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ICHCA

International Ltd

INTERNATIONAL SAFETY PANEL SAFETY BRIEFING PAMPHLET SERIES #28

Safe Slinging
BY TOM SIMS

ICHCA INTERNATIONAL PREMIUM MEMBERS:

ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

ICHCA INTERNATIONAL LIMITED is an independent, non-political international membership organisation and is dedicated to the promotion of safety and efficiency in the handling and movement of goods by all modes and during all phases of both the national and international supply chains. Originally established in 1952 and incorporated in 2002, it operates through a series of Local, National and Regional Chapters, Panels, Working Groups and Correspondence Groups and represents the cargo handling world at various international organisations, including the International Maritime Organization (IMO), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), International Labour Organization (ILO) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). Its members included ports, terminals, transport companies and other groups associated with cargo handling and coordination. Members of ICHCA International Panels represent a substantial cross-section of senior experts and professionals from all sectors of the cargo transport industry globally. Members benefit from consulting services and informative publications dealing with technical matters, best practice advice and cargo handling news. For more information on ICHCA International and its services please visit/contact ICHCA International Limited Suite 2, 85 Western Road, Romford, Essex, RM1 3LS United Kingdom Tel: Fax: Email: Website: +44 (0) 1708 735295 +44 (0) 1708 735225 info@ichca.com. www.ichca.com.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

The International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet series consists of the following pamphlets: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7 No. 8 No. 9 No. 10 No. 11 No. 12 No. 13 No. 14 No. 15 No. 16 No. 17 No. 18 No. 19 No. 20 No. 21 No. 22 No. 23 No. 24 No. 25 No. 26 No. 27 No. 29 No. 30 International Labour Office (ILO) Convention No. 152 Occupational Safety and Health in Dockwork (revised) Ships Lifting Plant (revised) The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code (revised)) Classification Societies (revised) Container Terminal Safety (under revision) Guidance on the Preparation of Emergency Plans (revised) Safe Cleaning of Freight Containers (revised) Safe Working on Container Ships Safe Use of Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBCs) (revised) Safe Working at Ro-Ro Terminals The International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) (under revision) Safety Audit System for Ports The Loading and Unloading of Solid Bulk Cargoes (under revision) The Role of the Independent Marine Surveyor in Assisting Claims Handling Substance Abuse Safe Use of Textile Slings Shore Ramps and Walkways (under revision) Port State Control Safe Handling of Interlocked Flats (under revision) Unseen Dangers in Containers Stow it right Suspension Trauma The Safe Handling of Forest Products Safe use of Road Vehicle Twistlocks An Illustrated Guide to Container Type and Size Codes The Safe Handling of Dangerous Bulk Liquids and Gases at the Ship/Shore Interface Safe Working with Pallets Safe Handling of Logs from Water in BC Safe Handling of Tank Containers (joint publication with ITCO)

The International Safety Panel Research Paper series consists of the following research papers: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7 No. 8 No. 9 No. 10 No. 11 No. 12 No. 13 No. 14 Semi-Automatic Twistlocks Fumes in Ships Holds (revised) Health & Safety Assessments in Ports (revised) Container Top Safety, Lashing and Other Related Matters (under revision) Port & Terminal Accident Statistics (revised) Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials in Ports and Harbour Areas (revised)) Ship Design Considerations for Stevedore Safety (revised) Safe Walkways in Port & Terminal Areas Personal Protective Equipment & Clothing Back Pain Lifting Persons at Work for Cargo Handling Purposes in the Port Industry Whole Body Vibration Lifting of Containers by Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes Lashing of Deck Containers
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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

No. 15

Terminal Operations in High Winds

The International Safety Panel Technical/Operational Advice series consists of the following: No. 1 No. 1A No. 2 Vertical Tandem Lifting of Freight Containers Vertical Tandem Lifting Operations Checklist Container Vessels Safety aspects of Lashing on Deck 40 and 45 containers with particular regard to horizontal lashings

Plasticised Pocket Cards IIL/1 IIL/2 IIL/3 Dangerous Goods by Sea Documentation Dangerous Goods by Sea: The IMDG Code Labels, Placards, Marks and Signs Confined Spaces on Board Dry Cargo Ships

General Series No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 Guidelines to Shipping Packaged Dangerous Goods by Sea Advice to Consignors and Shippers Fire Fighting in Ports and on Ships WindStorm (joint publication with TT Club)

Other titles in many of the series are in preparation


This publication is one of a series developed by the International Safety Panel ("Safety Panel") of ICHCA International Limited ("ICHCA"). The series is designed to inform those involved in the cargo-handling field of various practical health and safety issues. ICHCA aims to encourage port safety, the reduction of accidents in port work and the protection of port workers' health. ICHCA prepares its publications according to the information available at the time of publication. This publication does not constitute professional advice nor is it an exhaustive summary of the information available on the subject matter to which the publication refers. The publication should always be read in conjunction with the relevant national and international legislation and any applicable regulations, standards and codes of practice. Every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information but neither ICHCA nor any member of the Safety Panel is responsible for any loss, damage, costs or expenses incurred (whether or not in negligence) arising from reliance on or interpretation of the publication. The comments set out in this publication are not necessarily the views of ICHCA or any member of the Safety Panel All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied without ICHCA's prior written permission. For information, contact ICHCA's registered office.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

ICHCA International Limited - INTERNATIONAL SAFETY PANEL


The International Safety Panel is composed of safety and training officers and directors, transport consultants, representatives from leading safety and training organisations, enforcement agencies, trade unions, insurance interests, institutions and leading authorities on the subject area from around the world.

Mike Compton (Chairman), Circlechief AP, UK John Alexander, UK Meir Amar, Port of Ashdod, ISRAEL Paul Auston, Checkmate UK Limited, UK David Avery, Firefly Limited, UK Peter Bamford, CANADA Christian Blauert, HHLA, GERMANY Jan Boermans, DP World, THE NETHERLANDS Mike Bohlman, Horizon Lines, USA (Deputy Chairman) Roy Boneham, UK Bill Brassington, UK Jim Chubb, BMT Marine & Offshore Surveys Ltd (incorporating BMT Murray Fenton Limited) UK Gary Danback, IICL, USA Rob Dieda, SSA, USA Trevor Dixon, WNTI, UK Steve Durham, Trinity House, UK Patricia Esquival, OPCSA, SPAIN Margaret Fitzgerald, IRELAND Pamela Fry, DP World, CANADA Kirsty Goodwin, SAMSA, SOUTH AFRICA Fabian Guerra, Fabian Guerra Associates, EQUADOR Harri Halme, Min. of Social Affairs & Health, Dept for Occupational Health & Safety, FINLAND Geoff Holden, LEEA, UK Laurence Jones, TT Club, UK Peter van der Kluit, THE NETHERLANDS Fer van de Laar, IAPH, THE NETHERLANDS Larry Liberatore, OSHA, USA Catherine Linley, AUSTRALIA Shimon Lior, Israel Ports, Development and Assets, ISRAEL Richard Marks, Royal Haskoning, UK Joachim Meifort, Hamburger Hafen-u Lagerhaus A-G, GERMANY Marios Meletiou, ILO, SWITZERLAND John Miller, Mersey Docks & Harbour Company, UK Al le Monnier, ILWU, CANADA Greg Murphy, Patrick Stevedoring. AUSTRALIA Pedro J. Roman Nunez, Puertos del Estado, SPAIN Nic Paines, Gordon, Giles & Coy Ltd, UK Mick Payze, AUSTRALIA Irfan Rahim, IMO, UK Risto Repo, Accident Investigation Bureau of Finland, FINLAND Pierre-Yves Reynaud, Port of Le Havre, FRANCE

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

Raymond van Rooyan, SAPO, SOUTH AFRICA Ron Signorino, The Blueoceana Company, Inc., USA Tom Sims, UK Matt Smurr, Maersk Inc, USA Armin Steinhoff, Behrde fr Arbeit, Hamburg, GERMANY Peregrine Storrs-Fox, TT Club, UK Bala Subramaniam, INDIA Mark Sultana, Malta Freeport Terminals Ltd, MALTA Markus Theuerholz, German Lashing. GERMANY Hubert Vanleenhove, BELGIUM Rachael White, PEMA, UK Evert Wijdeveld, Environmental & Safety Affairs, Deltalinqs, THE NETHERLANDS (Deputy Chairman) Bill Williams, Maersk Inc. USA Dave Wilson, Hutchison Ports (UK) Limited, UK Beat Zwygart, LASSTEC, FRANCE OBSERVERS: Capt. Jim McNamara, National Cargo Bureau, Inc., USA Charles Visconti, International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc., USA CORRESPONDING/ASSOCIATED MEMBERS: Paul Ho, HIT, HONG KONG Richard Day, Transport Canada, CANADA Samuel Ng, Maritime Department, HONG KONG The above lists those persons who were members of the Panel when the pamphlet was published. However, membership does change and a list of current members can always be obtained from the ICHCA International Secretariat.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Tom Sims Master mariner Marine Consultant Served at sea for 11 years with Prince Line on world wide general cargo trades starting as an Apprentice in 1949 and going through to Chief Officer. Came ashore and joined the London stevedoring company of Smith Coggins as Superintendent handling break bulk cargoes, small parcels of editable oils, Ro-Ro and container services. Latterly in charge of all lifting and mechanical equipment for the Group in London and Tilbury. Became Stevedoring Equipment Co-ordinator for Coubro & Scrutton, designers, manufacturers and suppliers of all types of lifting equipment, container securing equipment, container lifting frames and advice & methodology on all lifting systems. Qualified by the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association in General Lifting Gear and Ships Cargo Gear. Consultant advising on Marine Lifting and Securing Equipment , lecturing on Ships Derricks, Marine and Industrial Slinging, edited chapters 4&5 of ILO Code of Practice Health and Safety in Ports 2005.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Regulations. 3. Slinging Materials. Chains Slings. Fibre Slings. Wire Rope Slings. Pre-slung Cargo

PAGE 1 1 2 2 3 4 5. 5 5 6 7 9 11 11 11 12 12 13 17

4. Slinging Equipment. Shackles. Eyebolts. Hooks. Spreaders and Lifting Beams.

5. The Principles of Slinging. Safe Slinging Sling Angles. Mode Factors Centre of Gravity

6. Slinging Examples. Bibliography

ISBN: 978-1- 85330-012-7 First published: May 2009

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

SAFE SLINGING
1. 1.1 Introduction This Briefing Pamphlet will deal with the slinging of Break Bulk cargo with loose gear defined as any gear by means of which a load can be attached to a lifting appliance. The knowledge and practice of which may be slowly dying with the advent of modern unit load and container methods used in many major ports. It will deal with the regulations for the manufacture, testing, thorough examination, inspection and recording of the relative information. The materials used and methods of its manufacture and criteria for discard while it is being used will be discussed. The Principles of Slinging, Centre of Gravity, Sling Angles, Mode Factors and S.W.Ls will be shown and a selection of slinging methods and specialised gear will be explained. Regulations. In accordance with ILO Convention 152 1979 and ILO Safety and Health in Ports 2005 all loose gear should be: 2.2 of good design and construction, of adequate strength for its intended use and free from patent defect; made to recognized international or national standard; maintained in good repair and working order; tested and thoroughly examined by a competent person before being taken into use; thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every 12 months; inspected regularly before use; clearly marked with its S.W.L. and an alphanumeric identification mark.

1.2

2. 2.1

All loose gear should have: a Certificate of Test and Thorough Examination before being placed in service and; a Certificate of Thorough Examination issued in the last 12 months or at shorter intervals prescribed by the competent authority or administration.

2.3

The authenticated records (certificates) for the tests, thorough examinations and inspections should be kept in a form prescribed by the competent authority, account being taken of the models recommended by the International Labour Office. A record of an inspection need only be kept if there is a defect to disclose. These documents should be kept for 5 years. All testing should be carried out in accordance with Appendix D of the ILO Code of Practice Health and Safety in Ports 2005. A Competent Person should have such appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the loose gear to be thoroughly examined as will enable them to detect defects 1 ICHCA International Limited

2.4 2.5

ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging or weaknesses and to assess their importance in relation to the safety and continued use of the loose gear. 3. Slinging Materials

3.1. Where steel is used for a component of loose gear it should be marked in accordance with the following table: Quality Grade Mark M S T (Grade 4) (Grade 6) (Grade 8) (Grade 100) 3.2 Grade of steel Higher Tensile Alloy Alloy Alloy Mean Stress (N/mm) 400 600 800 1000

Chain slings are usually made from Grade M, S, T or Grade 100 steel

3.2.1 Grade M and S slings usually have welded component connections 3.2.2 Grade T and 100 slings usually have mechanical component connections 3.2.2.1 Grade T chains can be susceptible to HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT, where acid and/or sulphur is present in the atmosphere, as a critical loss strength may occur 3.2.3 Chain slings can be terminated with rings, hooks or shackles and fitted with shortening clutches 3.2.4 The factor of safety applicable to chain slings is usually 4:1 3.2.5 In-service Inspection chain slings should be discarded if any of the following is found: wear (8% in links, rings or connectors), distortion, cracking, discolouration due to heat or other damage to any part of the sling; Illegible markings.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

3.3. Fibre rope slings are manufactured usually from polyester but may be of polyamide (nylon), polypropylene or natural fibre. 3.4 Flat webbing slings manufactured from polyester are 50mm to 300mm wide with flat eyes which may be reduced in width by folding.

3.4.1 The eyes may have a protective sleeve fitted. 3.4.2 The slings can be colour coded for SWL. 3.4.3 They can be manufactured double thickness and endless. 3.4.4 The factor of safety applicable to flat webbing slings is a minimum of 5:1. 3.5 Three-strand fibre rope slings are manufactured from natural or synthetic fibres with a spliced eye at each end.

3.5.1. For natural fibre ropes the minimum number of tucks against the lay should be 3. 3.5.2. For synthetic ropes the minimum number of tucks against the lay should be 4. 3.5.3. The factor of safety applicable to three strand fibre rope slings is usually 8:1 but with a minimum of 6:1. 3.6 In-service inspection

3.6.1 Flat Webbing Slings should be discarded if any of the following is found: 3 ICHCA International Limited

ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging Damaged, chaffed, cut webbing or loose stitching; Heat Damage (including friction); Chemical damage; Solar degradation; Illegible markings

3.6.2 Three Strand Fibre Rope slings should be discarded if any of the following are found: 3.7 Chaffed rope Damaged or incorrect splices; Heat damage; Chemical damage; Solar degradation Illegible markings.

Wire Rope Slings.

3.7.1 Wire rope slings are manufactured from Grade 180 wire with a tensile strength of 1770 N/mm. 3.7.2 Wire rope slings are constructed from 6X19 or 6X36 or 8X36 wire rope with either fibre or wire core. 3.7.3 Wire rope slings are usually terminated with soft eyes each end made with compressed metal ferrules or hand splices. 3.7.4 They may be made endless. 3.7.5 All hand splices must be made with all tucks against the lay. 3.7.6 Wire rope slings can be terminated with hooks, rings or shackles. 3.7.7 When either alloy metal ferrules or fibre core rope is used the temperature should not exceed 100C. 3.7.8 The factor of safety applicable to wire rope slings is 5:1. 3.7.9 In-service inspection wire rope slings should be discarded if any of the following is found: 5% of outer wires are broken in a length of 10 diameters; Broken wires are closely grouped or are adjacent to a termination; 4 ICHCA International Limited

ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging There is movement in terminations; Illegible markings.

3.7.10 Bolted Clamps (bulldog grips) should not normally be used for lifting as they require frequent adjustment with a torque wrench which is difficult outside workshop conditions. 3.8 Pre-slung Slings should always have a certificate before being taken into use onboard ship (either individual or batch).

3.8.1 If reusable should have a certificate of thorough examination in the previous 12 Months 3.8.2 If one trip should be destroyed after use. 3.8.3 A careful inspection should be carried out before and during the discharge to make sure no chafing has taken place during the voyage. 3.8.4 The factor of safety applicable to pre-slung slings is a minimum of 5:1; 4. 4.1 4.2 Slinging Equipment. All these items are manufactured from Grade M, S, T, 100 steel or Mild Steel. Shackles.

4.2.1 Shackles are manufactured from grade M and grade T material. 4.2.2 Shackles manufactured as a DEE are to be used for straight pull use. 4.2.3 Shackles manufactured as a BOW are to be used for angled lifting with two slings in bow 4.2.4 Shackles are usually manufactured with a screw collar pin but may have nut and bolt pin for use in permanent positions. 4.2.4.1 The pin is always a larger diameter in Lifting Shackles than the body. 4.2.5 Size for size Grade T shackles are twice as strong as grade M shackles. 4.2.6 Great care must be exercised in the selection of shackles to ensure that matching S.W.Ls are found.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging Shackle Comparison Chart Grade M (HT) (1/2) (1) (2) 1t. 4.5t. 19t.

Size 13mm. 25mm. 50mm.

Grade T (Alloy) 2t. 8.5t 35t

4.2.7 In-service Inspection Shackles should be discarded if any of the following is found: Wear (8% in crown or pin), distorted, bent or corroded body or pin, Damaged threads, Incorrect pin, Illegible markings.

4.3. Eyebolts are usually manufactured with grade M steel but may be grade T. 4.3.1 Dynamo eyebolts should only be used for vertical lifting. 4.3.2 Collar may be used for slight angled lifting. 4.3.3 Eyebolts with links should be used for angled lifting.

Dynamo

Collar

With Link

Load that can be lifted by two 1t. eyebolts at various sling angles from the vertical.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging Vertical TYPE COLLAR 2t. >0 15 SWL 1.3t. >16 30 0.8t. >31 45 0.5t. ___

LINK 2t. 2.0t. 1.6t. 1.25t. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4.3.4 In-service inspection Eyebolts should be discarded if any of the following is found; 4.4 Hooks Wear 8% in eye, Damaged threads, Distortion, corrosion or cracks, Illegible markings.

4.4.1 Hooks are manufactured from grade S, T and 100 steel and always drop forge

4.4.2 The hooks shown above are designed to have a means of preventing the sling from becoming inadvertently displaced. 4.4.3.1 This does not mean that they all must have a safety catch. 7

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

4.4.3.2 Self locking safety hooks also meet these requirements.

4.4.4 Do not crowd hooks. 4.4.5 Do use shackles to separate the slings and ease the hook.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging 4.4.6 A hook can be moused as a temporary measure where there is a missing safety catch. 4.4.7 In-service Inspection Hooks should be discarded if any of the following is found: 4.5 Wear (8% in eye or bow of hook or 10% in opening of Jaw), Distorted, bent or corroded body, Missing safety catch, Illegible markings.

Spreaders and Lifting Beams.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging 4.5.1 Spreaders and lifting beams are usually manufactured from mild steel with wire rope and chain attachments. 4.5.2 Lifting beams have the load passing through the structure of the beam. 4.5.3 Spreaders have the load passing through the structure on wire, chain or webbing. 4.5.4 All structures are subject to design calculations although they are not necessarily built to specific or published standards. 4.5.5 All loose equipment, being part of a lifting beam or spreader, should be stored with the beam and not used for other purposes. 4.5.6 The tare weight should be marked if it is a significant part of the load. 4.5.7 In-service Inspection Spreaders and lifting beams should be discarded if any of the following is found: A beam is distorted or corroded, The soundness of welds is questionable, Bolts insecure or locking devices not in place, Attachment points and eyes worn, Illegible markings,

The full use of lifting beams and spreaders.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging 5. The Principles of Slinging.

5.1. The fundamental principle of slinging must be to ensure that the load is safe and when slung, is as secure in the air as it was on the ground. 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 The slinging method should be suitable for the type of load to be lifted having adequate means of attachment to both the load and lifting appliance. The weight of the load should not exceed the S.W.L. of the slinging gear and the capacity of the lifting appliance. The load must not damage or be damaged by the slinging gear. The following principles and methods of slinging should be adhered to regardless of the type of lifting appliance used. Safe Slinging.

5.6.1 The following principles apply: know or find the weight of the load, select the correct sling, fit the sling correctly to the load paying particular attention to the loads transverse and longitudinal centres of gravity, make a trial lift, set the load down using bearers, release the slings carefully beware of snagging the load, return gear to its designated storage location. (gear room / gear store etc).

5.7

Sling Angles.

5.7.1 Single leg slings have a SWL for a vertical lift. When the sling is no longer vertical its lifting capacity is reduced by a variable amount depending on its angle from the vertical.

NOTE: Sling angle a measured from the vertical ( angle b", the internal angle between slings, not now preferred)

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

5.7.2

Mode Factors

5.7.2.1 The Mode Factors above (0.8, 1.0, 1.4, 2,0 and 2.1) are shown with the sling either vertical or at an angle of 45 to the vertical and this is the usual way this information is shown on chain, fibre and wire rope slings. 5.7.2.2 To use these mode factors, the marked SWL of the single sling is multiplied by the mode factor of the configuration to be used at angles between 0 and 45. This will give the permissible mass that can be lifted. 5.7.2.3 This is known as the Uniform Method and can be shown as follows: UNIFORM LOAD METHOD Single Leg Sling = 1.0 X SWL of single leg. Two Leg Sling = 1.4 X SWL of single leg. Three and Four Leg Sling = 2.1 X SWL of single leg. 5.8 Centre of Gravity. 5.8.1 Very careful consideration has to be given to the position of the Centre of Gravity of a load. This has to be considered longitudinally or transversely or both. 5.8.2 The sling lengths may have to be adjusted so that the C. of G. is under the hook with the load level. 5.8.3 When this adjustment is carried out, the load on each leg and its angle to the vertical may be different and will require calculating. 12 ICHCA International Limited

ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging 5.8.4 This calculation may be carried out with the Trigonometric Load Method and using slings of different size legs for the lift. 5.8.5 Where the load is rectangular rather than square and equally rated slings are used it should it should only be necessary to consider the worst plane with the largest angle between the legs; TRIGONOMETRIC LOAD METHOD Single Leg Sling = 1 X SWL of single leg X Cos a Two Leg Sling = 2 X SWL of single leg X Cos a Three and Four Leg Sling = 3 X SWL of single leg X Cos a Where a is the angle from the vertical. 5.8.6 The load should always be balanced;

Recommended

Not recommended

6.

Slinging Examples.

Single vertical lift showing a dynamo eyebolt for vertical lift only

Four leg sling hooked onto lugs showing that hooks should always be from the inside out.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

Single choke hitch with sling hook on log. Easy to use but might slip.

Two single legs with hooks on lugs with shackles. Hooks facing outward and shackles in the right plane and free to move.

Single double wrapped choke. The preferred method.

Two basket hitch slings double wrapped round the load. The preferred slinging method. Mode factors to be applied in two planes.

Two basket hitch slings from Ramshorn hook with sling protection on sharp edges. Mode factor to be applied in two planes.

Basket hitch through heavy tube with sling protected at ends

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

Specialist lift of naval figurehead on concrete base where the position of the C of G in both the vertical and horizontal planes would have to be taken into account.

Lifting yacht from the water with flat webbing slings and spreaders. Slings are being held in place with tricing lines (yellow webbing in lower right of picture). These should always be used if there is any chance of the slings slipping.

Scissor grabs being used to lift paper reels.

Pallet crane forks with sliding lifting lug to adjust C of G and adjustable forks to suit pallet size. If the pallet is loaded with loose goods a net should be used to secure them.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

Special lifting beam for lifting long flexible loads.

Tag Line being used to steady a large lift in the air which could be affected by wind.

Heavy lift with specialised lifting gear. The Flying Scotsman. 94 tonnes. Note purpose built chassis lifting hooks in left hand picture.

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ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging

BIBLIOGRAPHY ILO Convention No 32 - 1932 ILO Convention No 152 - 1979 ILO Safety and Health in Ports Code of Practice 2005 - Chapter 4 Lifting Appliances and Loose Gear Chapter 5 Safe use of Lifting Appliances and Loose Gear. Obtainable from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. ***** ISO 1140:2004. ISO 1141:2004 ISO 1161:1984 ISO 1181:2004 ISO 1834:1999 ISO 1835:1980 ISO 1837:2003 ISO 1968:2004 ISO 2262:1984 ISO 2307:2005 ISO 2308:1972 ISO 2408:2004 ISO 2415:2004 ISO 3056:1986 ISO 3075:1980 ISO 3076:1984 ISO 3189-1:1985 ISO 3189-2:1985 ISO 3266:1984 Fibre ropes Polyamide Fibre ropes Polyester Series 1 Freight Containers Corner Fittings Specification. Fibre ropes Manila and sisal Short link chain for lifting purposes Short link chain for lifting purposes Grade M (4) Lifting hooks Fibre ropes and cordage General purpose thimbles for use with steel wire rope Fibre ropes Certain physical and mechanical properties Hooks for lifting freight containers of up to 30 tonnes capacity Steel wire ropes for general purposes Forged shackles for general lifting purposes Non-calibrated round steel link lifting chain and chain slings Short link chain for lifting purposes Grade S (6) Short link chain for lifting purposes Grade T (8) Sockets for wire ropes for general purposes Part 1 Sockets for wire ropes for general purposes Part 2 Eyebolts for general lifting purposes 17 ICHCA International Limited

ICHCA International Safety Panel Briefing Pamphlet #28 Safe Slinging ISO/FDIS 3266 ISO 4345:1988 ISO 4778:1981 ISO 4779:1986 ISO 7531:1987 ISO 7593:1986 ISO 7597:1987 ISO 8539:1986 ISO/DIS 8539 ISO 8792:1986 ISO 8793:1986 ISO 8794:1986 ISO 9554:2005 ISO 16798:2004 ISO 17558:2006 Forged steel eyebolts grade 4 for general lifting purposes Steel wire ropes Fibre main cores Chain slings of welded construction Grades M (4), S (6) & T (8) Forged steel lifting hooks with point and eye for use with steel chains of grade M (4) Wire rope slings for general purposes Chain sling assembled by methods other than welding Grade T (8) Forged steel lifting hooks with point and eye for use with steel chains of grade T (8) Forged steel lifting components for use with grade T (8) chain Forged steel components for lifting slings Grade 8 Wire rope slings Safety criteria and inspection procedures Steel wire ropes Ferrule-secured eye terminations Steel wire ropes Spliced eye terminations for slings Fibre ropes General specifications Links of Grade 8 for use with slings Steel wire ropes Socketing producers

Obtainable from: International Organization for Standardization, 1 rue de Varembe, Caisse Postale, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. ***** National and Regional Standards should always be consulted in addition to the foregoing.

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