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DRAFT Hattaway 6/16/06

Whole Wheat Dinner Rolls/Sandwich Loaves

Prep Time: About 3 hours 40 minutes (includes mixing and raising the dough) Start/Sponge Ferment Time: 1-24 hours Baking Time: about 20 or 50 minutes Makes: two dozen rolls or two loaves

Total Ingredients: 4 cups plus cup and cup freshly milled hard white wheat flour 1 cups water 2 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon granulated fructose 1 teaspoons active dry yeast cup non-fat dry milk 7 tablespoons canola margarine 2 teaspoons coarse salt 1 cup ice Equipment: Two 8 by 4 loaf pans or two 8 square pans lightly greased with canola spray oil Baking stone or half baking sheet Cast iron skillet or extra baking pan 3 quart mixing bowl Raising container Nylon basting brush Cooling rack Plastic wrap Masking tape What To Do: Make the Sponge

Dry mix 2 cups flour, 2 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon fructose, and teaspoon yeast. Stir in 1 cups water to the consistency of waffle batter. Do not over mix or worry about some unmixed clumps of flour at this stage. Scrape down the sides of the bowl and cover with plastic wrap. Dry mix 2 cups flour, cup non-fat dry milk, and teaspoon yeast. Sift the blanket over the sponge and re-cover with plastic wrap. The sponge needs to ferment for at least 1 hour and at most 24 hours. After the first hour, place the bowl in the refrigerator until 1 hour prior to mixing. During the fermentation process, the sponge will push up through the blanket. This is normal. Though an hour of fermentation is necessary, a longer period will improve the flavor of the bread. I usually allow the sponge to ferment overnight or about eight hours.

Make the Blanket Be Patient

Mix the Initial Dough

DRAFT Hattaway 6/16/06 Scrape the sponge and blanket into the mixers bowl. Add 5 tablespoons canola margarine. Mix on low for about 1 minute, until a loose dough forms. Cover and let the dough rest for 20 minutes to allow the flour and water to balance. Allowing the flour to absorb some of the water at this stage will help to prevent us from adding unnecessary flour later in the process. Sprinkle the 2 teaspoons of coarse salt over the dough. Do not forget to add the salt at this point. Knead in the mixer on medium for 7 minutes 30 seconds or until a shiny ball of dough forms. If you are kneading by hand, use a light coat of canola oil to keep the dough from sticking to your hands and work the dough for about 20 minutes. Kneading is a critical step that forms the gluten matrix necessary for a good rise.

Be Patient

Knead the Dough

Preheat the Oven

Place the baking stone on the bottom shelf set in the lowest position in the oven. Place the cast iron skillet under the bottom shelf. If you are using an electric oven, place the cast iron pan on the bottom rack set in the lowest position and set the upper rack as close to the bottom as possible. The oven needs to preheat for at least one hour before baking 350 degrees for bread, 400 degrees for rolls. An hour of preheat insures an adequate heat sink has built up in the baking stone and oven itself. The total time for the next few steps will vary depending on environmental conditions. I generally turn the oven on for preheat around the end of the first rise.

Raise the Dough, Punch Down, Raise

Transfer the dough from the mixer bowl to a lightly oiled raising container. Note the volume of the dough and mark where double will be with a piece of masking tape. When the dough has doubled in volume, use a rubber spatula to ease the dough onto a clean work surface. Gently work the dough into a rough rectangle, one of the long sides facing you. Working in approximate thirds, fold the right side over the center, then the left side over the center and right thirds. Repeat working from the bottom and the top. Apply a second light coating of spray canola oil to the raising container and transfer the dough back. Adjust the doubled tape mark up for the new punched down volume of the dough. Allow the dough to rise to double the volume again.

Form the Dough

DRAFT Hattaway 6/16/06 Transfer the dough onto the work surface. Divide the dough in half and form into rolls or loaves. Rolls divide each dough half into quarters and each quarter into thirds. Form each piece into a ball. Gently supporting the sides of the ball with the finger tips, roll each ball on the work surface to pull surface of the dough taut. Arrange the balls of dough in three rows of four balls in the lightly oiled, 8 baking pan. The balls in each row should touch their neighbors, but there should be space on either side of each of the rows. Loaves use the folded third method for punching down to form each loaf. Use a rocking motion to pull the side and top surfaces of the dough taut. Place the formed loaf in the lightly oiled pan.

Be Patient

Lightly spritz bread loaves with canola spray oil. Rolls do not require a spritz of oil. Cover the baking pans with plastic wrap and allow the dough to rise until doubled. The crest of the dough in a loaf pan should reach 1 over the top of the pan. The rolls should almost reach the top of the baking pan when fully raised. Quickly and gently slide the loaf or roll pan(s) into the oven. Add to 1 cup ice cubes to the cast iron skillet and close the oven door. Rolls bake for 20 minutes at 400. Bread bake for 50 minutes at 350; rotate the pans 180 degrees at 25 minutes.


Glaze, Unmold, and Cool

Remove the loaves or rolls from the oven. Using the basting brush and remaining canola margarine, gently brush the margarine across the tops of the rolls or loaves. Unmold the loaves or rolls right side up onto a cooling rack. Rolls allow to cool for 20 minutes before separating. Loaves best practice is to not slice the bread until barely warm/mostly cool (about 1 hour) in order to prevent crushing/deforming the loaf. However, honey and margarine on bread fresh from the oven occasionally make this difficult to do.