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HEAT LOSS / GAIN FROM PIPE By Stephen Hall The heat loss from a pipe is calculated in two parts:

inside the pipe and outside the pipe User inputs are in RED Formulas in Column F are from the reference listed at the bottom of the worksheet Cell names (preceded by underscore_) are listed in Column B Data Inputs G ro mu k c T1 Fluid flowing inside the pipe Flow rate Density Viscosity Thermal conductivity Heat capacity Temperature of fluid entering pipe Pipe parameters inside diameter outside diameter pipe length pipe thermal conductivity emittance of pipe or insulation cover Insulation parameters insulation thickness insulation thermal conductivity Environmental conditions (pipe is outdoors) Temperature of the air Wind velocity 500 1,000 0.005 0.64 4,180 176 m3/h kg/m3 Pa-s W/m-K J/kg-K C

di do L kp e

207.3 219.1 1,000 45 0.80

mm mm m W/m2-K

it ki

25.4 mm 0.035 W/m2-K

T4 w

-5 C 5 m/s

Calculate radial distances from center-line to: R1 inside pipe wall R2 outside pipe wall R3 outside insulation Calculate the Reynolds number inside the pipe Ap Pipe cross sectional area v Velocity Re Reynolds number Calculate the Prandtl number Pr Prandtl number Calculate the Inside heat transfer coefficient

0.1037 m 0.1096 m 0.1350 m

0.0338 m2 4.12 m/s 170,612

32.7

The formula depends on the flow region For Laminar flow (Re < 2100) use Sieder and Tate For this illustration, assume viscosity at wall = bulk viscosity Laminar flow calculation

N/A

For Transition flow (2100 <= Re <= 10000), use Hilpert correlation For this illustration, assume viscosity at wall = bulk viscosity It is NOT RECOMMENDED to be in the transitional region, and the correlation is iffy Transitional flow calculation N/A

For Turbulent flow (Re>10000) use Sieder and Tate (same as Dittus-Boettler, but with viscosity correction) For this illustration, assume viscosity at wall = bulk viscosity Turbulent flow calculation 3,440

Note: alternative turbulent flow correlation from Gnielinski Said to be valid from 3000 < Re < 5,000,000

Because the outside heat transfer coefficient will be so much less than the inside coefficient, it really doesn't make a practical difference if the calculation for inside coefficient is off hi inside heat transfer coefficient 3,440 W/m2-K

Calculate the outside heat transfer coefficient The outside coefficient is calculated differently for the cases of wind or no wind No wind = natural convection Three temperatures to be concerned with, ambient (T4), surface (T3), and average T5 = (T4 + T3)/2 Since T3 is a function of the heat transfer, this is an interative calculation First, assume a value for T3, the surface temperature T3_assume (cell is highlighted if iteration required) Calculate T5 T5

3.13 C

<---- Initial guess between a

Average between surface and ambient

-0.935 C

Get the properties of air for temperature T5 I did a simple linear regression of thermal conductivity for air at atmospheric pressure MW Molecular weight of air 29 P Pressure of air 100 kPa kair cair Thermal conductivity of air Heat capacity of air (treat as constant) 0.0238 W/m2-K 1,006 J/kg-K

dair muair

Density of air (treat as perfect gas) Dynamic viscosity of air

1.30 kg/m3 1.71E-05 Pa-s

estimated with the Sutherl ' kinematic viscosity = dyna

For no wind condition, Coefficient of expansion = 1/T for perfect gas assumption Beta Coefficent of expansion 0.00367 K^-1 Gr Grasoff number (L = pipe OD), abs value 3.32E+07 Prair Prandtl number 0.72 Gr x Pr 2.40E+07 Nuair Nusselt number 37.10 Outside heat transfer coef, no wind 3.27 W/m2-K

Calculation for the case where wind is present Note that for very low wind velocity (<0.5 m/s), use the greater of this calc or the no-wind calc Rewind B n Nuwind Reynolds number Hilpert equation factor B Hilpert equation factor n Nusselt number, wind condition (Hilpert) Outside heat transfer coef, no wind 102,435 0.0239 0.805 258 22.77 W/m2-K

Next, calculate the radiation loss Let's use radiation only when pipe is warmer than environment hrad Radiation heat transfer coefficient 3.66 W/m2-K Add the convection and radiation heat transfer coefficients together ho Outside heat transfer coefficient Calculate surface temperatures and iterate until calculation = assumed Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient U Next, the heat loss through the wall Q

26.43 W/m2-K

1.2 W/m2-K

214.9 W/m2

Calculate the inside wall and surface temperatures based on the estimated surface temperature from above Calculated inside surface temperature 175.94 C T3calculated Calculated outside surface temperature 3.13 C Calculate the fluid temperature as it exits the pipe segment Assumes constant properties and constant heat flux along pipe length For significant temperature changes, divide pipe into segments and calculate sequentially

Heat loss per meter Downstream temperature Reference:

182.2 W/m 175.7 C

Cao, Eduardo, Heat Transfer in Process Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 2010 4/9/2013 www.pipesizingsoftware.com

Spreadsheet prepared by Stephen Hall This is the calculation method included in PIPESIZE. See

<---- Initial guess between ambient and fluid temperatures, then substitute value from below (_T3calculated)

estimated with the Sutherland equation ' kinematic viscosity = dynamic viscosity / density

Factors for Hilpert Equation Re B n 0.4 0.891 0.33 4 0.821 0.385 40 0.615 0.466 4000 0.174 0.615 40000 0.0239 0.805

e from above

1.012 1.010 1.008 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.016 1.018 1.020 1.022

-150 -100 -50 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400

2.793 1.98 1.534 1.293 1.205 1.127 1.067 1 0.946 0.898 0.854 0.815 0.779 0.746 0.675 0.616 0.566 0.524

Sp Ht 1.026 1.009 1.005 1.005 1.005 1.005 1.009 1.009 1.009 1.013 1.013 1.017 1.022 1.026 1.034 1.047 1.055 1.068 7.23714E-05 0.023883641 0.036910488

Therm C 0.0116 0.016 0.0204 0.0243 0.0257 0.0271 0.0285 0.0299 0.0314 0.0328 0.0343 0.0358 0.0372 0.0386 0.0421 0.0454 0.0485 0.0515

3.08 5.95 9.55 13.3 15.11 16.97 18.9 20.94 23.06 25.23 27.55 29.85 32.29 34.63 41.17 47.85 55.05 62.53

8.21 5.82 4.51 3.67 3.43 3.2 3 2.83 2.68 2.55 2.43 2.32 2.21 2.11 1.91 1.75 1.61 1.49

0.76 0.74 0.725 0.715 0.713 0.711 0.709 0.708 0.703 0.7 0.695 0.69 0.69 0.685 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68

cs = 1.005 + 1.82H where 1.005 kJ/kgC is the heat capacity of dry air, 1.82 kJ/kgC the heat capacity of water vapor, and H is t

0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Series2 Linear (Series2)

acity of water vapor, and H is the specific humidity in kg water vapor per kg dry air in the mixture

below 0