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Basics of Vibration

Vibration theory & analysis

What is Vibration?

Vibration Terms

Time Waveform Analysis

q. re f h hig

overall vibration

tim

e
low

fre

q.

y nc e qu fre

individual vibration signals combine to form a complex time waveform showing overall vibration

complex time waveform

Scale Factors
When comparing overall vibration signals, it is imperative that both signals be measured on the same frequency range and with the same scale factors.

Measurements & Units


Displacement (Distance)
mils or micrometer, mm

Velocity (Speed - Rate of change of displcmt)


in/sec or mm/sec

Acceleration (Rate of change of velocity)


Gs or in/sec2 or mm/sec2

Sensor Relationships
100 Displacement (microns) 10 Acceleration (g's - 9,81m/sec2)

Amplitude (microns, mm/sec, gs

1.0

Velocity (mm/sec)

0.1 1 0.01 10 100 1,000 10,000 Common Machinery Operating Range

Frequency (Hz)

Multi-Parameter Monitoring
Same Data in Velocity and Acceleration Velocity Spectrum
On the same bearing cap, low freq. events (imbalance, misalignment, etc.) show best in the velocity spectrum; while high freq. events (bearing faults, gearmesh) show best in the acceleration spectrum

Acceleration Spectrum

Accelerometers
Rugged Devices Operate in Wide Frequency Range (Near 0 to above 40 kHz) Good High Frequency Response Some Models Suitable For High Temperature Require Additional Electronics
(may be built into the sensor housing)

What is vibration? Complex signal?

FFT Signal Processing

Amplitude
Ti

Amplitude

Amplitude

Fr

eq

n ue

cy

Ti

Narrow Bands with trend


SubH am r o n ic Amplitude 1X 2X B e a r in g B e a r in g G e a rs B e a r in g

1x T re n d o f B a la n c e .3 in /s e c

2x

10x T re n d o f B e a r in g s A la r m T im e (D a y s )

T im e (D a y s )

.1 in /s e c

Alarm Types Narrow Bands


14
Imbalance

A2 - 8.2.4. BPFI Pomp PNV P1/K10 -PNV POMP NIET-KOPP VERTIKAAL Route Spectrum 30-jan-96 15:14:51 OVERALL= 13.52 V-DG RMS = 13.46 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 2987. (49.78 Hz) Fault Limit

12

10 RMS Velocity in mm/Sec

8
Misalignment

0 0 500 1000 1500 Frequency in Hz 2000 2500 Freq: 475.00 Ordr: 9.542 Spec: .06356

Label: BPFI with 1xrPM modulations.

Bearing

Looseness

Overall Vibration
The total vibration energy measured within a specific frequency range.
includes a combination of all vibration signals within measured frequency range does not include vibration signals outside measured frequency range produces a numerical value

Alarm Types Overall Alarm


Look to the global vibration level
12 A2 - 8.2.4. BPFI Pomp PNV P1/K10 -PNV POMP NIET-KOPP VERTIKAAL Route Spectrum 30-jan-96 15:14:51 OVERALL= 13.52 V-DG RMS = 13.46 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 2987. (49.78 Hz) Fault Limit

9 RMS Velocity in mm/Sec

0 0 500 1000 1500 Frequency in Hz 2000 2500 Freq: 1321.9 Ordr: 26.55 Spec: .119

Label: BPFI with 1xrPM modulations.

Analyse of data: Spectra, Waveform and Trends

Vibration
-Imbalance -Misalignment -Looseness -Bearing problems -Belt problems -Gear problems -Lubrification -Electrical problems -Resonance -Sleeve Bearing problems -Other

Vibration analysis
"Of all the parameters that can be measured non intrusively in industry today, the one containing the most information is the vibration signature." Art Crawford Vibration Analysis is the foundation of a predictive maintenance program

SIGNATURE ANALYSIS

Which frequencies exist and what are the relationships to the fundamental exciting frequencies. What are the amplitudes of each peak How do the peaks relate to each other If there are significant peaks, what are their source

Vibration analysis
Unbalance

COUPLE UNBALANCE

1800 out of phase on the same shaft 1X RPM always present and normally dominates Amplitude varies with square of increasing speed Can cause high axial as well as radial amplitudes Balancing requires Correction in two planes at 180o

OVERHUNG ROTOR UNBALANCE

1X RPM present in radial and axial directions Axial readings tend to be in-phase but radial readings might be unsteady Overhung rotors often have both force and couple unbalance each of which may require correction

Diagnosing Unbalance

Vibration frequency equals rotor speed. Vibration predominantly RADIAL in direction. Stable vibration phase measurement. Vibration increases as square of speed. Vibration phase shifts in direct proportion to measurement direction.

900

900

Vibration analysis
Misalignment/Bent shaft

ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT

Characterized by high axial vibration 1800 phase change across the coupling Typically high 1 and 2 times axial vibration Not unusual for 1, 2 or 3X RPM to dominate Symptoms could indicate coupling problems

PARALLEL MISALIGNMENT
1x 2x 4x

Radial

High radial vibration 1800 out of phase Severe conditions give higher harmonics 2X RPM often larger than 1X RPM Similar symptoms to angular misalignment Coupling design can influence spectrum shape and amplitude

MISALIGNED BEARING

Vibration symptoms similar to angular misalignment Attempts to realign coupling or balance the rotor will not alleviate the problem. Will cause a twisting motion with approximately 1800 phase shift side to side or top to bottom

BENT SHAFT

Bent shaft problems cause high axial vibration 1X RPM dominant if bend is near shaft center 2X RPM dominant if bend is near shaft ends Phase difference in the axial direction will tend towards 1800 difference

OTHER SOURCES OF HIGH AXIAL VIBRATION


a. Bent Shafts b. Shafts in Resonant Whirl c. Bearings Cocked on the Shaft d. Resonance of Some Component in the Axial Direction e. Worn Thrust Bearings f. Worn Helical or Bevel Gears g. A Sleeve Bearing Motor Hunting for its Magnetic Center h. Couple Component of a Dynamic Unbalance

Vibration analysis
Mechanical looseness

MECHANICAL LOOSENESS (A)

Caused by structural looseness of machine feet Distortion of the base will cause soft foot problems Phase analysis will reveal aprox 1800 phase shift in the vertical direction between the base plate components of the machine

MECHANICAL LOOSENESS (B)

Caused by loose pillow block bolts Can cause 0.5, 1, 2 and 3X RPM Sometimes caused by cracked frame structure or bearing block

MECHANICAL LOOSENESS (C)

Phase is often unstable Will have many harmonics Can be caused by a loose bearing liner, excessive bearing clearance or a loose impeller on a shaft

Vibration analysis
Sleeve bearing/Rotor rub

SLEEVE BEARING WEAR / CLEARANCE PROBLEMS

Later stages of sleeve bearing wear will give a large family of harmonics of running speed A minor unbalance or misalignment will cause high amplitudes when excessive bearing clearances are present

ROTOR RUB
Truncated waveform

Similar spectrum to mechanical looseness Usually generates a series of frequencies which may excite natural frequencies Sub harmonic frequencies may be present Rub may be partial or through a complete revolution.

OIL WHIP INSTABILITY


oil whip

oil whirl

Oil whip may occur if a machine is operated at 2X the rotor critical frequency. When the rotor drives up to 2X critical, whirl is close to critical and excessive vibration will stop the oil film from supporting the shaft. Whirl speed will lock onto rotor critical. If the speed is increased the whip frequency will not increase.

OIL WHIRL INSTABILITY

Usually occurs at 42 - 48 % of running speed Vibration amplitudes are sometimes severe Whirl is inherently unstable, since it increases centrifugal forces therefore increasing whirl forces

Resonance

typically 10% or greater

RESONANCE

Resonance occurs when the Forcing Frequency coincides with a Natural Frequency 1800 phase change occurs when shaft speed passes through resonance High amplitudes of vibration will be present when a system is in resonance

BELT PROBLEMS (A)


WORN, LOOSE OR MISMATCHED BELTS

BELT FREQUENCY HARMONICS

Often 2X RPM is dominant Amplitudes are normally unsteady, sometimes pulsing with either driver or driven RPM Wear or misalignment in timing belt drives will give high amplitudes at the timing belt frequency Belt frequencies are below the RPM of either the driver or the driven

BELT PROBLEMS (D)


BELT RESONANCE
RADIAL 1X RPM

BELT RESONANCE

High amplitudes can be present if the belt natural frequency coincides with driver or driven RPM Belt natural frequency can be changed by altering the belt tension

HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES


BPF = BLADE PASS FREQUENCY

If gap between vanes and casing is not equal, Blade Pass Frequency may have high amplitude High BPF may be present if impeller wear ring seizes on shaft Eccentric rotor can cause amplitude at BPF to be excessive

HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES


FLOW TURBULENCE

Flow turbulence often occurs in blowers due to variations in pressure or velocity of air in ducts Random low frequency vibration will be generated, possibly in the 50 - 2000 CPM range

HYDRAULIC AERODYNAMIC
CAVITATION

AND FORCES

Cavitations will generate random, high frequency broadband energy superimposed with BPF harmonics Normally indicates inadequate suction pressure Erosion of impeller vanes and pump casings may occur if left unchecked Sounds like gravel passing through pump

BEAT VIBRATION
WIDEBAND SPECTRUM

F1

F2
ZOOM SPECTRUM

A beat is the result of two closely spaced frequencies going into and out of phase The wideband spectrum will show one peak pulsating up and down The difference between the peaks is the beat frequency which itself will be present in the wideband spectrum

Vibration analysis
Electrical

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS
STATOR ECCENTRICITY, SHORTED LAMINATIONS AND LOOSE IRON

Stator problems generate high amplitudes at 2FL (2X line frequency ) Stator eccentricity produces uneven stationary air gap, vibration is very directional Soft foot can produce an eccentric stator

FREQUENCIES PRODUCED BY ELECTRICAL MOTORS.


Electrical line frequency.( FL) = frequency.(FL) = 50Hz 50Hz = = 3000 cpm. 60HZ = 0 cpm = 360 3600 No of poles. ( P) (P) Rotor Bar Pass Frequency ( Fb) = No (Fb) No of of rotor rotor bars x Rotor rpm. 2xFL) Synchronous speed (Ns )= Ns) = 2xFL) P )= Synchronous speed Rotor rpm. Slip frequency ( ( FS S )= Synchronous Pole pass frequency ( FP )= Slip Frequency x No of Poles. (F P

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
(Loose Stator Coils)

Loose stator coils in synchronous motors generate high amplitude at Coil Pass Frequency The coil pass frequency will be surrounded by 1X RPM sidebands

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS
POWER SUPPLY PHASE PROBLEMS
(Loose Connector)

Phasing problems can cause excessive vibration at 2FL with 1/3 FL sidebands Levels at 2FL can exceed 25 mm/sec if left uncorrected Particular problem if the defective connector is only occasionally making contact

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS
ROTOR PROBLEMS

1X, 2X, 3X, RPM with pole pass frequency sidebands indicates rotor bar problems. 2X line frequency sidebands on rotor bar pass frequency (RBPF) indicates loose rotor bars. Often high levels at 2X & 3X rotor bar pass frequency and only low level at 1X rotor bar pass frequency.

Vibration analysis
Gear

CALCULATION OF GEAR MESH FREQUENCIES


51 TEETH 1700 RPM 31 TEETH 8959 RPM
HOW MANY TEETH ON THIS GEAR?

20 TEETH

GEARS
NORMAL SPECTRUM

2625 rpm 8 teeth GMF= 21k CPM 1500 rpm 14 teeth

Normal spectrum shows 1X and 2X and gear mesh frequency GMF GMF commonly will have sidebands of running speed All peaks are of low amplitude and no natural frequencies are present

GEARS
TOOTH LOAD

Gear Mesh Frequencies are often sensitive to load High GMF amplitudes do not necessarily indicate a problem Each analysis should be performed with the system at maximum load

GEARS
TOOTH WEAR

8 teeth 2625 rpm

GMF = 21k CPM 14 teeth 1500 rpm

Wear is indicated by excitation of natural frequencies along with sidebands of 1X RPM of the bad gear Sidebands are a better wear indicator than the GMF GMF may not change in amplitude when wear occurs

GEARS
GEAR ECCENTRICITY AND BACKLASH

Fairly high amplitude sidebands around GMF suggest eccentricity, backlash or non parallel shafts The problem gear will modulate the sidebands Incorrect backlash normally excites gear natural frequency

GEARS
GEAR MISALIGNMENT

Gear misalignment almost always excites second order or higher harmonics with sidebands of running speed Small amplitude at 1X GMF but higher levels at 2X and 3X GMF Important to set Fmax high enough to capture at least 2X GMF

GEARS
CRACKED / BROKEN TOOTH
TIME WAVEFORM

A cracked or broken tooth will generate a high amplitude at 1X RPM of the gear It will excite the gear natural frequency which will be sidebanded by the running speed fundamental Best detected using the time waveform Time interval between impacts will be the reciprocal of the 1X RPM

GEARS
HUNTING TOOTH fHt = (GMF)Na
(TGEAR)(TPINION)

Vibration is at low frequency and due to this can often be missed Synonymous with a growling sound The effect occurs when the faulty pinion and gear teeth both enter mesh at the same time Faults may be due to faulty manufacture or mishandling

Vibration analysis Bearings


Outer Race (BPFO)

Inner Race (BPFI)

Ball Spin (BSF)


Cage or Train FTF

D0 DB D1 BPFI = Nb/2 (1+(Bd/Pd)cos) RPM BPFO = Nb/2 (1-(Bd/Pd)cos) RPM BSF = Pd/2Bd (1-((Bd/Pd)cos)2) RPM FTF = (1-((Bd/Pd)cos)) RPM

Note : shaft turning outer race fixed F = frequency in cpm N = number of balls

ROLLING ELEMENT
BEARINGS STAGE 1 FAILURE MODE

ZONE A

ZONE B

ZONE C

ZONE D

gSE

Earliest indications in the ultrasonic range These frequencies evaluated by Spike EnergyTM gSE, HFD(g) and Shock Pulse Spike Energy may first appear at about 0.25 gSE for this first stage

ROLLING ELEMENT
BEARINGS STAGE 2 FAILURE MODE

ZONE A ZONE B ZONE C ZONE D gSE

Slight defects begin to ring bearing component natural frequencies These frequencies occur in the range of 30k-120k CPM At the end of Stage 2, sideband frequencies appear above and below natural frequency Spike Energy grows e.g. 0.25-0.50gSE

ROLLING ELEMENT
BEARINGS STAGE 3 FAILURE MODE
ZONE A ZONE B ZONE C ZONE D

gSE

Bearing defect frequencies and harmonics appear Many defect frequency harmonics appear with wear the number of sidebands grow Wear is now visible and may extend around the periphery of the bearing Spike Energy increases to between 0.5 -1.0 gSE

Examples

Singing Propeller
Starboard side
0.36

Port side
2.4 2.1

0.30

1.8
RMS V eloc ity in mm/S e c 0.24

RMS V eloc ity in mm/S e c

1.5

0.18

1.2

0.9

0.12

0.6
0.06

0.3

0 0 50 100 150 200 Frequency in Hz 250 300 350 400

0 0 50 100 150 200 Frequency in Hz 250 300 350 400

Singing Propeller
Describing the frequency spectra
Sideband activity around the troubled frequency (140 Hz)
RMS V eloc ity in mm/S e c 2.4 LF PS 1 024 Route Spectrum 28-JUL-06 21:56:44 OVRALL= 2.79 V-DG RMS = 2.76 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 92. RPS = 1.53 2.1

The modulation/sideband activity tells us that the troubled frequency is working along with the rpm of the shaft. Dfrq (Delta frequency) = 1.534 Hz (*60sec)= 92 RPM 92 rpm = shaft speed when measurements were taken.

1.8

1.5

1.2

0.9

0.6

0.3

0 80 100 120 140 Frequency in Hz 160 180 200 Freq: 142.28 Ordr: 93.24 Spec: .186 Dfrq: 1.534

Singing Propeller
Conclusion
After thorough measurements/analysis our conclusion is that the port side propeller suffers from a phenomenon called a singing propeller. The conclusion is justified by: A frequency of approximately 140 Hz is causing the noise/vibration. This frequency is independent from rpm within the troubled range of propeller revolution (60-105 rpm). The ~140 Hz frequency only appears on the port side propeller shaft. This was confirmed by single propeller transit on both starboard and port side. The ~140 Hz frequency measured has sideband (modulation) which is directly connected to the speed of the port side shaft. This indicates that the troubled frequency is situated somewhere along this shaft. There is no other rpm independent component along port side shaft line that can be a source to this frequency. The size and weight to the propeller can possibly fit to the singing frequency.

Recommendation
Grinding an anti singing edge on the propeller. Result: The grinding of the propeller blades were carried out and the singing tone disappeared

Bearing damage
1.0 F F F F F SF8000.182 645 AKSEL REIMHJUL 1. LAGER RADIELL F F F F F Route Spectrum 10-MAY-05 12: 07: 36 OVRALL= 10.23 V-DG RMS = 1.71 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 2937. RPS = 48.95 R M S Acceleration in G-s >FAG 6322 F=BPFI : 5.44 0.6 1.0 E E E E E E SF8000.182 645 AKSEL REIMHJUL 1. LAGER RADIELL E E E E Route Spectrum 10-MAY-05 12: 07: 36 OVRALL= 10.23 V-DG RMS = 1.71 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 2937. RPS = 48.95 >FAG 6322 E=BPFO : 3.56 0.6 0.8 0.8

R M S Acceleration in G-s

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0 0 20 40 60 Frequency in Order 80 100 Ordr: 5.436 Freq: 266.08 Spec: .03517

0 0 20 40 60 Frequency in Order 80 100 Ordr: 3.540 Freq: 173.27 Spec: .01331

Observing frequencies that matches ball pass frequencies inner race (fault frequencies BPFI) on bearing FAG 6322

Observing frequencies that matches ball pass frequencies outer race (fault frequencies BPFO) on bearing FAG 6322

Bearing damage
5.0 4.5 Trend Display of 1. - 20. kHz 1.0 F OFF ROUTE ORP OFF ROUT E MEASUREMENT POINT DATA F F Route Spectrum 10-MAY-05 12: 09: 49 (Demod-HP 1000 Hz) OVRALL= 1.49 A-DG RMS = 1.50 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 2937. RPS = 48.95 >FAG 6322 F=BPFI : 5.44 4.0 -- Baseline -Value: 1.143 Date: 26-FEB-03 R M S Acceleration in G-s 0.8 3.5 R M S Acceleration in G-s

3.0

0.6

2.5

2.0

0.4

1.5

1.0

0.2

0.5

0 0 200 400 600 Days: 10-JAN-03 To 10-MAY-05 800 1000 Date: 10-MAY-05 Time: 12: 07: 40 Ampl: 4.281

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Frequency in Order 14 16 18 20 22 Ordr: 5.433 Freq: 265.94 Spec: .715

Label: WF 63 1RER-1 /

Observing powerful increasement in the area 1-20 kHz (which represents the are of bearing noise) This supports the assumption of a bearing damage under development

Also the demodulated measurement indicates fault frequencies from the bearing inner ring on bearing FAG 6322

FAG6322 (outer race)

Bearing damage
Outer ring
2.4 E 2.1 E E SF8000.129 716 AKSEL REIMHJUL 2. LAGER RADIELL E E E E E E E Route Spectrum 01-MAR-05 09:47:29 OVRALL= 15.10 V-DG RMS = 4.14 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 2622. RPS = 43.70 >SKF NU2224 E=BPFO : 299.6

SF8000.129 716 AKSEL REIMHJUL 2. LAGER RADIELL T rend Display of 1. - 20. kHz

6 -- Baseline -Value: .986 Date: 03-FEB-03

1.8 RMS Acc eleration in G-s

5 RMS Acc eleration in G-s

1.5

1.2

0.9

FAULT 2
0.6

ALERT
0.3

0 0 1000 2000 Frequency in Hz 3000 4000 Freq: 300.17 Ordr: 6.869 Spec: .00788

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Days: 03-FEB-03 T o 01-MAR-05 600 700 800 Date: 01-MAR-05 T ime: 09:47:37 Ampl: 5.531

Observing frequencies that matches ball pass frequencies outer race (fault frequencies BPFO) on bearing SKF NU2224

Observing powerful increasement in the area 1-20 kHz (which represents the are of bearing noise) This supports the assumption of a bearing damage under development

Bearing damage
Outer ring
2.7 E 2.4 E E E G0008 E 003 - GEAR SN: 61.88.6032.01.01 -086 GEAR,INNG.AKS 1.LAGER RADIAL E E E Route Spectrum 06-JUN-05 21:04:14 OVRALL= 21.82 V-DG RMS = 6.58 LOAD =1550.0 RPM = 1505. RPS = 25.09 RM S Acceleration in G-s >T MK HH840210/249 E=BPFO : 256.5 8 G0008 003 - GEAR SN: 61.88.6032.01.01 -086 GEAR,INNG.AKS 1.LAGER RADIAL T rend Display of 1. - 20. kHz 7 -- Baseline -Value: 2.937 Date: 12-MAR-03 2.1 6

RM S Acceleration in G-s

1.8

1.5

1.2

0.9 2 0.6

0.3

0 0 1000 2000 Frequency in Hz 3000 4000 Freq: 255.02 Ordr: 10.17 Spec: .102

0 0 200 400 600 Days: 09-JAN-03 T o 06-JUN-05 800 1000 Date: 06-JUN-05 T ime: 21: 04: 15 Ampl: 6.656

Observing frequencies that matches ball pass frequencies outer race (fault frequencies BPFO) on bearing TMK HH840200 (HH840249/210)

Observing powerful increasement in the area 1-20 kHz (which represents the are of bearing noise) This supports the assumption of a bearing damage under development

Bearing damage
Outer ring (large transmission)
4.0

Input shaft motor side


, T rend Display of 2. - 20. kHz FAULT -- Baseline -Value: .00000 Date: 28-MAY-98 RMS Acc eleration in G-s

4.0

Input shaft drive side


, T rend Display of 2. - 20. kHz FAULT -- Baseline -Value: .00000 Date: 28-MAY-98

3.5

3.5

3.0 RMS Acc eleration in G-s

3.0

2.5

2.5

2.0

ALERT

2.0

ALERT

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0 0 200 400 600 800 Days: 09-JAN-02 T o 03-JAN-05 1000 1200 Date: 09-JAN-02 T ime: 11:03:24 Ampl: .340

0 0 200 400 600 800 Days: 09-JAN-02 T o 03-JAN-05 1000 1200 Date: 03-JAN-05 T ime: 14:04:35 Ampl: .551

Observing powerful increasement in the area 1-20 kHz (which represents the are of bearing noise) This supports the assumption of a bearing damage under development

Observing increasement in the area 1-20 kHz (which represents the are of bearing noise) This supports the assumption of a bearing damage under development

Bearing damage
Outer ring (large transmission)
4.0 , T rend Display of 2. - 20. kHz FAULT -- Baseline -Value: .00000 Date: 28-MAY-98 3.5

3.0 RMS Acc eleration in G-s

2.5

2.0

ALERT

1.5

1.0

Points of observed damages on same type of bearing

0.5

0 0 200 400 600 800 Days: 09-JAN-02 T o 03-JAN-05 1000 1200 Date: 09-JAN-02 T ime: 11:03:24 Ampl: .340

Due to earlier observation in this trending tool on this particular shaft, our conclusion is that there is a bearing damage.

Bearing damage on inner race motor side

Bearing damage on inner race drive side

Bearing damage
Outer ring (thrust bearing)
2.4 2.1 RMS Acceleration in G-s 1.8 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 Frequency in Hz 2000 Freq: 247.50 Ordr: 9.900 Spec: 1.047 E E E E E E E Route Spectrum E 03-NOV-*3 14:37 OVRALL= 18.24 V-DG RMS = 2.30 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 1500. RPS = 25.00 >SKF NU1026 E=BPFO

12 10 FAULT 8 6 4 2 0 0 ALERT

RMS Acceleration in G-s

Trend Display of 1. - 20. kHz

-- Baseline -Value: .00000 Date: 16-JUL-96

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Days: 22-JAN-*2 To 03-NOV-*3

Date: 03-NOV-*3 Time: 14:37:54 Ampl: 9.625

Observing frequencies that matches ball pass frequencies outer race (fault frequencies BPFO) on bearing SKF NU1026

Observing increasement in the area 1-20 kHz (which represents the are of bearing noise) This supports the assumption of a bearing damage under development

Gear damage
Input crown wheel
0.40 0.35 OVRALL= 3.31 V-DG RMS = .4406 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 278. RPS = 4.63 , Route Spectrum 03-FEB-04 14:37:03

03-FEB-04 14:26:02

RMS Acceleration in G-s

0.30

Acceleration in G-s

08-JAN-04 12:22:13 Plot Span 4 07-OCT -03 13:09:16

0.25

0.20

-4 12-SEP-03 11:49:13

0.15

0.10

12-JUN-03 12:04:11

0.05

29-NOV-02 13:34:02
0 0 100 200 300 400 Frequency in Hz 500 600 700 Freq: 25.19 Ordr: 5.437 Spec: .02161

40

80

120 T ime in mSecs

160

200

240

T ime: Ampl:

32.15 -.906

Observing harmonic rpm frequencies on the input shaft of this gear

Time-waveform indicates that there is a pulsation on time per revolution. This supports the assumption of a gear damage. Possible broken tooth.

Gear damage
Intermediate shaft
1.0 0.8 0.6 Acceleration in G-s 0.4 0.2 -0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.0 0 100 200 300 400 Time in mSecs 500 600 Time: 240.57 Ampl: .559 Dtim; 195.61 Freq: 5.112 ,

0.04
Waveform Display 07-OCT-*3 13:16 RMS = .1089 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 296. RPS = 4.94 PK(+) = .7243 PK(-) = .8067 CRESTF= 7.41

, Route Spectrum 07-OCT-*3 13:20 (Demod- HP 500 Hz) OVRALL= .0701 A-DG RMS = .0700 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 76. RPS = 1.27

RMS Acceleration in G-s

0.03

0.02

0.01

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Frequency in Hz Freq: 5.094 Ordr: 3.998 Spec: .02843

Time-waveform indicates that there is a pulsation on time per revolution. This supports the assumption of a gear damage.

Demodulated measurement shows that there is a harmonic frequency of 5.094 Hz. 5.094 Hz x 60 Hz = ~300 RPM which is close to the intermediate shaft speed. Therefore it is likely to believe that there is a tooth damage on this shaft

Broken tooth on the intermediate shaft

Resonance problem
Case On two main gears several tie-/anchor bolts for the pinion bearings on the first gear step broken just after a couple of hundred hours, and therefore Maskindynamikk AS was engaged to identify and analyze the vibration in these two gears. It was soon discovered to be abnormally high levels of vibration in a specific speed-/load area around these bolts (close to maximum speed), and these vibrations were amplified by the gearmesh frequencies of the input shaft. This was the first observation that pointed in the direction of a possible resonance problem Additional examination was therefore carried out to identity this resonance-problem. An element analysis was carried out to sort which of the gear components had natural frequencies in this frequency range (resonant area). This was not a easy case as more than one component could be involved in this. Thru this investigation it was revealed that the bolts had radial natural frequencies which were amplified (excited) by 1st level gearmesh frequency. The resolution to the problem was therefore divided in two. First stage involved redesigning and replacing the bolts with others with lower natural frequencies, and thereafter to change the propeller curve so that we achieve a lower maximum

rpm and a lower maximum gearmesh. In addition to this we also achieved to obtain the power by increasing the pitch curve.
10 BSC - Port-gear-1500hz Port-HF -V05 VERTIKALT Analyze Spectrum 08-SEP-07 00:48:28 RMS = 8.38 LOAD = 73.0 RPM = 1050. RPS = 17.50 18 BSC - Port-gear-1500hz Port-HF -V05 VERTIKALT Analyze Spectrum 08-SEP-07 01:00:27 RMS = 23.05 LOAD = 80.0 RPM = 1080. RPS = 18.00 16

14

RMS V eloc ity in mm/S ec

RMS V eloc ity in mm/S ec

12

10

4 2 2

0 0 400 800 Frequency in Hz 1200 1600 Freq: 716.90 Ordr: 40.97 Spec: 6.594

0 0 400 800 Frequency in Hz 1200 1600 Freq: 735.77 Ordr: 40.88 Spec: 13.37

The two engines is running at 1060 rpm which gives a gearmesh of 718 Hz with a amplitude of 6.7 mm/s. This is normal

The two engines is running at 1080 rpm which gives a gearmesh of 736 Hz with a amplitude of 13.4 mm/s. An 2.5% increasement on the gearmesh frequency doubles the amplitude, and this clearly indicates a resonance problem

33 30 27

BSC - Port-gear-1500hz Port-HF -V05 VERTIKALT Analyze Spectrum 08-SEP-07 01:41:06 RMS = 29.24 LOAD = 86.0 RPM = 1100. RPS = 18.33

0.7

BSC - Port-gear-1500hz Port-HF -V05 VERTIKALT Analyze Spectrum 16-SEP-07 10:04:08 RMS = 2.59 LOAD = 15.0 RPM = 600. RPS = 10.00

0.6

24 RMS V eloc ity in mm/S ec 21 RMS V eloc ity in mm/S ec

0.5

0.4

18 15

72 2.55

0.3

12 9 0.2

6 0.1 3

0 0 400 800 1200 Frequency in Hz 1600 2000 Freq: 753.53 Ordr: 41.10 Spec: 26.38

0 0 200 400 600 Frequency in Hz 800 1000 1200 Freq: 837.00 Ordr: 83.70 Spec: .220

The two engines is running at 1100 rpm which gives a gearmesh of 753 Hz with a amplitude of 26.4 mm/s. An 5.8% increasement on the gearmesh frequency increases the amplitude four times, and this definitely indicates a resonance problem

The two engines is running at low and variable rpm with 1st order gearmesh around 350-400 Hz. This gives a 2nd order gearmesh frequency in the are 700-850 Hz. Also the 2nd order is strongly amplified something which confirms our assumption. This proves that there is a resonance problem in this area (700-800Hz)

The measurement technique which were used her is called rpm sweeping with peak-hold function which means that you sweep a frequency area to map possible resonance problems

83 6.46

Unbalanced flexible coupling

Initial vibration analysis revealed mechanical unbalance in the coupling. Unbalance is indicated by a dominating 1.st order frequency amplitude. Unbalance can have different reasons
Insuficcient dynamic balancing. Coupling damages, as here where the stress between the rubber elements and the inner ring (steel) has excedeeded the force limits and the rubber elements were damaged after only a few months

Generator with a unbalanced/damaged coupling elements


1.orden
Gen 2 035 - GENERATOR 2 -P05 GENERATOR, DE,VERTIKAL Route Spectrum 20-SEP-07 15:20:28 OVRALL= 22.12 V-DG RMS = 20.32 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 1800. RPS = 30.00

18 16 14 RMS Velocity in mm/Sec 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 40

80

120 Frequency in Hz

160

200

Freq: Ordr: Spec:

30.00 1.000 13.10

The outer steel ring of the coupling was turned 180 degrees vs. the rubber elements - wich in this case was the rebalancing trick to reduce the 1.st order vibration levels from 18 to 4 mm/s

Before vs. after dynamic balancing reduced 1.st order


18 16 14 RMS Velocity in mm/Sec 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 40 80 120 Frequency in Hz 160 200 Freq: Ordr: Spec: 30.00 1.000 13.10 Gen 2 035 - GENERATOR 2 -P05 GENERATOR, DE,VERTIKAL Route Spectrum 20-SEP-07 15:20:28 OVRALL= 22.12 V-DG RMS = 20.32 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 1800. RPS = 30.00

10

Gen 2

035 - GENERATOR 2 -P05 GENERATOR, DE,VERTIKAL Route Spectrum 28-SEP-07 10:54:16 OVRALL= 10.82 V-DG RMS = 10.49 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 1801. RPS = 30.01

8 RMS Velocity in mm/Sec

0 0 40 80 120 Frequency in Hz 160 200 Freq: Ordr: Spec: 30.00 1.000 4.018