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A C A D EM I C YEA R 2 0 1 1 - 2 0 1 2 / O D D S EM ES T ER



1. What are the causes over voltages on power system? 2. What is meant by voltage surge? 3. State the attenuation and distortion of traveling waves. 4. What are the causes of power frequency and its harmonic over voltage? 5. What is ground wire? 6. What is use of ground wire? 7. What is a protector tube? 8. Define basic impulse level. 9. Mention the various insulation levels in substations? 10. What is a surge absorber?

1. (a) What are the causes of over voltage on a power system? (b) Why is it necessary to protect the lines and other equipment of the power against over voltages? 2. Describe the phenomenon of lightning. 3. What protective measures are taken against lightning over voltages? 4. (a) What is tower-footing resistance? (b) Why is it required to have this resistance as low as economically possible? (c) What are the methods to reduce this resistance? (8) system (8)

EE 1402 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWTICHGEAR 5. (a) What is necessity of protecting electrical equipment against traveling waves?(6) (b)Describe in brief the protective devices used for protection of equipment against such waves? (10) 6. Describe the protection of stations and sub-stations against direct lightning stroke. (16) 7. Describe the construction and principle of operation of (i) expulsion type lightning arrester, (ii) Value type lightning arrester. 8. What is Peterson coil? What protective functions are performed by this device? 9. Write short notes on the following. (i) klydonograph and magnetic link (ii) Rod gap (iii) Arcing horns (iv) Basic impulse insulation level

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10. What are the requirements of a ground wire for protecting power conductors against direct lightning stroke? Explain how they are achieved in practice. (16) 11. Determine the inductance of Peterso n coil to be connected between the neutral and ground to neutralize the charging current of overhead line having the line to ground capacitive of 0.15 f. If the supply frequency is 50Hz and the operating voltage is 132 KV, find the KVA rating of the coil. (16) 12. (a) Explain the term insulation coordination. (8) (b) Describe the construction of volt-time curve and the terminology associated with impulse-testing. (8) 13. Explain the operation of various types of surge absorbers UNIT II CIRCUIT BREAKERS PART A (2 MARKS) 1. What is an arc? 2. Define restricting voltage. 3. Define recovery voltage. 4. Define current chopping. 5. Mention the different methods of high resistance arc interruption. 6. What is switchgear? 7. What is breaking capacity? 8. What are the functional requirements of a circuit breaker under fault condition? 9. What are the advantages of low oil circuit breaker? 10. What are the types of air blast circuit breaker? 11 . What are the advantages of SF6 circuit breaker? (16)


P AR T - B 1. Discuss the recovery rate theory and energy balance theory of arc interruption in a circuit breaker. 2. Explain terms: i) Restriking voltage ii) Recovery voltage iii) RRRV iv) Derive expressions for restriking voltage and RRRV. v) What measures are taken to reduce them? 3. (a) What is resistance switching? (b) Derive the expression for critical resistance. 4. (a) Explain the phenomenon of current chopping in a circuit breaker. (b) What measures are taken to reduce it? 5. Discuss the problem associated with the interruption of (i) Low inductive current (ii) Capacitive current and (iii) Fault current if the fault is very near the substation. 6. With neat sketch, describe the working principle of an axial air blast type 7. (a) Discuss the operating principle of SF 6 circuit breaker. (b) What are its advantages over other types of circuit breakers? (c) For what voltage range is it recommended? 8. Describe construction, operating principle and application of vaccum circuit breaker. For what voltage range is it recommended? (16) 9. (a) What are the various types of operating mechanisms which are and closing of the contacts of a circuit breaker? (b)Discuss their merits and demerits. used for opening (10) (6) 10. (a) Enumerate various types of ratings of a circuit breaker. (4) (b) Discuss symmetrical and asymmetrical breaking capacity, (4) (c) Making capacity (4) (d) Short-time current capacity. (4) 11. What are the different methods of testing of circuit breakers? Discuss their merits and demerits. (16) circuit breaker. (16)

EE 1402 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWTICHGEAR 12. What is the difficulty in the development of HVDC circuit breaker? Describe its construction and operating principle. 13. (a) What are the physical chemical and dielectric properties of SF 6 Gas (b) Define switchgear. What are the essential features of switchgear (16) (8) (8)

14. A 3-phase alternator has the line voltage of 11kV. The generator is connected to a circuit breaker. The inductive reactance upto the circuit breaker is 5 ~/phase. the distributed capacitance upto circuit breaker between phase and neutral is 0.001 F. Determine peak restriking voltage across the CB, frequency of restriking voltage, average rate of restriking voltage upto peak restriking voltage, maximum RRRV. (16) UNIT III HRC FUSES AND SWITCHES PART A (2 MARKS) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define Fuse? Define fuse element or (fuse wire) What are the materials commonly used for fuse elements. Define minimum fusing current? What are the factors at which it depends? How the minimum fusing current does differs for stranded wires? Define fusing factor? What are the types of fuses?

8. What are main advantages of HRC fuses? 9. What are the main disadvantages of HRC fuses 10. Mention the points in selection of fuse? 11. Define isolator and explain its requirements. 12. Define earthing switch? 13. What is the necessacity of earth ing switch? 14. What are the types of isolators? 15. What is main advantage of pantograph isolator? 16. What is a gas insulated substation. PART - B 1. Describe the construction and operation of the HRC cartridge fuse. advantage and disadvantage? 2. Explain the following terms: (i) Minimum fusing current (ii) Rated current (iii) Fusing factor (iv) Prospective current. What are its (16)

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EE 1402 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWTICHGEAR 3. What are the considerations in selection a fuse for (i) Transformer protection (ii) Motor protection (iii) Capacitor protection (iv) Heaters (v) Lighting loads 4. Write short notes on (i) Semi-enclosed rewirable fuse (ii) D-type cartridge fuse (iii) Applications of HRC fuses (iv) Drop-out fuse 5. (a) What is a fuse? What are its duties? Why lead in alloy fuse is the best for only low value of current? (8) (b) What are the factors on which the current carrying capacity of the fuse depends? (8) 6. (a) What are the types of isolators? Briefly explain the necessacity of earthing switch and its applications. (b) Explain the working of pantographic isolators? (8) (8) (3) (3) (3) (3) (4)

7. Explain the advantages of gas insulator substation, probable location where it can be located and its demerits. (16) 8. State the sequence of operation of circuit breaker, isolator and earthing switch. (i) while opening (ii) while closing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What are the types of stator winding faults in alternator? Mention the most commonly used protection scheme for alternators. What are the types of feeders in power system. What is meant by radial feeder? What is the disadvantage of radial feeder? What are the relays used for time graded protection in radial feeders.

EE 1402 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWTICHGEAR P AR T - B 1. Enumerate the relaying schemes which are employed for the protection of a modern alternator. (16) 2. (a) What is transverse or split phase protection of an alternator? (b) What type of fault is this scheme of protection employed? (c) With a neat sketch discuss the working principle of this scheme. 3. What type of a protective device is used for the protection of an alternator against overheating of its (i) stator (ii) rotor? Discuss them in brief. (8+8) 4. What type of a protective scheme is employed for the protection of the field winding of the alternator against ground faults? (16) 5. Discuss the 6. (a) What do you understand by field suppression of an alternator? protection (b) How is it achieved? employed against loss of excitation of an alternator. (4) (4) (4) (4) (16) (4) (4) (8) (4) (4) (8) (10)

7. Briefly discuss the protection of an alternator against. (i) Vibration of distortion of motor (ii) Bearing overheating (iv) (iii) Voltage regulator failure Auxiliary failure

8. What type of pilot protection is used for EHV and UHV transmission lines. 9. (a) What is carrier protection? (b) For what voltage range is it used for the protection of transmission line? (c) What are its merits and demerits? 10. (a) What is carrier aided distance protection. (b) What are its different types? (c) Discuss the permissive under-reach transfer tripping scheme of protection. 11. (a) Draw and explain the merz-price protection of alternator stator winding.

EE 1402 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWTICHGEAR (b) A generator is protected by restricted earth fault protection. The generator ratings are 13.2kv, 1 0MVA. The percentage of winding protected against phase to ground fault is 85%. The relay setting is such that it trips for 20% out of balance calculate the resistance to be added in the neutral to ground connection. (6) 12. An alternator stator winding protected by a percentage differential relay is shown in the Fig. The relay has 15% slope of characteristics (I1 - I 2) against (I1 + I 2/2). The high resistance ground fault has occurred near the grounded neutral end of the generator

EE 1402 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWTICHGEAR winding while the generator is carrying load. The currents flowing at each end of the generator winding are also shown. Assuming C.T. ratio to be 500/5 A, will the relay operate to trip the circuit breaker? (16)


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Define protective relay. Give the types of electromagnetic relays. What are the essential qualities of a relay? How the relays are basically classified. What is meant by directional relay? What is differential relay and list the applications of differential relay. P AR T - B

7 . What is R-X diagram?

1. What are the different types of electromagnetic relays? Discuss their field of applications. (16) 2. What are the various types of over current relays? Discuss their area of application. (16) 3. Describe the operating principle, constructional features and area of applications of reverse power or directional relay. (16) 4. Describe the construction and principle of operation of an induction type directional over current relay. (16) 5. Explain the working principle of distance relays. 6. Write a detailed note on differential relays. (16) (16)

EE 1402 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWTICHGEAR 7. Describe the realization of a directional over current relay using a microprocessor. 8. Derive a generalized mathematical model of distance relays for digital protection. 9. (a) How can digital distance relaying algorithm be implemented on the 8086 Micro processor? (b) It is possible to implement these algorithms on the 8085micro processor? (16) (16) (8) (8)