Anda di halaman 1dari 20

Unit 11. WHATS BEEN HAPPENING?

1a What kind of general information do you discuss when handing over the watch? Circle the categories you talk about. Add some more categories to the list. maintenance and repairs technical information weather conditions supplies the log book messages

traffic in the vicinity

1b Listen to the cassette. The Chief Officer is handing over the navigational watch to the 3 rd Officer. Which of the topics in Exercise 1a are mentioned in the dialogue? 1c Listen to the dialogue again. Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. The 3rd Officer has never sailed this route before. 2. The weather is expected to improve when they reach Port Elisabeth. 3. Some detached buoys can be seen from the bridge. 4. There is only a container ship and a warship in the vicinity. 5. The Chief Officer expects to rest well. 1d Here are some sentences from the dialogue. Weve been going through (1) some nasty weather. Since I started the watch shes been rolling (2) so violently that the waves have been breaking (3) over the deck railings. Ive been looking out for (4) them, but so far Ive seen (5) nothing. Have you filled in (6) the log book? Ive recorded (7) details of our exact position. My eyes have got used to (8) the darkness now. 1.Which of the examples describe ongoing activities and emphasise the length of time of the activities? What tense is used in these examples? 2.Which of the examples report or check information? What tense is used in these examples? 2a. Present Perfect continuous The Present Perfect Continuous is used to talk about unfinished or recently finished actions. This tense emphasises how long the action has been happening. e.g. He has been reading the manuals all morning.(We dont know if he has finished reading or not, but he was occupied all morning.) They have been trying to contact the Coastguard. (They have probably not been able to contact the Coastguard yet, but they have spent some time trying.) T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F

The Present Perfect Continuous is often used to comment on, or sometimes complain about, the duration of an activity. e.g. Hes been learning to drive for two years but he hasnt passed his test yet. Ive been waiting for twenty minutes but my train still hasnt arrived. The Present Perfect Continuous can also be used to comment on an action that has been in progress for a long time. e.g. Theyve been studying English for two years. Theyre fluent now. The form of the Present Perfect continuous is; Subject+have/has+(not)+been+ing He has been working here for two weeks. They have (not) been watching the video. Present Perfect Continuous and Present Perfect Simple The Present Perfect Simple is often used to talk about how much has been done. e.g. He has read two manuals this morning. (He has finished reading two manuals.) Remember that some verbs are not used in the continuous form (verbs that describe states not actions) e.g. Ive always liked him. He has belonged to that club for many years However, verbs that describe states can be used in the continuous form when talking about physical illness. e.g. Ive been having a lot of headaches recently. Shes gone home. Shes been feeling ill all day. Complete the sentences using the Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous. 1.Is Henri still working? No, he(finish/already). 2.How long..(you/know) him? Oh, for about ten years. 3.Im sorry Im late.(you/wait) long? 4.How many times.(you/be) to the Far East? Several times. 5.What(you/do) this morning? I(paint) the bulkheads. Ill be finished this afternoon. 6.Why are you sweating so much? Oh, I(work out) in the gym for the past two hours. 7.(you/phone) the office yet? I.(try) for an hour but I cant get through. 8.Come quickly! There(be) an accident. Peter..(break) his leg. 9.There you are! I.(look) for you for ages! 10. I wonder what they are discussing at the meeting. They(talk) for hours.

2b Since and for Remember that SINCE and FOR are used with expressions of time to say how long something has been happening. SINCE is used with points in time and FOR is used with periods of time. e.g. How long have you been working with that company? For about 3 years. How long has it been raining? Since 3 oclock. Do these time markers relate to a point in time or a period of time? Write each one n the correct section. two days; a couple of hours; Friday; Christmas; last month; many years; a few minutes; the start of my watch; June 21st; six weeks; 12 oclock. Ive been working here SINCE:..

FOR: The continuous form The continuous form is used to describe actions in progress at different points in time. Notice the difference between the Present Continuous, the Past Continuous and the Present Perfect Continuous. e.g. Be quiet. Im watching a training video. (The action is happening now) I was watching a training video at 1400 yesterday. (The action was happening at a specific time n the past) Im tired because I have been watching this training video for 3 hours. (The action is still happening or has recently finished.)

Read the dialogue. The 2nd Officer is handing over the watch to the 3 rd Officer. Choose the correct form of the verb to complete the dialogue. 2nd Officer: Morning, Emilio. Im glad youre here for your watch. I am doing/I have been doing the monthly check on the Breathing Apparatus Sets but I havent finished yet. Id like you to take over from me now. I have to go and show an inspector around the ship. rd 3 Officer: How much have you done/have you been doing so far? 2nd Officer: Well, heres the maintenance record. AS you can see, I have already tested/I have been testing the warning whistle and checked/checking the rubber and the sealing in all the facemasks. They all seem to be fine. For the past hour I am checking/I have been checking the cylinder pressures and topping up the pressure where necessary. I have doe/I have been doing those three sets over there already so you can start on the sets in this locker. 3rd Officer: What about the harnesses and head straps? 2nd Officer: Yes, I have already checked/ I have been checking the harnesses and made/making sure that all the headstraps are fully extended. Each set is ready for use. Oh, theres one problem, however. This set here appears to have a leak. I am looking/I have been looking for it but I cant find it. Maybe you can check it over. 3rd Officer: No problem Ill sort it out.. 3a Read these examples from the dialogue in Exercise 1b. Notice the different uses of GET. 1. Visibilitys BEEN GETTING steadily WORSE. 2. Conditions should improve considerably when we GET TO Port Elizabeth. 3. At 1930 hours we GOT a message from a container ship just north of our current position. 4. My eyes HAVE GOT USED TO the darkness now. 5. Ill let you GET SOME REST Each of the expressions using GET can be replaced with another word or phrase. Match each expression in capitals with its meaning from the list below. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) reach have become accustomed to have some sleep received has become worse

3b GET GET is a very common English word which has various meanings depending on the words that follow it. GET is quite informal and can often be replaced with a more formal word. Here are some of the more common meanings and uses of GET. GET + noun often means obtain, receive or take e.g. He couldnt get a job with that company. I got a letter from my brother yesterday. Hes been getting good results at college this year. Why dont you get the bus? Its cheaper and quicker than the train.

I must get some sleep. Its late. GET + adjective often means become e.g. I hope the weather will get better soon. Im getting hungry. Lets try this caf here. My cough has been getting worse recently. Everyone got ready for the drill.(=prepared) GET + past participle is like the passive be+ past participle, and is used to describe things that happen out of our control. e.g. The seaman got reprimanded after he was found asleep. (=was told off) I try not to get drawn into their arguments. (=become involved in) I always get lost in a new city. (=become disoriented) I cant get used to working at night. (=become accustomed to) GET + past participle is also used to describe things that we do to ourselves. e.g. He got married last month. Have you heard/ Tom and Maria have just got engaged. After getting washed and dressed, I went downstairs to breakfast. GET I multi-word verbs e.g. They always get up very early. (=rise) I get on well with my cabin mate. (=have a good relationship) We got to Rio de Janeiro just in time for Mardi Gras. (=reached, arrived in) The computer crashed but we got around the problem by using the old (=overcame)

typewriter.

Complete these sentences using an appropriate phrase with GET in the correct tense. Choose from the phrases in the box I Exercise 3b. 1. I.. .. with this company in 1995. Ive mainly been working on gas carriers since then. 2. He met Anna at Christmas, they.. ..in the New Year and they are planning to.. this summer. Im looking forward to the wedding. 3. I have been at sea for many years but it is still difficult to . ..very stormy conditions. I am often sea-sick during heavy seas. 4. There were a few problems but after much discussion we managed to. ..them. 5. If you want to.good.., youll have to study hard. 6. When I moved to Bangkok, I kept. because I couldnt understand the street signs. 7. The rating.. for wearing the wrong type of shoes on deck. 8. Hardly anyone writes to me! The last time I.. .. was six months ago. 9. Ill call you when we. .Rotterdam. 10. My English. . these days. I have more time to study and I practise speaking with my colleagues. 11. Some of the workers could not agree to their new working conditions but I refused to. .the argument.

12. What are your travel plans? I .the.at 1015 from Central Station so I should be in London by mid-afternoon. 4a. You are going to read a news article. Before you read it, look at some key words from the text and answer the questions. local environmentalists a North Sea inlet tragic results the rescue effort

beached whales 1. 2. 3. What do you think the problem is? What do you think the outcome is? Why do you think the incident occurred?

Compare your answers with a study partner. 4b. Read the news article and check your predictions. We are appealing for people to stay away from the beach. Two sperm whales have recently beached themselves on a shallow sand bank near the harbour and four others are in danger of following them, according to environmentalists involved in the rescue operation. Environmentalists, volunteers and vets have been working round the clock in an attempt to lead six sperm whales back to deeper waters. Fishermen say it s likely that the whales followed a trawler into the shallow North Sea inlet yesterday afternoon. There are fears that the two stranded whales might not survive. Rescue workers are trying to keep the other whales from following the first two to the shore. They hope that, if they can keep them in the tideway, they may be able to find their way back into the North sea when the tide comes in. Attempts by local fishermen to try to lead the whales along the shore and out of the inlet will probably not work commented one environmentalist. Arrangements have now been made for a barge come and tow some of the whales back to deeper waters, in the hope that others will follow. We are appealing for people to stay away from the beach said Jean Carey, a local marine biologist. Although it is heartening to see so many people offering to assist the rescue effort, we already have enough volunteers to help us keep the two beached whales wet and cool. Many whales die along the North Sea coast, particularly younger ones which appear to swim down the east coast of Scotland instead of the west on their way from the Arctic. The reason why whales become stranded in shallow waters or beach themselves is not known although it could be that their sonar system does not detect gradual changes in depth, resulting in some whales becoming trapped in shallow water or on beaches. Once a few whales beach themselves, the rest of the pod may follow.

4c Read these titles. In your opinion, which is the best title for the article in Exercise 4b? Why? Can you think of an alternative title? SOS (SAVE OUR WHALES) Locals lead whales to safety 5a Read these sentences from the article. Then read the article again and correct the statements. There is a mistake in each statement. 1. The whales followed a trawler into the inlet. 2. The two beached whales are going to die. 3. When the tide comes in, the four whales in the tideway will swim back into the North Sea. 4. Rescue attempts are not working. 5. Volunteers are not needed in the rescue effort. 5b Expressing certainty and uncertainty I May, might and could are used to say you are uncertain about something. There is little difference in meaning e.g. They may be able to find their way back into the North Sea.(It is possible but not certain that they will find their way back) Towing them back to deeper waters may not work. (it is possible that this strategy will not work) The four whales in the water might survive. (It is possible that they will survive. The two beached whales might not survive. (It is possible that they will not survive) It could be that their sonar system does not detect gradual changes in depth. (It is possible that their sonar system does not detect gradual changes in depth.) In the negative we use may not or might not (*could not is not used) Expressing certainty II We can express certainty and uncertainty in other ways. Look at these examples. It is 100% certain that this will happen -Look at those clouds. Its definitely going to rain. -It is likely that the whales followed a fishing trawler. It is 80 to 50% that this will happen -The other whales will probably follow. -It is possible that the whales in the water will survive. -Attempts to save the whales will probably not work/probably wont work. It is 100% certain that this will not happen -It is unlikely that the whales on the beach will survive. -We definitely do not need more volunteers. Whales in Danger Fishermen at Fault

Choose the correct item to complete these sentences. 1. He promised to come to the meeting. Hell definitely/Its likely that hell be here. 2. If I run out of time, I may not/could not finish the varnishing until tomorrow. 3. I probably wont/definitely wont be at lunch today. Im going to a meeting during my lunch break. 4. It is unlikely/It is possible that the weather will improve. The forecast is terrible. 5. We dont know for sure yet but the whales may not/will definitely not find their way back to deeper waters. 6. He might/will definitely get promotion if he proves his leadership qualities but it hasnt been decided yet. 7. This couldnt/might not be the correct phone number, but Ill try it anyway. 8.The match could/will probably be called off: theres a 50% chance of snow later. Maritime Focus 6a. Listen to the three VHF transmissions. What kind of messages are they and what are the circumstances that require such message types? 6b Read the following situations and then write out an appropriate message for each circumstance. NOTE! Distress Signal/Call MAYDAY is used to indicate that a mobile station is threatened by grave and immediate danger and requests immediate assistance. MAYDAY has priority over all other communications (1)Distress Signal/Call Mayday (three times) (2)This is(once) (3)Name of vessel in distress (spoken 3 times) and call sign (spoken once) (4)Distress call ( spoken once) (5)Name of vessel (spoken once) (6)Position of vessel in distress by latitude and longitude or bearing (true or magnetic, state which) and distance to a well-known landmark such as a navigational aid or small island, or in any terms which will assist a responding station in locating the vessel in distress. Include any information on vessel movement such as course, speed, and destination. (7)Nature of distress (sinking, fire, etc.) (8)Kind of assistance required (9)Any other information which might facilitate rescue, such as: length or tonnage of vessel, number of persons on board, and number needing medical attention, colour of hull, decks, cabin, masts, etc. (10)Over EXAMPLE: distress Call and Message (send Radiotelephone Alarm Signal, If available, for at least 30 seconds but not more than one minute) MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY THIS IS BLUE DUCK BLUEDUCK BLUE DUCK WA 1234

MAYDAY BLUEDUCK DUNGENESS LIGHT BEARS 185 DEGREES MAGNETIC-DISTANCE 2 MILES STRUCK SUBMERGED OBJECT NEED PUMPS-MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND TOW THREE ADULTS-TWO CHILDREN ABOARD ON COMPOUND FRACTURE OF ARM ESTIMATE CAN REMAIN AFLOAT TWO HOURS BLUE DUCK IS THIRTY-TWO FOOT CABIN CRUISER BLUE HULE DECK HOUSE OVER The Offer-of-Assistance Message usually includes the following: (1) Name of the distressed vessel (spoken once) (2) The words THIS IS (spoken once) (3) The name of the calling vessel (spoken once) (4) The word OVER (spoken once) (5) (On hearing an acknowledgment, ending with the word OVER from the distressed vessel, continue with your offer of assistance message.) (6) Name of caling vessel and radio call sign (spoken once) (7) The word OVER (spoken once) EXAMPLE: Offer-of-Assistance To be sent after a short interval of time, but long enough to be sure that further transmissions will not cause harmful interference and long enough to work out relative position and time to reach the distressed vessel: BLUE DUCK-THIS IS-WHITE WHALE-OVER (on hearing the word OVER from BLUE DUCK, continue) I AM PROCEEDING TOWARD YOU FROM TEN MILES WESTWARD EXPECT TO ARRIVE IN ONE HOUR COAST GUARD HAS BEN NOTIFIED INCLUDING YOUR NEED FOR DOCTOR I HAVE ONE INCH PORTABLE PUMP PLEASE ADVISE IF MY ASSISTANCE IS NOT NEEDED WHITE WHALE-WZ4321-OVER

Urgency Signal/Call PAN-PAN is used when the safety of the vessel or person is in jeopardy.Man overboard messages are sent with the Urgency signal. PAN-PAN has priority over all other communications with the exception of distress traffic. (1)Urgency call Pan-Pan (three times) (2)Addressee-ALL STATIONS (or a particular station) (3)This is. (4) Name of calling vessel ( spoken 3 times) and call sign (spoken once) (5) The Urgency Message(i.e.an urgent storm warning, loss of person overboard but only when the assistance of other vessels is required, no steering or power in shipping lane) (6) Position of vessel and any other information that will assist responding vessels. Include description of your vessel, etc (7) The words THIS IS (spoken once) (8) name of calling vessel and radio call sign (spoken once) (9) the word OVER

EXAMPLE: Urgency Call and Message PAN-PAN PAN-PAN PAN-PAN-ALL-STATIONS (or a particular station) THIS IS-BLUE DUCK-BLUE DUCK-BLUE DUCK HAVE LOST MY RUDDER AM DRIFTING TOWARD SHORE AND REQUIRE TOW SEVEN PERSONS ON BOARD BLUE DUCK IS THIRTY-TWO FOOT CABIN CRUISER-BLUE HULL WHITE DECK HOUSE THIS IS-BLUE DUCK-WA 1234 OVER Safety Signal/Call SECURITE/SAFETY is used for messages concerning the safety of navigation or giving important meteorological warnings (1).Safety call SECURITE/SECURITY (spoken three times) (2) Addressee-ALL STATIONS/SHIPS (or a particular station)(spoken 3 times) (3)The words THIS IS.. (4) Name of vessel calling and radio call sign (5) Announcement of the working channel (frequency) where the message will be given (6) Radio Call Sign (7) The word OUT The Safety message usually includes the following:(select working channel (frequency) announced in step 5 above) (1) The Safety call/signal (spoken 3 times) (2) The words ALL STATIONS/SHIPS (spoken 3 times) (3) The words THIS IS (spoken once) (4) Give the Safety Message (5) Repeat the Radio Call Sign (6) The word OUT EXAMPLES: Safety Call and Message (On VHF Channel 16) SECURITE-SECURITE-SECURITE ALL SHIPS-ALLSHIPS-ALL SHIPS THIS IS BLUE DUCK-WA 1234 LISTEN CHANNEL 68 WA 1234-OUT (On VHF Channel 68) SECURITE-SECURITE-SECURITE ALL SHIPS-ALL SHIPS-ALL SHIPS THIS IS BLUE DUCK-WA 1234 A LOG APPROXIMATELY TWENTY FEET LONG TWO FEET IN DIAMETER ADRIFT OFF HAINS POINT POTOMAC RIVER WA 1234-OUT

Look at these messages and decide whether distress, urgency or safety procedures should be used: (a) tug assistance. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) From Harbourmaster Falmouth yacht Belinda overdue on voyage from Cromer to Falmouth left Cromer 10th march report any sightings to Lloyds London. Diving operations in progress at Ninian north platform ship movement within a radius of 500 metres prohibited until further notice. Ship holed in engine room. Sinking. Request immediate assistance. Gale warning southwest gale force winds imminent in sea areas Dover Thames. 52.30 North 16.20 west fire in number two hold. Ships in vicinity please stand by. 100 miles southwest of Landsend engine broken down. Require

(i)You are sinking, due to collision with a submerged object, which has punctured the hull in the area of nos.4 and 5 and double bottom tanks. The ballast line non-return valves have failed, probably due to grit in the valve seatings. It is now 15;00 ships time, and you are keeping zone +11. Your dead reckoning position is twenty-five degrees and ten minutes south, one-hundred-and-sixty and a half degrees west. (ii)Your chief engineer has fallen down an engine room ladder. He has broken both legs and is bleeding from the mouth. It is three-twenty in the afternoon and Ouessant lighthouse is eight miles bearing one-ninefive from your ship. There is no doctor or proper medical facility n board. (iii) You have to stop your main engine for a while to replace a cooling water pipe. Just to the north of you, one mile away, is the south East Ridens Light buoy. The time is 01:30 UTC. 6c (i)Write out the appropriate messages for the following circumstances: An urgent VHF conversation takes place between a ship (EVERGLADES) and a shore station (CIENFUEGOS) because the ship has suffered a major breakdown and requires immediate assistance. The information known to the ship is as follows: There is a major engine breakdown. The position of the ship is 2130'N, 8130'W Port repair facilities are required. The ship is directly in the path of a hurricane (code name EDNA). The hurricane is 500 miles away from the ship on a bearing of 105. The immediate assistance of a salvage tug is required. The shore station transmits the following information after having confirmed the information from the ship: The salvage tug Liberdad de los Pueblos will leave after two hours. The tug will be at the ships position after 6 hours.

(ii)A VHF conversation takes place between a ship Atlantic Rover and a coastguard station Falmouth Coastguard following the discovery, by the ship, of some wreckage. Initial contact is made on VHF channel 16 and a suitable working VHF channel is then selected. The ship has observed the wreckage of a yellow and black yacht, of the type known as a catamaran. The name is not visible and no survivors are sighted. It looks like an old wreck. Its position is 4920.25'N 0732.6'W. The coastguard acknowledges the information and asks the ship to confirm the position. The coastguard also asks the ship to check that the wreck is a catamaran because a trimaran is reported missing. The ship is unable to provide more information but it does repeat that the wreck is probably old because of seaweed on the hull. (iii)A VHF conversation takes place prior to a berthing operation. The shore station (Goteborg Port Traffic) calls the ship (Silja Queen) on a working channel (VHF channel 12). The shore station tells the ship that the berth is called Skeepsbron Number 2 and that the ship will be expected to berth port side alongside.The shore station suggests the following arrangement of tugs: Take:-one tug on the port bow -one tug on the starboard bow - one tug on the starboard quarter The shore station advises the ship to have heavy wires ready for and aft, and to keep the passenger gangway stowed.The shore station informs the ship that a gangway will be provided by the shore. The ship asks what lines are required, and the shore station answers that the forward lines required are: three headlines, two breastrops and two springs. The aft lines required are three sternlines, two breastropes and two springs. The shore station also informs the ship that ratguards are required. 6d Fill in Utopias replies in the following VHF exchange: South Point Radio: Mayday relay.Mayday relay.Mayday relay. All vessels. This is South Point Radio.Following received from yacht Iolande. I need help. I am sinking. My position is 160four miles from Barwater Pier. Utopia: (asks again the position of the vessel) South Point Radio: Utopia. This is South Point Radio. 160 six miles from Barwater Pier. Correction 160 four miles from Barwater Pier.Over. Utopia: (addresses vessel in distress) Iolande: Utopia. This is Iolande.Over. Utopia:(addresses Iolande;signal strength one;advised working channel 06) Iolande: (Here Iolande speaks a Polynesian language) Utopia: (Asks Iolande to use the SMCP, then informs her about the expected time of arrival in the distress area-19.00 local time.) Utopia: (addresses South Point Radio that she has sighted Iolande and that her position is 162 four miles from barwater Pier.) South Point Radio: Utopia. This is South Point Radio. Please take command of search and rescue. Utopia: (Confirms taking command of search and rescue) Utopia: (addresses Iolande asking whether it is safe to fire a rocket) Iolande: Utopia. This is Iolande.It is not safe to fire a rocket.Please send a boat. Make a lee for me. Over. South Point Radio: Attention.Attention. All vessels are advised to keep clear of sea area Quake Sands. Search and rescue in operation 160 four miles from Barwater Pier. Utopia: (addresses Iolande confirming that she will make a lee for her and will send a boat as well)

Unit 2 Answer Key 1b-Tapescript Chief Officer: good morning, Mike. Did you sleep well? 3rd Officer: Better than I expected. Weve been going through some nasty weather, though, havent we? Now I know why the Cape has such a bad reputation! Chief Officer: Oh, its not always this bad-shame its like this for your first time on this route. Since I started the watch, shes been rolling so violently that the waves have been breaking over the deck railings. The gales are likely t continue for another few hours. Visibilitys been getting steadily worse, too. 3rd Officer: Really? No sign of it improving? Chief Officer: Oh yes, conditions should improve considerably when we get to Port Elizabeth. We get a bit of shelter and the currents arent as unpredictable. Oh, by the way, at 1930 hours we got a message from a container ship just north of our current position, warning us that some buoys have become detached in the storms. Apparently, they are adrift n this area. Ive been looking out for them, but so far Ive seen nothing. 3rd Officer: Well, Ill keep a look out for them. Have you filled in the log book? Chief Officer: Yes, here. Look, Ive recorded details of our position, course, speed and the weather conditions, as you can see .I also checked the bridge equipment. Everything is in full working order. As well as the tanker, theres also a warship due south of our position-you can see it here on the radar-and several small craft, perhaps fishing vessels, in the vicinity. 3rd Officer: Ah, yesmy eyes have got used to the darkness now. There appear to be a lot of small vessels over there near the coastWell, Ill just check the deck log and let you get some rest. Chief Officer: In this weather? Not much chance! Im looking forward to reaching Port Elizabeth and some calmer seas.. 1b weather conditions technical information messages the log book 1c 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1d 1) Examples (1), (2), (3) and (4) describe actions that may not be finished. Tense: Present Perfect Continuous. 2) Examples (5), (6), (7) and (8) describe finished actions. Tense: Present Perfect Simple. 2a 1.Is Henri still working? No, he has already finished. 2.How long have you known him? Oh, for about ten years. True True False False False

3.Im sorry Im late. Have you been waiting long? 4.How many times have you been to the Far East? Several times. 5.What have you been doing this morning? Ive been painting the bulkheads. Ill be finished this afternoon 6.Why are you sweating so much? Oh, Ive been working out in the gym for the past two hours. 7.Have you phoned he office yet? Ive been trying for an hour but I cant get through. 8.Come quickly! There has been an accident. Peter has broken his leg. 9.There you are1 Ive been looking for you for ages! 10.I wonder what they are discussing at the meeting. Theyve been talking for hours. 2b (possible answers) 2. The stevedores have been working all morning/since sunrise. 3. Have you been practising the guitar/playing your guitar? 4. Hes been learning Spanish for fifty years/since 1984. 5. The officer has been updating the chart for an hour and a half/since 0830. 6. The cook has been preparing dinner for an hour/since 1700. 2c Ive been working here since Friday; Christmas; last month; the start of my watch; June 21 st; 12 oclock. Ive been working here for two days; a couple of hours; many years; a few minutes; six weeks. 2d 2nd Officer: Morning, Emilio. Im glad youre here for your watch. I have been doing the monthly check on the breathing Apparatus Sets, but I havent finished yet. Id like you to take over from me now. I have to go and show an inspector around the ship. 3rd Officer: How much have you done so far? 2nd Officer: Well, heres the maintenance record. As you can see, I have already tested the warning whistle and checked the rubber and the sealing in all the facemasks. They all seem to be fine. For the past hour I have been checking the cylinder pressures and topping up the pressure where necessary. I have done those three sets over there already so you can start on the sets in this locker. 3rd Officer: What about the harnesses and head straps? 2nd Officer: Yes, I have already checked the harnesses and made sure that all headstraps are fully extended. Each set is ready for use. Oh, theres one problem, however. This set appears to have a leak. I have been looking for it but I cant find it. Maybe you can check it over 3rd Officer: No problem. Ill sort it out 3a 1-c; 2-a; 3-d; 4-b; 5-c. 3b 1. I got a job with the company in 1995. Ive mainly been working on gas carriers since then. 2. He met Anna at Christmas, they got engaged in the New year and they are planning to get married this summer. Im looking forward to the wedding. 3. I have been at sea for many years but it is still difficult to get used to very stormy conditions. I am often sea-sick during heavy seas. 4. There were a few problems but after much discussion we managed to get around them. 5. If you want to get good results, youll have to study hard. 6. When I moved to Bangkok I kept getting lost because I couldnt understand the street signs. 7. The rating got reprimanded for wearing the wrong type of shoes on deck. 8. Hardly anyone writes to me! The last time I got a letter was six month ago. 9. Ill call you when we get to Rotterdam. 10. My English is getting better these days. I have more time to study and I practices speaking with my colleagues.

11. Some of the workers could not agree to their new working conditions but I refused to get drawn into the argument. 12. What are your travel plans? I m getting the train at 1015 from Central Station so I should be in London by mid-afternoon. 5a 1. 2. 3. North sea. 4. 5. 5b 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 6a Tapescript 1 Mayday Mayday Mayday This is Rattler Rattler rattler Mayday Rattler, Golf Xray Xray Xray Position: latitude; five-zero degrees three-zero minutes North, longitude: zero-three-nine degrees two-zero minutes West. Collision with iceberg, sinking. Request immediate assistance. Over. Tapescript 2 Pan-Pan Pan-Pan Pan-Pan This is Vega Vega Vega Pan-Pan Vega, Seven Victor Alfa Tango Position: bearing zero-nine-zero degrees true, distance; one-five miles from Ras Sarkan. Lost propeller. Require tow. Over. He promised to come to the meeting. Hell definitely be there. If I run our of time, I may not finish the varnishing tomorrow. I definitely wont be at lunch today. Im going to a meeting during my lunch break. It is unlikely that the weather will improve. The forecast is terrible. We dont know for sure yet but the whales may not find their way back to deeper waters. He might get promotion if he proves his leadership qualities but it hasnt been decided yet. This might not be the correct phone number, but Ill try it anyway. The match could be called off: theres a 50% chance of snow later. Rescue attempts may not be working. There are already enough volunteers involved in the rescue effort. It is likely that the whales followed a trawler into the inlet. The two beached whales might die. When the tide comes in, the four whales in the tideway may be able to swim back into the

Tapescript 3 Securite Securite Securite All ships All ships All ships This is Nitonradio Nitonradio Nitonradio Securite Nitonradio Navigational warning: military exercise Involving darkened ships, submarines and aircraft taking place in sea area Delta from 0800 hours UTC, March 3rd to 2200 hours UTC, March 7th. I say again. Military exercise involving darkened ships, submarines and aircraft taking place in sea area Delta from 0800 hours UTC, March 3rd to 2200 hours UTC, March 7th. Out. 6b (a) Pan-Pan; (b) Pan-Pan; (c) Securite; (d) Mayday; (e) Securite; (f) Pan-Pan (i) Mayday Mayday Mayday This is Arcadia Arcadia Arcadia Mayday Arcadia, Charlie Alpha Alpha Alpha Position, Time: zero-two-zero-zero UTC. Latitude two-five degrees one-zero minutes South; Longitude one-six-zero degrees three-zero minutes West. We are sinking. Request immediate assistance. Over. (ii)Pan-Pan Pan- Pan Pan-Pan This is Arcadia Arcadia Arcadia Pan-Pan Arcadia, Charlie Alpha Alpha Alpha Position,Time:one-five-two-zero UTC. Bearing zero-one-five from Ouessant light distance eight miles. We have a badly injured person. Request medical assistance. Over (iii) Securte Securite Securite All ships All ships All Ships This is

Arcadia Arcadia Arcadia Securite Arcadia, Charlie Alpha Alpha Alpha Navigation Warning time: Zero-one-three-zero UTC. Arcadia position: bearing one-eight-zero degrees true from South East Ridens light buoy, distance one mile. Not under command. Reason: engine repairs. Request all ships keep clear of me. Out 6c (i) Pan-Pan Pan-Pan Pan This is EVERGLADES EVERGLADES EVERGLADES Pan-Pan EVERGLADES, Kilo Golf Mike Xray Position: Laitude two-one degrees three-zero minutes North; Longitude zero-eight-one degrees three-zero minutes West. Engine breakdown. Salvage tug assistance urgently required. Over. Pan-Pan, Everglades. This is CIENFUEGOS. Pan-Pan received. Over Pan-Pan Cienfuegos. This is Everglades. Information one: Position: Latitude two-one degrees three-zero minutes North; Longitude zero-eight-one degrees three-zero minutes West. Information two: Major engine breakdown. Port repair facilities required. Information three: We are in path of hurricane EDNA.Request immediate assistance from salvage tug. Over Pan-Pan, Everglades. This is Cienfuegos. Information one received:Your position Latitude two-one degrees three-zero minutes North; Longitude zero-eight-one degrees three-zero minutes West. Information two received: Major engine breakdown. Port repair facilities required. Information three received: You are in the path of hurricane EDNA. Request received: You require assistance from salvage tug. Stand by VHF channel one-six. Period: five minutes. Over Pan-Pan. Cienfuegos. This is Everglades. Standing by on VHF channel one-six. Over.

LATER Pan-Pan.Everglades. This is Cienfuegos. Information one: Tug Liberdad de los Pueblos ETD after period: two hours. Information two: ETA of tug your position period: six hours After departure this port. Stand by on VHF channel one-six. Nothing more. Over. Pan-Pan. Cienfuegos. This is Everglades. Information one received: Tug Liberdad de los Pueblos ETD after period: two hours. Information two received: ETA of tug my position period: six hours after departure Cienfuegos. Standing by on VHF channel one-six. Nothing more. Over. Pan-Pan. Everglades. This is Cienfuegos. Final Call.Out. (ii) Falmouth Coastguard, Falmouth Coastguard.This is Atlantic Rover, Atlantic Rover.Over. Atlantic Rover. This is Falmouth Coastguard. Switch to VHF channel one-one. Over. Falmouth Coastguard. This is Atlantic Rover. Agree VHF channel one-one.Over. Atlantic Rover.This is Falmouth Coastguard. On VHF channel one-one. Falmouth Coastguard. This is Atlantic Rover. Information one: Wreckage sighted in position: latitude fournine degrees two-zero decimal two-five minutes North; Longitude zero-zero-seven degrees three-two decimal six minutes West. Information two: Wreckage of yacht type:catamaran. Colour: black and yellow. Stay on. Over. Atlantic Rover. This is Falmouth Coastguard. Information one received: Wreckage sighted in position: latitude four-nine degrees two-zero decimal two-five minutes North; Longitude zero-zero-seven degrees three-two decimal six minutes West. Information two received: Wreckage of yacht type:catamaran. Colour: black and yellow.Question: Are there any survivors?.Over. Falmouth Coastguard. This is Atlantic Rover. Answer: Negative. There are no survivors. Information three: Wreckage is old. Hull is covered in seeweed. Over. Atlantic Rover. This is Falmouth Coastguard. Information three received: Wreckage is old. Hull covered in seeweed. Request: Please confirm position and type of yacht. Information: Yacht type trimaran missing in area. Over. Falmouth Coastguard. This is Atlantic Rover. Request received: Positive. Position and type of yacht. Correct. Wreckage is old. Hull covered in seaweed. Information: No trimaran sighted. Nothing more. Over. Atlantic Rover. This is Falmouth Coastguard. Information received. Nothing more. Out.

(iii) Silja Queen. Silja Queen. This is Goteborg Port Traffic. On VHF channel one-two. Over. Goteborg Port Traffic. This is Silja Queen. Over. Silja Queen. This is Goteborg Port Traffic. Information one: Your berth Skeepsbron number two. Port side alongside. Stay on. Over. Goteborg Port Traffic. This is Silja Queen. Information one received:My berth Skeepsbron number two. Port side alongside. Over. Silja Queen. This is Goteborg Port Traffic. Information two: Tugs provided quantity: one for port bow; quantiy: one for starboard bow; quantity: one for starboard quarter. Stay on. Over. Goteborg Port Traffic. This is Silja Queen. Information two received: Tugs provided quantity: one for port bow; quantiy: one for starboard bow; quantity: one for starboard quarter. Over. Silja Queen. This is Goteborg Port Traffic. Advice: Have heaving wires ready fore and aft. Keep passenger gangway stowed. Stay on. Over. Goteborg Port Traffic.This is Atlantic Rover. Advice received: Have heaving wires ready fore and aft. Keep passenger gangway stowed. Positive. Question: What lines are required? Over. Silja Queen.This is Goteborg Port Traffic.Answer: Forward: three headlines, two breastropes and two springs. Aft: three sternlines, two breastropes and two springs. Please read back. Over. Goteborg Port Traffic. This is Silja Queen. Read back: Forward: three headlines, two breastropes and two springs. Aft: three sternlines, two breastropes and two springs Over. Silja Queen. This is Goteborg Port Traffic.. Read back is correct. Information three: Gangway will be provided by shore. Information four: Ratguards are required. Over. Goteborg Port Traffic.This is Silja Queen. Information three received: Gangway will be provided by shore. Information four: Ratguards are required. Over. Silja Queen. This is Goteborg Port Traffic.Nothing more. Out. 6d Utopia Captain : South Point. This is Utopia. What is the position of the vessel in distress? Say again. Over. Utopia Captain: Iolande.Iolande. This is Utopia.Utopia. Over Utopia Captain: Iolande. I read you with signal strength one. Advise try channel 6.Over. Utopia Captain: Iolande I cannot understand your language. Please use the standard marine communication phrases. I am coming to your assistance. I expect to reach you at 1900 hours zone time. Out Utopia Captain: South Point. This is Utopia. I have sighted Iolande. I am in position 162 degrees four miles from Barwater Pier. Over. Utopia Captain: South Point. This is Utopia. I am in command of search and rescue. Out. Utopia: Iolande. Is it safe to fire a rocket? Over.

Utopia: Iolande. I will make a lee for you. I am sending a boat to you.