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Concrete Pavement

Since the first strip of concrete pavement was completed in 1893, concrete has been used extensively for paving highways and airports as well as business and residential streets. There are four types of concrete pavement:

Plain pavements with dowels that use dowels to provide load transfer and prevent faulting, Plain pavements without dowels, in which aggregate interlock transfers loads across joints and prevents faulting, Conventionally reinforced pavements that contain steel reinforcement and use dowels in contraction joints, and Continuously reinforced pavements that have no contraction joints and are reinforced with continuous longitudinal steel.

To prepare for paving, the subgradethe native soil on which the pavement is builtmust be graded and compacted. Preparation of the subgrade is often followed by the placing of a subbasea layer of material that lies immediately below the concrete. The essential function of the subbase is to prevent the displacement of soil from underneath the pavement. Subbases may be constructed of granular materials, cement-treated materials, lean concrete, or open-graded, highly-permeable materials, stabilized or unstabilized. Once the subbase has hardened sufficiently to resist marring or distortion by construction traffic, dowels, tiebars, or reinforcing steel are placed and properly aligned in preparation for paving. There are two methods for paving with concreteslipform and fixed form. In slipform paving, a machine rides on treads over the area to be pavedsimilar to a train moving on a set of tracks. Fresh concrete is deposited in front of the paving machine which then spreads, shapes, consolidates, screeds, and float finishes the concrete in one continuous operation. This operation requires close coordination between the concrete placement and the forward speed of the paver. In fixed-form paving, stationary metal forms are set and aligned on a solid foundation and staked rigidly. Final preparation and shaping of the subgrade or subbase is completed after the forms are set. Forms are cleaned and oiled first to ensure that they release from the concrete after the concrete hardens. Once concrete is deposited near its final position on the subgrade, spreading is completed by a mechanical spreader riding on top of

the preset forms and the concrete. The spreading machine is followed by one or more machines that shape, consolidate, and float finish the concrete. After the concrete has reached a required strength, the forms are removed and curing of the edges begins immediately. Joints Control Cracking After placing and finishing concrete pavement, joints are created to control cracking and to provide relief for concrete expansion caused by temperature and moisture changes. Joints are normally created by sawing. Once joints have been inserted, the surface must be textured. To obtain the desired amount of skid resistance, texturing should be done just after the water sheen has disappeared and just before the concrete becomes non-plastic. Texturing is done using burlap drag, artificial-turf drag, wire brooming, grooving the plastic concrete with a roller or comb equipped with steel tines, or a combination of these methods. The chosen method of texturing depends on the environment, and the speed and density of expected traffic. Curing begins immediately after finishing operations and as soon as the surface will not be marred by the curing medium. Common curing methods include using white pigmented liquid membrane curing compounds. Occasionally, curing is accomplished by waterproof paper or plastic covers such as polyethylene sheets, or wet cotton mats or burlap. As the concrete pavement hardens, it contracts and cracks. If the contraction joints have been correctly designed and constructed, the cracks will occur below the joints. As the concrete continues to contract, the joints will open-providing room for the concrete to expand in hot weather and in moist conditions. Once the pavement hardens, the joints are cleaned and sealed to exclude foreign material that would be damaging to the concrete when it expands. The pavement is opened to traffic after the specified curing period and when tests indicate that the concrete has reached the required strength. Immediately before the pavement is opened to public traffic, the shoulders are finished and the pavement is cleaned.

Concrete Material Basics


Concrete is basically a mixture of two components: aggregates and paste (or binder). The paste is comprised of cement, supplementary cementitious materials and water. It binds the aggregates (sand and gravel or crushed stone) into a rocklike mass. The chemical reaction of the cementitious materials and water, called hydration, is the process by which paste hardens and binds the aggregates. Aggregates Aggregates are generally divided into two groups: fine and coarse. Fine aggregates consist of natural or manufactured sand with particle sizes ranging from dust-size up to 3/8 inch; coarse aggregates are those with particles ranging in size from 6 in. down to about 0.05 in. For pavement, it is common for the maximum aggregate size to range from 1 to 1.5 in. Aggregates are sized by passing them through screens with standard openings called sieves. Selection of aggregates for use in concrete is important since they make up about 60% to 75% of the total volume of concrete. Aggregates should consist of particles with adequate strength and resistance to exposure conditions and should not contain materials that will cause a chemical reaction with the paste that may lead to deterioration of the concrete. Screening tests are available to determine the adequacy of aggregates for use in concrete. Cement Paste The paste is composed of portland cement, supplementary cementitious materials (fly ash), water, and entrapped air or purposely entrained air. Cement paste ordinarily constitutes about 25% to 40% of the total volume of concrete. The volume of cement is usually between 7% and 15% and the water between 14% and 21%. Air content ranges up to about 8% of the volume of the concrete.

Cut away of Concrete showing Aggregate and Paste There are many different types of cement, including portland cement and blended hydraulic cement. ASTM C150 and AASHTO M85 classify portland cements by five chemical and compositional designations: Type I through Type V. ASTM C 595 and ASTM C 1157 classify blended hydraulic cements. Blended cements contain additional ingredients, such as fly ash, or blast furnace slag directly in the cement. Presently, most concrete for use in pavement is made with a portland cement, but use of blended hydraulic cements appears to be increasing. Concrete Quality The quality of any concrete is dependent upon the ratio of the quantity of water used to the quantity of cementitious materials used in the mixture (called the water-cement ratio or watercementitious ratio). In general, concrete with a lower water-cementitious ratio is stronger and less permeable, thus more durable. The freshly-mixed and hardened properties of concrete may be changed by adding liquid or mineral admixtures to the concrete, during batching. Admixtures are commonly used to (1) adjust setting time or hardening, (2) reduce water demand, (3) increase workability, (4) intentionally entrain air, and (5) adjust other concrete properties, such as strength. Air bubbles are entrained in concrete using an air-entraining admixture. The tiny microscopic bubbles provide free space within the paste to relieve hydraulic pressure when concrete freezes. Without the bubbles, the paste may crack when it freezes because water expands 9% in volume when it turns to ice. With entrained air, there is free space within the concrete to relieve pressure in the paste during freezing. There is also some air entrapped air that gets trapped in the concrete during mixing. In general, entrapped air voids are much larger than entrained air bubbles and provide no real benefits. Any concrete with a large number of entrapped air voids will probably have lower strength and durability. Entrapped air is often the result of a very harsh or sticky mixture and/or lack of effort in consolidating a mixture.

Consistency Workability is the ease of placing, consolidating, and finishing freshly mixed concrete. In general, freshly mixed concrete is plastic or semi-fluid with the consistency of thick mud. However there are degrees of plasticity necessary for different uses of concrete. This consistency is often measured by the slump of the concrete. Paving concrete has usually a low-slump (stiff consistency.) Consolidation is the process of inducing a closer arrangement of the solid particles in freshly mixed concrete. During consolidation entrapped air is removed from the concrete. For most pavement construction processes handheld or paving machine vibrators impart energy on concrete to achieve consolidation. The vibrators operate at a high frequency and set aggregate particles into motion in freshly mixed concrete, reducing friction between them and giving the mixture the qualities of a thick fluid. This allows the concrete to flow easily through a slipform paver, and around reinforcing steel, dowel baskets and other embedded Slump Test after Removing the Cone fixtures. Strength Concrete pavement strength is usually evaluated in compression or in flexure. These values are called compressive strength and flexural strength and are determined using standardized tests. For compressive strength, imagine placing a small sample of concrete in a vise and squeezing until it breaks. If you measure the squeezing (compressing) force necessary to break the concrete and divide by the contact area of the specimen, you will determine the compressive strength. It is generally expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) at an age of 28 days. (Concrete continues to gain strength with age. To account for this, the strength used in designing and specifying concrete is measured at 28 days.)

To determine compressive strength, tests are made on cylinders, which are often sized at 6 inches in diameter and 12 inches high. Most pavinggrade concrete has a compressive strength between 3000 psi and 5000 psi. High-strength concrete has a compressive strength of at least 6000 psi and compressive strengths of 20,000 psi have been used in building applications. Flexural strength is the strength of concrete to bending. Consider the action of holding each end of a pencil and bending the pencil until it breaks. This is an example of placing a structure in bending (flexure). In designing concrete pavements, flexural strength is often used because it better simulates what happens when a slab is loaded by a truck or other vehicle. Another term for the flexural strength is the modulus of rupture. Most general-use concrete has a flexural strength between 500 psi to 700 psi.

Concrete Pavement Fundamentals Concrete pavement is the most versatile pavement available. They are used as sidewalks that support foot traffic to runways that support 350,000 pound aircraft. They may be designed for a life of 5, 10, 20 and even 50 years, a range that far exceeds what is possible with any other pavement material. Each concrete pavement consists of a number of important components. Engineers can select options for these components to produce a unique design that is tailored to specific project needs.

Differences Between Concrete and Asphalt Pavement


Historically, pavements have been divided into two broad categories, rigid and flexible. These classical definitions, in some cases, are an over-simplification. However, the terms rigid and flexible provide a good description of how the pavements react to loads and the environment. The flexible pavement is an asphalt pavement. It generally consists of a relatively thin wearing surface of asphalt built over a base course and subbase course. Base and subbase courses are usually gravel or stone. These layers rest upon a compacted subgrade (compacted soil). In contrast, rigid pavements are made up of portland cement concrete and may or may not have a base course between the pavement and subgrade.

The essential difference between the two types of pavements, flexible and rigid, is the manner in which they distribute the load over the subgrade. Rigid pavement, because of concretes rigidity and stiffness, tends to distribute the load over a relatively wide area of subgrade. The concrete slab itself supplies a major portion of a rigid pavement's structural capacity. Flexible pavement, inherently built with weaker and less stiff material, does not spread loads as well as concrete. Therefore flexible pavements usually require more layers and greater thickness for optimally transmitting load to the subgrade. The major factor considered in the design of rigid pavements is the structural strength of the concrete. For this reason, minor variations in subgrade strength have little influence upon the structural capacity of the pavement. The major factor considered in the design of flexible pavements is the combined strength of the layers. One further practical distinction between concrete pavement and asphalt pavement is that concrete pavement provides opportunities to reinforce, texture, color and otherwise enhance a pavement, that is not possible with asphalt. These opportunities allow concrete to be made exceedingly strong, long lasting, safe, quiet, and architecturally beautiful. Concrete pavements on average outlast asphalt pavements by 10-15 years before needing rehabilitation.

Concrete Types The first concrete road was built in 1893 in Bellefontaine, OH and it is still in service today. Since that pioneering project, concrete pavements have been refined into three common types: jointed plain (JPCP), jointed reinforced (JRCP) and continuously reinforced (CRCP). The one item that distinguishes each type is the jointing system used to control crack development. Crack development is a complex subject. It is important to know that for various reasons concrete shrinks, contracts and expands, and bends from loading and the environment, and that these actions can induce cracks. It is equally important to know that this natural cracking can be easily controlled by the appropriate use of joints and/or reinforcing steel within the pavement. Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement Jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP) contain enough joints to control the location all of the expected natural cracks. The concrete cracks at the joints and not elsewhere in the slabs. Jointed plain pavements do not contain any steel reinforcement. However, there may be smooth steel bars at transverse joints and deformed steel bars at longitudinal joints. The spacing between transverse joints is typically about 15 feet for slabs 7-12 inches thick. Today, a majority of the U.S. state agencies build jointed plain pavements.

Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement Jointed reinforced concrete pavements contain steel mesh reinforcement (sometimes called distributed steel). In jointed reinforced concrete pavements, designers increase the joint spacing purposely, and include reinforcing steel ( to hold together intermediate cracks in each slab. The spacing between transverse joints is typically 30 feet or more. In the past, some agencies used a spacing as great as 100 feet. During construction of the interstate system, most agencies in the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. built jointed-reinforced pavement. Today only a handful of agencies employ this design.

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement The third type of concrete pavement, continuously-reinforced (or CRC), does not require any transverse contraction joints. Transverse cracks are expected in the slab, usually at intervals of 35 ft. CRC pavements are designed with enough steel, 0.6-0.7% by cross-sectional area, so that cracks are held together tightly. Determining an appropriate spacing between the cracks is part of the design process for this type of pavement. Continuously reinforced designs generally cost more than jointed reinforced or jointed plain designs initially due to increased quantities of steel. However, they can demonstrate superior long-term performance and cost-effectiveness. A number of agencies choose to use CRCP designs in their heavy urban traffic corridors.

Concrete Types The first concrete road was built in 1893 in Bellefontaine, OH and it is still in service today. Since that pioneering project, concrete pavements have been refined into three common types: jointed plain (JPCP), jointed reinforced (JRCP) and continuously reinforced (CRCP). The one item that distinguishes each type is the jointing system used to control crack development. Crack development is a complex subject. It is important to know that for various reasons concrete shrinks, contracts and expands, and bends from loading and the environment, and that these actions can induce cracks. It is equally important to know that this natural cracking can be easily controlled by the appropriate use of joints and/or reinforcing steel within the pavement. Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement Jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP) contain enough joints to control the location all of the expected natural cracks. The concrete cracks at the joints and not elsewhere in the slabs. Jointed plain pavements do not contain any steel reinforcement. However, there may be smooth steel bars at transverse joints and deformed steel bars at longitudinal joints. The spacing between transverse joints is typically about 15 feet for slabs 7-12 inches thick. Today, a majority of the U.S. state agencies build jointed plain pavements.

Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement Jointed reinforced concrete pavements contain steel mesh reinforcement (sometimes called distributed steel). In jointed reinforced concrete pavements, designers increase the joint spacing purposely, and include reinforcing steel ( to hold together intermediate cracks in each slab. The spacing between transverse joints is typically 30 feet or more. In the past, some agencies used a spacing as great as 100 feet. During construction of the interstate system, most agencies in the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. built jointed-reinforced pavement. Today only a handful of agencies employ this design.

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement The third type of concrete pavement, continuously-reinforced (or CRC), does not require any transverse contraction joints. Transverse cracks are expected in the slab, usually at intervals of 35 ft. CRC pavements are designed with enough steel, 0.6-0.7% by cross-sectional area, so that cracks are held together tightly. Determining an appropriate spacing between the cracks is part of the design process for this type of pavement. Continuously reinforced designs generally cost more than jointed reinforced or jointed plain designs initially due to increased quantities of steel. However, they can demonstrate superior long-term performance and cost-effectiveness. A number of agencies choose to use CRCP designs in their heavy urban traffic corridors.

Fast-Track Concrete Basics Fast-track concrete mixtures develop strength rapidly and are beneficial when early opening of the pavement is necessary. There are several practical options available to produce concrete that gains strength rapidly. Most often the concrete mixture components are specially proportioned and selected for rapid early strength. The most common approach uses greater-than-normal quantities of ordinary Type I or Type II portland cement. High-early-strength, Type III cement, blended cements and admixtures are also may be used to alter the mixture for rapid strength development. Concrete Paving Basics There are two basic methods of building concrete pavement: fixed-form paving and slipform paving. Fixed-form paving requires the use wooden or metal side forms that are set up along the perimeter of the pavement before paving. Slipform paving does not require any steel or wooden forms. A slipform paving machine extrudes the concrete much like a caulking gun extrudes a bead of caulk for sealing windows. In general, slipform paving is preferred by contractors for large paving areas where it can provide better productivity with less labor than fixed-form paving. There are a variety of different fixed-form paving machines. The least complex are vibratory screeds, and revolving tubes. These hand-operated machines finish the surface of the pavement between fixed forms. Larger, form-riding (or bridge deck) machines are self-propelled and also place and consolidate concrete between fixed forms. These machines either ride on the forms or pipes laid outside the forms, or on curb and gutter.

Roller Screed (Revolving Tube) for Fixed-Form Paving on a Street All slipform machines use the same principle extrusion. The manufacturers provide a variety of sizes for everything from municipal curb and gutter to airport work. Some machines are also equipped with automatic finishing equipment and equipment to automatically insert dowel bars into the pavement at transverse joints. These devices are called Dowel Bar Inserters or DBIs.

Single-Track Slipform Paver While paving, slipform paving machines are equipped with sensors to follow stringlines that are put into position along either side of the paving area. The stringlines control the paver direction and surface elevation. All slipform machines also are equipped with vibrators to help consolidate the concrete and ease the progress of paving by making the concrete more fluid. The vibrators are located toward the front of the machine ahead of its profile pan. The profile pan is the part of the paver that actually extrudes the concrete creating the final shape of the slab.

After the fixed-form or slipform equipment passes, most contractors have crew members use hand-tools to further finish the slab. These operations are called: finishing, floating or straightedging. The entire set of paving and placing machines and activities is called the paving train. On a highway project the typical paving train consists of a spreader or belt placer, slipform paver, and curing and texturing machine. Smaller paving projects may use only the slipform machine. Smoothness New concrete pavements are some of the smoothest pavements built today. Unlike years ago, when pavements were built without any requirements on the surface smoothness, today state transportation departments specify a minimum level of smoothness with ride specifications. Most of these specifications base the requirements on a California profilograph. California Profilograph A California profilograph is a rolling straight edge. It measures vertical deviations from a moving 25-foot reference plane.

A sensing or recording wheel located at the center of the frame moves freely in the vertical direction, giving the machine the ability to record surface deviations. The surface profile is logged into a computer or traced onto graph paper as the profilograph travels along the pavement. The profile is termed a profile trace and shows the location and height of bumps and

dips. The profile trace of a pavement built perfectly smooth would be a straight line on graph paper. To meet the minimum smoothness requirements of the specification, contractors use a diamond grinding machine to remove bumps in the surface which are identified on the profile trace. The trace is also used to produce a profile index expressed in inches per mile (or millimeters per kilometer). When contractors and agency engineers talk about ride numbers or "the ride" they are referring to the profile index. A lower profile index represents a smoother surface than a higher profile index. Many states also successfully use incentive and disincentive payments for the degree of smoothness. Surface Texture Surface textures are usually made during construction by dragging various materials or tools across the fresh concrete. This imparts a continuous series of undulations or grooves in the surface before the concrete hardens. The spacing, width and depth of the grooves affect surface friction, skid resistance and tire/road noise. The purpose of a surface texture is to reduce wetweather accidents caused by skidding and hydroplaning. Over the past 40 years there have been several shifts in the most commonly applied texture. For concrete streets and local roads, where vehicle speeds are not great enough to cause hydroplaning, burlap-drag or broom textures are typical. The most common texture on highspeed road and highway pavements in North America remains transverse tining. However, a shift is underway to longitudinal tining which has been shown to produce excellent long-term skid resistance and much lower tire/road noise qualities both in a vehicle and along the roadway. Drag Textures Broomed Surface Obtained using either a hand broom or mechanical broom device that lightly drags the stiff bristles across the surface. Produces 1.5-3 mm (1/16-1/8 in.) deep striations. Can be oriented either longitudinal or transverse to centerline of roadway. Turf Drag Surface Poduced by trailing an inverted section of artificial turf from a device that allows control of the time and rate of texturing usually a construction bridge that spans the pavement.. Produces 1.5-3 mm (1/16-1/8 in.) deep striations when using turf with 77,500 blades/m3 (xxxxx blades ft3).

Burlap Drag Surface Produced by trailing moistened coarse burlap from a device that allows control of the time and rate of texturing - usually a construction bridge that spans the pavement. Produces 1.5-3 mm (1/16-1/8 in.) deep striations. Tine Textures Transverse Tine Achieved by a mechanical device equipped with a tining head (metal rake) that moves laterally across the width of the paving surface. (A hand tool is sufficient on smaller areas.) Optimal dimensions are: random tine spacing 10 to 40-mm (1/2 to 1-1/2 in.) with no more than 50% above 25 mm (1 in.), 3-6 mm (1/81/4 in.) tine depth, and 3 mm (1/8 in.) tine width. Skewing (as shown) has been found to reduce tire/road noise. Longitudinal Tine Achieved in similar manner as transverse tining, except that tines are pulled in a line parallel to the pavement centerline. Optimal dimensions are: 20-mm (3/4-in.) uniform tine spacing, 3-6 mm (1/8-1/4 in.) tine depth, and 3 mm (1/8 in.) tine width. Exposed Aggregate Exposed Aggregate Mostly European practice of applying a set retarder to the new concrete surface, and then washing away surface mortar to expose durable chip-size aggregates. Requires uniformly applying chips to fresh surface and mechanically abrading surface to wash away still-wet mortar. Hardened Concrete Textures Diamond Ground Longitudinal, corduroy-like surface made by equipment using diamond saw blades gang-mounted on a cutting head. The cutting head produces 164-197 grooves/meter (50-60 grooves/foot) and can remove 3-20 mm (1/8-3/4 in.) from the pavement surface.

Diamond Groove Grooves sawed into surface longitudinally for highways and transversely for airports. Made by same equipment for diamond grinding. Typically, the grooves are 6 mm (1/4 in.) deep, 3 mm (1/8 in.) wide and spaced 20 mm (3/4 in.) apart. On airports grooves are 6 mm (1/4 in.) deep, 6 mm (1/4 in.) wide and spaced 40 mm (1-1/2 in.) apart. Abrated (Shot Balasted) Etched surface produced by equipment that hurls abrasive media within an enclosed housing. The abrasive media impacts the surface and removes a thin layer of mortar and aggregate. The depth of the removal is controllable and the dust is vacuumed into a baghouse.

Curing Concrete Pavement Curing is the treatment or protection of concrete during its hardening period. Curing measures are necessary to maintain a satisfactory moisture and temperature condition in the concrete, because internal temperature and moisture directly influence early and ultimate concrete properties. Curing measures prevent water loss from the mixture and allow more thorough cement hydration. To maximize concrete quality it is necessary to apply curing measures as early as possible after placing concrete. Curing is also critical to providing a durable pavement surface. A variety of curing methods and materials are available for concrete pavement, including water spray or fog, wet burlap sheets, plastic sheets, insulating blankets, and liquid-membrane-forming compounds.

Joints
There are three basic joint types used in concrete pavement: contraction, construction and isolation. Specific design requirements for each type depend upon the joint's orientation to the direction of the roadway (transverse or longitudinal). Another important factor is load transfer. Except for some isolation joints, all joints provide a means to mechnically connect slabs. The connection helps to spread a load applied on one slab onto slabs along its perimeter(s). This decreases the stress within the concrete and increases the longevity of the joint and slab(s). The efficiency of the mechanical connection is expressed as load transfer efficiency. Contraction Joints Contraction joints are necessary to control natural cracking from stresses caused by concrete shrinkage, thermal contraction, and moisture or thermal gradients within the concrete. Typically transverse contraction joints are cut at a right angle to the pavement centerline and edges. However, some agencies skew transverse contraction joints to decrease dynamic loading across the joints by eliminating the simultaneous crossing of each wheel on a vehicles axle. Contraction joints are usually sawed into the concrete, but they might be formed or tooled on smaller projects. The details below show the different types of contraction joints and their dimensions.

Construction Joints Construction joints join concrete that is paved at different times. Transverse construction joints are necessary at the end of a paving segment, or at a placement interruption for a driveway, cross road or bridge. Longitudinal construction joints join lanes that are paved at different times, or join through-lanes to curb and gutter or auxiliary lanes. The details below show the different types of construction joints and their dimensions.

Isolation Joints Isolation joints separate the pavement from objects or structures, and allow independent movement of the pavement, object or structure without any connection that could cause damage. Isolation joints are used where a pavement abuts certain manholes, drainage fixtures, sidewalks and buildings, and intersects other pavements or bridges. The details below show the different types of isolation joints and their dimensions.

Subbases and Subgrades


A reasonably uniform subgrade or subbase, with no abrupt changes in support, is ideal for any concrete pavement. Most native soils are not too uniform and thus require some improvement or additional layers to compensate. A subbase is a thin layer of material placed on top of the prepared subgrade. Subbases provide uniform support to the pavement and a stable platform for construction equipment. Subbases also help prevent movement of subgrade soils at transverse pavement joints in roads subject to a large volume of truck traffic. Subbases may be gravel, stone, cement-modified soil, asphalt, or econocrete (low-strength concrete). Permeable subbases (sometimes opengraded subbases) are used to drain water away from beneath the pavement. Permeable subbases have become popular over the last decade. These subbases either may be untreated or stabilized with portland cement or asphalt. To drain water freely, permeable subbases do not have as much fine or small particles as a typical dense graded granular subbase material. Water easily passes around the aggregate as it flows through the permeable subbase layer. A collector pipe and outlet system discharges water away from the pavement. However, to be effective, an important balance must be met between the degree of drainage and the stability of the subbase layer. Subbase stability should not be sacrificed for the sake of drainage A target permeability of 200-300 ft/day will produce a stable, draining layer that will last. Specification Basics There are several different types of specifications for concrete pavement contracts. The most common remains the method and material specification (also called method specification, or recipe specification). This type of specification directs the contractor to use specified materials in definite proportions and specific types of equipment and methods to place the pavement. (Each step is directed by an inspector or engineer from the agency.) End Result Specifications End result specifications require the contractor to take the entire responsibility for supplying the

pavement. The agencys responsibility is to accept or reject the pavement or apply a price adjustment based on how the pavement measures against acceptability criteria. End result specifications afford the most flexibility to the contractor for innovation. There are very few agencies using this specification in its pure form. Quality Assurance/Control Specifications Presently, many highway and airport agencies are starting to use or develop specifications encompassing quality assurance and quality control measures. Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) specifications are a combination of end-result specifications and method and materials specifications. The contractor is responsible for quality control (process control), and the owner/engineer is responsible for acceptance of the product. Quality assurance specifications typically are statistically based specifications that use methods such as random sampling and lotby-lot testing, which let the contractor know if his operations are producing an acceptable product. While it is not clear whether QA/QC or performance-related concepts are necessary and costeffective for smaller projects, in time it is likely they will become the standard for larger projects. Performance Specifications The fourth type of specification, performance-related, describes how the pavement should perform over time. This requires sound information on what defects or quality factors exist in the as-constructed pavement that will accurately predict its performance. This specification concept is relatively new to the construction of pavements and has not been implemented by any state transportation departments to date. Restoring and Patching The ACPA Pavement Restoration Division serves as a national resource for information about concrete pavement restoration techniques and developments. Throughout the year, ACPA staff, chapter/states, and others in the industry present seminars, and committee meetings on topics that include the many phases of concrete pavement rehabilitation, or CPR3. ACPA staff and chapter/states also participate in road-conditions surveys, van trips, and project visits. ACPA has a number of technical and information resources on pavement restoration tips and techniques. There are a large number of concrete pavement products or applications for rehabilitating concrete or asphalt pavements.Typically, for old concrete pavement, the first rehabilitation work includes one or more of eight techniques in CPR (Concrete Pavement Restoration). CPR refers to a series of repair techniques used to bring the structural capacity or rideability of a deteriorating concrete pavement to an acceptable condition. CPR techniques each have a unique purpose to repair or replace a particular distress (kind of deterioration) found in concrete pavement, or to prevent or slow further deterioration. The seven most common CPR techniques are:

Slab stabilization Full-depth repair Partial-depth repair Retrofitting dowels Cross-stitching longitudinally-oriented cracks or longitudinal joints Diamond grinding Joint & crack resealing Only one technique may be necessary for pavements with minor deterioration, but all of them may be needed where deterioration is more serious. Choosing what techniques to use depends on what distresses are present in the pavement. For CPR to be most effective, proper engineering, construction and timing are critical. Concrete Pavement Resurfacing Resurfacing, or overlays represent a more extensive series of activities to rehabilitate a concrete pavement. Resurfacing is used when the pavement has medium to high levels of distress, which would make the use of CPR techniques too expensive or less reliable. Concrete overlays fall into two basic categories: concrete overlays for concrete pavements and concrete overlays for asphalt pavements. Within each of these categories are two overlay types, bonded and unbonded. Concrete Overlays of Concrete Pavement Bonded concrete overlays of concrete pavements are primarily used to increase pavement structural capacity. They consist of a thin concrete layer (4 inches or less) bonded to the top of the existing concrete surface to form a monolithic or composite section. Typically, pavements that have very little deterioration, but are too thin for an increasing traffic volume, are good candidates for a bonded overlay. Bonded concrete overlays are not recommended when the existing pavement is badly deteriorated and a substantial amount of removal and replacement of existing layers is necessary during rehabilitation. Bonded concrete overlays are also not appropriate if there is significant deterioration of the existing pavement from a material durability problem like "D" cracking or alkali-silica reaction. Unbonded concrete overlays consist of a relatively thick concrete layer (5 inches or greater) on top of an existing concrete pavement. Unbonded overlays are generally most cost effective when an existing concrete pavement is badly deteriorated and removal of existing pavement layers is not desirable. Unbonded overlays react structurally as if built on a strong, non-erodable base course. Unbonded overlays do not require much pre-overlay repair before placement because of a separating layer used between the overlay and old pavement. The separation interlayer is usually a thin asphalt layer of about 0.5-1.5 inches thick. The layer is sometimes called a debonding layer or stress relief layer. The purpose of the interlayer is to separate the old and new layers so that they may act independently of each other through temperature cycles and load deflection.

The separation interlayer prevents distresses in the old pavement from reflecting through into the overlay. Unbonded concrete overlays are a much better option for deteriorated concrete pavements than rubblization and an asphalt overlay. Concrete Overlays of Asphalt Pavement Conventional Whitetopping and ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW) are overlays for existing asphalt pavement. Conventional whitetopping consists of a thick concrete layer (4 inches or more) on top of an existing asphalt pavement. When loaded by vehicles, the new overlay behaves just like a new concrete pavement on a strong base course. Whitetopping overlays are effective for almost all applications. They have been successfully used on interstate highways, state primary and secondary roads, intersections, etc. as well as major airport and general aviation runways, taxiways, and aprons. Conventional whitetopping offers several advantages. First, they require minimal pre-overlay repair because of concrete's ability to bridge deterioration. Second, the existing asphalt makes an excellent base course with the same advantages of other stabilized base materials -- reduced potential for pumping, faulting, and loss of support. An Ultra-thin Whitetopping Overlay (UTW) is a thin concrete overlay; 2 to 4 inches thick, placed on top of a prepared surface of an existing asphalt pavement. In addition to being thinner, two other factors differentiate UTW from conventional whitetopping:

Bonding or partial bonding between the concrete overlay and the existing asphalt pavement Very short joint spacing compared to normal (2 to 6 ft instead of 12 to 18 ft).

Bonding the concrete overlay to the asphalt pavement creates a composite section in which the load is shared between the concrete and existing asphalt. The closer joint spacing allows the slabs to deflect instead of bend. This reduces load stresses in the slabs to reasonable values even at thickness of just 2 inches. UTW is applied where a substantial thickness of asphalt exists, such as full-depth asphalt pavements (asphalt surface on asphalt base). UTW is good application for normal traffic loads on residential streets and low-volume roads. Other applications include asphalt intersections where rutting and washboarding is a problem, general aviation pavements, and parking areas. Many projects have been fast-tracked and opened to traffic quickly. Reconstructing and Recycling Reconstruction is the most invasive rehabilitation option, however in many cases it is the most cost-effective. It is used for pavements with many cracked slabs, subgrade and support instability, serious material distresses and roadway safety needs. Restoration and resurfacing of

pavements in these conditions is usually less effective. Reconstruction may involve removal and replacement of parts of the pavement, like one lane, or complete removal of the entire pavement, including support layers. When only one or two lanes are removed the replacement pavement is termed an inlay. Recycling Concrete Pavement Recycling eliminates the need for disposal by using the readily available pavement as an aggregate source for new concrete or subbase layers. Recycling of concrete pavement is a relatively simple process. It involves breaking, removing and crushing concrete from an existing pavement into a material with a specified size and quality. Crushed concrete may be reused as an aggregate in new portland cement concrete or any other structural layer. Generally it is combined with a virgin aggregate when used in new concrete. However, recycled concrete is more often used as aggregate in a subbase layer. Several advances have made recycling more economical for all types of concrete pavements in recent years. These include:

Development of equipment for breaking concrete pavements be they plain, mesh and dowel or continuously reinforced. Development of methods to remove steel that minimizes hand labor. Use and application of crushing equipment that can accommodate steel reinforcement.

There are no restrictions on the types of concrete pavements that can be recycled. Successful and economical recycling projects have included jointed plain pavement, jointed reinforced pavement, continuously reinforced pavement and even airport pavement over 17 inches thick.

Life Cycle Cost Analysis Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is a method which allows owners, agencies, engineers, or any competent person to evaluate different alternatives of infrastructure projects. This analysis method is based on the estimated or calculated costs of each alternative over its design life. In applying this concept to pavements, the designer should consider initial (first) costs, maintenance costs, rehabilitation costs, user costs, and reconstruction costs. The designer must also make sure that the different pavement alternatives are designed for the same amount of traffic. LCCA is defined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) as "a process for evaluating the total economic worth of a usable project segment by analyzing initial costs and discounted future costs, such as maintenance, user costs, reconstruction, rehabilitation, restoring, and resurfacing costs, over the life of the project segment." TEA-21 focuses on the engineering (project) costs and does not directly identify the social costs - air quality, accidents, and noise which form the external costs of infrastructure construction and management.

How to obtain "high early strength" concrete


Rapid concrete pavement repairs have become common on many busy highways throughout North America. High early strength concrete is very useful for opening up concrete pavements to traffic earlier than conventional concrete mixtures. New pavements, full-depth repairs, and other patches can be completed and the roadway or runway opened/reopened faster than with normal or conventional mixes. How to get high early strength High early strength concrete (2500-3500 psi compressive in 24 hours) is usually accomplished using Type III high-early strength cement (see Table 1), high cement content (600-1000 lb/cu yd), and lower water-cement ratios (0.3 to 0.45 by weight). Super-plasticizers are also used to make the concrete mixture more workable during placement. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) are sometimes used in the mix to partially replace some of the Type III cement, which can be very expensive. Table 1. Types of Portland Cement. Type of portland Uses cement Type I general concrete construction Type II Type III Type IV Type V White Blaine m2/kg 370 fineness,

concrete exposed to moderate sulfate action or when moderate heat of 370 hydration required high concrete strength in short time 540 span suitable when low heat of hydration 380 is necessary used when concrete is exposed to 380 high sulfate action architectural purposes - when white or colored concrete/mortar is 490 required

Aggregate gradation uniformity will improve concrete strength, workability, and long-term durability. Intermediate size aggregates fill voids typically occupied by less dense cement paste and thereby optimize concrete density (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Diagram showing how intermediate size aggregates fill spaces between larger coarse aggregates. It is not recommended to use calcium chloride to achieve high early strength, but if it is used, do not use more than 2%. Flash set of the concrete is likely to occur with more than 2% CaCl, and oftentimes with any amount less than 2% CaCl. In general, the workability of the concrete mixture decreases greatly with CaCl. Insulating blankets (or other insulation measures) can also be used in the first 24 hours to help strength gain by retaining the heat of hydration. Caution must be taken, though, to avoid thermal shock when the blankets are taken off. Thermal shock may cause premature cracking of the concrete. Considerations in using high early strength mixes Some concerns remain about the long-term durability of early-opening-to-traffic concrete repairs. This factor must be taken into account when designing reconstructed concrete pavements as well as concrete pavement repairs. In a few cases, early deterioration due to excessive shrinkage cracking or other environmental conditions has led to unsatisfactory performance of full-depth repairs and slab replacements. These distresses can be minimized by careful attention to and understanding of the effects of changes in mix design.

The strength tests that can be performed on concrete specimens


Flexural Tests The concrete strength used in the design of concrete pavements is based on AASHTO Test Method T-97 or ASTM C78, Flexural Strength of Concrete using a Simple Beam with ThirdPoint Loading (see Figure 1 below). These flexural tests (also called Modulus of Rupture tests or Third-Point Loading tests) are performed using concrete beams that have been cast and cured in the field, to mimic field conditions. For AASHTO thickness design, it is important that the third point loading 28-day flexural strength be used use in the AASHTO equation. If the strength values are measured using some other test method, it must be converted to the 28-day third-point strength.

Figure 1. Third-Point Loading Flexural Strength Test Some agencies use the center-point flexural strength test (AASHTO T-177 or ASTM C293) to determine their concrete strength (see Figure 2). Center-point loading forces the beam to fail directly under the center of the loading. This may or may not be the weakest point in the beam. In third point loading, the entire middle one-third of the beam is stressed uniformly and thus the beam fails at its weakest point in the middle one-third of the beam. By forcing the beam to fail at the center, the center-point flexural test results are somewhat higher than the third-point test results. Typically, the center point results are about 15% greater. Though this relationship is not exact, it does provide a reasonable estimate of the concrete's average strength.

Figure 2. Center-Point Loading Flexural Strength Test Compressive Tests Many agencies use compressive strength of concrete cylinders or cores (AASHTO T-22 or ASTM C39) as an alternative to flexural strength testing (see Figure 3).

Figure 3. Photo of Compression Test Splitting Tensile Tests Splitting tensile tests involve compressing a cylinder or core on its side until a crack forms down the middle, causing failure of the specimen.

Figure 4. Diagram of Splitting Tensile Test Correlation There are many papers, articles, and opinions on the correlation between the different strength test types, and ACPA does not recommend any one test in particular. As for the correlation between the three test types, most of the following equations can be used, noting that the variance in the coefficients and equations can be attributed to regional, climatic, and material properties, among others. Let: Splitting Tensile Strength = Compressive Strength = Flexural Strength = MR (Modulus of Rupture), third-point loading (unless otherwise noted)

Fst Fc

Source/Author ACI Journal / Raphael, J.M.

Equation in psi (pounds per square inch) MR = 2.3 * [Fc ^(2/3)] Fst = 1.7 * [Fc ^(2/3)]

ACI Code

MR = 7.5 * [Fc ^(0.5)] Fst = 6.7 * [Fc ^(0.5)]

Center for Transportation Research / Fowler, Fst = 0.72 x MR D.W. Center for Transportation Research / MR (3rd Point) = 0.86 x MR (Center Carrasquillo, R. Point) Greer MR = 21 + 1.254 Fst

MR = 1.296 Fst MR = Fst + 150 Hammit Narrow & Ulbrig Grieb & Werner MR = 1.02 Fst + 210.5 MR = Fst + 250 Fst = 5/8 MR (river gravel) Fst = 2/3 MR (crushed limestone) NOTE: When High-Performance Concrete is used, the above relationhips will not necessarily hold true. The HPC mixes with very low w/c ratios tend to be more brittle and show different behaviors. Additional Sources:

Raphael, J.M., "TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE," ACI Journal, Vol. 81, Number 2, Mar-Apr 1984 pp. 158-165 Popovics, S., "Strength and related properties of concrete: a quantitative approach", New York, 1998. Grieb. W.E. and G. Werner, "Comparison of Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete with Flexural and Compressive Strength," American Society for Testing and Materials, Proceedings, Vol 62, pp 972-995, 1962. Grieb, W.E., and Werner, G., Comparison of the Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete with Flexural and Compressive Strengths, Public Roads, V. 32, No. 5, Dec. 1962, pp. 97-106.

The Importance of Using Average Strength The expected actual average 28-day flexural strength (S'c) of the concrete should be used in thickness design procedures. Using the specified minimum construction strength will cause the design to be too conservative. Therefore, it is necessary to correct the specified minimum strength to the design strength using the following equation: S'c = Sc + z(s) where:

S'c = Estimated average flexural strength Sc= Specified minimum flexural strength s = Estimated standard deviation of the strength z = Standard normal deviate corresponding to the percent of results which can be below the specified strength.

To use this equation, the designer must know or have estimate values of: 1. The percent of strength tests permitted below the specified level 2. The standard deviation of the strength tests. The values for z are derived from basic statistics and are shown in the following table: Values of the standard normal deviate (z) corresponding to the precent of tests below the specified strength (Sc) z .841 1.037 1.282 1.645 2.327 Percent of specimens below the specified value 20 15 10 5 1

The standard deviation (s) of the strength test results depends upon the variability of the concrete and accuracy of the testing. Contractors generally use either central-mix or ready-mix plants to produce concrete. These plants are capable of providing very uniform concrete. Historically, the standard deviation (s) for ready-mix concrete is about 7 to 13 percent of the average strength. The standard deviation (s) for central-mix concrete is from 5 to 12 percent of the average strength. Generally, records of the standard deviation from past plant operations are available. The following example demonstrates the above procedure to account for the average, in-field 28day flexural strength. Example: Suppose that you want to design a small street project. You know that several local operators supply most of the concrete in your area using ready-mix concrete. You also know that you will specify concrete with a minimum 28-day flexural strength of 550 psi (3.79 MPa) and your specification will permit 10 percent of the tests to fall below that level. What strength do you use in the AASHTO design equation? Step 1: Estimate the "s" using s = 9 percent of the flexural strength; or, call several ready mix operators to determine the value. Since you do not know the actual average strength, use the specified value for S'c (it will be fairly close). The value for s then becomes: s = 0.09 (550) s = 49.5 psi Step 2: Estimate the design strength to use in the equation. Apply the correction for a 10 percent failure rate (z: = 1.282) S'c = 550+ 1.282(49.5) S'c = 614 psi (4.22 MPa)

Note: The same principle applies if compressive strengths are used. The corrected compressive strength would be converted to third-point flexural strength using any one of the relationships previously shown. In the example, 614 psi (4.22 MPa) would be the value to use in the design equations. For comparison, the average 28-day flexural strength at the AASHO road test was 690 psi (4.76 MPa) third-point loading.

The tests that can be performed on fresh concrete specimens


In general, the testing of freshly mixed (as opposed to hardened) concrete should be representative. This means that the sampling should follow ASTM C172 specification. Examples of tests that follow representative sampling include slump testing, temperature measurement, unit weight and yield, air content tests, strength tests, and water/cement ratio. Additional tests that can be performed on fresh concrete include time of setting, accelerated curing, chloride content, and bleeding of concrete. Slump Test ASTM C143 (tests the consistency of the concrete mixture; is also a measure of the stiffness of the mix) Temperature Measurement ASTM C1064 (should be completed within 5 minutes after obtaining the sample) Unit Weight and Yield ASTM C138 Air Content Test ASTM C173, C231, or C138 Strength Tests ASTM C31 (field specimens) or ASTM C192 (lab specimens). Molding of specimens should occur within 15 minutes after specimen is obtained. Strength tests can be flexural (beam), compressive (cylinder or core), or splitting tensile (cylinder or core). For more information, see FATQ "What are the strength tests that can be performed on concrete specimens, and how do they relate to one another?" Cement and Water Content (Water/Cement Ratio) ASTM C1078 and C1079

Time of Setting ASTM C403 Accelerated Curing ASTM C684 Chloride Content NRMCA method (see NRMCA Technical Information Letter No. 437) Bleeding of Concrete ASTM C232