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BAB IV NERACA MASSA DAN ENERGI

4.1 Process Flow Diagram


FLOWPROCESS PLTU INDONESIA POWER
SUPERHEATED STEAM

UAP KERING

HP TURBINE

LP TURBINE

BOILER COAL DEAERATOR HEAVY FUEL OIL

CONDENSER LP HEATER ASH HP HEATER

HOTWELL BOILER FEED PUMP CONDENSATE PUMP

WATER

4.2 Neraca Massa Diketahui : Laju alir air umpan Laju alir bahan bakar Laju alir udara = 1.279.880,49 kg/jam = 201.516,67 kg/jam = 1.439.788,32 kg/jam

O2 (21%) = 302.355,55 kg/jam N2 (79%) = 1.137.432,77 kg/jam = 1.227.385,93 kg/jam = 52.494,57 kg/jam
CO2 : 393535,12 kg/jam : 67649,04 kg/jam : 71415,36 kg/jam : 1.303.604,12

Laju alir steam Laju alir blowdown

Flue Gas

H2O O2 N2 kg/jam

1.746.294,12 kg/jam

SO2

: 3345,28 kg/jam

1.279.880,49 kg/jam

1.227.385,93 kg/jam

Air BOILER
201.516,67 kg/jam 52.494,57 kg/jam

Steam

Blowdown

Batu bara
1.439.788,32 kg/jam

Udara

Neraca massa : Laju alir masuk = laju alir keluar F air + F batubara + F udara = F steam + F blowdown + F flue gas

F flue gas = F air + F batubara + F udara - F steam - F blowdown F flue gas = 1.279.880,49 kg/jam + 201.516,67 kg/jam + 1.439.788,32 kg/jam - 1.227.385,93 kg/jam -52.494,57 kg/jam = 1.746.294,12 kg/jam Laju alir flue gas = 1.746.294,12 kg/jam Ultimate analisis batubara jenis sub bituminous : Analisis C H N O S A mf TOTAL Carbon (C) Hidrogen (H2) Nitrogen (N2) Oksigen (O2) Sulfur Ash Moisture Kadar (%) 53,26 3,73 1,09 11,61 0,83 3,97 25,51 100

Komposisi Batubara : C = 53,26 % x 201.516,67 kg/jam = 107.327,778 kg/jam C dalam mol = = 8943,98 kmol/jam

H = 3,73 % x 201.516,67 kg/jam = 7516,57 kg/jam H dalam mol = = 3758,28 kmol/jam

O = 11,61 % x 201.516,67 kg/jam = 23396,09 kg/jam O dalam mol = = 731,13 kmol/jam

S = 0,83% x 201.516,67 kg/jam = 1672,58 kg/jam S dalam mol = = 52,27 kmol/jam

Reaksi Pembakaran: C + O2 CO2 S + O2 SO2 H2 + O2 H2O Mol O2 = x 8943,98 kmol/jam + x 52,27 kmol/jam + = 10875,39 kmol/jam O2 yang dibutuhkan dari luar = 10875,39 kmol/jam - 731,13 kmol/jam = 10144,26 kmol/jam O2 berlebih = (100% +22%) x 10144,26 kmol/jam = 12375,99 kmol/jam N2 = x 12375,99 kmol/jam = 46557,29 kmol/jam x 3758,28 kmol/jam

Komposisi flue gas (dalam mol) : CO2 H2O O2 N2 SO2 : x 8943,98 kmol/jam = 8943,98 kmol/jam : x 3758,28 kmol/jam = 3758,28 kmol/jam : 12375,99 kmol/jam - 10144,26 kmol/jam = 2231,73 kmol/jam : 46557,29 kmol/jam : x 52,27 kmol/jam

Komposisi flue gas (dalam kg): CO2 H2O O2 N2 SO2 : 8943,98 kmol/jam x 44 kg/kmol = 393535,12 kg/jam : 3758,28 kmol/jam x 18 kg/kmol = 67649,04 kg/jam : 2231,73 kmol/jam x 32 kg/kmol = 71415,36 kg/jam : 46557,29 kmol/jam x 28 kg/kmol = 1.303.604,12 kg/jam : 52,27 kmol/jam x 64 kg/kmol = 3345,28 kg/jam

4.3 Neraca Energi 4.3.1 Metode langsung Data Masukan Fuel : HHV Temperature inlet Coal suplay rate Reference air temp. Heat of fuel : 5091 kcal/kg : 59,6 oC : 278,69 ton/h : 25 oC : 1418798,063 kcal/h

Data Keluaran Feed Water Inlet Economizer Water in temp. Water press entering economizer Enthalpy (Hec) : 289,701 oC : 184,9238 kg/cm2 : 307,4542 kcal/kg

Feed Water Final Flow (Wfw) Temperature (Tfw) Pressure (Pfw) Enthalpy (Hfw) : 1796,43 kg/h : 306,98 oC : 180,95 kg/cm2 : 329,663 kcal/kg

Heat of Economizer (Qe) = Wfw x (Hfw-Hec) = 1796,43 kg/h x (329,663 kcal/kg-307,4542 kcal/kg) = 39896,55458 kcal/kg Main Steam Flow (Ws) Temperature (Ts) Pressure (Ps) Enthalpy (Hs) : 1918,797 kg/h : 537,4696 oC : 167,99 kg/cm2 : 811,33 kcal/kg

Heat of Steam (Qs) = Ws x (Hs-Hfw) = 1918,797 kg/h x (811,33 kcal/kg - 329,663 kcal/kg) = 924221,1946 kcal/h

Superheater Water Spray Flow (Wsws) : 152,339 kg/h Temperature (Tsws) : 191,59oC Pressure (Psws) Enthalpy (Hsws) :: 442,59 kcal/kg

Heat of Superheater (WS) = Wsws x (Hs-Hsws) = 152,339 kg/h x (811,33 kcal/kg - 442,59 kcal/kg) = 56173,4828 kcal/h

Reheat Steam Inlet Flow (Wri) Temperature (Tri) Pressure (Psi) Enthalpy (Hri ) : 1533,18 kg/h : 353,22oC : 44,55182 kg/cm2 : 741,7906 kcal/kg

Reheat Steam Output Flow (Wro) Temperature (Tro) Pressure (Pso) Enthalpy (Hro ) : 1550,69 kg/h : 539,2628 oC : 42,58773 kg/cm2 : 847,9488 kcal/kg

Heat of Reheat Steam (Qr) = Wri x (Hro - Hri) = 1533,18 kg/h x (847,9488 kcal/kg - 741,7906 kcal/kg) = 162759, 6291 kcal/h

Reheat Spray Water Flow (Wrsw) : 31,52 kg/h Temperature (Trsw) : 191,59oC

Pressure (Prsw) Enthalpy (Hrsw)

:: 442,59 kcal/kg

Heat of Reheat Spray Water (Qrsw) = Wrsw x (Hro Hrsw) = 31,52 kg/h x (847,9488 - 442,59) kcal/kg = 12776,9094 kcal/h

Total Heat Output

= 1195827,77 kcal/h

Perhitungan Kalor yang Hilang Kalor masuk Kalor keluar : 1418798,063 kcal/h : 1195827,77 kcal/h

Kalor yang hilang : 1418798,063 kcal/h - 1195827,77 kcal/h = 222970,2925 kcal/h Efisiensi Boiler = = x 100% = 84,284 %

Economizer
Qe : 39896,55458 kcal/kg

Steam

Qs : 924221,1946 kcal/h

Fuel
Hf tf Wf tA Qf 5091 kcal/kg 59,6 C 278,69 Ton/h 25,0 C 1418798,063 kcal/h

PROSES

Superheater

Qsws : 56173,4828 kcal/h

Reheat Steam
Qr : 162759, 6291 kcal/h

Reheat Spray Water

Qrsw : 12776,9094 kcal/h

4.3.2 Metode Tidak Langsung (Heat Loss Methode) Fuel Flow Temperature : 278,69 ton/h : 59,6oC

Ultimate Analisis Analisis C H N O S A mf TOTAL Fuel Heating Value Higher heating value Cv (Hfv) Higher heating value Cp (Hf) Temperature Simbol tRA tF1 tA5 tA6 Temperature Reference aire temperature Fuel temperature Pulvurizer tempering air Ambient dry bulb temperature Ambient wet bulb temperature tA7 TA8 Main TA8 Mill tG14 Fan outlet temperature Primary air heater air inlet temperature Secondary air heater air inlet temperature Flue gas entering air heater
o

Kadar (%) Carbon (C) Hidrogen (H2) Nitrogen (N2) Oksigen (O2) Sulfur Ash Moisture 53,26 3,73 1,09 11,61 0,81 3,97 25,51 99,98

: 5091 kcal/kg : 5096,47895 kcal/kg

27,0 59,6 37,7 30,0 29,0 39,7 260,20

363,25 398,89

temperature tG15 Flue gas leaving air heater temperature Average air heater leaving temperature Flow Ash Ash Split (% of Total Refuse) xUCb xUCe xUCa xUCf Bottom ash Economizer hopper Air heater hopper Fly ash % 12,5 5 0 82,5 151,29

336,87

Combustibles in Ash (Mass % of Dry Refuse) Ash Split (% of Total Refuse) UCb UCe UCa UCf UC Bottom ash Economizer hopper Air heater hopper Fly ash Carbon in ash (weighted average) * % 0,1122 0,5308 0 0,306 0,293015

* Carbon in ash (weighted average) = (xUCb * UCb + xUCe* UCe + xUCa*UCa + xUCf*UCf) / 100 Heating value of total dry refuse (Hdp) = UC x 14500/100/1,8 = 23,6039861 kcal/kg Calculated refuse rate (Wdp) = %Ash / (100-UC) = 0,03981666 kcal/kg fuel Unburned carbon = Heating value of total dry refuse x Calculated refuse rate x 1,8/14500 = 0,000111666 kg/ kg fuel Air Moisture in air (Wma) = 0,0196 kg/kg air Carbon burned (Cb) = %C - Hdpx Wdp x 1,8/14500 = 53,2598833 kg/kg fuel

Flue Gas Analisis (Outlet Economizer) O2 Theoritical air (Ao) = 3,67 % = {11,51 x Cb + 34,3 x(H-O/7,937) + 4,335 x S}/100 = 5,82476550 % Volume of dry product (Vdp) = 0,3132 x Cb + 0,11528 x S + 0,13443 x N = 16,9208360 kg/kg fuel CO2 CO N2 (by difference) = 15,19 % = 0,001033 % = 100 (O2 +CO2+ CO) = 81,14%

Excess Air Calculations (Economizer Outlet) Excess air = %O x (Vdp + 10,331 x Ao )/ (Ao x (2,73-0,13068 x %O)) = 21,5855 % Heat Credit Calculation Heat supplied by entering air WA14 xWA5 Weight of dry air Tempering air split (% of total air flow) pembagi cold PAH WA5 tA8 HA8 tRA HRA tA5 HA5 Weight of tempering air = WA14 x xWA5 /100 Air temperature entering air heater Enthalpy of dry air @ tA8 Reference air temperature Enthalpy of dry air @ tRA Tempering air temperature Enthalpy of dry air @ tA5 0 kg/kg fuel 41,81 oC 0% 8,02958843 kg/kg fuel

3,59162642 kcal/kg 27,0 oC 0,467 kcal/kg 37,7 oC

3,04492745 kcal/kg

Mean spesific heat of dry CpA8 air @tA8, tRA = (HA8HRA)/(tA8-tRA) Mean spesific heat of dry CpA5 air @tA5, tRA = (HA5HRA)/(tA5-tRA) Heat credit = (WA14BAe WA5) x CpA8 x (tA8tRA) + WA5 x CpA5x (tA5-tRA) Heat credit (based on HHV) = 100 x Bae/Hf 0,49226539 % 25,0882024 kcal/kg fuel 0,24098067 kcal/ kg oC 0,21103705 kcal/ kg oC

Heat supplied by sensible heat in fuel Spesific heat of fuel (Cpf) Fuel temperature (tFl) Heat credit (Bfe) Heat credit (based on HHV) = 0,300 kcal/kgoC = 59,6oC = Cpf x (tFl-tRA) = 9,78 kcal/kg fuel = 100 x Bfe/Hf = 0,19189719 %

Heat supplied by Aux.Drive within the envelope pulvurizer Electical input (kebutuhan listrik dari semua fan) = 9,990 MWh Overall drive efficiency (x) = 75% Fuel flow consumption (coal) (dari data performentest) (wfe) = 278,69 t/h Heat credit (Bxe) = 859,8 x kWh x (x/100)/(wfe/1000) = 0,02290160 kcal/kg fuel Heat credit (based on HHV) = 100 x Bxe/Hf = 0,00044936 %

Heat supplied from the moisture entering with inlet air tA8 tRA HWVTRA HWV8 Inlet air temperature Reference air temperature Enthalpy of water vapour @ tRA Enthalpy of water vapour 41,81 oC 27,0 oC 0,884 kcal/kg 7,490721235 kcal/kg

@ tA8 Spesicif heat of steam Cps @tA8, tRA = (HWV8HWVTRA)/(tA8-tRA) Heat credit = WmAx BmAe WA14 x Cps x (tA8tRA) Heat credit (based on HHV) = 100 x BmAe/Hf 0,002040227 % 1,03979770 kcal/kg fuel 0,44625382 kcal/ kg oC

Total Heat Credits (B) B = Bae + Bfe + Bxe + BmAe = 35,9309017 kcal/kg fuel Heat credit (based on HHV) = 100 x B/Hf = 0,70501422 %

Boiler Losses Calculation (Based on HHV) Heat loss due to unburned of carbon in total dry refuse Hdp Wdp LUC Heating value of total dry refuse = UC x 14500/100/1,8 Calculated refuse rate = %Ash / (100-UC) Heat loss = Hdp x Wdp Heat loss (% fuel input) = 100 x LUC / Hf 65,1751840 kcal/kg

0,04002382 kg/kg fuel 2,60855991 kcal/kg fuel 0,05118357 %

Heat loss due to heat in dry fuel gas tG15NL tRA HGRA HG15NL CpG WG14 Exit gas temperature Reference air temperature Enthalpy of dry gas @ tRA Enthalpy of dry gas @ tG15NL Mean dry gas specific heat = (HG15NL- HGRA) /( tG15NL- tRA) Inlet dry gas weight = (44,01 x %CO2 + 32 x %O + 28,02 x %N2 + 28,01 151,29oC 27,0 oC 0,467 kcal/kg 30,0969864 kcal/kg 0,23838640 kcal/kgoC

8,98235465 kg/kg fuel

x %CO) x (Cb + 12,01/32,07 x S)/(1201 x%CO2+%CO) LG Heat loss = WG14 x CpG x ( tG15NL- tRA) Heat loss (% fuel input) = 100 x LG / Hf 266,145635 kcal/kg fuel

5,22214723 %

Heat loss due to moisture in fuel h15 Gas oulet vapour enthalpy @ tG15NL, 1 psia Fuel moisture saturated liquid enthalpy @tRA Heat loss = mf x (h15-hRw) /100 Heat loss (% fuel input) = 100 x Lmf / Hf 665,24 kcal/kg

hRw Lmf

26,90 kcal/kg 162,840873 kcal/kg fuel 3,19516425 %

Heat loss due to moisture from burning of hydrogen Heat loss (LH) = 8,936 x %H x (h15-hRw)/100 = 212,767336 kcal/kg Heat loss (%fuel input) = 100 x LH / Hf = 4,17479084 %

Heat loss due to moisture in air hRv WA14 LmA Air inlet saturated vapour enthalpy @tRA Dry air Heat loss = WmaxWA14 (h15hRv) Heat loss (% fuel input) = 100 x LmA/ Hf ABMA Lr Radiation loss per test procedure Heat loss = ABMA x (Hf+B)/100 609,3 kcal/kg 8,02958843 kcal/kg fuel 100,462116 kcal/kg

1,97120633 % 0,18 % 9,233833774 kcal/kg fuel

Heat loss (% fuel input) = 100 x Lr / Hf

0,18126902 %

Unaccounted losses Heat loss (Lunc) = Lunc assigned x Hf / 100 = 29,21 kcal/ kg fuel Heat loss assigned = 0,59 %

TOTAL Heat Losses (L) L = Luc + LG + Lmf + LH + LmA + Lr + Lunc = 783,272859 kcal/kg fuel Total heat losses = 100 x L/ Hf = 15,3689020 % Boiler Efisiensi G = HHV Gross Efficiency (Total Input) = 100 x (1-(L/(Hf+B))) = 84,74 % F = HHV Fuel Efficiency (Fuel Input) = 100 x (1-(L-B)/Hf)) = 85,34%

85,34 % Heat in steam

5,222 %
Dry Flue Gas Losses

4,175 % 3,195 %

Heat loss due to hydrogen in fuel Heat loss due to moisture in fuel Heat loss due to moisture in air Heat loss due to unburnt carbon in total dry refuse Heat loss due to radiation

100%

Steam Boiler
Fuel

0,1812%

0,0511 % 0,18%

0,59%

Heat loss due to unaccounted losses