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LIMBA ENGLEZ

Lect.univ.dr. Camelia Firic

2011

UNIT 1
1. INTRODUCING ONESELF AND GREETING PEOPLE In this unit you will:
- Brush up on your knowledge about how to (1) introduce yourself and greet people; (2) give direction and describe locations; (3) express possession; - Practise grammar issues: indefinite, definite, zero articles; possessive adjectives and pronouns; present indicative of the verbs to be, to have; plural of nouns; numeral; demonstrative adjectives and pronouns; there is, there are constructions; interrogative pronouns and adjectives.

Lets Talk!
Introduce yourself by answering the following questions. What is your first name? What is your second name? Have you got a middle name, a nickname, or a name day? What are you? Whats your occupation? What are your parents names? What is your marital status - are you married, single, divorced? Have you got siblings? What are their names? What are they? About age! How old are you? How old are your parents? How old is your girl/boy friend? About where someone is from. What city are you from? What is the name of your country? Is Romania a foreign country for you? What is the capital of your country? What is your mother tongue? How many inhabitants are there in your country? About friends. Have you got a girlfriend/boyfriend? How old is she/he? What is her/his name? Have you got friends abroad? About greeting someone. What do you say when you meet someone for the first time? How do you greet your friends? What are the greetings in English? About spelling. Can you spell in English? Are you familiar with the English alphabet?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and change the following indirect questions into direct ones according to the model: Model: Ask me if I am hungry. - Are you hungry? Ask if the guests are thirsty. - Are the guests thirsty? Ask if the students are usually late or early. Ask if it is late or early. Ask if the child afraid of animals. Ask if it is cold or warm today. Ask me what I am fond of. Ask if we are through with our work. Ask what play is on at the theatre. Ask what movie is on at the cinema. Ask a boy what his girl friends name is. Ask how old my parents are. Ask someone how he is today. Ask someone how his colleagues are today. Ask someone where his pen friend is from. Ask how much the book is. Ask how much the pens are.

- Good morning! Let me introduce myself to you. My name is Mrs. Black and I am a teacher. I am your teacher of English. You are students. You are all my students. You are all freshmen. You are not teachers. You are all present for our first class. Im happy to see that nobody is absent. She is a girl and he is a boy. She is not a woman and he is not a man. We are all in the classroom. It is our classroom. It is not their classroom. Lets have a talk in English, to know one another better. Please answer my questions, will you?
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- What are you? - We are students. - What is my name and what am I? - Your name is Mrs. Black and you are our English teacher. - What are they? - They are students, too. They are our colleagues. - What is your name? - My name is David. - What is her name? - Her name is Marianne. - What is his name? - His name is Dan. - What are their names? - Their names are David, Marianne and Dan. - Who are you? - I am Martin. - How old are you, Marianne? - I am twenty years old. Im young. Im a young woman, you know. We are all young people. - Who is he? - He is Dan. He is my colleague and friend, too. - How old is Dan? Is he twenty, too? - No, he is not. He is not twenty. He is nineteen years old. - How are you today? - Im fine, thanks. We are all very well. - How is your girl friend, today, David? - She is not so well, Im afraid. She is not in the pink. She is rather ill, right now. - Im sorry to hear that. How are your colleagues? How are they? - Oh, they are all right. - Where is the teacher, Jane? - The teacher is in the classroom, and so are we all. - What country are you from, Benjamin and what is your native language? - Im from England and English is my native language, of course. - Where is Martin from and what is his mother tongue? - He is from Romania and Romanian is his language. English is a foreign language for him. Martin is from Bucharest. I know Bucharest is the capital of Romania, as London is the capital of England and Paris is the capital of France. Bucharest lies in the middle of large fields and it is situated on the banks of the river Dmbovia, in the Danube Plain. My girlfriend is from France. France is a European country; its people are French and their language is called French too. The people of the United States of America are Americans but their language is English, too. - You are right, Benjamin. But there are still so many differences between British English and American English. That is why Oscar Wilde said: The British and the Americans have everything in common, but English. Tell me, have you friends from foreign countries and what are their languages? - I have friends in Italy and their language is Italian, and in Spain and they speak Spanish. They are my pen friends. The people of Germany are German and they speak German, the people of Greece are Greek and their language is Greek. Turkish people are from Turkey and their language is Turkish. Danes are from Denmark and their language is Danish as Dutch people are from Holland and their language is Dutch. Norway is inhabited by Norwegians. Its inhabitants speak Norwegian. Chinas inhabitants are Chinese and Chinese is their mother tongue. - Very well, thank you.

GRAMMAR FOCUS THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE The indefinite article a / an: is placed before the nouns it determines: a teacher, a headmaster, a student, a classroom; a is pronounced [ei] when it is stressed and [] when it is before a word beginning with a consonant, a semivowel (w, y), a vowel with a consonant sound or before u pronounced like 'you' in 'youth': a good teacher, a woman, a year, a European county, a unit of measurement; an, pronounced [n], is used before words beginning with a vowel or a mute h: an English book, an accountant, an hour; has the same form irrespective of the gender and case of the noun it determines; does not precede nouns in the plural; is not used with uncountable nouns; is not placed before the names of the meals, except when these are preceded by an adjective: I never have breakfast. She prepared us a good dinner.

The indefinite article is used: before nouns that refer to a profession, occupation, trade, nationality, religion and before: man, woman, child: I am a teacher. He is an Englishman. My husband is not a Catholic. Our English teacher is a woman not a man. They have a child. when it refers to an unknown or unimportant person: A Mr. Brown looked for you yesterday. when a comparison is made: She considers herself to be a Queen Victoria. after: such, what, half: Such a beautiful weather! What a stupid thing to do! We talked for half an hour. in expressions of quantity, speed, ratio: 60 lei a dozen, a hundred books, a million years, a little money, 120 kilometres an hour, three times a week. The indefinite article is used in a great number of phrases. a great many, a lot of, as a matter of fact, at a loss, for a short/ long time, in a hurry, it is a pity!, once a day/week/year, to cut a good figure, to go for a walk, to make a mistake, to take/have a rest, to have a seat, two/three/ four ... at a time, What a good idea you have!, What a shame!, What a tiny world! POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES PERSON I II III SINGULAR My Your His Her Its PLURAL Our Your Their

Possessive adjectives in English: are placed before nouns:


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my relatives, your opinion, his file, her associate, its shape, our reasons, your coworkers, their arrival. do not change their form irrespective of the gender and number of the noun they determine; my wife/husband/child/children. are used with clothes and parts of the body: my coat, her slippers, your hand. can be followed by own to add emphasis: their own contribution.

REMEMBER! Its is used for animals or things but, if the sex of the animal is known, his/her would often be used. Mind the form of its as a possessive adjective - without an apostrophe; its (with apostrophe) means it is; Nouns accompanied by possessive adjectives bear no article: my English partner, your appropriate behaviour, her bad language.

THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF THE VERB TO BE AFFIRMATIVE I am / Im You are/ youre He is/ hes She is/ shes It is/ its We are/were You are/youre They are/ theyre NEGATIVE I am not/ Im not You are not/ arent He is not/ isnt She is not/isnt It is not/ isnt We are not/ arent You are not/ arent They are not/ arent INTERROGATIVE/ NEGATIVE Am I (not)? Are you (not)? / arent you? Is he (not)? / Isnt he? Is she (not)? / Isnt she? Is it (not)? / Isnt it? Are we (not)? / Arent we? Are you (not)? / Arent you? Are they (not)? / Arent they?

REMEMBER! The only situation when the verb to be is conjugated with the auxiliary to do is in the Imperative - Negative form: Dont be so cruel to him! Dont be late to school! Dont be sorry! TO BE is normally used to denote the existence of, or to give information about the status or profession of a person or thing: The students are diligent. Her husband is the Manager Assistant. That bracelet is made of gold. REMEMBER! To be is always used to express age in English: How old are you? Im 20. Im 20 years old (never say: Im 20 years.) How old is your son? He is 25. He is 25 years old. How old are your children? They are both eleven. They are both eleven years old Price is also expressed with the verb to be: How much is this book? Its 2 dollars. How much are these shoes? They are 100 dollars. To be plus infinitive construction can be used to express: a future plan: Professor Smith is to give a lecture next week. We are to meet our friends tomorrow. My son is to marry in October.
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The President is to make a statement tomorrow. an order, instructions: You are to stay here until I come! They are to learn the grammar rules. No one is to smoke inside this building. To be in phrases: to be hungry, to be thirsty, to be cold, to be hot, to be warm, to be right, to be wrong, to be sorry, to be afraid, to be at a loss, to be fond of, to be late, to be early, to be in a hurry, to be over, to be through, to be in the pink, to be on, to be about to, to be worth, to be particular about.

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS - I English nouns can be: - common: woman, building, cat, computer; - proper: Ireland, Manchester, Mr. Brown, Mary: - abstract: belief, friendship, justice, anger; - concrete: river, mountain, tree; - collective: family, committee, crowd, team, group; - countables: armchair, bed, desk; - uncountables: sugar, coffee, meat, knowledge, advice, tennis. Gender: - masculine - nouns designating men or male creatures; - feminine - nouns designating women or female creatures; - neuter: inanimate things, animals and babies whose sex we don't know. EXCEPTIONS: Vehicles, when personified or regarded with affection, as well as countries referred to by name are considered feminine in gender: England was famous for her navy. She was a fine car. Note: a noun which designates both males and females is of common gender - cousin, spouse, parent, relative, baby. As a rule the plural of English nouns is made adding s to the singular: SINGULAR PLURAL student students teacher teachers boy boys Nouns ending in ch, sh, s, ss, x, zz and o preceded by a consonant form their plural by adding the ending es: SINGULAR bench bush boss bus box buzz potato PLURAL benches bushes bosses buses boxes buzzes potatoes

When the ending ch is pronounced [k] the nouns form plural by adding s:

SINGULAR Czech epoch

PLURAL Czechs epochs

Words of foreign origin or abbreviated words that end in o add s to form the plural: SINGULAR PLURAL concerto concertos dynamo dynamos soprano sopranos kimono kimonos piano pianos photo photos kilo kilos Compound nouns expressed in writing by a single word add the plural ending - s - to the latter term: SINGULAR PLURAL classroom classrooms schoolboy schoolboys blackboard blackboards armchair armchairs The same do the compound nouns ending in ful: SINGULAR cupful handful tablespoonful PLURAL cupfuls handfuls tablespoonfuls

Compound nouns consisting of a noun followed by an adjective or any other qualifier, whether hyphenated or not, form the plural by adding the plural ending to the noun: SINGULAR PLURAL boy- friend boy- friends passer- by passers- by looker-on lookers-on race horse race horses attorney-general attorneys-general daughter-in-law daughters-in-law heir apparent heirs apparent notary public notaries public If none of the components of a compound noun is a noun s is added to the last element: SINGULAR forget-me-not grown-up break- in PLURAL forget-me-nots grown-ups break-ins

Compound nouns formed with the words man and woman make both terms plural: SINGULAR manservant woman doctor PLURAL menservants women doctors

Nouns ending in - y preceded by a consonant change - y in - i and add es in the plural: SINGULAR PLURAL city cities factory factories party parties The change does not take place: when - y is preceded by a vowel: boy boys, play plays, day days; with proper names: the Kennedys; with compound nouns: stand by stand bys. Letters, numerals and abbreviated words add s (apostrophe and s) to make the plural: three As, the ABCs, 1990s, 2s, OAPs (Old Age Pensioners), UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects), MPs (Members of Parliament) VIPs (Very Important Persons), PhDs (Doctors of Philosophy/Philology), pcs (postcards) Still, in contemporary English a more and more frequent tendency can be noticed of adding, in writing, only s (without apostrophe) to form the plural of letters, numerals, and abbreviated words: three As, the ABCs, 1990s, 2s,OAPs, MPs, VIPs PhDs. The pronunciation of the nouns in the plural: [-s] after unvoiced consonants /k/, /f/,/p/,/t/: books, proofs, lamps, carpets; [-z] after voiced consonants and vowels: gloves, tables, boys, trees; [-iz] after the sounds /s/, /z/ /d/: classes, noses, roses, badges. NOTE: Names of languages and nationalities are always written with capital letter: Romanian, English, German, Spanish, etc.

2. LOCATIONS AND DIRECTIONS. WHAT IS THIS? WHAT ARE THOSE? Lets Talk!
About where people, things, places are or are located or situated. Where is your university located? What do you call the room we are in? Name the objects in the classroom and refer to them using the demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, those). Where is Romania situated? Where does Craiova lie? Where is your house? Imagine a dialogue with a person who wants to get to your house coming from the airport or railway station. Give him directions to follow. READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then ask question according to the model: Model: Show your colleagues your pen and ask what it is. - What is this? This is a pen. Show the wall and ask what it is. - What is that? That is the wall. Show your colleagues some books / some sheets of paper and ask what they are. Show that blackboard and ask what it is? Show those desks and the chairs and ask what they are. Show this window and ask what it is. Show that door and ask what it is. Ask if there is a computer in the classroom. Ask if there are pictures and maps on the walls. Ask if there are many people in the street. Ask if there are many new words in the new lesson. - What is this? - This is an office. This office is large, clean and bright. It is very modern, too. There are a lot of things in this office: two desks and two chairs for the clerks, two shelves and two computers on each desk. One computer is on, one is off. This is the door and that is the window. The door is closed; the window is open and it is opposite the door. This is the floor and that is the ceiling. There are not carpets on the floor but there are lamps on the ceiling above the desks. There are lamps on the desks too. The floor is down, the ceiling is up. The floor is under our feet, the ceiling is above our heads. Those desks are in front of the window and those chairs are behind the desks. There are shelves in this office, too. These two shelves are against the wall and between them there is a modern clock that tells the right time. There are pots with plants all over this office. The place is very welcoming. - What are these, and what are those? - These are the sheets of paper and those are the files. These sheets of paper are in this drawer and those files are on those shelves. Oh, look! Heres a drawer full with envelopes, stamps, labels, glue, paste, paper clips and folders. There are fountain pens, pencils, ballpoint pens, rubbers and rulers on the desks. There are not inkstands or inkpots on the desks because nowadays people rarely write in ink using an old fashioned pen with nib. - There is a calendar on the wall, but there arent pictures. - Are there posters in this office? - Yes, there are. There are some posters on the walls of this office. - Is there a map, too? - No, there isnt. There isnt any map in this office. - Is that the computer? - Yes, it is. That is the computer - Are these the clerks and secretaries?
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- Yes, they are. These are the clerks and secretaries. - Are those their desks and chairs? - No, these are. Those arent theirs.

ASKING FOR DIRECTIONS - Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the hospital? - I beg your pardon, how do I get to the Art Museum?

- Pardon me! How do I get to the nearest Post Office? - How can I get to the nearest Post Office? Can I get there by car/by bus/by taxi? - Am I on the right way to University? - Where is the Ministry of Education? - How can I reach to the nearest Police Station? - Is this the way to the City Hall?

GIVING DIRECTIONS - Go straight on. - Go straight ahead. - Go down this road and take the third turning on the right/left. - You can take the bus and get off at the second/at the third/at Patria station. -You go straight along this road and take the second turning on the left/right. - Keep straight on past the school and turn to the left/ right. - Go back for about... metres theres the bus stop. -Yes, you are./No, you are not. - Its right down the street. - Its on the right/left hand side of the street. Follow this street to the end. You are going on the right/ wrong way. - You are going in the opposite direction. Go back and take a taxi/the bus/the tube and get off at ... station.

GRAMMAR FOCUS THE DEFINITE ARTICLE The, the definite article in English is used for all genders and for both singular and plural. It is: is placed in front of the noun it determines; is read [] when in front of a word that begins with a consonant, a semivowel, u in separate syllable and when it precedes the word one: the chair, the window, the year, the United States, the one; is read [i] when in front of a word that begins with a vowel or when there is an intention to stress the respective word: the economist, the English dictionary, the is an article; is mandatory before nouns accompanied by prepositions: on the table, in the classroom, in front of the table, behind the desk. The use of the definite article is compulsory with: proper names of rivers, seas, oceans: the Danube, the Atlantic Ocean, the Black Sea; hills and chains of mountains: the Carpathians, the Alps, the Cheviot Hill; names of institutions: the British Museum, the National Theatre, the City Hall; names of hotels: the Intercontinental Hotel, the Savoy, the Marriott; names of ships: the Titanic; names of newspapers: The Daily Mirror, The Times, The New York Times, The Guardian; names of deserts, bays, capes and proper names formed with the word of: the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico, the Cape of Good Hope, the United States of America; family names in the plural: the Browns, the Smiths.

NOTE: the + name in the singular + preposition can be used to distinguish between two persons who bear the same name: I am talking about the Mr. Brown who is a clerk. nouns of plurality: the poor, the rich, the dead, the old, the blind; abstract nouns: the beautiful, the good, the sublime; unique nouns: the Sun, the Moon, the Earth, the sky, the universe, the present, the past, the future; nouns that denote a class of animals or things (the noun man used to refer to the human race is not articulated): the lion, the fir tree, the whale; titles that contain the word of: the Duke of Normandy, the Queen of England; BUT: Lord Nelson, Captain Hook. names of instruments:
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to play the piano, to play the violin, to play the guitar; times of the day: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening; BUT: at noon, at midnight ordinal numerals, adjectives and adverbs in the relative superlative and the word only: the first, the second, the best way, the only way. The definite article in phrases: all the year round, at the beginning, at the same time, by the hour, in the country, in the mountains, on the right/ left, on the whole, he day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, to tell the time, to tell the truth, Many happy returns of the day!

THE ZERO ARTICLE The use of the zero article is compulsory with: proper names of places or persons except for those mentioned above: Romania, Bucharest, Mary; a noun preceded by possessive adjective: my book, their books, his dictionary; the meals of the day: Breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper are the four meals of the day. names of games: to play football, to play golf, to play tennis; the words bed, church, hospital, court, prison, school, college, university, institute when visited or used for their primary purpose: to bed to sleep, to church to pray, to hospital as patients or doctors, to prison as prisoners, to school/ university/ college/ institute as students/ pupils/ teachers; still the words university and institute are often accompanied by article. NOTE! When these places are visited or used for other purposes the use of the definite article is compulsory. With the verbs to be, to get back, to leave the above mentioned nouns are unarticulated: to be at hospital, to get back to prison, to leave university; the word home when used alone, not preceded or followed by a descriptive word or phrase: Are you at home? the days of the week, the months of the year and seasons: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday are the days of the week. January is the first month of the year. I like spring because it is a beautiful season. the noun mankind; Mankind is struggling for peace. names of continents, countries, states, provinces, towns: Europe, Australia, France, Canada, California, Transylvania, Moldavia, Bucharest. Exceptions: the Argentina, the Congo, the Sudan, the United States of America, the Hague, the Netherlands, the Yemen. nouns that demote substances, materials, colours: Chalk is a white substance white. Gold and silver are precious metals. Yellow is my favourite colour. proper names denoting persons when accompanied by: young, old, little, poor, dear, honest, pretty, lazy, silly: poor John, dear Kitty, lazy Jim. names of subjects and languages: English is not an easy language. We study English at school. abstract nouns: life, happiness, death, knowledge: Life is beautiful. Happiness is relative. Death is inevitable. Knowledge is power.
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the preposition by and the means of transport: by car, by bus, by train, by tube. common nouns associated with cardinal numerals: Lesson 2; Room 34; Floor 4. NOTE: Nouns denoting the days of the week, months of the year, seasons, substances, materials, subjects, languages, colours, abstract notions and proper names of person accompanied by the adjectives young, old, little etc. have definite article if some further information about them is given are preceded by the indefinite article: Sunday is a dull day for me but the Sunday we spent together was a wonderful day. Life is difficult but the life of this poet is impressive. Chalk is white but the chalk on the blackboard is red. Breakfast is usually a light meal but the English breakfast is the most important meal of the day. The poor Mr. Black whom we all know died last week. uncountable nouns: sugar, coffee, oil, chocolate, milk, tea. the nouns: father, mother, grandfather, grandmother. nouns considered in generic sense: I like coffee. Sugar is sweet. Children love toys.

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS THIS [is] THESE [i:z] THAT [t] THOSE [ouz] Read this! Read these! Take that! Take those! DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES Read this book! Read these books! Take that book! Take those books!

REMEMBER! The Demonstrative Adjectives, like all the others adjectives in English, always precede the noun. THERE IS, THERE ARE CONSTRUCTIONS AFFIRMATIVE There is/ Theres There are/Therere NEGATIVE There is not/ There isnt There are not/There arent INTERROGATIVE ( NEGATIVE) Is there (not)? / Isnt there? Are there (not)?/ Arent there?

When a noun representing an indefinite person or thing is the subject of the verb be (meaning exist/happen/take place) we normally use a there + be + noun construction. There is no longer an adverb when it is followed by the forms of the verb to be. The Romanian equivalents of these constructions are: se afl, este, sunt, se gsete, se gsesc. There is a teacher in the classroom. There are students, too. There is not a bookcase in the classroom. There are not dictionaries on the desks. Is there a fountain in the centre of the town? No, there isnt. Are there any theatres in your town? Yes, there are. The there construction can be used with other auxiliaries + be or seem + be, or other verbs such as: to live, to come, to appear, to occur. There must be a better way. There may be times when we are powerless to prevent injustice. There seems to be no good reasons for all these. Once upon a time there lived a man...There came a day when he had to leave.

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1. Insert the definite and indefinite articles (a, an, the): a). I and my family live in ... Canada. .... house in which we live in is old. .... students study. ... students you see in ... street are going to ... university. We are at ...university. At ... university ... students have ...big library. ... Richard! Come to ... blackboard and put down ... following examples. ... doctors and ... nurses work in hospitals. ... doctors in this ... hospital are ... best. We go to ... hospital to visit a friend. I always wash my hands before having ... breakfast, ... lunch or ... dinner. ... breakfast we had yesterday was too large. Ill never forget ... dinner we had at ... restaurant on my birthday last year. I enjoy ... stories. ... story you are telling now is such ... funny one. This summer we are going on ... trip to ... seaside. We like ... trips very much. ... trip we are planning to make seems exciting. Today is ... Friday ...12th of ... October. ... October is ... autumn month. What ... beautiful autumn weather! ... Sahara is a desert in ... Africa. ...Atlantic Ocean lies between ...Europe and ...America. ... Carpathians are high, beautiful ... mountains. ... Danube flows into Black Sea. Do you know something about ... Titanic? What newspaper do you read, ... Morning Star or ... Daily Telegraph? ... former is more interesting than ... latter. Is ... first lesson easier or more difficult than ... last?

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3. EXPRESSING POSSESION I HAVE GOT MY DICTIONARY. WHOSE IS THIS? Lets Talk!


Use of this is, that is plus possessives. Speak about the place where you are now. Name the objects you have got on your desks. Describing a house. Where is your house/flat situated? Describe your house referring to its rooms and the furniture in every room using the phrases there is, there are. Asking about school facilities. Is your university a public or a private one? Has your university got a library? Has it got a phonetic lab, too? Is your university supplied with computers? Where are they placed? What do you understand by modern conveniences? Has your house got all the modern conveniences? Comment on the following proverbs: A mans house is his castle. Theres no place like home. READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then change the following indirect questions into direct ones: - David, what have you got on your desk? - I have got a dictionary. Its an English- Romanian dictionary. - Whose dictionary is it? - It is my dictionary. It is mine. - Whose conversation guidebook is this? Is it your conversation guidebook? Is it yours? - Yes, it is mine, too. It is my conversation guidebook. - My daughter has got a computer at home. She has not got a typewriter. It is her computer. It is hers. What has she got? - Your daughter has got a computer. - What has your boy friend, Maria? - He has a car. He has got a car. It is his car. It is his. His car is new. - Whose car is that? Is that car yours? Is it yours? Is that car yours? - No, it isnt mine. It is his car. It is his. - We have got a laboratory at the University. This is our laboratory. What have we got? - We have got a lab. It is a phonetic lab. We listen to English tapes here. This is our phonetic lab. This lab is ours. Our University has also got a library with lots of books in it. We borrow books and dictionaries from our Universitys library, in order to study them. The librarian lends us books and takes care that we return them in due time. - My neighbours have a new house. Their house is cosy and beautiful. - Whose house is that? - That is their house. It is theirs. Listen to its description: - We live in a new house and I want to tell you about this. Let me show you around our house! - Our house is on a quiet street in a district on the outskirts of the town. As a matter of fact, all kinds of modern houses have been recently built in this district. Some of them are many-storied but most of them have only one storey. Ours has two storeys the ground floor and the first floor. - On the ground floor we have the dining-room, the living- room or sitting-room, as the Americans say, the kitchen, the larder, the hall and a lavatory. - On the first floor there are the three bedrooms, for the children and for the parents, and the bathrooms. - We have new, modern furniture in every room: new armchairs, a sofa, a chest of drawers, bookcases and a TV- set on a TV stand in the living-room, new kitchen cabinets, a table, stools
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and chairs in the kitchen, a dumb waiter, a sideboard and a big dining table with six chairs in the dining room, new wardrobes, beds and night tables in the bedrooms, beautiful Persian carpets on the floor and curtains at the windows, lamps and sconces on the ceiling and walls. Old paintings hang on the walls. In the hall there is a stand, for hats and umbrellas, and a mirror. - We also have all the modern conveniences in our house: electricity, gas, running water, central heating and a telephone. Its roof is made of tile. - The house has a garden in front of it and a small orchard at the back of it, where we plant flowers and fruit trees. - Has your house a garage? - Of course it has, at one side of it.

GRAMMAR FOCUS THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF TO HAVE AFFIRMATIVE I have/ Ive You have/ youve He has/ hes She has/ shes It has/ its We have/ weve You have/ youve They have/ theyve NEGATIVE I have not/ havent You have not/ havent He has not/ hasnt She has not/ hasnt It has not/ hasnt We have not/ havent You have not/ havent They have not/ havent INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Have I (not)?/Havent I? Have you (not)?/Havent you? Has he (not)?/Hasnt he? Has she (not)?/Hasnt she? Has it (not)?/Hasnt it? Have we (not)?/Havent we? Have you (not)?/ Havent you? Have they (not)?/Haven t they?

The verb to have, meaning possess, has also the form have got very commonly used in spoken English. I have got a new car. What has he got? What have you got there? To have got, however, is not used in short answers and question tags: Have you got a dictionary? Yes, I have. Shes got talent, hasnt she? To have can also mean: to take (a meal/food or drink, a bath, lessons), to give (a party), to encounter (difficulties), to suffer (pain, illness), to experience, to enjoy. When used with these meanings, to have is not followed by got, it can be used in the continuous tenses, and its negative and interrogative forms are made with the auxiliary do. They have lunch in town every Saturday. We are having a party this week-end. Did you have trouble with the translation? Im having a headache. Im sure well have a good holiday as we are visiting Germany. REMEMBER! The negative and interrogative forms are formed in two ways: - with the auxiliary do for habitual actions: Do you often have dinner so late? No, I dont. - simply, by adding not after the verb and by inversion, when there is not the idea of habit. This is more common in England, while in other English-speaking countries the do forms are preferred here, too. To have can also express the idea of necessity, being an alternative of the modal must.
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The child has to drink milk. We have to be there in time. To have in phrases: to have a fancy for, to have a good/great mind to do something, to have a good /thin time, to have a bash doing something, to have bats in the belfry, to have butterflies in ones belly, not to have a bean, to have a bee in ones bonnet, to have a heart of gold, to have a heart of stone.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS The possessive pronouns have the same form as the possessive adjectives to which the ending -s is added, except for the first person singular. REMEMBER! The possessive pronoun its is not written with apostrophe; its is the short for of it is. PERSON I II III SINGULAL Mine Yours His Hers Its PLURAL Ours Yours Theirs

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES: WHO? WHAT? WHICH?

CASE N. G. D. Ac. WHO? Who comes? (pron.) WHOSE? Whose is that ruler? (pron) Whose ruler is that? (adj.) (TO) WHOM? To whom are you giving the ruler? (pron.) or Whom are you giving the ruler to? (pron.) WHOM?/WHO? Whom do you know? (pron.) WHAT? What is your friend? (pron.) What food do you like? (adj.) WHICH? (implies selection) Which of these persons do you know? (pron.) Which person is the manager? (adj.)

REMEMBER! When the interrogative pronoun or the noun preceded by an interrogative adjective is the subject of the sentence, the predicate in the interrogative sentence is in the affirmative: Who comes? What touches her most? Whose book fell down? If who and what fulfil other functions (direct objects) the interrogative is made with the auxiliary do: Whom do you see? What do they say? This rule applies with how much, how many: How many students study English?
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UNIT 2
4. DESCRIBING THINGS AND PEOPLE WHAT ARE THINGS MADE OF? WHAT ARE PEOPLE LIKE? In this unit you will:
- Brush up on your knowledge about (1) how to describe things and people; say what things may be made of; (2) relatives and family members; (3) daily activities; - Practise grammar issues: the plural of nouns II; adjectives; the genitive case; the simple present tense of verbs; reflexive and emphasising pronouns.

Lets Talk!
We all come in different SHAPES and SIZES. We all have STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES. Comment on these. Describing what someone is like. Describe yourself from the point of view of your character and appearance. Who do you take after, your mother or your father? What are your family members like? What qualities do you appreciate in people? Do you consider that appearance counts more than moral traits? Do you judge people by their look? Did it happen to you to misjudge people? How did you feel about this? Describing buildings. Describe your town? How would you describe skyscrapers in New York? Comment on the proverb: Like father, like son. READING Read the text and then change the following indirect questions into direct ones:

When we speak about things or persons we refer to their shape, size, colour or materials they are made of. The buildings of a town are high or low, big or small, new or old, modern or old fashioned, ugly or beautiful. The height of some buildings may be really astonishing or breathtaking. So are the skyscrapers in New- York. The rooms of a building are large or small, dark or bright, square or rectangular. The doors and windows of a room are wide or narrow, open or shut. Furniture is made of wood, metal or straw. Some figures are round, or oval, or rectangular or square, or triangular. Lines are straight or curved, long or short, thick or thin. A triangle has three angles and its angles are sharp, or right or obtuse. Exercises are easy or difficult but an attach-case is heavy if it is full and light if it is empty. Colours are light or dark, pale or loud. The sky is light- blue at noon, on a summer day, and dark- blue at night. Grass and leaves are green but flowers are white, blue, yellow, red, pink or violet. Oranges are orange, but blackboards are black or grey. The Romanian flag is blue, yellow and red. The English one is blue and white and red. People can be young, old, tall or short, fat (plump, stout) or thin (lean, skinny, bony), strong or weak, ugly or beautiful or handsome. Men are usually strong and women and children are almost always weak. I know a lot of people and they are very different from one another. Some
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of the people I know are happy, some are unhappy, some are merry and some are sad, some are good, some are bad, some are brave, some are coward, some are calm, and some are impatient, some are interesting and some are awfully boring, some are bold and some are shy (coy, timid), some are quiet others are noisy or talkative, honest or dishonest, clumsy or skilful, tidy or untidy, careful or careless, stupid or clever (smart, intelligent), lazy or hardworking (diligent or industrious). Children may take after their parents, and may be like their father and mother. Sometimes grandchildren look like their grandparents. If children are twins they are as like as two peas. Things are made of different materials. My watch is made of gold. It isnt made of silver, iron or steel, or plastic. It is waterproof or shockproof. My shoes and handbags are made of leather or patent leather but hoses, or the soles of the footwear and tires are made of rubber. Some shoes are handmade. Clothes may be made of cotton, silk, wool, plastic materials. Gloves may be made of leather, lace, silk or wool. Mirrors and windowpanes are made of glass. Books, notebooks, newspapers are made of paper. Buildings are made of brick, stone, wood, concrete, glass, prefabricated panels. Cutlery may be made of silver, stainless steel or plastic; plates and cups are made of china or porcelain.

GRAMMAR FOCUS THE PLURAL OF NOUNS II Some nouns in English have different forms for plural: SINGULAR man woman child foot tooth goose mouse louse die ox PLURAL men women children feet teeth geese mice lice dice oxen

Twelve nouns that end in -f or - fe in the singular, form their plural by changing these endings in ves. SINGULAR calf elf half knife leaf life
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PLURAL calves elves halves knives leaves lives

loaf loaves sheaf sheaves shelf shelves thief thieves wife wives wolf wolves The other words that end in -f, -fe form their plural by adding s to the singular: beliefs, chiefs, cliffs, safes, handkerchiefs, roofs, proofs, gulfs etc. Some words ending in - f, - fe take either s or es in the plural: SINGULAR scarf hoof wharf PLURAL scarfs, scarves hoofs, hooves wharfs, wharves

REMEMBER! Certain nouns are always plural in form: fireworks, stairs, wages, thanks, news, works, outskirts, damages, goods, wares, greens, premises, quarters, savings, valuables, mathematics, acoustics, economics, physics; garments, tools and instruments consisting of two identical parts: trousers, pyjamas, scissors, binoculars, tongs, spectacles, glasses, pliers, shears; games: cards, billiards, darts, draughts, dominoes; diseases: mumps, shingles, rickets. Used in the plural, fish and fruit indicate several kinds: Oranges and apples are fruits. What fishes do you like? Sheep and deer have the same form for both the singular and the plural. All the sheep are white only one sheep is black. It is forbidden to hunt deer. The noun game (animal/animals hunted) is always in the singular and takes a singular verb.

1. Write the words in brackets in the plural: 1. Take care! Those (knife) and (penknife) are sharp. 2. What drawer are the (scarf) and the (handkerchief) in? 3. Ill tell the (child) a fairy tale with (elf) and (dwarf). 4. Did the police catch the (thief)? 5. Lets buy some (potato) and (tomato)! We havent any left. 6. (Louse) and (flea) are insects; (mouse) and (rats) are animals. 7. We had a party and we enjoyed (ourself). 8. (Hundred) and (hundred) of (man) and (woman) are gathered in the square. 9. Its a beautiful autumn. The (leaf) turned yellow and now they are falling down. 10. The (dictionary) are on those (shelf) over there. 11. Two (wolf) attacked the (calf) on the farm. 12. Who said The (die) are cast? 13. (housewife) have to do all the housework. 14. I buy two (brush) one for my hair and one for my (tooth). 15. How many (t) are there in butter?
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2. Make the following sentences plural. Make changes where necessary: 1. The car factory is near the town. 2. That car is of the latest design. 3. A big city is crowded and noisy. 4. My child and the other boy, who is with him, are crossing the street carefully. 5. This child is his familys first born. 6. The bench near the pillar-box is less comfortable. 7. This man is our regular customer for many years. 8. That woman runs an enterprise quite successfully. 9. A mouse is a harmful rodent small animal that can cause much trouble. 10. A louse is a parasite. 3. Fill in the definite or indefinite articles where necessary: best. 1. This students paper is 2. Theres new match between former and latter team on May 26th. Thames in London? 3. How many bridges are there across oak tree is a tall tree. 4. lorry? 5. Can you drive bike? 6. Can she ride Mont Blank is highest mountain in Alps. 7. 8. Mount Everest is highest one in Himalayas. Rockies and I am not very sure about Andes. 9. I do not know about Germany to Romania during Second World 10. My father-in-law travelled from War.

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5. RELATIVES. ALL ABOUT MY FAMILY Lets Talk!


About family members: Speak about your family. Say if you have siblings, where they live, how old your siblings are, what they do and what they are like, what their likes and dislikes are. Say if they are your seniors or juniors. Speak about your wife/husband, about your children and inlaws if you are a married person. Who is the person in your family you feel attached to? What do you call, in English, the person whose first name you bear? If the person whose name you bear is your godfather/godmother what is the word that defines you in relation to them?

READING. Read the text to remember the words that describe family relationship and comment on the sayings: A good friend is my nearest relation. A good friend is another self.

Let me introduce you to my family today! This is my family: my wife, my daughter, my son and I. I am Mr. Black. My wife is Mrs. Black. I am Mrs. Blacks husband. We have two children: a boy and a girl. The boys name is Robert and the girls name is Mary Ann. My son is seventeen years old and my daughter is ten. They are both pupils, go to school and learn very well. Robert is Mary Anns brother and Mary Ann is Roberts sister. Robert is Mary Anns senior by seven years and Mary Ann is his junior by seven years. Our son is a handsome teenager and our daughter is a very pretty girl. I am Robert and Mary Anns father and my wife is their mother. We are their parents. We have a very big house and we live with my wifes parents. They are my parents-in-law. My father-in-law and my mother-in-law, who are old people, are retired on pension. They are very gentle persons and they are very fond of our children, who are their grandchildren. We respect their old age and seniority. My son is their grandson and my daughter is their grand daughter. Children love their grandmother and grandfather very much. My parents- in- law have two children: a daughter my wife, and a son my brother-in-law, whose name is John. I am their sonin-law, and their sons wife is their daughter-in-law. My brother-in-law is our childrens uncle and godfather at the same time and his wife is their aunt and godmother, too. They havent got children, so Mary Ann is their favourite niece and goddaughter, and Robert is their beloved nephew and godson. On Sundays we, the men of the family, watch a football match on TV or go fishing and the women do the housework and then chat over a cup of coffee or tea. We are a happy family. Our daughter is a little sad because she has no cousins to play with. Nevertheless, she has a very good friend, the same age, our neighbours daughter, Carla. Carla is as old as our daughter and they are not only good friends but also schoolmates. They both attend the same secondary school. Since last week my daughter has been in the raptures. She has got two pets a parrot and a kitten. The white furred kitten is like a snowball. It plays all day long and at night it sleeps and purrs, curled up in a basket. The beautifully coloured parrot stays in its cage and, when Mary Ann feeds it, it pecks grains from her palm.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS THE PLACE OF QUALIFYING ADJECTIVE English adjectives have the following characteristics: are always placed before the nouns it denotes; are always invariable irrespective of the gender and number of the noun they determine: a handsome teenager, a pretty little girl, the right answer, round figures, old people.

EXCEPTION: the demonstrative adjectives which have different forms for plural. There are instances when the adjective follows the noun: in phrases: Court martial, first/second/third person singular, Asia Minor, A major (in music), Paradise Lost; when the adjective follows after one of the verbs: to be, to become, to seem, to feel, to get/grow (= to become), to make, to look (to appear), to turn: This man is bad. The manager became rich in a few years time. Your friend seems sad. I feel cold. She made her parents happy. The woman looks bored. The clerk got/grew impatient. The girl turned pale. in titles or ranks: Attorney General, Lieutenant General; when the adjective itself has a complement: a glass full of wine, a man worthy of respect, the person responsible for the damage; when the adjective replaces a possible relative clause: They bought the best materials available. The system adopted has a lot of advantages over the system preferred by our rivals. NOTE: Both present participles (ing) and past participles (ed) can be used as adjectives. Present participle adjectives - amazing, encouraging, fascinating - are active and mean having this effect, past participle adjectives - amazed, encouraged, fascinated-are passive and mean affected in this way. when the adjective expresses dimension or age: Hes twenty years old tomorrow. Their new car is fifteen feet long. NOTE: Certain adjectives - alive, asleep, awake, aware, unaware, ashamed, alone - are never found in front of a noun, being often introduced by to be or perhaps some other verb. THE GENITIVE CASE There are two ways to express the Genitive Case in English: 1. The Analytical Genitive or the OF Genitive mainly used with: nouns denoting objects or small animals: the colour of the flower, the title of the book, the cover of the textbook, the tail of the mouse; geographical names followed by a proper name: the City of London, the Tower of London, the Gulf of Mexico; nouns denoting person names preceded by indefinite or demonstrative articles I am a great fan of this actor. 2. The Synthetical Genitive or the s Genitive, rendered by s (apostrophe and s) or just (apostrophe) is used with singular and plural nouns not ending in s that denote: proper and common nouns defining human beings:
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Toms brother, Marys friend, schoolgirls name, teachers book, a mans job, childrens room; nouns defining countries or continents; Romanias population, Englands inhabitants, Europes countries; initials: MPs secretary, VIPs escort; nouns defining distances: a five miles distance, at a stones throw; time expressions, expressions of money + worth and other phrases: todays newspaper, a five days trip, in two years time, a twenty minutes delay, yesterdays meeting, tomorrows departure, a ten minutes break, a pounds worth of sugar, to be on a razors edge, to my hearts content, a birds eye view, out of harms way; nouns defining large animals: lions mane, elephants ears ; phrases with for + noun+ sake: for goodness sake, for pitys sake, for forms sake; the noun ship: the ships crew. In case two nouns are the possessors of the same object, s is placed after the latter noun: Mary and Dans parents. If the second noun (the possessed object) is one of the words shop, house, museum, store it is, as a rule, omitted: at the bakers (at the bakers shop), at the butchers, at the grocers, at the chemists, at Bills (= at Bills house), at Madam Tussauds ( at Madam Tussauds Wax Figures Museum. In compounds nouns, or nouns consisting of several words s is added after the last component element: my sister-in-laws pearls, my dear Aunt Mathildas new dress, the sergeant- majors uniform, Henry the Eighths wives. Nouns ending in s take only (): the students hostel, the Smiths car, Dickens works, Pythagoras Theorem, Archimedes Law. There is a form called Double Genitive used when the speaker wants to insist on the person who possesses rather than the thing possessed: a friend of Pauls, a habit of my doctors, a colleague of her fiancs. This Double Genitive is quite often preceded by a demonstrative pronoun too, especially when the speaker has a rather negative attitude towards the thing he is speaking about: I dont really like those new friends of Marys. Those new shoes of Valeries are really hideous. sight, with curly hair, with quick wit, with hasty temper, with hot temper, with pointed chin, with pale face, with broad chest, with white feathers, with soft voice, with hoarse voice, with feeble voice, with broad forehead, with high forehead, with low forehead, with straight eyebrows, with bushy eyebrows, skinny face, with lean face, with round face, with long face, with wrinkled face, with bony cheeks, with hollow cheeks, with delicate features, with coarse hands, with thick lips, with tiny teeth.

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6. DAILY ACTIVITIES. WHAT I USUALLY DO EVERY DAY Lets Talk!


About daily activities. Speak about your daily program, your job and responsibilities. Are the other members of your family busier than you are? What do you prefer: chatting with friends, walking, reading or watching TV? How do you usually spend your weekends? Do you treasure time? Are there any rules, related to time, you learned as a child. Speak about something you did and you didnt want to do. If you could take back something you did, what would it be? Do you give a helping hand with the housework? When? What exactly do you do?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then change the following indirect questions into direct ones: Ask your desk mate what the weather is like today. Ask someone what his girl friend is like. Ask someone what his children / parents are like. Ask your desk mate what his/her house/car is like. Ask someone what his footwear is made of. Ask what the Romanian flag is like.

Every weekday, from Monday through Friday, we are very busy and we work from morning till night. My husband is a businessman and he runs a factory. He has great responsibilities towards his employees and their families. Hes fortunate his best friend assists him with his work, and his assistance is very helpful to my husband. The period to come is going to be hard for them, as their factory is about to merge with a smaller one. As for me, I am a journalist and I work for a local newspaper. A journalists work is very exciting as I consider a journalist is like an explorer. He always has to find out new exciting facts or data; he has to sort the false ones from the true ones. The following qualities are considered to be essential for a journalist: he has to be prompt in finding out the news and transmitting them, he has to be self-confident, reliable, impartial, vigilant, alert, open- minded, accurate. As a matter of fact the press in general should be impartial, objective and prompt. Moreover, when a journalists words or statements annoy somebody he has to be able to prove their rightness and justify them. Once the newspaper printed, nothing can be deleted, cut out or replaced. A journalists style ought to be concise, attractive and direct. It mustnt be floppy. My fellow workers and I always correct the articles we write. As we have to be at our offices at eight oclock, we always wake up at a quarter to seven when we hear the clock strike, we get out of bed. My husband does his morning exercises and the children go to the bathroom, wash themselves and brush their teeth, while I put on my dressing gown and slippers open the windows to air the bedrooms, make the beds, go to the bathroom and put on my clothes. I cook breakfast while my husband takes a shower or a bath, shaves himself, combs his hair and dresses himself. It takes us about forty five minutes to wake up and get ready. We generally eat bread and butter, ham, cheese or marmalade, or bacon and eggs, and drink coffee for breakfast but our children drink milk, tea or orange juice. We leave home at a quarter to eight and go to work by car or by tram. We cant walk to work, as theres a long distance to our places of work and offices. Children come home at noon,
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have lunch and, after a short rest, do their homework. After that, they ride their bikes, play tennis or games or go for a walk with their friends. My husband and I have lunch in town. Lunch is a proper time to discuss business so my husband often has to meet some client and have lunch with him or her in town. If the day is busy our lunch means just a sandwich. We come back from work at about five in the afternoon and all the family has dinner in the evening. After dinner we spend the evening talking with our children, watching TV, or reading something. At about ten oclock we are dead tired and sleepy so we take off our clothes, put on our pyjamas, set the alarm clock to ring and go to sleep. We all keep early hours during the week but sometimes, on weekends, we meet some friends, go to a restaurant or to the theatre.

GRAMMAR FOCUS THE SIMPLE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE I write You write He writes She writes It writes We write You write They write NEGATIVE I do not /dont write You do not / dont write He does not / doesnt write She does not / doesnt write It does not / doesnt write We do not / dont write You do not / dont write They do not /dont write INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Do I (not) write?/Dont I write? Do you (not) write?/Dont you write? Does he (not) write?/Doesnt he write? Does she (not) write?/Doesnt she write? Does it (not) write//Doesnt it write Do we (not) write?/Dont we write? Do you (not) write?/Dont you write? Do they (not) write?/Dont they write?

The Simple Present Tense follows the patterns: Affirmative: subject + bare infinitive Negative: subject + do/ does + not + bare infinitive Interrogative: do/ does + subject + bare infinitive The verb takes the -s ending in the IIIrd person, singular, affirmative. Verbs ending in ch, sh, ss, x, o add an -es: he watches, he washes, he kisses, he boxes, he goes; When verbs end in y that follows a consonant, y changes into i and -es is added: he carries. The simple present is used to express: habitual actions with adverbs or adverb phrases such as: usually, generally, often, always, ever, never, every day/ week/ month/ year/, as a rule, on Sundays, etc., or time clauses expressing routine or habitual actions. People go to church on Sundays. Whenever it rains I stay in the house. general truths: The Moon moves round the Earth. Dogs bark. future planned actions: The tourists visit Bucharest tomorrow. train, planes schedules, shops timetables; date: Tomorrow is the 26th of May. future in conditional sentences type 1 and time sentences: The manager will be mad if we are late. We shall call you when / as soon as he arrives. The Simple Present Tense can also be used: in newspaper headlines:
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MURDERER ESCAPES with the verb say, when we are asking about or quoting from books, notices or very recently received letters: What does that notice say? - It says, Keep off the grass. it must be used instead of the present continuous with verbs that cannot be used in the continuous forms. REMEMBER! The affirmative form of the verb is compulsory if there is an adverb of negation in the sentence. We never go to University in weekends. REFLEXIVE AND EMPHASISING PRONOUNS PERSON I II III SINGULAR MYSELF YOURSELF HIMSELF HERSELF ITSELF PLURAL OURSELVES YOUSELVES THEMSELVES

These pronouns are used as objects of a verb when the action of the verb returns to the does, in other words when subject and object are the same person: He shaves himself. They blame themselves for what happened. We enjoy ourselves at her birthday party. The emphasizing pronouns are identical in form with the reflexive pronouns. They emphasize the subject of the sentence and are placed after the subject. He himself did this. Alternatively the emphasizing pronouns can be placed after the object, if there is one: I baked the cake myself. When it emphasises another noun it is placed immediately after it: We spoke to the Mayor himself. NOTE! When preceded by the preposition by they mean: singur, singur, singuri, singure. I do the homework by myself. The children dont wake up by themselves unless the alarm clock rings. Mother lives by herself.

1. Change the verbs in the following text into the third person singular of the Present Tense Simple. Make the necessary changes: On weekdays I wake up at seven oclock in the morning. I wash and shave myself carefully. I brush my teeth, comb my hair and then I get dressed. I have breakfast or just drink a cup of coffee while I read the morning newspapers and afterwards I leave my house to get to my office. I walk to my office, as I love walking. On my way to work I often meet a friend and we chat about all kinds of things. I reach my office at ten minutes to nine and I get ready to start work. I work about eight hours a day but sometimes I have to work more. I work more when I have to check the sales figures or when I discuss with different suppliers. In the afternoon I take a bus back home, as I am a bit tired. I have my meal and I take a nap. In the evening I watch TV, listen to the wireless or read a book. 2. Change the following sentences to the negative:
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Model: If we hurry, we shall be in time. If we dont hurry, we shall not be in time. 1. If she goes to the theatre, she will have a good time. 2. If we leave the house at 6 o clock, we shall get there in time. 3. If you open the window, it will be too cold. 4. If you listen to the teacher, you will understand the lesson. 5. If he arrives early, we shall see him. 6. If you work hard, you will finish before 10 o clock. 7. If he invites us, we shall go. 8. If she studies hard, she will get good marks. 9. If it rains, we shall go by bus. 10. If it snows for two or three days, there will be enough snow for skiing.

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UNIT 3
7. WORK, PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, TRADES In this unit you will:
- Brush up on your knowledge about (1) work, professions, occupations, trades; (2) expressing time and date; - Practise grammar issues: compounds of some, any, no; the cardinal numeral; the ordinal numeral.

Lets Talk!
About career fulfilment. Why is it important to find out everything you can about your future career or the job you want to obtain? What do you know about your future job? Explain what you imagine economists or accountants do. Do you consider this profession will give you satisfaction and you will be truly successful in performing it? To what extent do you consider that the working environment is important and getting stuck in a routine is dangerous? About job security. Enlarge upon the advantages of working for an established organization, upon the promotion opportunities a position must grant. Why is it important to find out everything about the company that employs you?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the words bold and then say: Where you would like to work after graduation? Which is, according to your opinion, the most interesting job? What else would you like to be if you hadnt chosen to be an economist? Name as many traders as you know and the services they offer their clients or customers. - What is your profession? What kind of work do you do? - I am a teacher. I teach foreign languages in a language school. The teaching profession also includes schoolmasters, lecturers, professors. Teaching is a beautiful profession that brings a lot of satisfaction. - I am a chief accountant. I keep the books for a big company. Economists are specialists in economic problems. My husband is an electro- technical engineer. He works in a factory. Others are civil, mechanical or electrical engineers. - I, on the other hand, am a doctor, a physician, and my wife is a medical nurse but the medical profession includes surgeons, dentists, radiologists, biologists, family doctor, general practitioner, eye and throat specialists, cardiologists, paediatrician, psychiatrist, pharmacists, veterinarians and so on. They all take care of sick people and help them to be healthy again or get well soon. Doctors help people by operating on them, making tests, or by prescribing them pills. We must not forget to mention the work of our colleagues the vets, who take care of animals or peoples pets. - I am a shorthand typist and I work as a secretary in an office. I can type, shorthand, work on computer and I speak French, English and a little German. All this knowledge is important to find a proper job. My office hours are from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. but whenever it is the case I work more than that. I have got a full time job but other clerks have part time jobs. My boss is an engineer and a manager, too. He runs a profitable business in the food industry and he does a lot of fieldwork. - I am a lawyer and I defend my clients but the profession of law includes solicitors, barristers, assessors and judges.
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- I am a carpenter. I build houses and make furniture, but a building site also employs bricklayers (or masons), plumbers, painters, glaziers and locksmiths. All these are called skilled workers and I think these jobs are very important, too. Can you imagine life without these artisans work? I consider it unimaginable. - I am a journalist and a writer, too. I write articles for a daily newspaper. As to the books I write, I give them to a publisher after I correct them. The publisher has a publishing house where printers print the text books, the grammar books, the guide books, the poetry books, the essay collections, the novels, the albums and so on and the bookbinders bind the books in covers. Then, the booksellers sell my books in bookshops and the librarians, who buy them for the public libraries, lend them to the readers. - Some traders offer their services to their clients and customers: these are tailors, dressmakers, furriers, shoemakers, cobblers, barbers, hairdressers, watchmakers, photographers, dyers, dry cleaners, waiters, cooks, shop assistants, merchants, bakers, butchers, grocers, greengrocers, florists. - Actors, actresses, musicians, conductors, players, singers, conjurers, tamers, clowns, rope walkers they all entertain people when they go to the theatre, cinema, opera or circus. - Anyone who drives a car, a bus, a taxi is a driver, but a train has an engine driver. - The profession of arms, also very important because the army provides security for our native land ever since the world began, includes officers in the Navy, the Army, the Air Forces and the Police Force. Someone who serves in these institutions is called a sailor, a soldier, a fireman, an airman, a policeman or a customs officer. - I think no one has a profession as beautiful as mine. I am a farmer and I have my own farm. The farm I owe is in a plain region and it is very large. I tend and harvest the crops of wheat and maize, I grow pigs, cows, sheep that give meat, milk and wool and I plant fruit trees. - I am a stockbroker. I am a car dealer. I am a freelance writer. I am a sales representative. I have a small business of my own. - I am unemployed at the moment. Im looking for a job right now.

GRAMMAR FOCUS INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE SOME ANY INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE ANY SOME NEGATIVE SENTENCE NO ANY

COMPOUNDS OF SOME, ANY, NO BODY Somebody cineva (af., neg.) Anybody cineva (int.) nimeni (neg.) oricine (af.) Nobody ONE Someone cineva (af., neg.) Anyone cineva (int.) nimeni (neg) oricine (af.) No one THING Something ceva (af., neg.) Anything ceva (int.) nimic (neg) oricine (af.) Nothing WHERE Somewhere undeva (af., neg.) Anywhere undeva (int.) nicieri (neg.) oriunde (af.) Nowhere

SOME ANY

NO

Some and its compound forms are used: in affirmative sentences:


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We bought some groceries in the supermarket. He had something to tell me. in interrogative sentences where a positive answer is expected or where there is a doubt: Did mother tell you something about our conversation? when stress falls on some of the object mentioned: Did you do some of the exercises the teacher asked us to do? in offers and requests: Would you like something to drink? Any and its compound forms are used: in interrogative sentences as equivalents of some and its compounds: Was there anybody there? Have you anything to declare? in affirmative sentences meaning: oricare, orice, oricine; with verbs in the negative: I was not able to hear anything. with hardly, barely, scarcely: Weve hardly seen or heard of our new neighbour, lately. with without when without any means with no: The newly appointed manager settled the situation without any difficulty. No and its compound forms are used: in negative sentences with the verb in the affirmative: He knows nothing. We go nowhere. I hear nobody. I have nothing else to declare.

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8. EXPRESSING TIME. WHAT TIME IS IT? WHATS THE TIME Lets Talk!
About how to tell the time in English. How can people know the time of the day? How can they tell the right time? How did people use to measure time in ancient times? Do you wear a watch? Where do you wear it? Can you tell the time in English? What is the most particular rule about telling the time in English? What is the time by your watch now? What happens when your watch is slow or fast? Do you know what GMT stands for? If you dont, how would you ask about this in English?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then: Go round the clock and give all the five minutes from three oclock to four oclock. Match each definition with a word: a.m., day, digital, half-hour, hour, midday, minute, minute hand, morning, night, noon, o'clock, p.m., quarter-hour, second, sunset, today, tomorrow, yesterday: 1. The time elapsed between sunset and dawn. 2. The sixtieth part of a minute. 3. Midday. 4. The Latin phrase post meridiem. 5. The part of a watch or clock that measures the minutes. 6. A type of watch or clock which uses numerals to tell the time. 7. The day before today. 8. The sixty seconds. 9. The period between sunrise and sunset. 10. Thirty minutes. 11. Sixty minutes. 12. A word placed at the end of the phrase giving the time. 13. The earliest part of a day. 14. A clock or watch with hands for seconds, minutes, hours. 15. The moment the sun disappears from the sky. 16. Fifteen minutes. 17. The middle part of the day. 18. The latin phrase ante meridiem. 19. The day after today. 20. The present day. 21. The time between noon and evening

People can tell the time by a clock or a watch. A clock is big and it usually hangs on the wall or stands on the mantelpiece above the fireplace. Some clocks are very big, for example Big Ben, the clock on the House of Parliament in London. The minute hand of Big Ben is fourteen feet long, and the hour hand is nine feet long. We can hear Big Ben every night on the wireless at nine oclock when it strikes and its sound goes all over the world. A watch is small; we can put one in our pocket or we wear it on the wrist as it has a strap. On the dial, under the glass we see twelve Roman or Arabic figures. The figures round the dial mark the hours and minutes. Each hour may be divided into two halves and four quarters. A quarter
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of an hour has fifteen minutes and half an hour has thirty minutes. A full hour has sixty minutes. Each minute has sixty seconds. There are three hands on the dial: a short hand for the hours, a long hand for the minutes and a very long one for the seconds. The wheels and spring, which are inserted inside the case, move the hands. My watch keeps good time and only stops when I dont wind it up and then I set it right by the radio signal. When my watch is out of order I take it to the watchmaker, who repairs it. Otherwise, my watch is neither fast, nor slow. I dont consider it is difficult to tell the time in English. First of all, lets deal with the hours: we say its one oclock sharp, two oclock sharp, three oclock and so on. We use the letters a.m. (a short form of the Latin words ante meridiem meaning before noon) and p.m. (a short form of the Latin words post meridiem meaning after noon). Twelve oclock may refer to midnight or to midday. For the quarters we say: its a quarter past five, half past five, and a quarter to six. We can also say five fifteen, five thirty and five forty- five when we refer to the times of trains or aeroplanes, shops etc. Going round the clock and giving all the five minutes from twelve oclock to one oclock we say: five past twelve, ten past twelve, a quarter past twelve, twenty past twelve, twenty- five past twelve, thirty past twelve, twenty- five to one, twenty to one, a quarter to one, ten to one, five to one. Thus we use the preposition past for the former half hour and the preposition to for the latter half hour. - What time is it by your watch? Whats the time by your watch? - By my watch it is two to two, but my watch is wrong. - Is your watch fast or slow? - Sometimes it is a few minutes fast and sometimes it is a few minutes slow. It does not keep good time. Sometimes it loses, sometimes it gains. I must take it to the watchmaker to have it mended. - Listen! The clock in the tower is just striking four oclock and now I can set my watch correctly. - Is it four already? Is it that late? Is it as late as that? We have no much time left to go to the library before the math class so, lets go at once. - You are right. Lets.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS THE CARDINAL NUMERAL Cardinal numerals from 13 to 19 are formed with the suffix teen added to the numerals from 3 to 9: 13 THIRTEEN 14 FOURTEEN 15 FIFTEEN 16 SIXTEEN 18 EIGHTEEN 19 NINETEEN Mind the spelling of 13 - thirteen and 15 - fifteen in comparison with that of 3 - three and 5 - five. Cardinal numerals 20, 30, 40 ... 90 are formed with the suffix ty. 20 30 40 50 TWENTY THIRTY FORTY FIFTY 60 70 80 90 SIXTY SEVENTY EIGHTY NINETY

Mind the spelling of 20 twenty, 30 - thirty, 40 - forty, 50 - fifty. There is a hyphen between tens and units: twenty-one, thirty-four, ninety- seven. When writing n words, or reading, a number composed of three or more figures we place and before the word denoting tens or units: two hundred and thirty; two thousand and nine; ten thousand, one hundred and two. When used as numerals, the words hundred, thousand and million are never plural: nine hundred, two thousand, three million. When used in the singular, the can be preceded by indefinite article or numeral one. They must be made plural: when used as nouns: Hundreds come to the library every day. when followed by preposition of: Hundreds and hundreds of people are in street. Thousands and thousands of books are deposited in our universitys library. Millions of people live in this city. A comma is used instead of the full stop to separate figures: 2,029 (two thousand and twenty nine). Numerals are used to express: years: official style: 1999 one thousand nine hundred and ninety - nine; spoken language: 1999 nineteen ninety-nine (figures are read two by two). arithmetic operations: Two plus two is four. Four minus two is two. Two multiplied by two is four. Four divided by two is two. phone numbers: My phone number is 116603 double one six oh three.

NOTE: 0 is read [ u].

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1. Read the following years: 1066, 1172, 1391, 1601, 1735, 1877, 1918, 1944, 1955, 1956, 1978, 1989, 2000, 2003. 2. Translate into English: sute de studenii, ase sute de studeni, mii de cri, trei mii de cri, milioane de oameni, multe milioane de oameni, douzeci de milioane de locuitori, zeci de profesori, multe zeci de profesori, miliarde i miliarde de lei pagub. 3. Rewrite the following sentences using infinitives: Model: I have nothing I can wear. I have nothing to wear. 1. Have you anything you want to say? 2. The police have no evidence they can offer. 3. The secretary has a lot of letters she must write. 4. I have a lot of work I must do. 5. Cant you find something better you could do? 6. She buys a hat she can wear at that party. 7. The doctor has tens of patients he must see. 8. We have a lot of friends we must visit. 9. We havent much money we can spend. 10. Has he anything he wants to add?

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9. EXPRESSING DATE. WHAT DATE IS IT? Lets Talk!


How can people keep track of days, weeks, and months? Who made our calendar? How many years are there in a century? What century are we in? What year did our century begin in? When does it end? What do you call the year when February has 29 days? They say that: This century will be religious or it wont be at all? Comment on this. READING. Read the text paying attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then read the following dates in English: 1 aprilie 2003, 25 august 1768, 12 ianuarie 1243, 2 iulie 1645, 3 mai 1159, 14 februarie 1989, 8 martie 2000, 25 decembrie 1967, 31 decembrie 1979, 20 septembrie 1978, 9 iulie 1978, 4 martie 1977, 1 octombrie 2005

As the clock is for the time, the calendar is for the date. We measure time by seconds, minutes, hours, by days, weeks, months or years, by decades or centuries, by millenniums. There are twelve months in a year. Here are their names and their successive order: January- the first, February- the second, March- the third, April- the fourth, May- the fifth, June- the sixth, July- the seventh, August- the eighth, September- the ninth, October- the tenth, November- the eleventh and December- the twelfth. Some months have thirty days, others have thirty-one. February has only twenty- eight days, but every fourth year, in a leap year, it has twenty- nine days. Our calendar was made by Sosigenes at the special request of Julius Caesar. The month of July was named after Caesars name. Later Augustus named the month of August after his name and he decided to make August as long as July. He took an extra day off February that was shortened by one day. There are fifty- two weeks in a year, or three hundred and sixty- five or sixty- six days. Seven days, five working-days (weekdays) and two holidays form a week. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday are the days of the week. Monday is the first day of the week and Sunday is the last. The English consider Sunday as being the first day of the week so when they start to enumerate the seven days they start with Sunday not with Monday. Two weeks make a fortnight. A day has twenty- four hours. A day is the time it takes the Earth to move right round its own axis while a year is the time it takes our planet to move round the Sun. There are two parts in one day- the day and the night. The period of twenty- four hours is divided into morning, afternoon, evening and night. A day begins in the morning and ends in the evening. In the morning the sun rises, in the evening it sets. The middle of the day is called midday while midnight is in the middle of the night. We refer to this day as today. The day before today is called yesterday and the day before yesterday is called the day before yesterday. We call the day after today tomorrow, and the day after tomorrow the day after tomorrow. In the morning, until 12 oclock a.m., when we want to greet people whom we are not friends with, we say Good morning, in the afternoon, between 12 a.m. and 6 p.m., we say Good afternoon, in the evening, after 6 p.m. till late at night, we say Good evening. If it is night, and we leave or go to bed we have to say Good night. The 1st of January is the first day of the year. December 31st is the last and it is called New Years Eve. One of the greatest holidays for the Christians, Christmas, is on the 25th of December (or December 25th). People celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ, our Saviour or Redeemer.
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A year may also be divided into four seasons: spring, summer, autumn or fall as the Americans say, and the season of snow- winter. Ten years form a decade and one hundred years form a century. One thousand years or ten centuries form a millennium. The third millennium of mankinds history has just begun. At present we are living in the first decade of the twenty- first century A. D. The twentieth century ended some years ago. HOW ARE YOU GETTING ON WITH YOUR MATH? Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are the four mathematical operations: How much is/are five and seven? Five and seven is/are twelve. How much is/are five plus seven? Five plus seven is/are twelve Five and seven is/are seven Add five and seven. How much is/are twelve minus six or six Twelve minus six or six subtracted subtracted from twelve? from twelve is six. Take five from five. Five from five leaves nought How much is/are four multiplied by five? or Four multiplied by five is twenty. Or How much is/are four times five? Four times five is twenty. How much is/are twenty divided by four? Twenty divided by four is five. REMEMBER! 1 is a figure. 2, 3, 4, 5 and so on are figures, too. 12 is a number made up of two figures. 2,896 is a number made up of four figures. These figures are whole numbers and whole numbers are called integers. Integers are formed of the digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. So we can say that 428 is a number formed of three integers. Squaring, cubing, or raising to any power are also mathematical operations.

GRAMMAR FOCUS THE ORDINAL NUMERAL The ordinal numerals are formed by adding the suffix - th to the corresponding cardinal numerals except for 1, 2, 3. They are always preceded by the definite article the: the fourth, the seventh, the hundredth, the one thousandth. The ordinal numerals corresponding to 1, 2, 3 are: the first, the second, the third. Notice the spelling of: the fifth, the eighth, the ninth, the twelfth. Numerals ending in y change it for ie + th: twenty the twentieth, thirty the thirtieth, fifty the fiftieth. In compound numerals it is only the last figure that is an ordinal numeral: 32nd the thirty-second, 328th the three hundred and thirty-eighth, 1001st the one thousand and first. The ordinal numerals are used to express date in English.
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Titles of Kings are written in Roman figure: Henry VIII, Charles V, but in spoken English the ordinal numerals are used: Henry the Eighth, Charles the Fifth.

: 1. Study this list of jobs. Some of them are said to be a mans job; others a womans job. Give your own opinion: bus driver, lorry driver, nurse, cook, bank manager, vet, secretary, typist, professional footballer, garage mechanic, babysitter, train driver, beauty expert, chef. 2. A woman is talking to a clerk. Look at the dialogue and do the same, but mind the main verb: Model: Clerk: I dont know. Woman: Dont you? Well, is there someone here who does? 1. I dont want to serve you. 2. I dont want to tell anything about this problem. 3. I cant help you. 4. I cant explain the situation to you. 5. Im not assisting customers. 6. I havent got any time. 7. I am not able to answer to your question. 8. I must not wash the wash basin. 9. I cant speak English. 10. I am not able to spell in English. 3. Ask questions the same as the woman does: Model: I dont suppose you know how much the coat is? 1. What size the coat is. 2. What the dress is made of. 3. Where the salesgirl is. 4. Where the public phone is. 5. When the store closes. 6. Who that strange man is. 7. When the next plane to Paris is. 8. When it arrives to the destination. 9. If its on time. 10. If its usually very full. 4. Replace whose with of which in the following sentences:

1. Write a letter to a friend of yours telling him/her about you and your family, about your relatives, professions, occupation, trades.

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UNIT 4
10. THINGS YOU CAN, MUST AND MAY DO In this unit you will:
- Speak about: (1) your skills, obligations and tings you must do; (2) leisure activities; - Practise grammar issues: modal verbs; personal pronouns in dative and accusative; the imperative mode; the present participle; the present tense continuous; going to future.

Lets Talk
About allowed and forbidden things. Certain things are forbidden in public places or in a work environment. What are you forbidden to do at university, at home or in public places? And what must you do? What are the things you are allowed to do at university and in public places? Should mobiles phones and cameras be banned inside educational institutions? READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then enlarge upon the following: - Every person is good at doing something. What can you do best? - Your opinion about a violent environment in educational minstitutions or at work - do you consider verbal abuse or threats, as well as physical attacks, are dangerous? Can they have serious consequences for people and for the business? - Can you speak English? - No, I cannot, but I can understand it a little. - Can your colleagues read and write in English? - Some of them can do this very well, some cant. - Open the text-book read the lesson and translate it! Good. Now, come to the blackboard, take a piece of chalk and lets write the new English words. - Im afraid I cannot write very well in English. My spelling is not good but I can work hard to learn more and catch up with my colleagues. - Yes, you must do this. You must learn how to spell in English. Spelling is as important as speaking a foreign language well. You all must do your best to write and speak English correctly. You must do your homework and other tasks your teacher asks you to. Sometimes you must copy the texts of the courses and do as many grammar exercises as you can. And above all, you must be attentive and you must not be absent. Come to all English courses and dont miss any! Listen to English records or to people who speak this beautiful but difficult language! You may learn to pronounce it well if you listen carefully. Nowadays, people may be good specialists but, if they cannot speak and write in English, they cannot find a proper job. So, you must try to do your best. As you have difficult exams in front of you at the end of the year you must practice a lot. - May I ask you a question, if you please? - Yes, you all may ask any question you want. - Tell us please, must we buy any dictionaries or conversation guide- books? - Yes, you must. You need a dictionary. It may be very useful because you can find any new word in it. You need not buy grammar books or other English books yet. Now, lets speak only English. Lets read the text of the lesson again, lets try to count and answer some questions.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS MODAL VERBS Can, may, must, shall, should, will, would, ought - the modal auxiliaries - have the following characteristics: they have no infinitives or participles and therefore cannot be used in the continuous tenses; they all, except ought, are followed by bare infinitive: I can play the piano. I may leave whenever I want. I must attend a conference tomorrow. He should study more. BUT: He ought to study more. COMPARE WITH! I want to play the piano. I want to leave. I want to be there. they have no final s in the IIIrd person singular; He can swim like a fish. He may come in. He must study harder. they do not form their interrogative and negative forms with auxiliary do but by inversion and by adding not to the affirmative: - Can he swim? - No, he cannot / cant. - May I take this? - You may not/ maynt. - Must we go there? - No, we must not/mustnt. REMEMBER! The negative form of can is spelt cannot. they have no proper past tenses; four past forms exist could, might, should, would but they have only a restricted use. For all the other tenses some equivalents are used: Can - to be able to May - to be allowed to, to be permitted to Must - to have to, to be obliged to. REMEMBER! Both may and can are used to ask for permission. May I leave? Can I leave? May in the negative shows lack of permission, must expresses interdiction. You must not smoke in the babys room. When used as auxiliaries need and dare can conform to the modal pattern. Need he buy any dictionaries? He need not buy them. PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE NOMINATIVE I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY DATIVE (to) ME (to) YOU (to) HIM (to) HER (to) IT (to) US (to) YOU (to)THEM ACCUSATIVE ME YOU HIM HER IT US YOU THEM

Word order in English affirmative sentences follows the pattern: subject + predicate + indirect object + direct object
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I can lend you my pen. If the direct object in placed in front of the indirect one, this will be preceded by preposition to: I can lend my pen to you. THE IMPERATIVE MODE The second person imperative has the same form as the bare imperative: Come! Go! Wait! Stop! For the negative we use the auxiliary do according to the pattern: Do + not + verb (bare infinitive) Do not / Dont come late! Dont go there alone! Dont wait for me! Dont be naughty! The person addressed is very often not mentioned, but can be expressed by a noun placed at the end of the phrase: Wipe your feet, John! Be quiet, boys! The pronoun you id rarely used unless the speaker wishes to be rude, or wishes to make a distinction: You go further, Ill stay here. Do can be placed before the affirmative imperative; it has a persuasive character, but also shows irritation: Do speak! For the Ist and IIIrd persons singular and plural the imperative - translated by, (hai) s..., - is used: Let + pronoun (in Ac.) + verb (bare infinitive) Let me see! Let us/ Lets meet and discuss. Let him read! Let her talk! Let it sleep on the sofa! Let them come with us! By let us (lets) the speaker can urge his hearers to act in a certain way, or express a decision which they are expected to accept, or express a suggestion. In indirect speech, imperative sentences will be rendered with the full infinitive of the verb if the sentence is affirmative, and with not + bare infinitive if the sentence is negative: Take a sheet of paper! The teacher tells us to take a sheet of paper. Write down after dictation! The teacher asks us to write down after dictation! Dont look in your colleagues papers! The teacher asks us not to look in our colleagues papers.

1. In the following sentences replace the verbs must, can, may with the corresponding forms of to have to, to be able to, to be allowed to, to be permitted to: a) We must work hard to learn English. I must leave now to catch the plane. This sick man must see the doctor tomorrow. I must get up very early as I live very far from the university. They must finish their work as it is very late. You must not eat so much. You must not drink too much coffee in the evening. b) Their child can swim better this year. The driver cannot drive any more as he is too tired. Can you speak any foreign language? Can your daughter cook? Who can do this translation at once? The football player cannot play football because his leg hurts. This man can lift that heavy box. That old man can ride a horse. What do you think can he ride a bike, too?

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c) May I open the window, please? You may open the window if you think its too stuffy in here. You may not smoke in this room. May I leave earlier, teacher? You may not take my car, you cannot drive well. He may not take my fountain- pen. He is careless. May I ask why you are late?

1. Complete with the corresponding personal pronouns: 1. Loot at (I)! Dont look at (she)! Look at (we) all. 2. Tell (we) your sorrow! Dont tell (they)! 3. Dont lie (she)! Tell (she) the truth! 4. Dont leave (they)! Stay with (he) and (she)! 5. Love (we)! Dont hate (I) and (she)! Dont scold (she)! 6. Give that to (we)! Dont give that to (he)! 7. Write to (we)! Dont forget (we). 8. Listen to (he) not to (she)! 9. Follow (we)! Dont follow (they)! 10. Remind (I) to tell you something about (he)! 11. Urge (they) to read more! 2. Turn the sentences above into Indirect Speech. 3. Following the model, what would you say if you offered to do the following things? Model: Let me help you with your suitcase. - carry a young ladys shopping bag; - help to put books on the shelf; - take her to a party; - show her around your house; - tell her a joke; - introduce her to the librarian; - see her home; - give her a lift in your car.

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11. LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND SKILLS Lets Talk!


About leisure time. Whats the Romanian for leisure activity? And for skills? What do you prefer to do in your leisure hours? Are you fond of indoors or outdoors activities? Name some of them. Are there organisations for children, youths and adults in your city such as: Sports Clubs and Associations, Cultural Youth Organisations, Nature and Environmental Organisations?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then speak about your skills and hobbies. - Henry David Thoreau said: "It's not enough to be busy. The question is: What are we busy about? Comment on this. All the week round we are busy working or studding but on weekends we relax and enjoy ourselves and we choose to spend our spare time in different ways. If the weather is fine we drive our car out of town to the woods, near a lake where we can go boating, swim, fish, sunbathe and have a picnic. Shady places under the trees invite you to long appeasing strolls and I enjoy walking about the woods, picking flowers, berries and mushrooms, and listening to little birds twitter. Children love playing games like hide-and seek, leap frog, blind mans hood, tennis and football, and running about to gather wood for the bonfire. When in the open air, they cry and laugh so loudly that they split our ears. This wouldnt be pleasant at all if you had a splitting headache. If the branches or logs the children find are too thick, my husband takes a little axe, he always keeps in the cars truck in his toolbox, and chops and splits them. If we choose to spend the weekend at home I love gardening, digging, planting and watering the flowers in the little garden we have in front of the house. I have to tell you that we even have a small greenhouse (hothouse) where we grow flowers and vegetables in winter. Im fond of looking after plants and vegetables and, by keeping them in the greenhouse in winter, we save them from dying. My husband loves reading books, listening to music, going to a football match or working on computer. If he is very much interested in the book or magazine he reads, he peruses it or, otherwise, he only browses its pages or only skims the publications table of contents. During the summer holiday we enjoy hiking so we go to the mountains, as climbing mountains is our favourite pastime and in winter we love skiing or skating, or simply playing with snowballs and making snowmen together with our children. Oh! Its lovely to see the rows of snow-covered fir trees rising themselves towards the sky, like endless straight columns. If the weather is bad we choose to go to a concert, to a theatre play, or to the cinema. It depends on what play or movie is on. If it is a first night on at the National Theatre we never miss the opportunity to see it. When we feel like dancing, you know we love tangoing and waltzing, we invite some friends to a restaurant and spend the evening dancing, chatting and watching people.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE The present participle of the verbs is formed by ending ing added to the infinitive: read listen reading listening

The spelling of the present participle: When verbs end in a single e, this final e is dropped before - ing: write writing

EXCEPTIONS: to age, to dye, to singe and verbs ending in ee - to agree, to see: age dye singe see ageing dyeing singeing seeing

One-syllable verbs ending in a consonant preceded by a vowel double the final consonant before - ing: stop stopping sit sitting verbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable contains one vowel and ends in a single consonant double this consonant if the stress falls on the last syllable: admit begin prefer admitting beginning preferring budgeting entering

BUT: budget enter

verbs ending in l double this final consonant: travel signal travelling signalling

Verbs ending in y add -ing without any change in the spelling of the consonant: play try playing trying

Verbs ending in ie transform it to y and add ing: to lie to die lying dying
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REMEMBER!

THINGS YOU LIKE TO DO! I like I enjoy I love I hate Im fond of I dislike

Mm!

Verb + ing

THINGS YOU DONT LIKE TO DO! I dont like I dont enjoy I dont love Im not fond of

Ugh!

Verb + ing

1. Supply the -ing form of the verbs in parentheses: 1. They have stopped (speak) to each other. 2. We shall appreciate (hear) from you. 3. Do you mind (come) back a little later? 4. We both enjoy (dance). 5. He is not going to stop (study) English. 6. He says he doesnt mind (wait) for us. 7. He couldnt avoid (hit) the other car. 8. They have finished (eat). 9. Nobody can go on (live) without some belief. 10. You must excuse my (be) so noisy. 11. It is difficult to imagine him (sit) silently. 12. She cannot sleep without (see) you and (speak) to you once more. 13. She does not like the thought of (leave) you. 14. He is disturbed by some (knock) at the door. 15. Do you mind (give) me your name and telephone number, please?

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12. WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Lets Talk!


About present actions. What are you all doing now? What are people in the street doing? What language are we speaking? READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then change the following indirect questions into direct ones: Ask if the students are watching TV. Ask if the secretary is writing the report. Ask what the accountant is calculating. Ask your colleague if he/she is working on computer. Ask what the dean is speaking about. - Make up sentences of your own using the verbs below both in the Present Tense Simple and Continuous: to be, to have, to feel, to think, to taste, to smell, to hold, to see, to hear, to hold, to contain, to think. Its ten oclock on a Sunday morning. Father is in the dining room. What is he doing? He is sitting in an armchair, smoking and reading this mornings newspaper. He is not watching television. My brother is in his bedroom. He is opening the window and he is doing his morning exercises right now. The cassette- recorder is on and he is listening to his favourite band playing. What am I doing? I am in the bathroom. First, Im turning on the cold and hot water taps and now Im washing my face my hands and my body. Im brushing my teeth with my toothbrush and my toothpaste. Now Im drying myself with a towel and Im combing my hair. Next, Im going to tidy up the rooms. I want to give a helping hand to my mother who is in the kitchen now cooking breakfast. What is she doing exactly? She is boiling water for tea or coffee, frying some bacon and preparing some scrambled eggs. She is making some orange juice, too. Im cutting some bread in thin slices, and Im going to toast the slices. Now we are laying the table in the dining room. Im spreading the table cloth on the table and Im putting the cups, the saucers, the plates, the knives, the forks, the little spoons, the paper napkins. Im not going to put spoons for breakfast. Father is also giving a helping hand now and he is bringing in the breadbasket. Mother is bringing the tray with the coffee pot, the teapot and the jug with orange juice. She is pouring the hot drinks in the cups and right now she is buttering the toast. Im going to bring in a jar of jam and mother is going to bring the scrambled eggs, the bacon and some cheese. At this very moment my brother is coming into the dining room. - Mm! It smells good. What is there for breakfast Mummy? - Thanks God, theres always something to eat for breakfast. Have a seat and Enjoy your meal. - Im so hungry that I could eat a horse! And Im thirsty, too. Will you pass me some slices of bread? You know, Im not so very fond of toast. Mm! The bread is soft. I hate hard bread. May I have another helping of bread and butter with jam? - Of course you may. Here you are. Help yourself. - This coffee is excellent. It tastes excellent. It is hot and strong, but I think it needs more sugar. I dislike cold, weak, bitter coffee. - Everything is tasty except for the bacon, which is rather salty and overdone. - My dear, mother says to fathers remark, they say that Earth is teeming with ungrateful husbands and you are one of them. Is anyone going to have some more orange juice? It is sweet, it is not sour and it is fresh. - I am, my dear, and please excuse me. I was not going to be rude. Now that we have finished our breakfast your son and I are going to clear the table, to do the washing up and dry the dishes. You know, they say One good turn deserves another.
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GRAMMAR FOCUS THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE I am writing You are writing He is writing She is writing It is writing We are writing You are writing They are writing NEGATIVE I am not writing You are not writing He is not writing She is not/ writing It is not/writing We are not writing You are not writing They are not writing INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Am I (not) writing? Are you(not) you writing Is he (not) he writing? Is she (not) she writing? Is it (not) he writing? Are we (not) we writing? Are you (not) you writing? Are they (not) they writing?

The Present Tense Continuous is formed according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + to be (present) + verb + ing Negative: subject + to be (present) + not + verb + ing Interrogative: to be (present) +subject + verb + ing The Present Tense Continuous is used with the adverbs: now, at the moment, in this very moment, today, this week/ month/year..., these days/weeks/months etc. The Present Tense Continuous tense expresses: an action happening now: I am sitting down, because I am tired. Whos making such a noise? The professor is giving a lecture. Who are you writing to? an action happening about this time but not necessarily this very moment: She is teaching at a university in the USA this year. My children are studying aboard. an action that is to take place in the near future: What are you doing tonight? We are meeting our friends at 7 oclock and we are going to the theatre. a repeated action that the speaker finds annoying or unreasonable; the use of always, forever, constantly, continually is compulsory : This pupil is always forgetting his exercise book. You are always complaining about something. She is forever getting late. They are coming only when Im busy. Used with the first person (singular and plural) it shows that the repeated action is often accidental: Im always forgetting to lock the door. VERBS NOT USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORMS MODAL VERBS: can, may, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to, need, dare. TO BE when it means to exist;

EXCEPTION: used in the continuous forms, be helps the speaker to make a momentary characterisation: You are being boring! You are being cheeky! He is being rude! She is being very realistic! TO HAVE when it means to possess;
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EXCEPTION: have can be used in the continuous forms when its meaning is other than to possess: We are having fun at the party. He is having breakfast now. VERBS THAT DENOTE FEELINGS, EMOTIONS: to love, to like, to dislike, to hate, to prefer, to wish, to please, to hope, to refuse, to regret, to worship; VERBS THAT DENOTE MENTAL ACTIVITY: to assume, to know, to understand, to agree, to disagree, to believe, to think (that) (a crede c, a socoti c), to suppose, to fancy, to imagine, to intend, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to forget, to seem, to surprise, to require, to realize, to recall, to expect, to mind. REMEMBER! Some of these verbs are used in the continuous forms when they mean: TO EXPECT - to await: We are expecting news from him. TO ASSUME - accept as a starting point: Im assuming that you have time to learn all this. VERBS OF SENSES (involuntary actions): to feel, to taste, to smell, to see, to hear, to look (to appear): Silk feels soft. Roses smell good. Pizza tastes good. Can you see that ship at the horizon? Can you hear noise at the door? The clerk looks tired. REMEMBER! These verbs can be used in the continuous forms when they are used in their proper meaning: to feel (to touch, to, to experience something physical or emotional), to smell (to notice or discover something using the nose), to taste (to put food or drink in your mouth to find out what flavour it has), to see (to meet or visit someone, to have an appointment, to have a romantic relationship with someone, to take someone somewhere by going there with them), to hear (to have news), lo look: I am feeling the fabric. He is feeling tired. The girl is smelling the roses. The cook is tasting the food. Im seeing the interviewer tomorrow. Hes seeing his guests to the gate. Youll be hearing from me soon. Why are you looking at me like this? OTHER VERBS THAT ARE NOT USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORMS: to deserve, to own, to possess, to matter, to belong to, to contain, to keep, to concern, to signify: TO COST: This car costs a lot of money. BUT: Food is costing more and more these days. (to get more expensive) TO DEPEND ON: This depends on him. BUT: Everybody is depending on him. (to rely on) TO HOLD (to contain): This box contains 2o kilograms of flour. BUT:
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The little child is holding his mothers hand.

GOING TO FUTURE It expresses the subjects intention to perform a certain future action. It refers to the immediate future. The intention is always premeditated. The Romanian equivalents are: am de gnd s..., intenionez s..., urmeaz s..., voi... It is formed with the present continuous of the verb to go + full infinitive: I'm going to buy a new mobile phone next week. The Near Future is also used with predictions based on what the speaker sees at that moment: Look at that car! It is going to crash into the lamp post. It is cloudy. Its going to rain. As a rule, the verbs to go and to come are not used in the near future; the present continuous is more appropriate: Well use Im going instead of Im going to go, and Im coming instead of Im going to come.

1. Make these sentences interrogative and negative: 1. The weather is getting colder and colder. 2. The wind is blowing. 3. It is pouring. / It is raining cats and dogs. 4. The sun is shining in the sky. 5. I am ironing my husbands shirts. 6. That man is beating his pet. 7. That nervous woman is biting her nails. 8. The clerks are attending a meeting with the manager. 9. That gentleman is knocking at our door. 10. The maid is answering the door. 2. Put in the Simple or Continuous Present Tense of the verbs in brackets: my breakfast everyday but I it now. (eat, not eat) 1. I to bed every night at half past ten but you to bed now. (go, not go) 2. You 3. The housewife often a lot of things but she anything at the moment. (buy, not buy) in autumn and it cats and dogs today. (rain) 4. It often reports about the financial situation of the firm but this 5. The chief accountants usually any report. (draw up, not draw up) month they the poultry twice a day and this one the poultry 6. The country housewives right now. (feed) 7. Simon is three. He himself every morning. (dress). he now? (do) 8. What his clothes. (put on) 9. Right now he always something terrible in their life! (happen) 10. It 11. Something terrible right now. (happen)

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UNIT 5
13. SEASONS AND WEATHER. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST? In this unit you will:
- Speak about: (1) seasons and weather; (2) holidays and celebrations; (2) travelling by air and by land; - Practise grammar issues: past tense of the verbs to be and to have; past tense of the can. adjective. the irregular comparison; the past tense simple; the past tense continuous; past participle; the present perfect simple.

Lets Talk!
About seasons, favourite months and holidays. What are the seasons of the year? What season do you like best and why? Describe your last summer/winter holiday. About weather in general and, particularly, in our country. How would you describe the climate in your country? But at the North Pole? And at the Equator? Would you like to live in such places? Do you consider we are privileged to have all the seasons in our country?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and: - Change the following indirect questions into direct ones: Ask me if I was at the seaside last summer? Ask if we had good weather. Ask if I could swim in the seawater. Ask if he had a birthday party with lots of guests last year. Ask if the guests were sorry when the party was over. Ask what time the party was over. - Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives: dry, sly, shy, common, honest, handsome, noble, narrow, pleasant, polite, profound, able, clumsy, clever, severe, sincere, wholesome, shallow, humble, remote, startling, healthy, worthy, tender, convenient, inner.

Spring, summer, autumn and winter are the four seasons into which the year is divided and each of it lasts for about three months. Spring, the most beautiful season of the year, begins on the 21st of March and the spring months are March, April and May. Nature comes to life after the long, cold winter and the days grow longer. Trees bud and blossom, put on new leaves, the fields and meadows dress in green, fat grass. Snowdrops, the most gentle flowers, the first spring flowers raise their tiny heads in the woods. Then the forget-me-not flowers, the lilies of the valley and the violets appear. Blue, pink and white hyacinths fill the air with their scent. How lovely they are! Birds return from the warmer countries and start building their nests again. The mild air is full of their songs and chirps, of bees hum, and of the beautifully coloured butterflies dance. Farmers dig and toil the soil, sow the seeds and plant fruit trees. April rains are good for the crops. Last spring we had a busy time as we were in the country at my parents. We could help them with their work in the garden and in the orchard. Children had a good time picking snowdrops in the forest, running after butterflies in the fields, watching birds building their nests in
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the trees or under the roofs. We were all very happy there but we were a little sad when holidays were over. Summer the hottest season of the year and the holiday season, too, comes after spring and we are in summer from June 22nd to September 21st. In June, the most pleasant month of the year, called Leafy June or The Month of Roses because trees are in leaf and roses in bloom, the days are the longest and the sun rises early, earlier than ever, and sets late in the evening. When July begins the weather is the hottest; the sun shines brightly in the blue, cloudless sky. However, now and than dark clouds gather, cover the sun and, out of the blue, it begins to pour with large, heavy raindrops. We have now storms with lightning and thunder called thunderstorms. In the heat of the sun fruit ripe in the orchards and crops are ready for the harvest. Last summer we were at the seaside. The sun was bright, the sky was clear, the seawater was warm so we could lie in the sun on the beach, we could swim, and the children could play in the sand making sand castles, or picking pebbles and shells. From time to time there were summer showers and after them the air was fresher. We had lot of fun and it was a lovely holiday. Then we went to the countryside. What a beauty! The cherry trees, the apricot trees and the peach trees were full with ripe fruit and we could pick and eat them. The fields were yellow with wheat and maize, and in the gardens there were big juicy melons and watermelons. Some days were stuffy, dry and dusty, as there were not many rains last August. Summer is gone, autumn comes in. It begins on the 21st of September. September is the calmest and loveliest of months when pears, apples, plums, nuts, grapes and berries are ripe. But the days gradually become shorter and the nights longer. The weather is already cool, the wind blows and it rains very often. The leaves are no longer green, they turn yellow or red, or brown and they fall down. Its rather sad to see the trees strip of their leaves. Rainy winds, cloudy weather sets in. Sometimes it is raining cats and dogs, sometimes it is foggy and the fog is very thick. So was the weather last November and it was more pleasant to stay indoors, as the streets were muddy and there were too many pools of rainwater in the streets and you couldnt see anything in front of you. People were cold and wet and they were in a hurry to get to their homes. Some were slipping and sliding, losing their foothold. They were not happy to be in the street on such an awfully bad weather. Winter is drawing near. Most birds no longer sing, but fly away to warmer countries. The wind is blowing from the North. It is not warm, it is cold. It is freezing more and more often and the weather is frosty. Winter, the season of frost, is here. The days are getting shorter and shorter and the nights are longer and longer. There are no flowers in the gardens now and the trees are bare. The sun gives light for only eight hours and it doesnt heat the Earth at all. Water turns into ice, rivers freeze, snow falls thick and covers the houses, the fields, the trees, everything. Icicles hang on the eves of the houses. It is wonderful to watch the big, fat snowflakes, which are falling thick and fast. Sparrows and crows look for their food in vain. Its more and more difficult for them to find something to feed themselves. Last winter we were at the mountains. The snow was good so we could ski on the ski slopes, we could skate at the skating rink, and we could make snowmen or play with snowballs. When we were cold we had hot drinks by the fireplace.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS PAST TENSE OF THE VERB TO BE AFFIRMATIVE I, he, she, it WAS You, we, you, they WERE INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, he, she, it WAS I, he, she, it (NOT)? / WASNT I, he, she, it? WAS NOT/ WASNT You, we, you, they WERE WERE you, we, you, they (NOT)?/WERENT you, we, NOT/WERENT you, they? NEGATIVE

PAST TENSE OF THE VERB TO HAVE AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, you, he, she, it, I you, he, she, it, we, you, HAD I, you, he, she, it, we, you, we, you, they HAD they HAD NOT/HADNT they (NOT)?/HADNT I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they? NEGATIVE

PAST TENSE OF THE VERB CAN AFFIRMATIVE INRROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, you, he, she, it, I, you, he, she, it, we, COULD I, you, he, she, it, we, you, we, you, they you, they COULD NOT/ they (NOT)?/COULDNT I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they ? COULD COULDNT REMEMBER! We do not use an article with the names of the seasons of the year if they are the subject of the sentence or if they are used in a general sense: Summer is my favourite season. We use the definite article before the names of the seasons if we refer to a particular season: Ill never forget the summer of 1985. NEGATIVE

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THE ADJECTIVE - DEGREES OF COMPARISON THE SYNTHETIC COMPARISON. The Comparative of Superiority and Relative Superlative are formed by adding er and est respectively. This rule applies to: One-syllable adjectives POZITIVE big tall COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY bigger taller RELATIVE SUPERLATIVE the biggest the tallest

REMEMBER! Adjectives in the relative superlative are preceded by the definite article. adjectives of two syllables ending in ow, -le, -er, ly, -y and some: POZITIVE pretty narrow humble clever handsome COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY prettier narrower humbler cleverer handsome RELATIVE SUPERLATIVE the prettiest the narrowest the humblest the cleverest the handsomest

NOTE: These adjectives may also take the analytic comparison. Comparative of equality is formed according to the pattern: as + adjective in the positive degree + as as big as, as tall as, as narrow as; as handsome as. Comparative of inferiority is formed according to the pattern: not as/so + adjective in the positive degree + as not so/as big as, not so/as tall as, not as/so narrow as, not as/so handsome as. or: less + adjective in the positive degree + than: less interesting than... The Absolute Superlative is formed with: very, not very, quite, extremely, terribly, etc. Changes in spelling after -er, -est are added: adjectives ending in e drop this ending out: large larger the largest one-syllable adjectives ending in consonant preceded by a vowel double the final consonant: hot hotter the hottest

adjectives ending in -y preceded by consonant change -y in -i: dry drier the driest

ANALYTIC COMPARISON. Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative by adding more and most preceded by the:

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POZITIVE beautiful interesting

COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY more beautiful more interesting

RELATIVE SUPERLATIVE the most beautiful the most interesting

REMEMBER! These rules apply to adverbs too. Some adjectives can take both ways of comparison. Nevertheless it is preferable to use: the synthetic comparison in two syllable adjectives ending in y or ly such as: cloudy, misty, lovely, clumsy, lucky, angry, sleepy; analytic comparison in of two-syllable adjectives where the stress falls on the first syllable: active, common, hostile, pleasant, stupid, or on the last one: remote, precise, severe, polite. analytic comparison in two-syllable adjectives ending in two consonants: correct, exact; The degrees of comparison of the cardinal points are: northern southern eastern western more northern more southern more eastern more western northernmost/northmost southernmost/southmost easternmost/eastmost westernmost/westmost

THE IRREGULAR COMPARISON Some adjectives have irregular comparisons: POZITIVE good, well bad, ill, badly much, many little far late old near COMPARATIVE better worse more less farther further later older, elder nearer RELATIVE SUPERLATIVE the best the worst the most the least the farthest, the furthest the latest, the last the oldest, the eldest the nearest, the next

Parallel increase (translated by cu ct...cu att...) is expressed according to the pattern: the + comparativethe + comparative The sooner, the better. The later they come the worst it will be. Gradual increase or decrease (translated by din ce n ce mai..., tot mai) is expressed by two comparatives joined by and. Its getting colder and colder. Im reading better and better. She is more and more beautiful. The book is less and less interesting. The same meaning can be rendered by: ever + comparative of superiority: ever colder, ever better, ever more beautiful, ever less interesting.

NOTE: When much and far are placed before an adjective in the comparative they stress the meaning of the adjective. So does by far when placed after an adjective in the comparative. She is much more beautiful / far more beautiful than her sister. She is more beautiful by far.
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REMENBER! When only two notions are compared, the Absolute Superlative will be rendered by a Comparative of Superiority preceded by the: Of the two girls the thinner one is the prettier. Of these two dresses the white one is the more beautiful and the cheaper, too. Of the two deans the taller is the worse but the more intelligent and the better manager at the same time.

1. Make sentences according to the patterns: a) Model: tall/ my brother/ my mother/ my father My brother is tall. My mother is taller than my brother. But my father is the tallest of all. high/ house/ block of flats/ sky scraper; rich/ I/ he/ she; nice/ my daughter/ my niece/ my Goddaughter; cheap/ a tie/ a pair of socks/ a handkerchief; fat/ a turkey/ a pig/ a cow; tasty/ an apple/ an ice-cream/ a chocolate b) Model: expensive fur coat/ she/ to see This was the most expensive fur coat she had ever seen. exciting view/ we / to admire: frightening snake/ they/ to meet; wonderful holiday/ the children/ to spend dangerous peak/ the climbers/ to climb; difficult task/ the accountant/ to solve; handsome actor / the woman/ to be introduced; amusing joke/ the entertainer/ to tell. educated person/ the audience/ to listen to; northern place/ the discoverers/ reach.

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14. HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS Lets Talk!


About celebrating birthdays or name days. What is the English word we use for the day when we celebrate our birth? When is your birthday? Tell us the birthdays of all your family members. Do you usually celebrate your birthday? How? What is the most common wish the celebrated person hears on his or her birthday? Do you have a name day, too? About celebrating Easter and Christmas. Which are the seasons of the great religious events? Why are they important? How do people celebrate them? Speak about the customs related to these holidays. Make a list of facts, symbols, and key words associated with Christmas and Easter. READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold and then change the following indirect questions into direct ones: Ask someone how he/she celebrated his/her birthday last year. Ask someone when he/she celebrated it. Ask someone if he/she celebrated it at a restaurant. Ask someone if he/she invited many guests. Ask what they ate and drank. Birthdays and holidays are days when people celebrate different events. A birthday is the day when somebody was born a certain time ago. Along the centuries, all over the world, birthdays were considered special days and the peoples of the ancient times nourished the strong belief that, on a birthday, good spirits as well as bad spirits could influence a persons destiny by helping or harming him or her. According to this belief, it became customary that all the relatives and friends, the celebrated person had, should gather together for protection against the evil. They say this was the beginning of the birthday parties. It is from the ancients - namely Greeks that the custom of putting lit candles on a birthday cake comes. Among the many gods and goddesses that the Greeks used to celebrate there was the goddess of the Moon, called Airtimes whose birthday was celebrated monthly. The worshipers used to take round cakes, with lit candles on them, to the goddess temple. The round cakes were supposed to represent the bright Moon. These beliefs are less known nowadays but, nevertheless, it is customary for people to celebrate their birthdays with their families and their best friends and to blow out the candles on the birthday cake. Yesterday was Sunday and it was my sons birthday and name day, too, as it was Palm Sunday. He was 15 yesterday and he wanted to have a little party so, my husband and I prepared everything. As we had to do some shopping we woke up early, took some shopping bags and some money and went shopping. First we drove at the butchers to buy some salami and some pork, then we stopped at the dairy to buy some butter, pressed cheese and cream, at the greengrocers to buy some vegetables and fresh fruit, at the bakers for some loaves of bread and at the grocers for mineral water, juice and coke. When the shopping was over we came home and, while my husband arranged and decorated the yard for the party, it was supposed to be a garden party, you know, I cooked and baked a birthday cake and made sandwiches. By the time my sons guests arrived everything was ready. All the guests brought presents and my son was anxious to open the parcels and admire the presents. They talked, listened music, danced, played, ate and drank. One of the boys told funny jokes and they laughed a lot. They enjoyed themselves and had a good time together.

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When I brought the birthday cake in with all the candles lit, my son didnt find it difficult to blow them all out at one go. Everybody sang Happy birthday, to you Florin and wished him Many happy returns of the day. I dont know how some people feel, but to me, as to all Christians, Christmas and Easter are the most important holidays of a year. Christmas is the day when Jesus Christs birth is celebrated. Not many people know that the name of this holiday comes from the words Christs Mass, a religious service that honours our Saviour, and the custom of giving presents to the beloved ones has its origin in the fact that the Magi brought presents to the baby Christ. We spent last Christmas (Xmas for short) in England at some friends. On Christmas Eve (the evening before Christmas 24th December) children decorated a tall fir tree, the Christmas tree, and they hung their special stockings by the fireplace. We sang carols, special songs that tell about Christs birth. Santa Claus, dressed in red clothes came, in a sleigh drawn by reindeer and brought the children toys and sweets. In the morning we said to our friends We wish you a Merry Christmas and they answered The same to you or We wish you the same. On Xmas day there was a traditional dinner. Roast beef, turkey and plum pudding are the customary dishes of an English Christmas day. On December 31st, at midnight, when the New Year began, we wished one another A happy new year. A greater holiday than Christmas is Easter. The Bible teaches us that on a Friday, called Good Friday, our Saviour died on the cross, to redeem our sins. According to the Christian religion the following Sunday, the Redeemer resurrected. People of the same religion celebrate Christs Resurrection on Easter Day. They eat traditional Easter food, painted eggs and lamb that symbolises Jesus and wear new clothes.

GRAMMAR FOCUS THE SIMPLE PAST The simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the infinitive: FULL INFINITIVE to work to play PAST TENSE worked played

Verbs ending in e add only -d: The negative of the regular and irregular verbs is formed with: did not/didnt + bare infinitive. The interrogative of the regular and irregular verbs is formed with: did + subject + bare infinitive. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Did I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they (not) work? Didnt I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they work?

I, you, he, she, it, we, I, you, he, she, it, you, they worked we, you, they did not/didnt work

Irregular verbs vary considerably in their simple past forms and past participle forms:
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AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, I, you, he, she, it, they wrote we, you, they did not / didnt write

INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Did I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they (not) write? Didnt I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they write?

Past Tense Simple is used: with actions completed in the past that are not related to the present but can be associated with a certain past moment expressed by an adverb or adverb phrase: yesterday, last night/ week, month, year, a few minutes ago, once, once upon a time, the other day, or with periods of time now terminated: in childhood, in youth, in 1999 etc.: I received a letter from a friend of mine the other day. when the time is asked about: When did he arrive? When did you graduate? with today, this week, this month, this year if the period of time defined by these is terminated: He gave two interviews this week. We all worked very much today. in conditional sentences, type 2: If I had money I should travel abroad. If I were in your place/ If I were you, I wouldnt do that. He would lend you the money if you asked him.

1. Read the following paragraphs in the Past Tense Simple and make changes where necessary. Use the list of irregular verbs at the end of the course: 1. This happens every morning. We wake up at seven oclock I wash and shave while my wife cooks breakfast. 2. We eat in the kitchen. I feed the cat and the dog until my wife gets ready. 3. Our nieces and nephews learn English as a foreign language. A woman teacher teaches them twice a week. 4. My children love parties. 5. They give a party every two months. 6. They have a lot of fun when they meet their friends, they tell jokes and laugh, they dance and sing. 7. Some of them drink and smoke too much and this is annoying. 8. This blind man has a stick. 9. He walks with its help. 10. He cannot see. 11. He asks a passer-by the way to the hospital. 12. The passer- by explains him how to get there and the poor man thanks him heartily. 13. The typist types the reports. 14. The typewriter lies on the desk in front of her. 15. The porters load and unload the luggage every day.

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15. TRAVELLING BY AIR. AT THE AIRPORT Lets Talk!


How can people travel from one place to another? What do you understand by means of transport? What are the means of transport people use in our century? Which is the fastest means of transport? Have you ever flown by plane? Do you travel a lot? Do you allow delays due to weather or vehicle maintenance make you angry or upset? A person who travels a lot says she has learned the following things during her journeys: dont take more than you need and you probably dont need as much as you think you do; remember you have to carry everything you take; check the weather where you are going; allow time for making errors; carry your family with you (in pictures and prayers); seek to be faithful not successful; pray and ask others to pray for your safe travel and faithful service; remember to breathe .Comment on these. What is the Romanian for customs? But for custom? Have you ever gone through customs? What happened there, or what do you know it usually happens?

READING. Read the text and pay attention to the use of tenses.

Travelling by air is one of the fastest means of transport but it also has the reputation of being dangerous or unpleasant if you happen to have airsick. It is also the most expensive form of transport. Last January when we had the chance to visit London, we travelled back home by plane. Heathrow, Londons main airport, handles more international flights than any other airport in the world so, when we arrived there, crowds of people were teeming to and fro, coming from different places or leaving in all directions inside the country or abroad. There were hundreds of passengers who were waiting for their passports to be checked by the customs officers; other inspectors were checking, weighing and putting labels on the passengers luggage. Labels are pasted on suitcases so that they could be found easier, you know. The customs officers were especially looking for prohibited items on large quantities, or for commercial goods, which fall under customs restriction. We saw an old lady who was arguing with an inspector over some valuable things. She hadnt known that she had to pay duty on them, so she was rather puzzled as she was short of money. It seemed she had spent all she had had and there wasnt enough money left. Some young people were standing at the inquiry office, speaking to a woman who was giving them information about a planes departure time, which seemed to be much delayed because of the foggy and rainy weather. Their conversation was rather difficult as the travellers knowledge of English was poor. There were also porters inside the airport who were carrying suitcases and boxes but some young men were managing their luggage by themselves using some trolleys. It was such a crowd as there were many English people who were seeing their friends off or others who were waiting and welcoming friends or relatives. In the waiting hall the passengers were sitting on chairs or armchairs, reading, talking or merrily watching the airfields through the windows. We could see planes that were landing or taking off and we even could watch the pilots and stewardesses who were getting on or off the aircrafts.

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When the customs formalities were over we kissed our friends good bye and promised to write and then a special bus took us to the jet. We got on, made ourselves comfortable, fastened our seatbelts and, at the exact time we took off. We had a lovely flight home.

GRAMMAR FOCUS PAST CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, he, she, it was writing I, he, she, it was not Was I, he, she, it (not) writing? /wasnt writing Was I, he, she, it (not)/ wasnt I, he, she, it writing? You, we, they were You, we, they, were Were you, we, they (not) writing not/werent writing writing?/ Werent you, we, they writing? Paste Tense Continuous, that renders the Romanian Imperfect, is formed according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + to be (in the past) + verb + ing Negative: subject + to be (in the past) + not + verb + ing Interrogative: to be (in the past) + subject + verb + ing It is used to express: an ongoing action at some point in the past that can be indicated by: - one of the adverb phrases: at ...oclock, at that time, this time yesterday,/ last week,/ last month, etc. This time last week we were travelling abroad. - another action: We were still arguing when the manager arrived. gradual development (when used without a time expression ): It was getting colder. parallel past actions: He was talking to his wife while she was cooking. Paste Tense Continuous is also used in descriptions: "The detective was driving through town. It was raining. The wind was blowing hard. Nobody was walking in the streets. Suddenly, he saw the killer in a telephone box..." AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

1. Combine these pairs using while: a) Model: It was raining. I went out. I went out while it was raining. 1. The young man was skiing. He had an accident. 2. He was lying in the snow. He felt a pain in the ankle. 3. He was crying loudly. A group of tourist came. 4. He was lying there. He saw them.
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5. Porters were carrying luggage. The customs officers checked the passports. 6. I was looking the other way. Someone hit my shoulder. b) Model: Robert heard Julia. She was laughing. Robert heard Julia laughing. 1. The man saw the mistress of the house. She was standing on the terrace. 2. He heard her. She was talking feebly. 3. He smelt something. The stable was burning. 4. We heard the woman. She was shouting. 5. We noticed the burglar. He was stealing her purse. 6. I watched a couple. They were dancing. c) Model: She left. She did not pay. She left without paying. 1. She came in. She did not knock. 2. She left the office. She did not apologise. 3. She sat down. She did not ask for permission. 4. He walked several miles. He did not stop. 5. He spoke for ten minutes. He did not pause. 6. I lay in bed for two hours. I did not fall asleep.

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16. TRAVELLING BY LAND. AT THE RAILWAY STATION Lets Talk!


Do you often travel by train? Do you travel by train because you like it or because you have no other means of transport available? Where in the world have they the most efficient rail transport? What do you think about rail transport in Romania? Compare it to that of Japan or France. READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the phrases in bold: People who choose to use slow, fast or express trains from the various means of transport they have at their disposal must go to the railway station. A railway station is a full of life place with platforms where passengers and goods trains come in or leave from. Look! A train has just arrived on platform 1. Many people have got off the train and many others are getting on it at the moment. Some porters have already taken the new comers luggage and have carried them out of the station to the bus, trolley or taxi stations. Those people who have already got on the trains have taken their seats in smoker or non-smoker compartments, but there are also some latecomers who hurry to catch their trains. Have they found vacant seats? Some have but some have not. This is a through train with a Diesel locomotive, several first class or second class passenger carriages, a luggage van, a restaurant car (dining-car) and even some sleeping cars as this is a long distance train not a local train. The guard has waved his flag and has already blown his whistle. The train is off. The persons standing on the platform near the carriages are friends or relatives who have come to see someone dear off. They have kissed one another good-bye and now, as the engine has started and the train is moving away, they are waving good-bye. Now, as our train has disappeared in the distance, lets look round the railway station. We can see a left luggage office there, on the left side of the platform, where passengers have deposited their suitcases, bags, rucksacks. At the moment some are waiting to withdraw their luggage. The booking office is a little further and many travellers are standing in queues to buy single or return tickets for their journeys. Those who have bought their tickets beforehand, and who travel light are now comfortably sitting in armchairs in the waiting room over there, on the right. Their train is due out later and they while their time away reading the magazines or newspapers they have bought at the bookstall, or booklets about various resorts of the country they have found at hand on the little tables. Others are in the refreshment room eating their meal. Oh, dear! Look at that man who is running along the platform 2. He is desperate. Unfortunately he has missed his train. Now he is looking at the time table. Poor him!

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GRAMMAR FOCUS PAST PARTICIPLE The past participle of regular verbs has exactly the same forms as the simple past, it is formed by adding -ed to the infinitive. Changes in spelling after -ed is added: Verbs ending in e drop it: dictate drop dictated dropped One-syllable verbs ending in a consonant preceded by a vowel, double the final consonant: Two or three syllable verbs ending in consonant preceded by a vowel double the final consonant if the stress falls on the last syllable: prefer travel play preferred travelled played Verbs ending in -l double it, irrespective of the stress: In verbs ending in -y preceded by a vowel , -y stays unchanged:

Verbs ending in -y preceded by a consonant change it in -i before adding -ed. In irregular verbs the past participle varies:

be have go

been had gone

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, you, we, they have I, you, we, they have Have I, you, we, they (not) written? /Havent I, you, we, they written not written written? he, she, it he, she, it has not Has he, she, it (not) written?/Hasnt he, she, it has written written written? The Present Perfect is formed with the present tense of have + past participle according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + have (present) + past participle Negative: subject + have (present) + not + past participle Interrogative: have ( present) + subject + past participle We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. One cannot use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived abroad, at that
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AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

moment, that day, one day, etc. We can use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc. I have seen that movie twenty times. I think I have met him once before. Have you read the book yet? Nobody has ever climbed that mountain. The Present Perfect is used to: describe our experience. We can also use this tense to say that we have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is not used to describe a specific event. My daughter has studied two foreign languages. I have never been to France. talk about changes that have happened over a period of time. You have grown since the last time I saw you. The government has become more interested in education. My English has really improved since I moved to England. list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time. Man has walked on the Moon. Our son has learned how to read. Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. Scientists have split the atom. say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen. James has not finished his homework yet. Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate. talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible. The army has attacked that city five times. I have had five tests so far this semester. talk about actions recently completed: The boss has just gone out. The meeting has just finished. talk about recent actions when the time is not mentioned: They have met several times. I have attended all the courses. talk about recent actions that have results in the present: We have visited Paris. talk about actions which occur further back in the past, provided the connexion with the present is still maintained: She has typed most of this authors works. Time Expressions with Present Perfect When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important. Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, today, this morning/afternoon/ evening/week/month/year, so far, up to now, etc. Have you been abroad in the last year? I have seen that movie six times in the last month. They have had three tests in the last week. She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
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My car has broken down three times this week. REMENBER! Last year and in the last year are very different in meaning. Last year means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. In the last year means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect. NOTE! The present perfect can be used with this morning only up to one oclock, because after that the period defined by this morning becomes a completed period and past tense must be used. Similarly, the period of time defined by this afternoon ends at five oclock. To render a past action in interrogatives introduced by when or in sentenced where just now occurs, we use Past Tense Simple. Has the manager arrived? When did he arrive? He arrived just now.

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UNIT 6
17. A BUSY WORKING DAY In this unit you will:
- Speak about: (1) city traffic; (2) shops and shopping; - Practise grammar issues: present perfect tense continuous; the future tense simple; the adverb; the future continuous.

READING. Read the following text and mind the use of the present perfect tense continuous: My friend works as a chief accountant in one of subsidiaries of the German-Romanian Bank and he is just the man for his job that fits him like a glove. He is a conscientious, hard working employee, very appreciated by his employers and superiors. He gave an interview and was employed several months ago when the subsidiary in his town was opened and he has been working there ever since. Some of the clerks on the staff havent been working at that bank since the beginning; they are newcomers but they have quickly got acquainted with the working conditions. Now, lets follow my friend along his whole working day! He has got up, done his morning exercises, and hes been in the bathroom for a few minutes. He had turned on the cold water tap, as he is going to take a shower. He enjoys having cold showers in the summer mornings and now he has already been having his morning shower for a while. He has just shaved, brushed his teeth, combed his hair and hes putting on his clothes at this very moment. His wife has been preparing breakfast in the kitchen since she has woken up. They are sitting down at table. Its a quarter to eight now and they have been eating breakfast for ten minutes. My friend is in his car now. They live on the outskirts of the town and theres a rather long way to his office. He has been driving for twenty minutes. The traffic is heavy in the morning and there are traffic jams as everybody wants to get somewhere, busy with their current affairs. Our character has finally reached his place of work after a long drive. Piles of business letters and documents were on his desk, waiting for an answer or signature, and my friend has been dictating the necessary answers to the secretary for an hour. Now its almost noon and the secretary has been typing for some time. Meanwhile my friend wrote some reports; for a while he has been verifying some balance sheets, charts of account and statements of account. He has to take all the papers to the manager to have them signed. Because the manager isnt in his office, he has been attending a meeting with some foreign businesspeople since morning, my friend had to leave the papers with the managers secretary. Its two oclock now and my friend has been discussing for half an hour with some clients who want to open a bank account with the bank. My friend has given them all the details they have asked for, and they have made arrangements together. The tiring working day is over. Although he has been working hard so far, my friend is not tired. One never gets tired of what he loves to do.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, you, we, they have been I, you, we, they have not Have I, you, we, they (not) been writing been writing? writing He, she, it has been writing He, she, it has not been Has he, she, it (not) been writing? writing Present Perfect Continuous is formed by the present perfect of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + have (present) + been + verb + ing Negative: subject + have (present) + not + been + verb + ing Interrogative: have (present) + subject + been + verb + ing We use the Present Perfect Continuous for: an action that started in the past and has continued till present: They have been talking for the last hour. She has been working at that company for three years. What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? James has been teaching at the university since June. We have been waiting here for over two hours! Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days? an action that started in the past and ended a little before the moment of speaking: He has been reading the reports so far. The maid has been cleaning the house all day long. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

1. Complete the following sentences with the Present Perfect Simple or Continuous of the verbs you will find in the second part of each sentence in bold letters: I this pen for several years but Im not using it any more. a student in Mathematics for about three years, and he still is. My nephew the Browns for ages and I think I know them well. I in the same block of flats for fifteen years but they are not living in My cousins the same block any more. 5. The postman that old bicycle since he was young and he still rides it every day. that old car of her parents for four years but she is not driving it any 6. My niece more. the same secondary school for two years and they are still 7. Our grandchildren attending the same school. 8. The old plumber hard for nearly fifty years and he still works hard. 9. The Board of Directors the Article of Association for several hours and they are still analysing it. large amounts of money, and they still earn a lot. 10. The employees 1. 2. 3. 4.

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18. CITY TRAFFIC Lets Talk!


About urban means of transport. What can you say about city transport? Name some means of transport. Which do you consider the fastest? What other synonyms do you know for tube? Is there such a means of transport in your town? Have you ever travelled by tube? Did you feel comfortable? What do you call the part of the day when traffic is very heavy? And what is the opposite of this? About driving skills. Can you drive? Are you a good driver? What do you mean by being a good driver? Have you ever been in the position of avoiding a car accident just because you were driving carefully?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the words and phrases in bold and then give answers to the following questions according to the pattern: Model: When are you going to paint the house? Ill have to paint it next summer. 1. When are you going to type the report? 2. When are you going to refurbish these old offices? 3. When is he going to mend the fax? 4. When is the plumber going to mend the pipes? 5. When are they going to hand the cheque in? 6. When is the government going to make the economic decisions on a daily basis? 7. When are they going to deliver the merchandise? 8. When are they going to contact your counterparts about the latest figures concerning the supplies? When are you going to elaborate the principles of setting up the new corporation? Traffic is awfully heavy in big cities because cars, busses, lorries, vans, taxies and trolley buses run wildly along the straight thoroughfares, boulevards or winding main streets during the morning and afternoon rush hours, when thousands of people hurry home or are busy with daily tasks. Traffic jams will always be a problem in big cities. Distances are long and those who do not drive the pedestrians will have to walk fast along the crowded pavements and will have to wait at the zebra crossings or on islands near the bus, tram or trolley bus stops. They may also use the tube or underground if theres one in the city. At the big crossroads one will find subways for pedestrians and along the wide or narrow streets one will notice lampposts, road- signs and traffic lights at the corners. When the red traffic light is switched on the vehicles will drive and the pedestrians will wait for the vehicles to cross. Those who are late will be impatient for the moment when they will be allowed to cross safely. In all European countries traffic keeps on the right but if someone visits England he will notice that vehicles drive on the left side of the roads. Driving is a pleasant, useful but serious matter; it can be also dangerous and a car will always be your enemy if you dont handle it properly and carefully. There have been too many car accidents lately, too many deaths and too many people injured. On one hand, drivers are to be blamed especially those who exceed the speed limits and disobey the traffic rules without any consideration for the others, drivers who think they are safe at the steering wheel even when they have drunk. On the other hand the pedestrians are to be blamed too; they step off the pavement carelessly, without looking to the left or right.
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I think I shall never be able to pass a driving test and obtain a driving licence so, Ill always get on the bus or tram. Ill pay my fare for the ticket to the conductor and, if I find a vacant seat, Ill sit down and patiently look out of the window; if not, Ill hold on a strap to keep from falling; when my stop comes Ill get off the bus or tram safe and sound, thanks God. So I shant have to take care not to hit or run over careless pedestrians, I shant have to read all those terrible traffic signs, and I shant have to deal with those unconscious drivers who think the whole road is theirs.

GRAMMAR FOCUS SIMPLE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, we (Ill, Well) shall I, We shall not (shant) write Shall I, we (not) write? Shant I, we write? write You, he, she, it, they You, he, she, it, they will write Will you, he, she, it, they (not) You, he, she, it, they wont write? will write Wont you, he, she, it write? write. The Future Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliaries shall (for the first person singular and plural) and will for the second and third persons singular and plural + bare infinitive of the main verb according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + shall/will + verb in bare infinitive Negative: subject + shall/will + not + verb in bare infinitive Interrogative: shall/will + subject + verb in bare infinitive The Future Tense Simple is used to express: an action that will happen in future; to specify the future moment when the action takes place the adverbs or adverbial phrases are used: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next/ week, month, year, soon, in a months time, in three weeks time etc. REMEMBER! Will often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is the one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Quite often, we use will to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help, or we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. The use of will not or won't shows we refuse to voluntarily do something. I will send you the information when I get it. I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it. Will you help me move this heavy table? Will you make dinner? I will not do your homework for you. I won't do all the housework myself! Shall used in the second and third person carries the idea of promise: He shall come. You shall receive a present. Shall with the meaning (trebuie) s...is used in requests for orders or advice, offers, suggestions: Where shall we put this? Which one shall I take? Shall I fetch you a glass of water? Shall I open the window? In American English will is used for all persons. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

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FUTURE NEVER OCCURS IN: Conditional sentences; instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.

Youll miss the train if you get up late. I shant pass the exam unless I learn. NOTE: Unless has negative meaning (dac nu) and is always followed by a verb in the affirmative. Time Clauses: like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future: - Simple Present is used if the actions in the two sentences are simultaneous: Well discuss this matter when I come. - Present Perfect is used if the action in the subordinate clause is prior to that in the main clause: Ill go to the cinema after I have finished my homework.

THE ADVERB Classification of Adverbs: Adverbs of time: before, now, then, after, today, tonight, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, yesterday, the day before yesterday, late, lately, lastly etc.; Adverbs of frequency: ever, never, often, seldom, rarely, occasionally, usually, sometimes, always, daily, weekly, once, twice, ten times etc.; Adverbs of place: here, there, outside, inside, near, far, everywhere, upstairs, downstairs, nowhere, southward (nspre sud), northward(s) (nspre nord), eastward(s) (nspre est), westwards (nspre vest), (on the) east of (la est de), (on the) north of (la nord de) etc.; Adverbs of manner: slowly, rapidly, carefully, fluently, badly, beautifully, quickly, well, fast etc.; Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjective: distinct rapid day week Spelling changes after -ly: Final e is retained before -ly: entire extreme EXCEPTIONS: true due whole truly duly wholly entirely extremely distinctly rapidly daily weekly

if adjectives end in -l the adverb will have -ll by adding -ly: beautiful beautifully

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adjectives ending in ll drop onel before -ly: full The ending -y changes to -i before -ly: happy fully

happily

NOTE: The words friendly, likely, lonely, lovely are adjectives not adverbs. When used as adverbs they are rendered by the following adverbs or adverbial phrases: in a friendly way, in a lovely way, probably, alone.

1. Put the verbs into the correct tense: the shall or will future or the be going to future: (deliver) a new lecture next week. 1. The professor 2. Dont make noise, you (wake) everybody up. (tidy up) the house. 3. Were staying at home tomorrow. I (rain)! 4. Look! The sky is overcast with black clouds. It (buy) some new clothes. 5. Hes going shopping tomorrow. He 6. Theres a good play on at the theatre tonight. You (see) it? 7. Oh, dear! I have forgotten my purse and I have no money on me. Dont worry! I (lend) you some money. 8. I have no idea when the new investor arrives in town but I think he (come) the day after tomorrow. (be) more diligent this semester. She (to be) 9. The teacher hopes the students more severe with them. (spell) all the unknown words for the new typist? 10. She 2. Find expressions in column B which satisfactorily complete those in column A. Translate the sentences into Romanian: A We had to I shall have to They only have to Do we have to You will have to He had to Did you have to We shall have to When do we have to They didnt have to B improve your hand writing push his car into the garage give up our passports on landing? leave your names and addresses? be at the airport? get my hair cut have their houses redecorated insure our luggage leave until we see him again report once a week

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19. SHOPS AND SHOPPING. WHERE DO YOU SHOP? Lets Talk!


About shopping. Are you fond of going shopping? Where do you like to shop? Are there any famous shopping areas in your town? Do you prefer shopping alone or you enjoy being accompanied? About shopping areas. What do you like to buy: food, clothes, footwear, cosmetics, things for the house, books and magazines? Name the departments where you can buy different things. About payments. How can customers pay for the goods they buy? How do you pay for your purchases and bills? READING. Read the following text and tell: - what one can buy at the: butchers, bakers, grocers, greengrocers, newsagents, stationers, chemists, florists, tobacconists, haberdashers. - what services can one be offered at the: dyers, dry cleaners, tailors, watchmakers, photographers, hairdressers, barbers, dentists. There are shops where we buy things to eat and others where we buy things to wear or things we use in every day life. The tailor, for instance, makes clothes to measure for men and the dressmaker makes clothes for women. The hatter sells gentlemans hats and the milliner makes and sells hats for ladies. The draper sells stockings, socks, underwear while the shoemaker makes and sells shoes, sandals, boots and a cobbler repairs them. The bookseller sells books (novels, science- fiction books, detective stories or short stories, thrillers, poetry books, autobiographies, essay books, memoirs), dictionaries, magazines; the tobacconist sells tobacco, cigarettes and cigars, the stationer sells copy books, exercise books, notebooks, pens, fountain pens, pencils, coloured pencils, ink, writing paper, stamps, envelopes, postcards, the chemist (or the pharmaceutical chemist) sells not only medicines (or drugs) but also cosmetics and toilet supplies. Nowadays people prefer doing their shopping at the big self- service supermarkets or department stores which are always well supplied or well stocked and where goods are visibly displayed at hand in different departments and counters, rather than wander from one shop to another which, after all, proved to be a waste of time. A self- service system offers lots of advantages: customers can find in one and the same store a wide range of goods which are ready-weighed, ready-packed, ready-bottled and pricemarked so that they can examine and select them, they can pay at the same cash- desk. All these make shopping faster, easier and customers save their precious time. As for me shopping is my hobby and pastime at the same time. Whether I have something to buy or not I love wandering alone through all the shops, rather early in the morning, right after 10 oclock when they open. I love the large, beautifully decorated shop windows, which display all sorts of goods and invite you in. Ive made up my mind for tomorrow. As I have some spare time and theres no food supplies in the larder- I like it well stocked, you know, and weve run out of foodstuff- I shall be going shopping tomorrow morning at about a quarter to eleven. The shoppingarea, which is in the centre of the town, isnt too far away from the house so Ill be walking to the biggest supermarket in our town and Ill be calling at all sorts of shops on my way: the boot-store, the drapers, the haberdashers, the stationers, the chemists, at those shops that sell furniture, electrical appliances, knitwear, fabrics, chinaware and glassware, carpets. As soon as I reach the four- storied supermarket I shall be visiting all the counters. The first one where Ill be going to will be the ready-made clothes where they display light or dark coloured blouses, skirts, dresses,
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coats and overcoats. They are all of an exceptionally good quality and Ill be looking for a skirt for winter. Then Ill be trying a pair of low heeled, leather shoes at the footwear department and, at the leatherwear department, Ill be looking for a pair of gloves. Finally Ill shop at the food department. Lets begin at the dry groceries counter where one can buy: flour, maize flour, rice, semolina, castor sugar, lump sugar, powder sugar, oil, corn flakes, oat flakes, noodles, vermicelli, macaroni, spices, vinegar, ready- ground coffee, instant coffee, instant soup, but Ill only be buying two kilos of castor sugar, one kilo of rice, coffee, tea, a pack of noodles, half a kilo of semolina, some instant soup and flour. The bakers counter sells loaves of white or brown bread, rolls, buns, crescents, cheese pies, apple pies, meat pies, but I only need two loaves of sliced white bread and some cheese pie from here. The next counter will be the dairy one. Oh, what a variety of goods they are displaying: butter, margarine, cream, whipped cream, yoghurt, cheese, pressed cheese, bottled milk, sour milk, powder milk. Ill buy from each of these dairy products which we enjoy very much as they are healthy. As I need some meat Ill call at the butchers. The counters that sell meat and poultry are well supplied, too. They sell beef, pork, mutton, lamb, duck, goose, turkey, chicken and even game here, but Ill only take some veal and poultry. I shant buy fruit and vegetables at the greengrocery department but Ill stop at the market on my way home because I love walking among the rows of counters where piles of tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers, cabbages, French beans, eggplants, onions, garlic, apricots, peaches, nuts, melons, water melons and oranges are displayed and one can chose anything he or she wants. After all these shopping all the money will be gone and the shopping bags full so, Ill be taking a taxi to come back home tomorrow about noon...

GRAMMAR FOCUS FUTURE CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, we shall be writing I, we shall not be Shall I, we (not) be writing? writing You, he, she, it, they will be You, he, she, it, they Will you, she, he, it, they (not) be writing? writing will not be writing Future Continuous is formed with the future simple of to be + the present participle according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + shall/will + be + present participle Negative: subject + shall/will +not + be + present participle Interrogative: shall/will + subject + be + present participle Future Continuous is used to express: an action in progress at a particular moment in the future. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. The progressive character of the action will be expressed by adverbs or adverb phrases: at...oclock, then, by that/ the time, this time tomorrow/ next week/ next month/, from...to (de la ...la), all the week/ month/ year through. This time tomorrow I shall be shopping. What will you be doing at eight oclock tonight? an action that will take place for a certain period of time in future: I shall be teaching tomorrow between 9 and 12 oclock. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

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1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Tense Simple or Continuous: 1. He (draw up) a report all day tomorrow and then the secretary (type) it the day after tomorrow. 2. He (read out) the report at the meeting next week. 3. The man thinks that this time next month he (sit) in the chairmans chair. 4. When we arrive probably the kids (sleep) and a bright fire (burn) in the fireplace. 5. The maid (serve) us dinner in half an hour. 6. Some friends are coming to see us tonight. 7. We (drink) champagne and (toast) for my husbands successful business. 8. I (wear) my smart new silk dress. 9. The professor (deliver) a new interesting lecture on English literature next semester. 10. What you (do) tomorrow at about noon? 11. You (meet) those new foreign partners? 12. You (have lunch) with them in town? 13. I (see) the sales manager at the market opening the day after tomorrow and we (discuss) the problem. 14. My nephew and nice (stay) with their grandparents for the summer holidays. 15. Their parents (fly) to Paris in two weeks now. 16. We (not hear) from them for a while. 17. The new investor (take the floor) tomorrow about this time. 18. The delegates of the political party (gather) for their regular conference next month. 19. The chairman (preside) tomorrows meeting. 20. He (provide) the required explanations. 21. The secretary (take) the minutes this time tomorrow.

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UNIT 7
20. FOOD. MEALS IN ENGLAND Lets Talk!
About eating habits. Are you a greedy person? What do Romanians usually have for breakfast? What do you have for breakfast? What is your favourite dish? Do you eat at home or in town? Do you cook? What is the difference between dessert and desert? Give the pronunciation of the two words, translate them, and make sentences with them. Comment the proverb: Butter is gold in the morning, silver at noon and lead at night. READING. Read the following text and tell: - What is the most substantial meal of the day in England? What do the English usually have for breakfast? What does a continental breakfast consist of? A friend of mine who visited England last summer told me he had never imagined that he would be ever beaten by an English breakfast. Between you and me, my friend is such a greedy fellow, and he is always as hungry as a wolf, that I didnt believe him. Nevertheless it seems it really happened. The story goes like this. When my friend arrived in Brighton, he checked in at a small inn, in the neighbourhood of which his best friends, that had invited them to England, had their residence. He had politely declined the invitation to stay in his friends house during his visit, as he didnt want to trouble them too much and be a nuisance. However, he accepted their invitation to spend most of the time together and have meals together. So, the very first morning after his arrival, on a Sunday morning, my friend went to his friends place to have breakfast together and go for a ride afterwards. They sat down at the large table in the kitchen and started to eat while the housewife was still preparing some food on the stove, in one corner. The two children of the host and hostess started with some cornflakes with milk or cream and castor sugar or salt, while the husband started with a plateful of porridge. To be polite, my friend, who was not at all familiar with this particular dish, asked for some porridge too and, although he did not enjoy it very much, he emptied the plate, hungry as he was, you know. As he didnt know what the hostess had in store for him, he felt at ease when he saw the second course coming. This was a rather substantial one: a large helping of sausages and scrambled eggs for the two men, and bacon and poached eggs for the children. The lady of the house had some fried herrings. Afterwards slices of bread and toast butter and orange marmalade and a huge pot of milk and coffee, to wash the meal down, appeared on the table. My friend was already amazed and dumb with surprise at this enormous quantity of food, and he had to struggle hard to eat everything he had been given. After such a meal it was a torture for him to go sightseeing. As I was very interested in finding out further information about meals in Britain, and as my friend was in the position to inform me, I listened to him giving all the details about the subject. He told me that lunch- which is usually served at one oclock consists of two courses: a plain, simplecooked dish and a sweet or pudding. The first course is some meat (beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, chicken, duck, game) or poultry and some vegetables (potatoes, carrots, peas, French beans, cabbage, cauliflower or spinach) usually boiled or roast to go with. Usually ale is drunk with the first course. Puddings, which are of various types are the second course, but sometimes apple tarts, cheese and biscuits, stewed fruit or fresh fruit like apples, pears, apricots, peaches, grapes, oranges are preferred. Coffee, black or white, is served to end lunch with.

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As it is already known all over the world, English drink a lot of tea so five oclock tea is considered the third meal of the day. It is served between four and five. A pot of tea, a jug of milk and a basin with castor or lump sugar, cups and saucers, thin slices of bread and butter, chocolate cakes, strawberry jam and cream are all brought in, on a tray. The English gather all at home in the evening so dinner is the most substantial meal of the day, served at about seven oclock. Dinner begins with tomato-soup for example and is followed by fish or a joint of meat with vegetables and rice. The dessert is the last to come. As the most substantial meal of the day, dinner is sometimes served in the middle of the day, instead of lunch and in this case, a light supper is served in the evening. This is generally the case with country people and some people in town. So, some English people have breakfast, dinner, tea, supper while others have breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS PAST PERFECT SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they I, you, he, she, it, Had I, you, he, she, it, we, you, we, you they had they (not) written? had written not written Past Perfect Simple (translated with the Romanian mai mult ca perfect) is formed with had + past participle according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + had + past participle Negative: subject + had + not + past participle Interrogative: had + subject + past participle Past Perfect Simple is used to express: a past action completed before another past action: They had settled all the problems when the manager arrived. a past action completed before another moment in the past: The committee had read the report by noon. with for, since, till, until, by the time, when for an action which began in the past was still continuing at that time or stopped at that time or just before it: He had left for America for a few months when the Second World War began. We had just taken our seats when the performance began. in indirect speech and sequence of tenses instead of Present Perfect or Past Tense when there is a past tense in the main clause: I have finished all the housework, mother said. Mother said she had finished all the housework. I worked hard, she added. Mother added that she had worked hard. in conditional clauses type 3: He would have helped them if they had asked him. NOTE the use of Past Perfect after hardly, scarcely, no sooner: THE FIRST SENTENCE HARDLY + had + subject + verb in past participle SCARCELY + had + subject + verb in the past participle NO SOONER + had + subject + verb in the past participle THE SECOND SENTENCE + WHEN + verb in the Past Tense + WHEN + verb in the Past Tense + THAN + verb in the Past Tense AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

Hardly had I entered the door when some guests arrived. Scarcely had the surgeon taken a nap when they called him back at the hospital again. No sooner had they switched on the gas than the stove exploded.

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PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, you, he, she, it, we, you, I, you, he, she, it we, Had I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they had been writing you, they had not they (not) been writing? been writing Past Perfect Continuous is formed with had been + present participle according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + had + been + verb + ing Negative: subject + had +not + been + verb + ing Interrogative: had + subject + been + verb + ing Past Perfect Continuous is used to express: a past action in progress up to a certain past moment: They had been arguing for several hours when the headmistress suddenly declared the meeting closed. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

l. Read the following sentences in the Past Perfect Simple. Make all the necessary changes: 1. He keeps a very large house. 2. He has a cat and a dog as pets. 3. The cats feet are always dirty. 4. It comes in and jumps on the table. 5. He feeds his pets daily. 6. The dog constantly steals the cats food. 7. He kicks the dog and the dog barks. 8. It bites his masters leg. 9. The master shouts but his girl friend laughs. 10. The grocer owns a small shop. 11. We buy groceries at the grocers and meat at the butchers. 13. The baker cuts a loaf in thin slices. 14. He gives the slices to some poor children. 15. He cuts himself. It hurts. 16. Commerce is a human activity. 17. Endless delays and hindrances occur in all stages of commerce. 18. Goods move from the seller to the buyer. 19. Goods are usually produced far from the place of consumption. 20. Manufacturers produce merchandise in large quantities.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT 1 INTRODUCING ONESELF AND GREETING PEOPLE GRAMMAR. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES. THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF THE VERB TO BE. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS - I. THE NUMERAL I. 2. LOCATIONS AND DIRECTIONS. WHAT IS THIS? WHAT ARE THOSE? GRAMMAR. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. THE ZERO ARTICLE. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS. THERE IS, THERE ARE CONSTRUCTIONS. 3. EXPRESSING POSSESION. I HAVE GOT MY DICTIONARY. WHOSE IS THIS? GRAMMAR THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF TO HAVE. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. UNIT 2 4. DESCRIBING THINGS, PEOPLE. WHAT ARE THINGS MADE OF? WHAT ARE THEY LIKE? GRAMMAR THE PLURAL OF NOUNS II. 5. RELATIVES. ALL ABOUT MY FAMILY GRAMMAR PLACE OF QUALIFYING ADJECTIVE. THE GENITIVE CASE. 6. DAILY ACTIVITIES. WHAT I USUALLY DO EVERY DAY GRAMMAR SIMPLE PRESENT. REFLEXIVE AND EMPHASISING PRONOUNS. UNIT 3 7. WORK, PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, TRADES. WHATS YOUR PROFESSION GRAMMAR. COMPOUNDS OF SOME, ANY, NO. 8. EXPRESSING TIME. WHAT TIME IS IT? WHATS THE TIME GRAMMAR THE CARDINAL NUMERAL. 9. EXPRESSING DATE. WHAT DATE IS IT? GRAMMAR THE ORDINAL NUMERAL. UNIT 4 10. THINGS YOU CAN, MUST AND MAY DO GRAMMAR
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MODAL VERBS. PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE. THE IMPERATIVE MODE. 11. LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND SKILLS GRAMMAR THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 12. WHAT ARE THEY DOING? GRAMMAR PRESENT CONTINUOUS. GOING TO FUTURE. UNIT 5 13. SEASONS AND WEATHER. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST? GRAMMAR PAST TENSE OF TO BE, TO HAVE, CAN. ADJECTIVE. IRREGULAR COMPARISON. 14. HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS GRAMMAR PAST TENSE SIMPLE. 15. TRAVELLING BY AIR. AT THE AIRPORT GRAMMAR. PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS. 16. TRAVELLING BY LAND. AT THE RAILWAY STATION GRAMMAR PAST PARTICIPLE. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE.

UNIT 6 17. A BUSY WORKING DAY GRAMMAR PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS. 18. CITY TRAFFIC GRAMMAR FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE. THE ADVERB. 19. SHOPS AND SHOPPING. WHERE DO YOU SHOP? GRAMMAR FUTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS. UNIT 7 20. FOOD. MEALS IN ENGLAND GRAMMAR PAST PERFECT SIMPLE. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
*** Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. 2008. Cambridge University Press. *** Dicionar englez-romn, 1974/2006, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei. *** Dictionary of Contemporary English. 1995. Longman Group Ltd. *** Dictionary of Idioms. 1998, London, Cobuild, Collins *** Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. 1995. Birmingham, Collins Cobuild. Gleanu-Frnoag, G., 1979. Exerciii de gramatic englez. Bucureti, Ed. Albatros. Gleanu-Frnoag, G., E. Comiel. 1992. Gramatica limbii engleze. Bucureti, Ed. Albatros. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana. D. Leca. 1988. English Conversation Topics. Bucuresti, Tipografia Universitii Bucuresti. Hewings, Martin. 1999. Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press. Hollinger, A. 2002. Test your business English vocabulary, Bucureti, Teora. Misztal, M. 1998. Test Your Vocabulary. Bucureti, Editura Teora. Popp, M., 2003. Engleza pentru nceptori, Bucureti, Editura Niculescu. Thomson, A.J., A.V. Martinet. 1977. A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press. Turcu Fulvia, Nstsescu, Violeta. 1991. Limba englez pentru ntreprinztori i oamni de afaceri, vol I-II, Iai, Sagittarius. Turcu, F. 1991. Engleza de afaceri n economia de pia. Bucureti, Editura Uranus. Vol. 1,2

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