, which are typically considered to be a genre in itself, embraces a variety of genres, or say, plot styles, from gangster film to the police procedural to the gothie romance to the social problem picture, which back in its time would have likely been subject to being described as merely "melodrama". ln terms of setting, film noir is often associated with an urban setting , small towns, suburbia, rural areas, or on the open raad. Similarly, this type of variety is also present in character types. While the private eye and the femme fatale wou Id be typical persan as of the noir, the majority of films feature neither; so no character basis for genre designation exists, unlike that of the gangster film. This is a Iso true of the setting, and of the plots. Conclusively, the unconvention of film noirs lies in variation itself, as it holds no specifie paradigms or modules concerning the three determining factors aforementioned. Equally, nor does the film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the harrar film, the speculative leaps of the science fiction film , or the song-and-dance routines of the musical. But ali these factors are ali but the wavering elements of the film noir's narrative. When it cornes to aestheticism, noir doesn't fail in its outlandishly stylized hallmarks. Film noir cinematography is deeply influenced by German Expressionism, a cinematic movement of the 191 Os and 1920s closely related to contemporaneous developments in theater, photography, painting , sculpture, and architecture. Directors such as Fritz Lang, Robert Siodmak, and Michael Curtiz brought dramatic chiaroscuro(contrast between light and dark) lighting techniques and a psychologically expressive approach to miseen-scne with them to Hollywood, where they made sorne of the most fa mous of classic noirs. These abstract lighting and mise-en-scne imports is but the beginning of the noir's many artistic unconventions. From hereon , sprung a wild nest of film noir productions, where revised and newly introduced filmic innovations skyrocketed with every few notable successful films. Amongts these acclaimed titles, is the landmark motion picture directed by Orsen Welles, Citizen Kane , who's visual intricacy and complex, voiceover-driven narrative structure are echoed in dozens of classic films noirs. Film noir tends to use law-key lighting schemes producing stark lightldark contrasts and dramatic shadow patterning, called the chiaroscuro technique. The shadows of Venetian blinds or banister rads, cast upon an actor, a wall , or an entire set, are an iconic visual in film noirs that had quickly become a clich weil before the neo-noir era. Characters' faces may be partially or wholly obscured by darkness, which is a rarity in conventional Hollywood moviemaking. ln terms of camera, film noir is known for its use of Dutch angles, lawangle shots, and wide-angle lenses. Relatively common is the technique of shooting people reflected in one or more mirrors, or shots through curved or frosted glass or other distorting abjects to create illusions of disorientation. Sorne special effects of bizarre nature are also applied. Noir also employs a night-for-night shooting, as opposed to the Hollywood norm of day-for-night shooting .

Films noirs also tend to have confounding storylines, frequently involving flashbacks and other editing techniques that disrupt and sometimes obscure the narrative. Voiceover narration, sometimes used as a structuring deviee, came to be seen as a noir hallmark. An film noir exemplary of a complete defiance of the classic genre is Fritz Lang's Scarlet Street(1945), a tale of allurement and murder, a remake of Jean Renoir's French film La Chienne(1931 ), where the murderer escapes free of impunity, wh ile another man dies in the electric chair for the crime. Because of this apparent breach of the "code" or norm, the city of Atlanta, Georgia, tried to forbid its screening there to which Joseph L. Breen of the Production Code Administration wrote, "lt was our contention and beliet that in this particular motion picture, the murderer was adequately punished by a higher power, working through his own conscience, which drove him to become a social outcast and a hopeless derelict." This serves as a dramatic representation of the classic Hollywoodian's conservative, politically influenced norms, and further reaffirmation of the ir mentally delimiting notions of group over individualism. Though it broke with stylistic norms, the Film Noir movement was still very much a product of the system. With few exceptions, Film Noir works came out of the studio production process. A significant aspect of the postwar era, however, was a desire on the part of filmmakers to break not only with old norms but with the system itself, by setting up as independent producers of their own work. The short but lucrative and inventive period of the film noir genre had paved the way for "latter-day noir" hybrid genres including neo-noir and tech noir, ali more psychedelic, and experimental "new wave" films of the late century, with acclaimed directors such as David Lynch and David Fincher for neo-noir, and the Wachowski brothers for tech noir. These new-age directors and films, along with many other uncategorized titles, ali employ and magnify to sorne extent, at least one or more artistic elements found in film noirs. The two categories with their respective titles comprise of a list with most pertaining to, or that can be considered to be, antigenre or unconventional films:

Neo-noir
1973: The Private- Robert Altman 1974: Chinatown- Roman Polaski 1984: Blood Simple- Joel Coen 1986: Blue Velvet- David Lynch 1995: Seven- David Fincher 1997: LA. Confidential- Curtis Hanson

1997: Lost Highway- David Lynch 2002: Mu/ho/land Drive- David Lynch 2005: Brick- Rian Johnson 2006: The Good German- Steven Soderbergh 2007 : Film Noir- D. Jud Jones

Tech noir
1982: 8/ade Runner- Ridley Scott 1997: Gattaca- Andrew Niccol 1998: Dark City- Alex Proyas 1999: Matrix(trilogy) - Wachowski Brothers 2005: Sin City(adapted comic book by Frank Miller) - Robert Rodriguez 2008: The Spirit - Frank Miller

Experimental Cinema
On an even more marginallevel, there is the small category of genres dedicated to "experimental" cinema, who's definition explains that this genre has a range of filmmaking styles that are generally quite different from , and often opposed to, the practices of mainstream commercial filmmaking, or that of classic Hollywood. Many of these films will be distinguishable for their very customized unique or individual styles that are commonly director-specific, th us ma king a clear defi na ble li ne of this genre of filmmaking difficult. Although the general attributions to experimental films are characterized by the absense of linear narrative, the use of various abstracting techniques( out of focus , painting or scratching on film, rapid editing) , the use of asynchronous(non-diegetic) sound or even the absence of any soundtrack. The general goal oftentimes is to encourage a maximum amount of interaction with the film from the viewer. Many pictures of this genre are made on very low budgets, self-financed or financed through small grants, with a minimal crew or, quite often, solely the filmmaker himself/herself. Experimental cinema is in its own right, also a new movement demonstrative of my opinions about affordable high-tech filmic equipment to revolutionize filmmaking , allowing creative artistic access to the masses.

The Final Waging of the Convention and the Unconvention


As a final rundown , 1 stand by the observation that genre film , or Hollywood , is a classical mode in which imitation not of life but of conventions and ideals is of paramount importance; although this does not dismiss the fact that its structural paradigm, and that of plot, is one of timeless success that should continue being employed in the future of motion picture, although by the sole exception that governning industries, and particularly that of Hollywood should recognize that its overuse, and non of moderation, will drive, what had begun as marvelous theoretical constructions for not only film but literature, into the wasted landfills of modern "fast food art", cast off as easy and cheap entertainment. Having that said, 1 feel even more earnestly in encouraging modern forms of unconventional filmmaking, creating our own era of innovations like that of the 1940-SOs with film noirs. With milestone advancements on the technological, informational, and many widespread idea sharing mediums of media, we are a generation capable of achieving another level of intellectual/artistic expression ; and 1 have absolute faith in the world 's turning tide of consciousness towards more awakening and explorative methods of art and filmmaking. And the fact alone in that 1am today able to draw these assumptions from comparisons of both genres of cinema, is illustrative of how the new era is already on its way.

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