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RFID BASED VOTING MACHING

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INTRODUCTION

Many secure systems, such as contactless credit cards and secure entrance systems, are built with contactless smartcard RFID technologies. In many cases these systems are claimed to be secure based on the assumption that readers and tags need to be in close proximity (about5cm) in order to communicate. However, it is known that this proximity assumption is false: Relay attacks are a class of hardware-based attacks which compromise the safety of such systems by dramatically extending interrogation range of the contactless system. Interestingly, the proposed Israeli e-voting scheme is based on contactless smartcards. In this work we show how the proposed system can be completely compromised using low-cost relay attacks. Our attacks allow an adversary to read out all votes already cast into the ballot box, suppress the votes of one or several voters, rewrite votes at will and even completely disqualify all votes in a single voting station. Our attacks are easy to mount, very difficult detect, and compromise both the confidentiality and the integrity of the election system.

HARDWARE USED
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

89S52 Microcontroller Voltage regulator 7805. Diode IN4007 RFID Module. Some other components.

SOFTWARE USED 1. Keil u-Vision 3.0


Keil Software is used provide you with software development tools for 8051 based microcontrollers. With the Keil tools, you can generate embedded applications for virtually every 8051 derivative. The supported microcontrollers are listed in the vision.

2 PRO51 Programmer Software

AN INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICROCONTROLLER:


When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about the machine capability we are using, and we can do it by studying the internal hardware design (devices architecture), and also to know about the size, number and the size of the registers. A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU), non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an I/O control unit. Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller units (MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to appliances to automobiles. For example, a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers. The following picture describes a general block diagram of microcontroller.

INTRODUCTION TO RFID

Radio-frequency

identification

(RFID)

is

an

automatic

identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. The technology requires some extent of cooperation of an RFID reader and an RFID tag. An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

What is RFID?
A basic RFID system consists of three components: a) An antenna or coil b) A transceiver (with decoder) c) A transponder (RF tag) Electronically programmed with unique information. There are many different types of RFID systems out in the market. They are

categorized according to their frequency ranges. Some of the most commonly used RFID kits are as follows: 1) Low-frequency (30 KHz to 500 KHz) 2) Mid-Frequency (900KHz to 1500MHz) 3) High Frequency (2.4GHz to 2.5GHz) These frequency ranges mostly tell the RF ranges of the tags from low frequency tag ranging from 3m to 5m, mid-frequency ranging from 5m to 17m and high frequency ranging from 5ft to 90ft. The cost of the system is based according to their ranges with lowfrequency system ranging from a few hundred dollars to a highfrequency system ranging somewhere near 5000 dollars.

Typical Applications for RFID


Automatic Vehicle identification Inventory Management Work-in-Process Container/ Yard Management Document/ Jewelry tracking

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PROJECT

REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

RFID READER & TAG

BUZZER
P89C51 MICRO CONTROLLER LCD DISPLAY

KEYPAD