Anda di halaman 1dari 17

Creativity & Innovation

1 Key Learning Aims

This training module is designed to enable Members to: Understand the differences and synergy between creativity and innovation and the criticality of both to adding value and making a difference Understand the value of creativity and creative thinking methods to producing innovative products and services, as well as to the systems that deliver them, and to developing new approaches to problems Understand challenges to creativity Demonstrate ways to develop characteristics of creative thinkers Demonstrate ability to use creative thinking methods


In this module we discuss the importance of creativity and innovation, and the role of creativity in the development of innovative products and services, and the systems that deliver them. In the first part of this module we define the concepts of creativity and innovation, clearly differentiating between the two but highlighting their close linkage within the context of change agent. In the second part of the module we address serious blocks to creativity and to the creative process, by exploring the thinking process, to gain an understanding of the basic operation of the brain as it relates to creativity. In the third part of the module we address how an individual can enhance the creative capability to generate more ideas. Finally, in the fourth part of the module, we introduce the creativity process, a process that can be applied to opportunity identification, opportunity enhancement and problem solving. Included in the creative process is idea generation the step we most closely associate with creativity methods. This module will introduce the principles of creativity and innovation with a focus on the importance of creativity and creative thinking methods to developing innovative products and services, and processes that deliver them, as well as on solving problems within a business context.

The Importance of Creativity

In simple terms: Creativity: Innovation: The generation of novel and useful ides Making money our of creativity

For an established organisation, creativity and innovation are an important source of competitive advantage. For a new venture, however, creativity and innovation are not only a significant, if not the only, source of competitive advantage, but they are key to the very survival of the venture. Most new ventures simply do not have the resources that their competitors have. To compete effectively, then, the new venture must gain a significant competitive advantage over the older and better entrenched competing companies through creativity and innovation coming up with new ideas to solve problems or meet a market need or opportunity, and by implementing these ideas. It is generally believed that some people are naturally creative and innovative, but the rest are able to acquire such behaviour through learning and practice. In the same way, some people have a natural ear for music, whilst others may acquire musical ability over time. Recognising that few people will have all of the necessary skills, including creative thinking, the successful change agent will see the value of developing a team approach, which draws the correct combination of skills and capabilities into his or her network. The change agent should recognise that creative thinking can be learned. To understand why creative thinking methods result more frequently in good ideas, one must understand the many blocks to creativity. Several of these blocks are described in the next section.

Blocks to Creativity

Unfortunately, there are many blocks to the creative process. Several of these obstacles are listed in Figure 2. By understanding these blockages it is possible to develop strategies to overcome them. These strategies involve developing characteristics of creative people, and learning and practising creative thinking techniques. In this section we address the blocks. In a subsequent section, we address overcoming the obstacles. There are many, many obstacles to creativity. For example, time pressures, an overly bureaucratic or rigid company management structure, an unsupportive company culture, etc. However, the most difficult to overcome obstacles seem to be those that are intrinsic to individuals themselves. It is important for the change agent to understand what a serious, adverse impact these blocks can have on the overall success of the business. It is critical that these obstacles be addressed effectively. The first step is to learn more about them.

Figure 2 Blocks to Creativity The Thinking Process Patterning Systems Mind Set The Lack of Playfulness

Let us now perform the first exercise, presented in Figure 3, before we discuss the blocks to creativity that are listed in Figure .2. We conduct the exercise now, but we discuss it later in the module. Figure 3 Exercise 1 Exercise 1: Creativity Method- Part 1 Work in pairs. Take a pen and paper, and write down a particular problem that you may have, ideally one that does not have any trivial solutions. Tear off the strip of paper with the problem on it, fold it up, and hide it somewhere safe. Part 2 of this exercise toward the end of the module The Thinking Process As A Block The thinking process itself may be divided up into two sections first and second stage processes. Edward de Bono (1990) calls them lateral thinking and vertical thinking. The majority of educational systems in the Western world are focused on the second stage process. It is the phase of the thinking process by which problems are solved or a strategy addressing an opportunity is developed. Inputs are identified and acted upon to generate a solution to a problem. Probably the best example of a second stage thinking process is a computer. The programmer identifies inputs, the data that has to be processed, and selects a programme to be run. The programme has already been set to operate in a defined way, using a set of algorithms or equations to crunch the data, to generate a single solution. It is the process of acting upon the data to generate a solution that is second stage thinking. First stage thinking, by comparison, takes place prior to the processing of the data. It is the process of looking at the problem or the opportunity, but not trying to address it directly. It involves looking at the problem or opportunity and the available data from a range of angles, trying to find another way of defining or framing the problem, or viewing the opportunity.

Discussion Point: Think back to GCSE and A Levels: thinking? Which exams, if any, focused on first stage

Figure 4 Example: First and Second Stage Thinking Consider a football tournament, with 673 teams in a simple knock-out format. Each game is played through to a result extra time, then penalties if required. How many games are played through to and including the final? In the example provided in Figure 4, the tendency is to leap into second stage thinking immediately working towards a solution. One starts with the typical newspaper representation of the various rounds of the tournament, with the number of game halving for successive rounds. But with a big, odd number to start with this is difficult. There must be at least one bye, but how many in total? By contrast, a pure first stage thinking approach can massively simplify the problem see the hints given in Figure 5. Figure 5 Example: First & Second Stage Thinking Solution Do not try to solve problem definition: the problem; look at it from different angles, to try and reframe the how many losers are there for each game played? how many losers are there in the entire tournament? so how many games are played?

So, first stage thinking presents a simple solution; if there are N teams in such a tournament, there will be N-1 games played, regardless of the value of N. Too simple? Try the method out for 2 teams, 4 teams, and 8 teams. Just a party trick? No, this major focus on second stage thinking has serious applications within the business environment. Faced with business opportunities or problems, meetings are often convened to find a solution or to define how to address the opportunity. Little, if any, time is spent trying to look at the problem from different angles. Time pressures exist, so the temptation to lunge into second stage thinking is irresistible. Individuals will look at past experience, and invent rules or algorithms based upon this experience to help to find a solution or a path to taking advantage of an opportunity. Unfortunately, this same focus on second stage thinking is used when we attempt to think of new product or service ideas, new delivery processes and other aspects of business models. But we have seen how first stage thinking can dramatically simplify a problem solving or an opportunity-enhancing process. In business there are rarely unique answers to problems, but rather a spectrum of solutions that range from good to bad. Similarly, there are many ways to implement a product or service idea. If dominated by second stage thinking, it is surely unlikely that the best solutions or the best way to get a product or service to the

market will be identified. A little time invested in first stage thinking can transform the process, and introduce a major source of novelty a prerequisite for creativity. As you can see, the thinking process itself, the way it is taught by Western education, presents a major block to creativity. Patterning Systems As A Block The brain is presented with a huge array of information on a continuous basis; every component of the elements that make up our vision contains a vast amount of detail. Simultaneously, the other four senses (sound, smell, taste, touch) are bombarding the brain with an overload of data. If the brain tried to analysis each and every individual data point in real time, it would surely shut down! In order to cope with this, the brain groups the information into patterns, and then operates on these high order data sets rather than on the low order detail. Imagine the brain to be a huge filing cabinet of such patterns, collected painstakingly over the years, and neatly logged, ready to be called upon as required. As data is presented, the brain flicks through the cabinet to find the patterns that it can recognise to see if it has been presented before. Once a pattern is located from the cabinet, the data can be ignored; the object in question has an associated pattern that has been previously logged, and therefore does not require further processing. This simplification process allows the brain to operate at speeds greatly in excess of even the most powerful computers. Figure 6 presents examples. Figure 6 Example: Patterning System Example: Patterning Systems Smells invoke images e.g. freshly baked bread and brewing coffee are linked to homely environment Sounds are recorded as patterns e.g. whole music CDs are linked in the brain, with the end of one tune linked directly to the beginning of the next

Discussion Point: Can you think of any other examples? With such a patterning system in place to simplify data analysis, the brain is freed up to focus on new objects, for which records of patterns have not been filed. For example, the image provided in Figure 7 -- few will have seen this distribution of data before, and the brain will struggle to analyse it. The lack of recognition itself will draw the brains attention, with a good deal of concentration applied to the challenge. The image in the figure, once analysed, is a very clear picture. The solution is provided in Figure 16. Once seen, the solution is obvious. It is impossible to revert to the position prior to identification when one was unable to analyse the pattern. This is the power of the patterning system.

Figure 7: Patterning System Challenging the Brain: What do you see?

Now, whilst the patterning system is an enormous strength in our day-to-day operation, it also represents a significant block to creativity. Such is the strength of the patterning system that the brain will treat a close match from the on-board filing cabinet as a hit. As a consequence, detail from the filing cabinet hit will be transferred to the object, and there will be a tendency to discount any areas of mis-match. For example, if asked to describe the image in Figure 7, most would say that it is a cowboy on a horse. This judgement is derived from the brains analysis that, given the style of hat on the figures head, the figure is likely to be male and a cowboy. Too much analysis. Often such conclusions lead to a misinterpretation of events, and incorrect conclusions being drawn. The brain will perform in the same way in the analysis of business problems, or in the development of business opportunities. It will attempt to identify patterns that have been filed from previous experience. Approximate matches may be found, but there is a tendency to present these as absolute. For example, see if you think any of the following phrases sound familiar: I have seen this problem before This happened last year We met a similar market need in this way . . .

As a consequence, the solutions that are generated, or the paths to taking advantage of an opportunity are heavily influenced by this potential distortion of the facts resulting from a force-fit of patterns. The brain will become blind to alternative interpretations of the same data, and will resist arguments that suggest such an approach. Given that an alternative pattern may indeed exist, and that decisions are made upon the interpretation of such patterns, then a good deal of care is required if creativity is to be nurtured.

Figure 8 Exercise How does the previous analysis of patterning behaviour help to explain the ability a new starter at a company to be creative? Mindset As A Block The previously presented analysis of the brain as a patterning system leads directly into the concept of mindset a term used to describe a very common consequence of patterning. Mindset will effectively blind an individual to an alternative interpretation of the facts, and is thus a substantial block to creativity. The existing paradigm within an organisation will define a pattern, thereby explaining the accepted interpretation of data, observations etc. Further, knowledge of this paradigm will confer a set of rules which define how we do things round here, restricting activity regardless of their relevance to the situation. A simple example from school-days is provided in Figure 9. Nine dots are presented in a simple matrix. With pen on paper, the challenge is to join the nine dots with four straight lines without taking the pen off the paper. Figure 9: Join the dots with four straight lines, without removing the pen from the paper.

The problem (Figure 9) is made difficult because of mind set. The brain communicates the challenge with extra, un-stated, rules, demanding that the four lines are all contained within the nine-dot matrix, or in the box formed by the dots. The task is then impossible. The simple solution to the puzzle in Figure 9 is shown in Figure 17. Discussion Point It is possible to solve the problem with just 3 straight lines. Any ideas? There are a number of solutions with just 1 straight line. Again, any ideas?

The patterning system of the brain effectively locks into a single way of looking at the problem, complete with a set of additional rules and conditions imposed by the brain.

Mind set is visible within managers on a daily basis. Two colleagues will address or view a problem or opportunity in different ways, each suffering from their own mindset. Any disagreement only serves to enhance the extent of the mindset, creating ever-increasing entrenchment.

The Sand Analogy Imagine the brain to be like a pile of fresh sand, poured onto the floor out of a bucket, into a little volcano. Imagine that a jug of water hangs over the volcano. The thinking process is akin to pouring the water onto the sand. The water splashes on the top, and then trickles down the side in little rivulets. The result is a crater on the top of the sand, and a series of rivulets down the side of the pile. This represents a single thought process. Suppose now that the same thought process is revisited to try to solve the problem again. This is equivalent to another jug of water being poured on to the same pile of sand. The water splashes on the top, and then flows down the side. Most of the water will run down the rivulets that have already been formed, cutting them deeper into the sand. The more that the thought process is repeated, the more entrenched becomes the analysis. The brain is then effectively locked into a single way of analysing a problem, or thinking about an opportunity, i.e. mind set is created. Note: in fact, the rivulets are an analogy for the neurons that exist within the brain connections between brain cells, created or developed as the brain is exercised. The challenge is to find ways of unlocking the mind set, to break free, and pour out another pile of sand. The vast majority of creative thinking techniques build upon this idea, pouring out a fresh brain, not allowing mind set to condition the thought process.

Lack of Playfulness As A Block The lack of playfulness is another serious impediment to creativity. There are very few business situations where one calls upon playfulness to help to address a problem or to develop a path for an opportunity. Indeed, rather than playing, the emphasis is typically on concentrating further on the problem or opportunity with an emphasis on second stage thinking, and fast! And yet playfulness is a key to creativity. It is the vehicle through which the imagination can be explored. Barriers exist to such exploration, and playfulness is a key tool in this regard. However, as we mature the concept of play becomes less and less acceptable. Ask the simple question: at what age do children stop playing? Certainly before the age of 16. No one at the age of 17 or 18 who is starting work for the first time would even contemplate playing in the workplace.

To help to sanitise the concept of play in the workplace, consider the concept of the intermediate impossible. This involves holding an idea that may be clearly impossible, but which may be used as a stepping stone to a novel and useful solution. Imagination involves the ability to tolerate things which, in the real world, cannot or do not exist. An example is given in Figure 11. Figure 11: Example: Intermediate Impossible One is initially taught that the square root of 1 does not exist. It is not possible to find any number which then multiplied by itself gives any negative number. However, mathematicians have introduced the idea of imaginary numbers, to assist in the solution of real life problems. This is clearly an example of an intermediate impossible. Mathematicians imagine that the square root of 1 does indeed exist, denoted by the letter i or j, depending upon local convention. Exploration of this concept then allows solutions that were previously impossible to be accessed, or vastly simplifies otherwise complex problems. You will see that this method of intermediate impossible is one of the many creative thinking methods (creativity methods) that can be very effective in problem-solving and opportunity enhancement. More such creative methods are presented in a later section.

Increasing The Ability To Be Creative

Creativity has too often been suppressed through education and through our environments. But the potential for being creative exists in everyone and it can be reawakened and put back into use. There are two primary ways to increase ones ability to generate creative ideas. The first is to develop characteristics of a creative thinker whose characteristics help an individual address the blocks to creativity that were presented in the previous section. The second way to increase ones ability to be creative is to learn creative thinking methods (creative methods), and to practice and apply these methods. Become more creative by: Developing characteristics of a creative thinker Learning creative thinking methods Exercising the creative thinking methods

Creative thinking methods take into account the blocks to creativity and address them specifically by forcing first-stage thinking, by forcing alternative analyses of the same data sets to develop different patterns, and by forcing alternative ways to thinking about the same problem or opportunity. Several of these methods will be presented in the context of the creative process in a subsequent section. There are many suggestions and a large volume of exercises to enhance the characteristics typically associated with creative thinkers. Several Web sites are included at the end of the module as resources for more information about creative thinking as well as exercises.

However, before we address how to develop some of the characteristics of a creative thinker, lets look at what are thought to be these characteristics. The Creative Thinker Volumes of information about the characteristics of creative thinkers and about creative methods for addressing problems and opportunities currently exist on the Web. In this section we present some of the most common characteristics typically associated with creative thinkers. For example, as included in Figure 12, (Waitley 1996) identifies characteristics of creative individuals. Figure 12 Waitley: Creative Individuals Optimistic about the future Highly curious and observant Adventurous with multiple interests Able to project their daydreams into the future Independent thinkers who use their whole brains (which translates innovative ideas into practical solutions) Constructively discontent with the status quo Open to alternatives Able to recognise and break bad habits Unwilling to fall in love with a new invention or idea, since they accept that ideas are expendable and someones bound to come up with an even better one

Source:Waitley, D. (1996) Empires of the Mind New York: William Marrow and Co Inc The characteristics presented in Figure 12 should be studied in light of the blocks or obstacles to creativity to make a judgment on how creative thinkers overcome the obstacles. Discussion Point Why are creative thinkers so good at avoiding the obstacles or knocking them down? Which characteristics do you think they have the help them address the blocks? Zimmerer and Scarborough (1996, pp. 67 68) provide an example of some of the ways creativity and innovation could be encouraged in the workplace: 6 Expect creativity of your employees give them permission to be creative. Expect and tolerate failure. Encourage curiosity. Encourage employees to view problems as challenges. Provide creativity training. Provide support. Reward creativity. Model creativity. The Creative Process

Figure 13 provides a schematic of the divergent and convergent thinking that occurs during the creative process. Divergent thinking involves a free-ranging exploration of the problem or opportunity during which all judgement is suspended. Convergent thinking, by contrast, involves an evaluation of the range of thoughts generated during the divergent process, during which ideas are amended or discarded the ideas to reduce the analysis to a manageable outcome. Both divergent and convergent abilities are required for creative output. Divergent thinking is essential to the novelty or uniqueness of creative products whereas convergent thinking is fundamental to the appropriateness the match, for example, with the need or opportunity being addressed. Figure 13: Divergent and Convergent Thinking in the Creative Process

Step Two Problem or Opportunity as Defined Diverge Converge Problem or Opportunity as Understood Diverge Step Three Idea Generation Converge

Solution Generation

If a change agents project team is performing the creative process together, then the various phases of thinking must be carefully managed, and it is perhaps interesting to note the level of control that is required to nurture the creative process. Rules of engagement must be put in place, and the sessions co-ordinated with effective facilitation. It is common for the phases to be mixed in error. For example, many will have experienced brainstorming sessions, during which some are exploring a whole range of ideas (usually intermediate impossibles) by divergent thinking (an absolute prerequisite of effective brainstorming) whilst others are evaluating and dismissing the ideas, conditioned as they are to second stage thinking. The mix will inhibit the creative process substantially. However, a list of ideas is the targeted outcome of a fundamentally divergent process. In


step two, a number of ideas are generated about what the problem or opportunity really is, then the understanding causes convergence on a best definition of the problem or opportunity, as shown in Figure 15. The convergence phase includes some evaluation processes to reduce the ideas to a limited set in the first stage, to a single best understanding of the problem or opportunity and then in the next stage to a possibly a single, best, solution, or a single best path to take advantage of the opportunity. The initial problem or opportunity as defined is a crude description from an individuals singular perspective. In a team environment, it is important to explore the problem or opportunity from a range of angles (first stage thinking), to challenge assumptions in an effort to clarify the thinking.

The Idea Generation phase shown in Figure 13 is the divergent process of exploring a wide range of possible solutions or alternatives some real, some intermediate impossibles, suspending all judgement prior to the convergent evaluation phase. Idea generation specifically is the step in the creative process most commonly linked to creating thinking techniques. With creative thinking techniques, we attempt to accelerate the creative process by generating many ideas, and selecting among the ideas. If a team performs idea generation, then facilitation must be included. One useful facilitation technique during this phase is to develop and then maintain a creative atmosphere. It may be useful to develop a Creative Charter for this purpose. A draft of such a charter is included in Figure 14. Figure 14: An example of a Creative Charter A Creative Charter We shall collectively work to develop a creative atmosphere. Thou shalt not pass premature judgement upon any suggestions. Thou shalt look positively upon all suggestions, finding the good rather than the bad. We shall all reserve the right to make complete fools of ourselves in a completely safe environment, without the ear of subsequent comeback. We are all completely equal, irrespective of position or function. No-one shall opt-out. We shall have fun. A number of creative methods exist to enable the generation of ideas. We will present a few in this section, but encourage the student to learn more of these valuable methods. We will address the following creative methods:


Brainstorming Synectics Reversal

Brainstorming Brainstorming is the name given to technique used by a team to generate new ideas, given a specific area of interest. A successful brainstorming session lets people be as creative as possible, because there are specific but easy rules that are followed to ensure that the generation of ideas is not restricted in any way. The general brainstorming rules are presented in Figure 15.

Figure 15 Rules for a Brainstorming Session Rules for a Brainstorming Session 1. 2. 3. 4. Generate wild or silly ideas No discussion while ideas are being generated No judgement while ideas are being generated Hitchhiking building on ideas of others is okay

Synectics The term was formally introduced into creative problem solving by William Gordon and is derived from the Greek, meaning the joining together of different and apparently irrelevant objects. Although a number of formal approaches exist, the key elements are the use of some form of apparently unrelated analogy or metaphor to provide an insight into the problem as understood. The exercise demands considerable imagination and a strong belief that some link can be forged between the problem and the metaphor. For example, one may be challenged to link a production process to a piece of pipe. In a real application of this technique, the use of water flow through a pipe-work was then used to identify problems with the flow of work through production. By drawing analogies, it was suggested that the flow of work would be determined by the amount of pressure applied, although some theoretical limit on this flow rate would exist. To increase the flow rate further, the diameter of the pipe should be increased (production capacity increased) or a number of pipes worked in parallel (establish parallel production teams). Should the pressure be reduced, then the flow rate would reduce in parallel i.e. should the management cease to motivate, then the work rate would decline. It is perhaps preferable to use gravity to ensure a steady flow; by analogy, management should target the natural flow of work through selfmotivated teams, rather than the externally applied motivation (by fear?) which is often provided.


As a consequence, the concept of self-managed teams was introduced, and productivity soared. Exercise 1 Part 2: Creativity Method - Synectics Recall your problem on a piece of paper from Figure 3? Now write down a potential solution to this problem, on a separate piece of paper. Again, tear off the strip with the solution, and fold it up. Now exchange solutions with your partner. Read the solution that you have been presented with. The challenge is to force-fit your partners solution to your original problem (hidden somewhere safe). Remember the characteristics of creative thinkers, and the blocks to creativity! Use the process to find a truly novel and useful approach to your problem This is one of many applications of synectics Reversal Whilst attempting to solve a problem, it is easy to become trapped by mind set, conscious of a small set of possible solutions (often useful, seldom novel). However, reversal provides a useful technique to overcome this restricted thinking, considering ways in which a problem could be made worse. A free flow of ideas will typically ensue, all focused on heightening the extent of the problem. If any of these ideas is then taken, and itself reversed, the double reversal relative to the original problem will inevitably shed new light on the situation. The double reversal process ensures that the original mindset is broken, and a fresh approach it taken to solving the problem. To learn about a number of other creative techniques, check out this and other web sites listed at end of this module:

In the convergence stage, we must narrow down the large number of possible solutions to a problem or paths to take advantage of an opportunity to select one idea. Where judgement was suspended in the divergent stage when we needed to generate many ideas, judgement is now used to select the best idea or the seemingly best idea at this stage of the creative process. For problem solving, we generally develop criteria from the objectives and problem constraints before we begin the problem-solving process. We use these criteria to help us select the best solution in convergent thinking from the many possible solutions we developed during the divergent thinking stage. Where quantity was key during the divergent phase, quality is of paramount importance during the selection process.



Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas and to discover new ways of looking at problems and opportunities. Innovation is the ability to apply creative solutions to those problems and opportunities. Creativity and innovation are key success factors for any business, but they are especially critical to a new venture. For an established organization, creativity and innovation are an important source of competitive advantage. For a new venture, however, creativity and innovation are not only a significant, if not the only, source of competitive advantage, but they are key to the very survival of the venture. A number of fundamental blocks to creativity exist, which have a deep-seated origin within the way that our brains mature. It is important for the change agent to understand what a serious, adverse impact these blocks can have on the overall success of the business. By understanding these blockages, it is possible to derive strategies to overcome them, and then to release the creative juices. Creativity has too often been suppressed through education and through our environments. But the potential for being creative exists in everyone and it can be reawakened and put back into use. There are two primary ways to increase ones ability to generate creative ideas. The first is to develop characteristics of a creative thinker, which characteristics help an individual address the blocks to creativity which were presented in the previous section. The second way to increase ones ability to be creative is to learn creative thinking methods (creative methods), and to practice and apply these methods. The entire process of change agent is frequently called the creative process. It is the process of applying creativity and innovation to problems, needs and opportunities in the market. The creative process is a set of activities which include preparing the mind for creative thinking, investigating the problem or the opportunity, transforming the information and knowledge collected about the problem or opportunity into an idea, validating the idea, and implementing the idea.


Solution to the puzzle in Figures 5 & 9

Figure 16: Solution to the puzzle presented in Figure 7

Figure 17: Solution to problem in Figure 9


Useful References

DE BONO, E., 1990, Lateral Thinking for Management, Harmondsworth Middlesex: Penguin Books DE BONO, E., 1992, Serious Creativity, London: Harpe Collins HENRY, J., 1991, Creative Management. London: Sage Publications HENRY, J. and WALKER, D. 1991, (eds) Managing Innovation, London: Sage Publications MORGAN, G, 1980, Paradigms, metaphors and puzzle solving organisation theory Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(4) ROSENFELD, R. and SERVO, J. C., 1990, Chapter 12, In: WEST, M.A. and FARR, J. (eds.) Innovation and Creativity at Work. Chichester: Wiley VAN GUNDY Jr., A, B., 1993 Techniques of Structured Problem Solving. London: Chapman and Hall. ZIMMERER, T. W. and SCARBOROUGH, N. M., 1996 Entrepreneurship and New Venture Formation, London: Prentice-Hall International.