Anda di halaman 1dari 61

Selecting VAV Terminals for Acceptable IAQ

Dan Int-Hout Chief Engineer, Krueger Richardson, Texas

Where We Are Today:

The Rules

Air Distribution Device Selection Guidelines

The ASHRAE fundamentals handbook, chapter 20 (Air Distribution), provides guidance on several methods of air distribution. Additional guidance can be found in the recently updated Air Distribution sections in Applications and Systems Handbooks. Air distribution methods include overhead fully mixed, as well as fully stratified and partially mixed systems from below, and even task /ambient personal air delivery systems. Described delivery systems include constant and variable volume, UFAD, displacement ventilation and chilled beam systems. All have advantages and disadvantages, which must be understood by the design engineer and architect.

Air Distribution Device Selection Guidelines

For overhead well mixed systems, one should select a unit with throw at max, and minimum, flow that meets ADPI guidelines based on diffuser spacing and T50 (throw to 50 fpm). Additionally, select for maximum mixing: Noise can be good. Dirt on the ceiling is not bad. Air Distribution Effectiveness (ADE) is a new term describing room air mixing, and is a parameter with all delivery methods. There is increasing evidence that typical loads in buildings are far below those that used to require 1 cfm/sf in the past. I suspect most spaces only require about 0.4 cfm/sf, or less. Good design will require fewer diffusers, further apart, in order to provide adequate performance at these lower air flow rates.

Air Distribution, Poor Pattern Example



Good Pattern Example



Perforated 24X24, 10 inlet, 4 way, 20 Delta-T

Spacing for 80% ADPI 16 14
1/2 Unit Separation Distance


420 350 300 250 160 Range

10 8 6 4 2
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5







Standard 55 requires air speed <40fpm to use PMV/Graphical method. It also requires < 5.4 F vertical stratification in the occupied zone. If the calculated ADPI >80%, room average air speed will be < 40fpm, and vertical stratification will be <5.4F LEED will include this relationship in the back-up text for the 2012 version.


Common Overhead Heating Design

Cold Outside



Perimeter Considerations:
Maximum delta-t for effective mixing when heating, per ASHRAE handbook = ?. = 15F (90F discharge), continuous operation. Throw toward and away from glass. 150 FPM should reach 4-5 feet from the floor. ASHRAE 62.1 requires that ventilation be increased by 25% when heating, if the above rules are not followed. Typical perimeters require only 8F delta-t @ 1 cfm/sq.Ft.

Air Distribution Summary

Diffuser selection should be based on throw and room size. Select at both max and minimum occupied flow rates. Rates are likely less than 0.5 cfm/sf. Noisy diffusers are good. Dirt on the ceiling aint all bad. Use good design when heating. Poor air distribution yields poor comfort, poor air quality, slow system response.

Thermal Comfort:
Latest THERMAL COMFORT STANDARD: ASHRAE 55-2010 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 7 PMV - predicted mean vote - a single number rating. Standard 55 mandates a maximum 5oF vertical temperature stratification. A program is available, based on a program listing in ASHRAE 55, which allows plotting of the comfort envelope.

Graphical Method, ASHRAE 55-2010

Typical Executive Worker Profile

Comfort Economics
ASHRAE Journal, June 2008

LEED 09 ASHRAE Std. 55 Checklist

Design Issues: Diffuser Selection Perimeter Thermal Comfort Acoustics Ventilation & IAQ

Comfort Summary
Thermal comfort is #1 reason for not renewing the lease (dont fix the wrong thing). Many IAQ and air distribution complaints can be cured with temperature changes. The ratio of productivity to energy savings is 2000/1. First costs are minor compared to productivity. Internal heat loads cost 2X power consumption. Mandated designs and set points often waste energy. People will make themselves comfortable! Vertical Stratification requirement is often ignored Thermal comfort program available online!

AHRI 885-08 acoustical application standard. AHRI 880-08 air terminal test standard. AHRI 260-01 ducted equipment except air terminals. ASHRAE 70, air diffuser performance. Acoustical quality suggests the use of RC (or newer measures) rather than NC. Many acousticians are heading back to dBA! LEED 2012 will include acoustical credits and requirements. A new ruling by AHRI will change everyones discharge sound ratings considerably.

End Reflection
Low frequency sound traveling down a duct will partially reflect back when encountering a rapid change in area. The smaller the duct, the greater the effect. It can be as much as 10dB at 125Hz. It is much less at higher frequencies. Since NC is usually set at 125Hz, reported NC can go up as much as 10NC. Most importantly, Specifying Engineers should be modifying their discharge sound requirements to reflect the new data.

End Reflection

End Reflection
An end reflection happens when air travels from a main to a branch duct, and especially when it enters a flex duct connection. Another happens when a duct terminates at the room, at the diffuser. AHRI 885 includes one 8 end reflection in Appendix E. This change only affects reported discharge sound power levels. Discharge sound is the same, but will be reported a bit louder. Engineers will need to update their discharge sound specifications.

Sound Specifications
Should be based on clearly stated assumptions. Should reflect real project needs, not any manufacturers data and use currently accepted application factors. Discharge sound specs need to be modified to account for the louder reported sound power. If duct lining is used requireNC shall be determined in accordance with AHRI 885-08, Appendix E, otherwise specify octave band sound power. Over-silencing increases both initial costs and operating costs, and may hinder proper IAQ performance.

Classroom Acoustics:

LEED 2012 Proposed criteria

LEED for schools presently gives a point for sound levels < 45 dBA (about 36 NC). For 2012, it is proposed that 40 dBA be a prerequisite, with a point for achieving 35 dBA. Instead of requiring resultant sound levels, the new criteria says that calculated HVAC system noise shall not exceed the specified values, using either the ASHRAE Handbooks (which are inadequate) or AHRI 885.

Indoor Air Quality

Standing Standard Project Committee 62.1 Residential Committee is 62.2 Current Standard is 62.1-10, and all previous addenda have been incorporated (and no longer available on the web). Several additional Addenda have been approved and more are in progress. Addenda are now published 18 months after the release of a standard.

Terminal Units

Terminal Units
Single Duct Retro-Fit Dampers Bypass Dampers Dual Duct Parallel Fan Powered Series Fan Powered

The Construction Specifier, July 04

Single Duct Terminal Units

When to Use Single Duct Terminals

Interior spaces Where only cooling is required. Heating not needed due to climate and heating from perimeter areas. Perimeter with reheat Cooling along outer walls with some small reheat on the coldest days. Interior with reheat to maintain ventilation minimums Only cooling is required but reheating for minimum airflows Supply return tracking Airflow measurement and control into and out of a laboratory space.

Standard Single Duct

Retro-Fit Single Duct Terminals

Retrofitting old terminal units.
Mechanical constant volume dual duct dampers for high pressure systems replaced with round units for measuring and controlling airflow.

Adding a control zone.

Round units added to a round duct or square ones to a square duct to measure and control airflow in a new occupied zone monitored with Tstat.

Round Retro-Fit

Replacing VVT-type zone dampers

replace existing high pressure, high velocity zone controlled units with low pressure VAV units.

As a return damper
Added to existing ductwork to measure and control leaving airflow as required from controls.

Square Slip In Retro-Fit

Dual Duct Terminal Units

When to Use Dual Duct Terminals

Perimeter Heating & Cooling Positive ventilation control (measured ventilation to the zone) Laboratories / Constant volume applications Supply / Return tracking Underfloor Air Conditioning Be sure you understand the mixing / control requirements Upstream vs. downstream flow sensing issues

Non-Mixing Dual Duct

2 Single No Mixing duct units Two single duct Units Joined S&D Discharge Inlet Sensing Only Joining Strip

Standard Dual Duct

Mixing Dual Duct

Attenuated Dual Duct May have inlet or total flow discharge sensing Unequal inlet size combinations are available Many types of linings are available Mixing baffle can have up to 20:1 Mixing Ratio. Typically have high minimum inlet pressure requirement
Premium Dual Duct

Opportunities for Dual Duct Systems

Dual Duct can meet the most stringent requirements for classroom acoustics, as well as 90.1 requirements. Providing 100 OA (DOAS?) through one inlet allows validation of ventilation rates Supplemental heating and even sensible cooling coils are being considered in some designs.

Fan Powered Terminal Units

When to use fan powered terminals

Originally designed for perimeter heating and cooling - to avoid reheat Constant volume applications have a fan near the discharge - series boxes Series Boxes provide relatively constant interior sound levels and air flow rates and are often used in interior zones. Because of energy concerns, the ECM motor has been employed in many applications. Texas A&M recently completed a study, donated to ASHRAE and AHRI at the summer meeting in Montreal, on Series vs. Parallel, and ECM vs PSC motors.

ECM Motors
The use of ECM motors can reduce the true energy consumption of Fan Powered Terminals An ECM motor is a brushless DC motor, with an integral computer controlled inverter. At reduced rpm and load, an ECM motor can use as little as 60% of the watts of a standard Permanent Split / Capacitor Start (PSC) motor An ECM motor can be programmed to be pressure independent, resulting in true constant volume performance, easier balancing, and even DDC controlled performance.

ECM Motors
Some Cautions, however:
An ECM motor can add $350 to the purchase price of a Fan Powered Terminal. Power consumption CAN be greater than an equivalent PSC motor, and the connected load requirement is usually higher because of this. There are issues with the power factor of these types of devices which may cloud true energy savings.

Series Fan Boxes

Fan is on discharge of unit - all air goes through the fan (primary airflow cannot exceed fan airflow) Fan runs at all times during occupancy Fan must be started before primary air is supplied.
Note: there is no such thing as an antibackward rotation device.

Radiated sound is critical sound application factor

Parallel Fan Boxes

Fan is in parallel with VAV damper Fan airflow independent of primary airflow Fan is essentially first stage of heat Backdraft damper is standard Discharge sound is critical application factor

Texas A&M Study Results

Data was generated for entire building systems, not just terminals. Parameters were developed for detailed full building energy analysis Results are being presented in ASHRAE Papers, and full study results have been donated to ASHRAE and AHRI.

Texas A&M Study Results

The results showed that both system operation and climate had a great effect on final energy use. In general, however there were a few important observations:
ECM and PSC motors had the same building energy consumption with Parallel boxes. Parallel boxes could be more efficient than series boxes, except for back-draft damper leakage, which was found to be very significant. Series boxes, with ECM motors, are the most energy efficient choice, (at least until someone develops a leak proof parallel box). Series Boxes, with DDC system variable volume fan flow, are likely more efficient than any other air distribution method, at low part load operation.

Electric Reheat Options

120/208/240/277 single phase 208/3 phase (3-wire), 480/3 phase (4-wire) 1-3 Stages (most types) Side access - Leave clearance per NEC Operation at minimum airflow is unlikely to provide comfort Consider proportional electric heat with discharge temperature control for maximum comfort

Proportional Electric Reheat

There are two types of proportional electric heat: SCR Electric Heat
Requires analog input Somewhat expensive

Time Proportional Electric Heat

1 Stage only required Infinite adjustment Low cost Silent Allows for effective discharge temperature control Many different control inputs

Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems

DOAS Dual Duct

One inlet provides 100% outside air, dehumidified, typically cold. Other duct provides 100% return air, either warm or cold, depending on the season. Supplemental reheat coils and even a sensible cooling coil have been considered A good mixing baffle should be employed (20:1 Mixing Ratio recommended)

Mixing Dual Duct

Fresh Air Terminal Unit

Outside air can be supplied to a Series Fan Terminal through a second ducted system. This requires two duct systems, but separates ventilation and recirculated air. The system allows monitoring of ventilation rates into each zone.

A stand-alone Pressure Independent controller on the DOAS inlet, tied to the fan relay, will allow standard DDC zone controls.

Primary Inlet

Fresh Air Inlet

Induced Air Inlet

Series Fan Powered Terminal Unit

Chilled Fan Powered Terminal Unit

100% Outside air can be supplied to a Series Fan Terminal through a ducted system, designed to handle ventilation and latent loads. A sensible cooling coil, on the induced air inlet, cools plenum air for additional sensible space cooling. The system allows monitoring of ventilation rates into each zone. A stand-alone Pressure Independent controller for the DOAS inlet, tied to the fan relay, will allow standard fan coil DDC zone controls. Both Series and Parallel designs are currently being used depending on the installation.

Sensible cooling coil

DOAS Air Inlet

Induced Air Inlet

Series Fan Powered Terminal Unit

Chilled Box In The Interior

Sensible Cooling Coil Optional MERV 8 Filter Dedicated Outdoor Air Supply Series Fan Powered Terminal Unit Standard Reheat Options

Standard Ceiling Diffusers

Chilled Box at the Perimeter

Perimeter Slot Diffusers

Series DOAS Unit

Discharge Heating Coil

DOAS Air Supply

Interior Chilled Beams

Chilled Parallel Box in a Laboratory

Non Condensing Cooling Coil

Optional Merv-8 Filter Lab Pressure Supply Valve Laboratory Diffuser

Chilled Parallel Unit Supplying Chilled Beams

Secondary DOAS Duct Parallel DOAS Unit Active Chilled Beams

Dedicated Outdoor Air Duct

Chilled Box Summary

Low first cost Low system pressure requirement Safe location possible Easily reconfigurable Minimal Contractor Training Guaranteed Performance Several LEED points possible

LEED 2009 requires meeting Standard 62.1 Documented use of ADPI is the ONLY way to assure compliance to 55 in the design phase. Acoustics should be specified on the basis of need with clear assumptions. Use AHRI 885 Reheat needs to be carefully considered in terms of discharge temperatures and velocities. Software is available to assist in selecting the best mix of products. The rules are dynamic - pay attention.

Engineers Checklist

Are Specifications current?

Real Manufacturers Current Standards referenced

If specified clearly, you may get what you want! If unclear, you will get what the low bidder wants you to get.

Do we have clear acoustical requirements:

Inlet Ps defined? Assumptions clearly defined?

Sufficient airflow? Discharge Static? 3 or 4 wire 480V? Contactors? Stages? gpm or btuh? (pick one)

Linings are acoustics and cost understood? Accessories

Transformers? Filters? Hanger brackets? Fuses, Disconnects?