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PEMURNIAN MINYAK SAWIT

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TUJUAN
Pemurnian (purification) bertujuan untuk menghilangkan senyawa ikutan yang sering disebut sebagai impurities (kotoran) dalam minyak
Perubahan minyak kasar (crude oil) menjadi minyak makan (edible oil) Meliputi satu atau lebih proses berikut: degumming, netralisasi atau physical refining, bleaching, dan deodorisasi
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JENIS-JENIS IMPURITIES
Proses ekstraksi minyak menyebabkan sejumlah senyawa non trigliserida terbawa Meliputi: asam lemak, gliserida, fosfatida, sterol, tokoferol, hidrokarbon, pigmen (klorofil, karoten), fragmen protein. Jenis minyak yang berbeda: kotoran berbeda Contoh: minyak hewani, CPO dan PKO : asam lemak bebas; minyak canola: klorofil Kotoran tertentu dikehendaki seperti sterol dan tokoferol
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PROSES PEMURNIAN
Menghilangkan senyawa yang tidak dikehendaki tertentu dengan meminimalkan kerusakan trigliserida kotoran yang dihilangkan: asam lemak bebas, fosfatida, gum, dll Proses pemurnian meliputi: bleaching (penghilangan warna), deodorisasi (penghilangan bau), refining (penghilangan asam lemak bebas), degumming (penghilangan gum)
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Proses pemurnian
PROSES PROSEDUR KOTORAN YANG DIHILANGKAN

Degumming
Netralisasi

H3PO4, H20, 70- fosfolipid, trace metal, pigmen, 80C karbohidrat, protein

NaOH (alkali lain)


H2O

Asam lemak, fosfolipid, pigmen, trace metal, senyawa bersulfur, oil-insoluble, water soluble
Sabun

Pencucian

Drying Bleaching
Filtrasi

Na2SO4 anhidrat Air

Bentonit, adsorben lain

Pigmen, produk hasil oksidasi, trace metal, senyawa bersulfur, trace of soap
Spent of bleaching earth

Deodorisasi atau Physical refining

Steam under Asam lemak, MG dan DG, produk reduced pressure oksidasi, produk dekomposisi pigmen, Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 pestisida, - Teti Estiasih - trace THP of oil-insoluble
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Proses pemurnian secara kimiawi (kiri) dan fisik (kanan)


Storage of crude oil

Degumming Netralisasi Washing Drying Bleaching Filtration

Bleaching Filtration

Storage of partly refined oil

Deodorization Polishing Cooling

Steam refining Polishing Cooling

Storage of Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih refined oil - THP


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By Product
PROSES Degumming
Netralisasi Pencucian Steam refining

BY-PRODUCT Lesitin
Asam lemak Asam lemak, mono dan digliserida

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DEGUMMING
Pada proses ini minyak dipanaskan dengan penambahan asam fosfat Perlakuan ini dilakukan jika sebagian besar senyawa berfosfor dapat terhidrasi dan menggumpal/tidak larut By product dari proses ini adalah lesitin

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NETRALISASI
Netralisasi merupakan perlakuan dengan alkali yang dilakukan pada kondisi tertentu sehingga kehilangan minyak netral (trigliserida) serendah mungkin Pemurnian fisik (physical refining atau steam refining) merupakan alternatif lain untuk menghilangkan asam lemak bebas

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BLEACHING
Terutama ditujukan untuk menjernihkan Dilakukan dengan pemanasan minyak (80180C) tetapi biasanya dilakukan antara 90-120 C. Pada kondisi tanpa oksigen dengan menggunakan adsorben Adsorben dapat berupa bentonit, fullers earth, karbon aktif, silika amorf Tingkat penggunaan adsorben adalah 0.2-2.0% dari berat minyak Minyak sawit dapat dibleaching dengan pemanasan suhu tinggi tanpa menggunakan adsorben
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DEODORISASI ATAU PEMURNIAN FISIK


Merupakan langkah terakhir proses pemurnian yang bertujuan mendapatkan minyak yang tidak berbau dan daya simpan tinggi Proses ini terutama bertujuan menghilangkan produk hasil oksidasi yang berperan terhadap bau minyak Dilakukan dengan pemanasan suhu tinggi (170250C) pada tekanan rendah dengan menggunakan uap air Penggunaan suhu yang tinggi (lebih dari 220C beresiko terhadap streomutasi yang biasa terjadi pada asam linolenat
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PEMURNIAN MINYAK SAWIT

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EKSTRAKSI MINYAK SAWIT KASAR (CPO, CRUDE PALM OIL)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Beberapa tahapan ekstraksi minyak dari tandan sawit adalah: Sterilisasi Pelepasan buah (bunch stripping) Digesti Ekstraksi minyak Klarifikasi dan Purifikasi
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Klarifikasi dan Purifikasi


CPO yang diekstrak mengandung air, padatan, dan partikel-pertikel terlarut yang harus dihilangkan Partikel serat dipisahkan dari CPO dengan melewatkan minyak pada penyaring bervibrasi. Pasir dan kotoran dipisahkan dengan cara pengendapan Air dipisahkan dengan cara pengendapan atau sentrifugasi dilanjutkan dengan pengeringan vakum
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Crude Palm Oil

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PEMURNIAN dan FRAKSINASI

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Komponen Minor
Komponen minor dalam CPO adalah fosfolipid, karbohidrat, trace metal, ALB, mono- dan digliserida, sterol, pigmen karotenoid, tokoferol, tokotrienol, produk hasil oksidasi, dan komponen-komponen berbau Pemurnian mengurangi komponen pengotor yang dapat mempengaruhi mutu minyak akhir dengan tetap mempertahankan tokoferol dan tokotrienol Proses pengolahan setelah ekstraksi adalah pemurnian dan fraksinasi
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Refining Crude Palm Oil: Unit Processes

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Refining Bleaching Deodorizing of Palm Oil

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Neutralizing, Bleaching, Deodorizing of Palm Oil

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A. PHYSICAL REFINING
Dilakukan dengan steam distillation pada suhu tinggi dan kondisi vakum Terdiri dari dua tahap utama, yaitu pretreatment dan distilasi

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1. Pretreatment
Dilakukan dengan proses degumming menggunakan asam fosfat dilanjutkan dengan bleaching Bleaching dilakukan dengan proses adsorpsi pada kondisi vakum, suhu 90-130C, dilanjutkan dengan filtrasi Pretreatment mengurangi kadar fosfolipid, trace metal, peroksida, dan karotenoid.
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2. Degumming
Pretreatment refers to the initial degumming of crude palm oil with concentrated phosphoric acid and the subsequent adsorptive cleansing with bleaching clay.

Crude palm oil is dosed with phosphoric acid (80 85% concentration) at a rate of 0.050.2% (of the feed oil), heated to 90110C, and given a residence time of 1530 min before passing to the bleacher where bleaching earth is added as a slurry.
The earth required ranges from 0.8 to 2.0%, depending on the quality of the crude oil. Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih - THP
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The purpose of the phosphoric acid is to precipitate the nonhydratable phosphatides while the function of the earth is fourfold: to adsorb the undesirable impurities such as trace metals, moisture, insolubles, and part of the carotenoids and other pigments to reduce the oxidation products to adsorb the phospholipids precipitated by the phosphoric acid to remove any excess phosphoric acid present in the oil after degumming.
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Removal of Phosphoric Acid


Complete removal of residual phosphoric acid in the bleaching stage is also critical as any slip through can result in the rapid rise of free fatty acid content and color of the final RBD oil As a further assurance, a suitable quantity of calcium carbonate is often added after dosing of the bleaching earth to the degummed oil, to help neutralize the residual phosphoric acid
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3. Bleaching
Bleaching is carried out under a vacuum of 2025 mmHg and at a temperature of 95110C with retention time of 3045 min The slurry containing the oil and earth is then filtered to recover a clear, light orange color pretreated oil Usually a small amount of diatomaceous earth is used to precoat the filter leaves to improve the filtration process. As a quality precaution, the filtered oil is polished through another security filter bag in series, to trap any earth particles that the first filter Tek.escape Peng. Nabati 2 through - Teti Estiasih - THP
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Loss of Oil
This is essential as the presence of spent earth particles in the pretreated oil reduces the oxidative stability of the final RBD oil The spent bleaching earth from the filter normally contains about 2040% oil, and this is the major source of oil loss in the refining process
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4. Deodorization
The pretreated oil is then ready for deacidification and deodorization. The pretreated oil is first deaerated followed by heating to 240270C in an external heat exchanger before pumping into the deodorizer, which is kept under a vacuum of 25 mm Hg Superheated high-pressure steam is now commonly being used,
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Temperatures above 270C are to be avoided to minimize loss of neutral oil, tocopherols/tocotrienols, and also the possibilities of isomerization and undesirable thermochemical reactions Under such conditions and with the help of stripping steam, the free fatty acids, which were still present in the pretreated oil, are distilled together with the more volatile odoriferous and oxidation products such as aldehydes and ketones, which otherwise would impart undesirable odor and taste to the oil At the same time, the residual carotenoids present are also thermally decomposed, and the end result is the production of a light-colored, bland RBD palm oil Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih - THP
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Cooling after Deodorization


To maximize the recovery of thermal energy, the hot deodorized oil is heat exchanged against incoming pretreated oil to be cooled down to a temperature of 120150C Further cooling is effected by water down to 5565C prior to storage Antioxidant and citric acid, if required, are dosed into the RBD palm oil at this stage
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DALMS/PFAD

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Desirable Quality of Pretreated and RBD Palm Oil from the Factory

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B. CHEMICAL REFINING
Also called caustic refining, chemical refining involves three stages: (1) gum conditioning and neutralization (2) bleaching and filtration (3) deodorization.

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Alkali refining sesuai untuk minyak dengan kadar ALB tinggi Kelemahan alkali refining: terjadi penyabunan minyak netral menyebabkan refining loss Steam refining: hanya menghilangkan ALB sehingga refining loss rendah Syarat minyak untuk steam refining: kadar fosfatida rendah dan tidak sensitif panas Sebelum refining: fosfatida harus dihilangkan
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1. Gum Conditioning and Neutralization


The crude oil is heated to a temperature of 8090C. Phosphoric acid of 8085% concentration is then dosed in at a rate of 0.050.2% (of the feed oil) This serves to precipitate the phospholipids After this, the degummed oil is further treated with a caustic soda solution
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Neutralization
A caustic soda solution of about 4 N (or 20 Be) concentration with a calculated excess (based on free fatty acid content of the crude oil) of about 20% The reaction between caustic soda and the free fatty acids in the degummed oil results in the formation of sodium soap, which is readily removed by a centrifugal separator The lighter phase discharged consists mainly of neutralized oil containing 5001000 mg/kg of soap and moisture while the heavy phase is mainly soap, insoluble impurities, gums, phosphatides, excess alkali, and a small quantity of oil loss through emulsification As an excess of alkali is used, it is unavoidable that a slight loss of neutral oil through saponification also occurs
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Washing
The neutralized palm oil (NPO) is then washed with 1020% hot water to remove traces of soap still present After another stage of centrifugal separation, the washed oil is then dried under vacuum to a moisture level below 0.05%.

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2. Bleaching and Filtration


The neutralized palm oil is treated with bleaching earth in a similar manner as that described in physical refining In this case, the earth also removes traces of soap that are present

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3. Deodorization
The neutralized and bleached oil is then channeled to the deodorizer in a similar manner to that in the physical refinery The oil is subjected to distillation at a temperature of 240 260C and a vacuum of 25 mm Hg with direct steam injection Under such conditions, residual free fatty acids, volatile oxidation products, and odoriferous materials are removed together with thermal decomposition of carotenoids The final product, called neutralized, bleached, and deodorized (NBD) palm oil is then cooled down to 60C and passed through polishing filter bags before pumping to the Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih - THP storage tanks FTP UB

Refining Factor
The efficiency of the refining process is estimated by the use of a refining factor (RF)

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Desirable Quality of Freshly Produced Intermediate and Final Products in Alkaline Refining of Palm Oil

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FRAKSINASI
Trigliserida utama dalam minyak sawit adalah oleodipalmitin dengan titik leleh 37C dan palmitodiolein dengan titik leleh 19C Tujuan fraksinasi adalah menghasilkan fraksi olein yang cair (slip melting point 21.6C dan cloud point 8.8C) dan fraksi padat stearin Fraksi olein digunakan terutama untuk minyak goreng dan minyak masak, sedangkan fraksi stearin digunakan untuk, margarin, shortening, dan minyak goreng Fraksinasi dilakukan dengan dua proses yaitu dry fractionation dan detergent fractionation
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Fractionation and PMF

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Fatty Acid Compositions (%)

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Melting and Solidification Characteristics

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Dry Fractionation
Minyak dipanaskan pada suhu 70-75C untuk melelehkan inti-inti kristal Minyak panas tersebut dimasukkan ke dalam crystallizer dan didinginkan pada suhu 18-20C selama 4-8 jam Proses ini menghasilkan minyak dalam bentuk sluri Fraksi padat dan cair dipisahkan dengan filtrasi membran
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Detergent Fractionation
Pada proses ini pemisahkan fraksi padat dan cair dalam sluri dari crystallizer dilakukan dengan mencampur sluri dengan deterjen Deterjen yang digunakan natrium lauril sulfat atau magnesium sulfat Pada proses sentrifugasi fraksi olein yang lebih ringan terpisah dari fraksi akueous yang mengandung stearin Fraksi olein kemudian dicuci dan dikeringkan, sedangkan fraksi stearin direkoveri dari fraksi akueous dan deterjen didaur ulang
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Solvent Fractionation
This process is the most expensive because of solvent loss, solvent recovery equipment, much lower temperature requirement, and stringent safety features The process involves the use of solvents such as hexane or acetone The oil is first dissolved in the solvent followed by cooling to the desired temperatures to obtain the desired crystals The miscella containing the partially crystallized oil and solvent is then filtered under vacuum suction in an enclosed drum filter The olein miscella and stearin miscella are then separately distilled to remove the solvent and recover the fractions Yield of olein is about 80% The solvent process nowadays is only viable in the production of high value products such as cocoa butter equivalent or other Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih - THP specialty fats
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Second Fractionation/ Double Fractionation


Dilakukan untuk mendapatkan superolein dengan titik leleh dan titik kabut rendah dan bilangan iodin tinggi Palm Mid Fraction (PMF) diperoleh sebagai fraksi stearin dari fraksinasi kedua ini PMF lebih lunak

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Jenis Asam Minyak Sawit dan Fraksinya


Jenis Asam Lemak Laurat Refined Palm Oil 0.2 RBD Palm Olein 0.2 RBD Olein (Double Fractionation) 0.1 RBD Stearin 0.3 PMF 0.1

Miristat
Palmitat Palmitooleat Stearat Oleat Linoleat Lunolenat Arakhidat Jenuh

1.1
44.0 0.1 4.5 39.2 10.1 0.4 0.4 50.2

1.0
39.8 0.2 4.4 42.5 11.2 0.4 0.4 45.8

1.0
36.6 0 4.0 44.8 12.6 0.2 0.7 42.4

1.5
52.0 4.9 33.3 7.6 0.1 0.3 59.0

1.2
51.0 5.6 34.0 7.4 0.1 0.6 58.5

MUFA
PUFA

39.2
10.5

42.5
11.6

44.8
12.8

33.3
7.7

34.0
7.5

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Krakteristik Minyak Sawit dan Fraksinya


Karakteristik Bil. iodin Slip melting point (C) Solid Fat Content (%) 5 C 10C 62.2 50.3 51.1 37.0 16.7 67.2 61.2 76.1 Refined Palm Oil 53.3 36.0 RBD Palm Olein 58.0 21.6 RBD Olein (Double Fractionation) 61.4 19.0 RBD Stearin 44 44-56 PMF 42.5

15C
20C 25C 30C 35C 40C

35.2
23.2 13.7 8.5 5.8 3.5

19.2
5.9

5.0
3.1

53.1
43.4 33.9 27.0 22.2 17.3

66.2
52.1 21.9 18.3 13.4 7.9

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QUALITY ASSURANCE
The two main quality problems associated with palm oil are hydrolysis, leading to formation of fatty acids, and oxidation, leading to rancidity

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Hydrolysis
The hydrolysis of palm oil is promoted by the presence of free moisture and heat and also by lipolytic enzymes endogenous to the plant tissue This mode of deterioration occurs during the bruising of fruits in the harvesting and transportation of the FFB to the mill and also their extended storage under unfavorable conditions In the case of oil during storage, the hydrolysis is attributed to a chemical reaction that is autocatalytic ith poor cold stability
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Hydrolysis
The presence of high FFA in crude palm oil is undesirable: (1) reduces the yield of RBD palm oil through higher loss of PFAD by-product (2) reduces the capacity of refining (3) results in poor bleachability of crude oil and poor stability in the final product Crude palm oil with high FFA content invariably also contains a high amount of partial glycerides, especially diglycerides Interactions between the diglycerides and the triglycerides often lead to formation of eutectics resulting in poor crystal formation during fractionation, difficulty in separation of olein and stearin by filtration, and also in production of olein with poor cold stability Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih - THP
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Oxidation
Oxidation of oils and fats is due to prolonged exposure to air Palm oil is relatively more stable to oxidative deterioration than the polyunsaturated vegetable oils In the presence of trace metals such as iron and copper, excessive oxidation at the olefin bonds of the oleic and linoleic acids can occur, resulting in rancidity Highly oxidized crude palm oil is known to have poor bleachability and thus requires more bleaching earth and more severe refining conditions, and the final product will likely be of poor stability
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Quality Assurance Measures in Plantation and Milling


Availability of goodquality crude palm oil is a prerequisite for the production of good-quality refined palm oil products The criteria for good-quality crude palm oil are: Low free fatty acid content Low in oxidation characteristics Good bleachability Low in trace metals and insoluble impurities Moisture content of about 0.150.20% High in deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI) Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih - THP
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DOBI = Deterioration of Bleachability Index


DOBI, which is defined as the ratio of the uncorrected absorbance values at 446 nm to that at 269 nm, was introduced as a quality parameter to differentiate the refinability of good- and poor-quality crude palm oil The relation to quality is DOBI >3, good; 2.4 2.9, fair, and <2.3, poor
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Quality Control
Type Raw material Action Each and every delivery must be carefully inspected to ensure that specifications are met and that the shipment is free from contamination. Good raw material is a prerequisite to goodquality product Minimize bruising and sterilize as soon as possible (24 hr) optimize conditions, avoid overheating, do not mix boiler condensate with crude palm oil eliminate water and impurities; use hermetic system reduce moisture to 0.170.2% before storage
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FFB handling Sterilization

Clarification Drying

Quality Control
Type In-process materials Process control Action Regular analyses of important quality parameters will serve as a check that proper processing has been achieved Proper processing conditions (dosage of processing aids, temperature, pressure/vacuum, flow rate, etc.) must be closely adhered to and monitored to ensure the oil is processed correctly and to minimize undesirable side reactions. In order to assess process efficiency, the oil losses through spent clay or soapstock (as in the case of alkaline refining only) must also be monitored

Finished products

Regular checks on the finished products must be carried out to ensure compliance to quality specifications before the products are permitted for discharge to storage or shipment
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Crude Palm Oil Quality

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PENGGUNAAN MINYAK SAWIT dan FRAKSINYA


Palm oil, palm olein, dan palm stearin masing-masing bersifat semisolid, cair, dan solid pada suhu 25C Karena sifat plastisnya yang luas, minyak sawit digunakan secara luas dalam produk pangan dari yang bersifat cair sampai semisolid seperti margarin dan shortening
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Penggunaan dalam Produk Pangan


Minyak goreng/masak Shortening dan lemak masak Vanaspati (vegetable ghee) Margarin Cocoa butter substitutes Es krim Coffee whitener Lemak untuk bakery dan biskuit Mie instan Filled milk Tek. Peng. Nabati 2 - Teti Estiasih - THP Soup mixes FTP UB

Penggunaan untuk Non Pangan


Oleokimia (asam lemak, fatty alcohols, fatty amines, gliserol, dan metil ester) Deterjen dan surfaktan Sabun Lilin Pelumas Kosmetik Pelapis kaleng Bahan bakar diesel Plasticizer untuk plastik
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Problem Solving-Small Group Discussion


Suatu perusahaan refinery minyak sawit mempunyai masalah: 1. Stabilitas oksidasi minyak goreng yang rendah 2. Minyak goreng bersifat keruh 3. Warna minyak kecokelatan 4. Aroma minyak yang tidak enak Apa penyebab masalah tersebut (a), adakah kaitan masalah tersebut dengan kualitas CPO (b), tahap refining mana yang menyebabkan masalah tersebut (c), tindakan koreksi apa yang harus dilakukan (d)
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